Теоретичні основи вдосконалення металорізального обладнання для тропіків і субтропіків: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / В.А. Петренко, Нац. техн. ун

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO OE?A?IE

«EE?ANUeEEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE ?INOEOOO»

Iao?aiei Aieiaeeie? Aiaoie?eiae/

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 621.9 (213.5)

OAI?AOE*I? INIIAE AAeINEIIAEAIIss

IAOAEI??CAEUeIIAI IAEAAeIAIIss

AeEss O?II?E?A ? NOAO?II?E?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.03.01 — I?ioeane iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee,

aa?noaoe oa ?ino?oiaio

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?ao «Iaoaei??caeuei? aa?noaoe oa nenoaie»
E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa
«Eiino?othaaiiy aa?noao?a oa iaoei»Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

No?ooeinueeee Aaneeue Ai?eniae/,

IOOO «EI?», caa. eao. Eiino?othaaiiy

aa?noao?a oa iaoei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aoaae TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, I?aceaeaio
i?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiai — oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieoaeeia Ieaa Ieeieaeiae/, Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa. eao. oaoiieia??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy;

aeieoi? o?ceei — iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ioei Ieaa
Ieaenaiae?iae/, Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, eao. oai?aoe/ii? ? i?eeeaaeii? iaoai?ee

I?a?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 22 » 03 1999 ?ieo i 1500 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.002.11 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo» ca aae?anith:
252056, i. Ee?a, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae 37, ei?ion 1, aoae. ?214

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai 22oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo».

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 22 » 02 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iao?aeia TH.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No/aniee noai aa?noaoiaoae?aii? aaeoc?
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ceei ciaioaiiyi caiiaeaiue ia
aa?noaoia iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aeionea?oueny. ?icoe?aiiy noa?e caooo
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy iiaeeeaa a aea?aeaae, ui ?icaeaathoueny (Ac??,
Ao?eee, Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee), a?eueo?noue yeeo ciaoiaeyoueny a o?ii?/ieo
? noao?ii?/ieo ee?iaoe/ieo ciiao ?c cia/iei caa?oaeiaiiyi ioi/oth/iai
na?aaeiaeua. Aenieoaoaoe?y iaeaaeiaiiy a oeeo e?a?iao /anoi
i?iaiaeeoueny a iaei i?enoiniaaieo i?ei?uaiiyo, i?e iecuee?e
eaae?o?eaoe?? niaoe?ae?no?a. Oiio oe? aea?aeaae iio?aaothoue iaae?eiiai,
iaaeiiaeeaiai a aenieoaoaoe?? ? ii??aiyii aeaoaaiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Noaiaea?oe, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiai? aei
aeaiiai /ano, ia aeicaieythoue o iiai?e i??? ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaie
aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ecia/aiiai aeey ?iaioe a
oiiaao o?ii?/iiai ? noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo. Aeey ye?niiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, yea iinoa/a?oueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei ?
noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii, iaiao?aei? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy, eio??
iiaeooue aooe aeeiiai? i?e iayaiino? iaae?eii? oai?aoe/ii? aace. Oiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?iaeo oai?aoe/ieo iniia aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, ui iinoa/a?oueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei ? noao?ii?/iei
ee?iaoii, yaeythoueny aeooaeueieie. Naia oe?e i?iaeai? i?enay/aii
aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo. Aiia aeeth/a? ?ic?iaeo aaaeeeai? iaoeiai?
i?iaeaie, ??oaiiy yei? ia? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaia cia/aiiy ? ni?ey?
?icaeoeo aa?noaoiaoae?aii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?iaioe
iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui iinoaaey?oueny a e?a?ie c o?ii?/iei oa
noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iinoaaeaia iaoa ?iaioe ?aae?ciaaia oeyoii
ae??oaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

1. Aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai oa
noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo, iniaeeainoae oa?i?/ieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa aieea ?o ia iieacieee yeino? aa?noao?a.

2. Aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae aeaoa?i?iiaaieo ci?i oaiia?aoo?e oa
noaoenoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e i?ioyaii aeiae,
oaiia?aoo?i-aieia?niiai ?aaeeio, ui aeieea? o ii?iaeieiao aa?noao?a, oa
aieea ?o ia ia?aiao?e oi/iino? iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

3. Aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?iai/eo i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy oa eoioeyoe??
aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a oa eiie?aiaio?a o u?eeie oa ii?iaeieie, oa aieea ?o
ia oi/i?noue aa?noao?a.

4. Aeyaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei o
ii?iaeieiao aa?noao?a oa iaaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii eiino?oeoi?nueeiio
??oaiith aoce?a aa?noao?a.

5. Aea/aiiy iae?i?eieo aaoieieeaaiue, ui aeieeathoue i?e o?eaaeiio
o?ainii?ooaaii? a ie?aieo aoceao oa aieea ?o ia oi/i?noue aa?noao?a.

6. Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a aeey iie?ioaiiy oiia caa?aaeaiiy
aeaoaeae aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a?ae ei?ic?? ? caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei?
i?aoeacaeaoiino? a oiiaao o?ii?e?a ? noao?ii?e?a.

7. ?ic?iaea eiino?oeoeaieo i?iiiceoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, ui iinoa/a?oueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei ? noao?ii?/iei
ee?iaoii.

8. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ? iaoiaeee aei?iaiaoaaiue oa niaoe?aeueiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ai?iaaoeeth aa?noao?a, ye?
iinoaaeythoueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei ? noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe anoaiiaeaii:

e??i ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iaeneiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino? ?iaioe
iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai
ee?iaoo iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaei oaeoi?ii aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
? ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e, yea aieeaa? ia iieacieee yeino? aa?noao?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe oaeaee?noue ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua aaaaeaiiyi oi?aa?naeueiiai ii?iae?ciaaiiai caeiio, a yeiio
ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e ia? aeaeyae, iaaeeaeaiee aei o?aiaoe??aeaeiiai
?iioeueno, ia?aiao?e yeiai iaea?aeaii oeyoii oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy
ci?ie oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia ??cieo e?a?i;

caeiiii??iino? aeaoa?i?iiaaieo ci?i oaiia?aoo?e oa noaoenoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oeoeooaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e a oiiaao o?ii?e?a oa noao?ii?e?a
? iieacaii, ui i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e i?ioyaii aeiae a ii?iaeieiao
aa?noao?a aeieeathoue ianoaoe?iia?i? noioanoe/i? oaiia?aoo?i-aieia?ni?
?aaeeie, ye? aieeaathoue ia ia?aiao?e oi/iino? iaoaei??caeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ? a?aeiia?aeathoue noia?iiceoe?? oe?ieiiieiniiai niaeo?a
oaiia?aoo?ieo oaeeue oa aeiaaeeiaeo oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e, a
?acoeueoao? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae oa iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo e
ioe?iee oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?ii-aieia?nieo oiia ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa;

caeiiii??iino? ?iai/eo i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy oa eoioeyoe?? aa?aneaieo
?a/iaei o ii?iaeieiao aa?noao?a ? aeiaaaeaii, ui ooai?aiiy ? iaeiie/aiiy
aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a oa eiie?aiaio?a o u?eeiao ? ii?iaeieiao aa?noaoa ?
ae?ae iaaacia/iei oaeoi?ii, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai cieaeaiiy
oi/iino? ?iaioe oa iia??oaiiy ?ioeo aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee
aa?noaoa;

i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei o ii?iaeieie ??ciiai aeaeo iathoue ye?nii
a?aei?iiee oa?aeoa?: aeey ii?iaeiei, ui aaioeeththoueny, aiie
aecia/athoueny caeiiii??iinoyie eiiaaeoeaiiai ianiia?aiino, a aeey u?eei
? caci??a – a?aeiia?aea? ciaeaeaiei caeiiii??iinoyi iieaeoey?ii?
aeeooc??. O?aooaaiiy ciaeaeaieo caeiiii??iinoae ? iaiao?aeiei i?e
i?iaeooaaii? aa?noao?a o?ii?/iiai aeeiiaiiy;

i?e o?eaaeiio o?ainii?ooaaii? a ie?aieo aoceao aa?noaoa, ye? iathoue
ethooe oa caci?e, aiane?aeie a?a?aoe?eieo o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue
aeieeathoue ?ioaineai? iae?i?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy, a oaeiae ?nioaaiiy
aeiaaio?eaaeeo aaoieieeaaiue i?ae ae??th ciai?oi?o aeiaaeeiaeo
aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue noai?th? oiiae, aeey aeieeiaiiy iniaeeaiai,
?ai?oa ia a?aeiiiai, aeeiai?/iiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe aoce?a (noaoenoe/iee
?aciiain), yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeieeiaiiyi ?ioaineaieo eieaeueieo
aaaaoioeeeeiaeo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue o aeaoaeyo aa?noao?a, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai cieaeaiiy ?oiuei? oi/iino?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe

Iaa?oioiaaii ?yae caoiae?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aa?noao?a oa
iie?ioaiiy oiia aeey caa?aaeaiiy aeaoaeae aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a?ae
ei?ic?e ? caaacia/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? ?o a oiiaao o?ii?e?a ?
noao?ii?e?a. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoe/i? caoiaee ii cieaeaiith iaaaioaaeaiue
ia aocee ? aeaoae? aa?noao?a, ui o?ainii?oothoueny ia aaeee? a?aenoai?,
cie?aia a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei ? noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii. ?ic?iaeai?
eiino?oeoeai? ??oaiiy aeey aoce?a iaei/ooeeaeo aei a?a?aoe?eieo
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue. ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen noaiaeiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy
aeey aei?iaoaaiiy aa?noao?a, ui i?ecia/ai? aeey ?iaioe a oiiaao
o?ii?/iiai ? noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo. Iaeaaeiaiiy i?ecia/aia aeey
aei?iaoaaiiy aa?noao?a aaciina?aaeiuei a oeaoo iaoeiiaoae?aiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa c ?i?oaoe??th ?aaeueieo oaiia?aoo?i-aieia?nieo oiia,
caieeaiino? oa caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y.

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei
eiino?oeoeaieo ?ic?iaie cai?iiiiiaaii aeine?aeieeai, eiino?oeoi?ai
iaoaei??caeueieo aa?noao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?aeiiaiaeiaaii a
ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th EA aa?noaoiaoae?aieo caaiae?a.
Aeeiiaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue ia?aa??aii ? /anoeiai ai?iaaaeaeaii o
1990-1991 ??. ia: Ieaenaiae??enueeiio iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio ia’?aeiai?
«Aoae» E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano?; E??iaia?aaenueeiio caaiae?
«A?ae?ineea»; Ni?eyinueeiio ?aae?ii?eeaaeiiio caaiae? «I??cii» oa
Eai’yinueeiio iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae? *a?eanueei? iaeano? c caaaeueiei
??/iei aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 6,8 iei. e?a. a oe?iao 1991 ?ieo. ?acoeueoaoe
?ia?o aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii a ?iai/o i?ia?aio aeey aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a N?N? c? niaoeeo?no “Iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe??
iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy o niaoe?o?/ieo oiiaao aea?aeaa Ac??,
Ao?eee ? Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee”, yeo aaoi? c?iaea o 1988 ?ioe? (aia?oa a
N?N?). Ca ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ?ic?iaie, ye? aeniiioaaeenue ia
aenoaaoe? aeinyaiaiue ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa N?N?, aaoi?
iaai?iaeaeaiee iaaeaeeth AAeIA.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaea?aeaee
noaaeaiiy: ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?ia?aneaia
oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ?
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa» (Ee?a, 1998); ia I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaoiiaoecaoe?y, i?iaeooaaiiy ?
ae?iaieoeoai ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy» (Eoaainuee 1996); ia
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ?ic?iaee,
ae?iaieoeoaa, aenieoaoaoe?? oa ?aiiioo i?aeeiiii-o?ainii?oieo,
aoae?aaeueieo oa aei?iaei?o iaoei» (E??iaia?aae, 1996); ia ??, ??? oa ?V
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Anioe?aoe?? niaoe?ae?no?a i?iieneiai?
a?ae?aaeeee ? iiaaiaoeee (Ee?a, 1992, 1993, 1994) «I?iaeooaaiiy,
ae?iaieoeoai ? aenieoaoaoe?y nenoai a?ae?iiiaaiii?eaiaea,
a?ae?iiiaaiiaaoiiaoeee ? a?ae?iiaoei ? ?o eiiieaeo?a»; ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaeineiiaeaiiy ? aaoiiaoecaoe?y
ae?iaie/?o i?ioean?a a?ae?aae?/ieie ? iiaaiaoe/ieie i?eno?iyie»
(*aeya?inuee, 1991); ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «A?ae?aaeeea,
a?ae?iiiaaiii?eaiae iaoei, aaoiiao?a ? i?iieneiaeo ?iaio?a a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?» (Naaanoiiieue, 1988, 1990) oa eiioa?aioe??
«I?iaeooaaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?y a?ae?aae?/ieo nenoai ? a?ae?ii?eaiae?a
iaoei, aaoiiao?a ? i?iieneiaeo ?iaio?a a O?? i’yoe??/oe?» (Naaanoiiieue,
1987); ia Ananithciiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? «Oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy
/enoioe ?iai/i? ??aeeie» (*aeya?inuee, 1977).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 25 ?ia?o, a oiio
/ene? iiiia?ao?th, a ye?e iaeiiin?aii iaienaii 9 ?icae?e?a. C?iaeaii 18
aeiiia?aeae

ia I?aeia?iaeieo, Ananithcieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
io?eiaii

4 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 7
?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, oaenoiaiai iaoa??aeo, aeeeaaeaiiai ia
455 noi?., oaaeeoeue ca oaenoii – 24, ?eethno?aoe?e – 149 (?enoie?a –
105, oioia?ao?e, aeeiiaieo aaoi?ii – 44), e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae – 230.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

A ?iaio? noi?ioeueiaaii ? aeaoaeueii iaa?oioiaaii iaoo ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ?icaeyoooi noai
?icaeoeo aa?noaoiaoaeoaaiiy o ??cieo e?a?iao ? c?iaeaii iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae. Aa?noaoia iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aenieoaoo?oueny a
aea?aeaaao c o?ii?/iei oa noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii, a ?ac? iaaeinoaoiueiai
aeeiiaiiy an?o iaiao?aeieo oaoi?/ieo caoiae?a ia? no?ie ?iaioe a 2-5
?ac?a iaioee a?ae aeacaiiai a ianii?oieo aeaieo. Oea iiynith?oueny, a
ia?oo /a?ao, ii?ooaiiyi ?aaeaiaioieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??, a oaeiae aeiia
aei aeinoaaee, onoaiiaee ? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy. A ae?oao /a?ao,
cieaeaiiy no?ieo aenieoaoaoe?? aecia/a?oueny neeaaeieie ee?iaoe/ieie
oiiaaie ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaaaoeaieie ee?iaoe/ieie oaeoi?aie
yaeythoueny aeniea oaiia?aoo?a ? aieia?noue iia?o?y, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei
ei?ic?? aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy. Caa?oaeiai?noue aoiinoa?e, iayai?noue
nieueiaeo oa ieeiaeo /anoie o iia?o?? oaeiae ni?ey? ei?ic?? aeaoaeae.

Oaeei /eiii, aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ecia/aiiai aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a oiiaao o?ii?e?a oa noao?ii?e?a, iio?aao? iaia’yceiaiai
a?aooaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia ?iaioe aoce?a ? aa?aaao?a aa?noao?a,
a?aooaaiiy iayaiino? aieiae ? caii?ioaiino? a iia?o?? oa aiae?co aieeao
iaoai?/ieo oaeoi??a, oaeeo ye oaea?e ? a?a?aoe?? .

Oeei ieoaiiyi noiniaii aa?noao?a i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a/aieo ?
niaoe?ae?no?a ??cieo onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e. Cie?aia oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiiaii a AI?IN (Iineaa), AIAe?A?ae?ii?eaiae (Oa?e?a). Anoaiiaeaii, ui
a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai ? noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo aoiinoa?ia ei?ic?y i?io?ea?
i?e iayaiino? ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo ie?aee aieiae. I?e a?aeiini?e aieiaino?
50…75%, a ?acoeueoao? eiiaeainaoe?? ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo c’yaey?oueny
oiiea aaeni?aoe?eia ie?aea (aeaeo?ie?o), /a?ac yeo eaaei i?iieea?
eenaiue. O ca’yceo c oeei, ei?ic?y iaoaeo i?ioiaeeoue aeoaea ?ioaineaii.
?icaeyiooi a ii??aiyii? oaeaeeino? ei?ic?? ??cieo iaoa??ae?a, ??ai?
caa?oaeiaiiy a ??cieo ciiao caiii? eoe?. Ii??aithth/e ei?ic?eio
aa?aneai?noue aoiinoa?e a ??cieo ?aeiiao, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui
nooi?iue ei?ic?? i?iii?oe?eia e?eueeino? ? /ano ciaoiaeaeaiiy aieiae ia
iiaa?oi? iaoaeo. E?euee?noue aieiae caeaaeeoue a?ae ??/ii? oa aeiaiai?
e?eueeino? iiaae?a, a /an ciaoiaeaeaiiy ia iiaa?oi? – a?ae oaeaeeino?
aeia?iaoaaiiy. ??cieoey iiaae?a oa aeia?iaoaaiiy ??cia o ??cieo ?aeiiao
caiii? eoe? ? oa?aeoa?eco? aa?aneai?noue aoiinoa?e c aeinoaoiueith aeey
i?aeoe/ieo oe?eae aeinoia??i?noth.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae anoaiiaeaii, ui

a no/anieo oiiaao ?icaeoeo aa?noaoiaoae?aii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe iiaoaiio eiai iiaea?i?caoe?th c i???ioaoe??th ia
?eiee aea?aeaa, ui ?icaeaathoueny. Oe? aea?aeaae ciaoiaeyoueny a
iniiaiiio a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo. Oiio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iai?aaeai? ia aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiy,
i?ecia/aiiai aeey ?iaioe o aeacaieo oiiaao,

? aeooaeueieie ? yaeythoue niaith nooo?ao iaoeiao i?iaeaio, ui ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aa?noaoiaoae?aii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? iaoeia? i?iaeaie, ui ca’ycai? c ?iaioith
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a aea?aeaaao c o?ii?/iei oa noao?ii?/iei
ee?iaoii.

Aeey ooi/iaiiy oeeo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai aea/aany aeina?ae i?ia?aeieo
aa?noaoiaoae?aieo o??i I?ia//eie, O?aioe??, ?oae??, Oaaeoea???, NOA,
ssiii?? oa ?ioeo c eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo aaaaeaiue o aa?noaoia
iaeaaeiaiiy aeey o?ii?e?a ? noao?ii?e?a. Aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii iiiaae 250
i?aaenoaaiee?a aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy: oiea?iiai, naa?aeeoaaeueiiai,
oe?ooaaeueiiai, o?aca?iiai, i?ioyaeiiai, coaiia?iaiiai, niaoe?aeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aaaeo/eo o??i Pittler, Traub, Steinel, EX-Cell-O, COMBinat,
Gildemeister Knoll, Voumard, Gering, Guistina, Diskus Verke, Karl Klink,
Elb Schliff, Peter Wolters, Thielenhaus, Shaudt, Hauser, Liebherr,
Reishauer, Busch, Fritz Gekert, Anocut, Gehomat, Durr, Kuka, Ieoeoe
Nyeee, W. Trowal, Ultrasons Annemass, Hagen & Goebel, Hueller Hille oa
?ioeo.

Aeey a?eueo iiaiiai aea/aiiy aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? aa?noao?a a oiiaao
o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeai? c ??cieo aeaea?ae, cie?aia:
?ioi?iaoe?y a?aeae?e?a ia?eaoeiao ?iio??i i?e eoi?ae? iaeaaeiaiiy,
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co oaoi?/ii? aeieoiaioaoe?? ?iii?oiiai aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy; na?ae/aiue, ui iaea?aeai? a?ae oaoi?/iiai ia?niiaeo o??i
(iaeaae/ee?a, eiinoeueoaio?a), aiae?co eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue aoce?a,
aa?noao?a, iaoaio?a, «iio-oao», iaoo?ieo aei??thaaiue oa aeine?aeaeaiue
a oiiaao noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo (a ?aeiiao A?oc??); aeine?aeaeaiue o
ee?iaoe/ieo eaia?ao. Oeiiaa ?iii?oia iaeaaeiaiiy, i?ecia/aia aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a o?ii?eao ? noao?ii?eao, aea/aeinue ia E??iaia?aaenueeiio
caaiae? «A?ae?ineea», Ieaenaiae??eneiio III «Aoae», Ni?eyinueeiio
?aae?ii?eeaaeiiio caaiae?, Eai’yinueeiio iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ?iicaiieo o??i anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e
aeaioiaeaii? ? o?ainii?ooaaii? aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe oae? iaaaoeai? oaeoi?e: aenieo oaiia?aoo?o ? aieia?noue
iia?o?y, canieai?noue ? caieeai?noue aoiinoa?e, ?ioaineaio niiy/io
?aae?aoe?th; neeaaei? oiiae o?ainii?ooaaiiy c Oe?a?ie ia aaeee?
a?aenoai? iaeaaeiaiiy, eiai caa?aaeaiiy ? iiioaae; iiaeeea?noue
ii?ooaiiy ?aaeaiaioieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??, iecueeo eaae?o?eaoe?th
ia?niiaeo, a?aenooi?noue aeina?aeo ?iaioe.

Aeey cieaeaiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a iaiao?aeii aaeeoe niaoe?aeuei?
caoiaee aeey caoenoo a?ae iiiaaeaiiy aieiae ? ieeo a ii?iaeieie
aa?noaoa, cieaeaiith iaaaioaaeaiue i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy noiii??a, o?enaoi??a, i?ieeaaeie, aeei?enoaiiy aeaiioa??a
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue, eiioaeia??a

c a?a?i?cieyoe??th, noaa?e?caoe?? oa?i?/iiai ?aaeeio aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy, niaoe?aeueieo nenoai ioieiaeaeaiiy, niaoeaeueii? oa?e oa
oiaeiaee, aa?iaoe/ieo /ioe?a c naeeeiaaeai, oiaeiaee oeia «Eieii»,
caoenoo a?ae ei?ic?? aeaoaeae aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aiae?co aeina?aeo
a?o/eciyiiai e caei?aeiiiiai aa?noaoiaoaeoaaiiy a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii
eiiieaen ?ia?o, ye? ia’?aeiaii aeey ??oaiiy aeaio eiiieaenieo i?iaeai:
aei?noeeo oaiia?aoo?ii-aieia?nieo oiia, ??cieo aeae?a ?oi?o i?iyaeaiue ?
caoenoo a?ae ieo oa a?a?aoe?e o aeeiai?/ieo nenoaiao aa?noao?a, ye?
iathoue i?noea i?e o?ainii?ooaaii? oa aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeey caoenoo aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a?ae iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aei?noeeo
oaiia?aoo?ii-aieia?nieo oiia o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ye iniiaii? i?iaeaie
aoei i?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei o ii?iaeieiao
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Aaoieieeaaiiy iathoue i?noea i?ae ae??th ?ia?oe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue,
aeieeath/eo o ca’yceo c eieeaaiiyie ei?ionieo aeaoaeae aa?noao?a.
Oiiaaie aeieeiaiiy aaoieieeaaeueieo nenoai iiaeooue aooe: a?euei? iane c
i?i?iaeueiei oa?oyi, iayai?noue ciai?oi?o a?a?aoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue.
sse i?eeeaae ia ?en.1 iieacaii noaio i?ii?aeiiai aaea e?iaiaoe/iiai
eaioethaa, yeee cae?enith? e?ooeeuei? eieeaaiiy a iaaeao caci??a
coa/aoiai ca/aieaiiy a oi/eao AAND. Eieeaaiiy aeieeathoue i?ae ae??th
ia?ai?uaiiy ei?iono ?0(t).

Oeaio? ian aaaeaey ci?uaii a?aeiinii in? iaa?oaiiy ? cia-oiaeeoueny a
oi/oe? A. I?e a?a?aoe?? aa?noaoa ia aa-ae?eue ae?? ?ia?-oe?eia
iaaaioa-aeaiiy ?e, coiia-eaia iinooiaeue-iei ia?ai?uaiiyi aa?noaoa. Oea
iaaaioaaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy e?ooiiai iiiaioo, yeee ae?? ia
aaae?eue. Oaeei /eiii, yeui i?ii?aei? aaee iathoue aenoeaio?eneoao
oeaio?a ian, oi i?e eieeaaiiyo aa?noaoa ia ieo ae?? ianoaoe?iia?ia
iiiaioia

iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea iaoiiaeaia ?ia?oe?eieie neeaie. Ae?iai?/io iiaeaeue
i?ii?aeiiai aaea, yeee ia? aeenaaeain a?aeiinii in? iaa?oaiiy, iieacaii
ia ?en. 3, a.

I?eaiaei? aaee ei?iaie oaeaeeinoae ? ei?iaie iiaea/ cae/aeii iathoue
ianiaee aai eaioethaiaee i?ea?ae. I?e a?a?aoe?? aa?noaoa a ianao aai
eaioethaao aeieeathoue ?ioainea-i? ?ia?oe?ei? iaaaioa-aeaiiy (?en. 4,
a,a). ?ia?oe?ei? neee noai?ththoue aeiaaeeia? iiiaioi? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aae. A?aoiaoth/e, ui iane ? eaioethae iathoue aeanio iano ? i?oaei?noue,
oe? iiiaioi? iaaaioaaeaiiy ae?thoue ia aae ca?aeii noaie (?en. 4, a).

Aeeiai?/i? iiaeae? iae?i?eieo aaoiei-eeaaeueieo nenoai iathoue
cao?thth/eie ae?yie aeiaaeeia? ?ia?oe?ei? iaaaioa-aeaiiy.

Oe? iaaaioaaeaiiy aeieeathoue ye i?e o?ainii?ooaaii?, oae ? i?e ?iaio?
aa?noaoa.

Aeiaaeeia? a?a?aoe?ei? oa o?ainii?oi? iaaaioaaeaiiy yaeythoue niaith
neeaaei? ianoaoe?iia?i? aeiaaeeia? ooieoe??, ? iiaia a?aooaaiiy ae??
oeeo iaaaioaaeaiue iaaeioe?eueii c i?e/eie cia/ii? neeaaeiino?. Oiio
iaaaioaaeaiiy ?icaeyioo? ye noaoe?iia?i? a?aiaee/i? aeiaaeeia? i?ioeane.

Ei?aeyoe?ei? ooieoe?? R(?) a?a?aoe?eieo i?enei?aiue, ui iathoue i?noea
i?e ia?aaacaii? aa?noao?a ii?nueeei o?ainii?oii, acyoi o aeaeyae?
caeaaeiino?:

aea D = ?2 – aeenia?n?y aeiaaeeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue;

?, ? – ia?aiao?e, ui aecia/athoue eiie?aoiee aeaeyae ei?aeyoe?eii?
ooieoe??.

Aeai?e ei?aeyoe?ei?e ooieoe?? a?aeiia?aea? niaeo?aeueia u?euei?noue
aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano, ui aecia/a?oueny ae?acii

I?e ia?aaacaii? aa?noao-

iiai iaeaaeiaiiy aaoiiia?eueiei o?ainii?oii niaeo?aeueio u?eue-i?noue
?ia?oe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue (eiao?oe??io ae?iai?/iino?) i?ee-iyoi o
aeaeyae? oe?ieiiieiniiai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano c aeaiia ?aciiainieie
i?eaie (?en. 5)

Niaeo? ?ia?oe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia? aieiaiee iaeneioi (A) o
iecueei/anoioi?e iaeano? ? eieaeueiee iaeneioi (A) – o aeniei/anoioi?e.
Aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue aeei?enoaii
caeaaei?noue o aeaeyae? noia?iiceoe?? i?aaeo /anoei oi?ioee (1) c
??cieie cia/aiiyie ia?aiao??a D, ?, ?, ye? aeae?athoueny c oiia
iaee?auiai iaaeeaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae.

A ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aiae?c oaea?ieo ?
a?a?aoe?eieo coneeue o aoceao oa aeaoaeyo iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aeieeathoue
i?e eiai o?ainii?ooaaii? oa aenieoaoaoe??. Aecia/aii eeane aeaiaio?a
aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie, ye? ?aaaothoue ia aieea a?a?aoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue.
Cie?aia, oea aeaiaioe c iino?eiei iaoai?/iei eiioaeoii, oa aeaiaioe, ui
iathoue nooi?iue a?eueiino? a iaaeao ethooa. Aeey aeaiaio?a c iino?eiei
eiioaeoii oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy aeeiiaii ia iniia? e?i?eii? oai???
noaoenoe/ii? aeeiai?ee iaoai?/ieo nenoai. Aeey oeueiai neeaaeaii
aeeoa?aioe?ei? ??aiyiiy eieeaaiue aeaiaioa i?ae ae??th ciai?oiueiai
aeiaaeeiaiai a?a?aoe?eiiai i?enei?aiiy. Aeey iieno noaoenoe/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?a?aoe?eiiai i?enei?aiiy eiai iiaeaii o aeaeyae?
noaoe?iia?iiai a?aiaee/iiai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano ?c niaeo?aeueiith
aonoeiith

aea ia?aiao?e ?i, ?i , Di oa?aeoa?ecothoue ie?aio neeaaeiao
niaeo?aeueii? aonoeie,

a ia?aiao? nk a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? a?aeiia?aea? e?eueeino? a?aoiaaieo
?aciiainieo /anoio a?a?aoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ui ae?thoue ia aa?noaoia
iaeaaeiaiiy a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? /e i?e o?ainii?ooaaii?.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co ciaeaeaii niaeo?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaaaioaaeaiue o oi/eiaeo eiioaeoao i?ae aeaiaioaie aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie.
Aiie iathoue aeaeyae caeaaeiino?

aea W1(ju)-/anoioia o?ainoi?ioth/a ooieoe?y eieeaaiue aeaiaioa i?ae
ae??th

a?a?aoe?? ei?iona;

W1(ju)-/anoioia o?ainoi?ioth/a ooieoe?y eieeaaiue aeaiaioa i?ae ae??th
a?a?aoe?? aeania oi/ee eiioaeoo.

Ie?ai? i?eeeaaee iaea?aeaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo niaeo??a iaaaioaaeaiue o
oi/eao eiioaeoo iaaaaeaii ia ?en. 6. Oe? iaaaioaaeaiiy ae?thoue cie?aia
a i?aeoeiieeao eiacaiiy oa ei/aiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Ia ?en. 7.
iieacaii noaio eieeaaiue oi?iaeaey ia a?ae?inoaoe/ieo iii?ao, ui iathoue
i?noea i?ae ae??th o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

Eieeaaiiy o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? (?en. 7, a), oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
aeni-eith aei?noe?noth eiioaeoo (oi/ea N) ? ye i?aaeei

ia aeeeeeathoue nooo?aeo aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Eieeaaiiy o
ai?ecii-oaeuei?e ieiuei? (?en. 7, a) oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii??a-iyii
iecueeith aei?noe?noth eiioaeoii? ciie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o oaeeo aoceao c iecueeith aei?noe?noth eiioaeoo ia?
i?noea ?aciiain o ae?aiacii? /anoio 50…200 Aoe. I?e oeueiio
iaaaioaaeaiiy a eiioaeo? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiao?oe??ioii aeeiai?/iino?
3…5, a /enei oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiiy ca /an o?ainii?ooaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy
ii?nueeei o?ainii?oii iiaea aeinyaoe 107 ? aeua.

Aeaiaioe aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie aa?noaoa, ui iathoue nooi?iue a?eueiino? a
iaaeao ethooa i?ae ae??th a?a?aoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, cae?eniththoue
iae?i?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy aeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o. ?icaeyiooi ie?ai?
aeaiaioe aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie, ia ye? ae?? noeoii?noue ciai?oi?o oaea?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue aeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Iaeio c caaaeueieo oeiiaeo
?ic?aooieiaeo aeeiai?/ieo iiaeaeae aeaiaioa iieacaii ia ?en. 8.

Aiae?c aeeiai?/ii? i?aenenoaie aeeiiaii iine?aeiaii, aoaiaie a ii?yaeeo
i?aeaeuaiiy neeaaeiino? ?icaeyaeo caaea/?. Ia ia?oiio aoai? ciaeaeaii
ia?aiao?e a?eueieo aaoieieeaaiue aeaiaioa aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie.

Iaea?aeaii, cie?aia, oi?ioee aeey ?ic?aooieo ?iciaoo eieeaaiue

oa ia??iaeo eieeaaiue

aea Aoi- cia/aiiy oaea?iiai ?iioeueno, ui ae?? ia aeaiaio aeeiai?/ii?
nenoaie

ianith m.

Oaeaee?noue i?e oaea?i?e aca?iiae?? aeaiaioa c ei?ionii neeaaea?:

aea Vy1 – ii/aoeiaa oaeaee?noue aeaiaioa.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? ?icaeyaeo iae?i?eieo aaoieieeaaiue cae?eniaii aiae?c
aeiooaiiai ?ooo aeaiaioa i?ae ae??th aeaoa?i?iiaaieo ?iioeuenieo
oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue. ?icaeyiooi caeiiii??iino? ?ooo aeaiaioa i?ae
ae??th iaeiiai ?cieueiaaiiai ?iioeueno,

a oaeiae na??? (iaeaoa) neioacieo ?iioeuenieo iaaaioaaeaiue. Caeii ?ooo
aeaiaioa

i?ae ae??th na??? E ?iioeuen?a aecia/aii o aeaeyae?

aea Ao? – cia/aiiy ?iioeueno a iaeao?, ui ae?? a iiiaio /ano toi .

Ciaeaeaii /an ?ooo oa oaeaee?noue aca?iiae?? aeaiaioa c oii?ii.

Ocaaaeueiaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiue ae?oaiai aoaio aoei i?eaaaeaiiy iaeaoo
?iioeuen?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aei iaeiiai aea?aaeaioiiai ?iioeueno, ui ?
iniiaith aeey ni?iuaiiy ?ic?aooieiai? aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? oa i?eaaaeaiiy
?? aei aea?aaeaioii? iaeiiianiai? iae?i?eii? aeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? c
aeiaaeeiaeie ?iioeuenieie iaaaioaaeaiiyie.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? aiae?co iae?i?eieo aaoieieeaaiue aea/aii ae??
aeiaaeeiaeo ?iioeuenieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia aeaiaio aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie.
?icaeyiooi aeiaaeeia? eieeaaiiy cao?thth/i? iane, ui cae?enith?
?iioeueni? oaea?i? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeaiaio aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie
aa?noaoa. Cie?aia aecia/aii ei?aeyoe?eio ooieoe?th oaeaeeino? oaea?ii?
aca?iiae?? iane c aeaiaioii. I?ney ni?iuaiue ei?aeyoe?eio ooieoe?th
caienaii o aeaeyae?

aea Dae – aeenia?n?y oaeaeeino? oaea??a.

Aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean oaea?ieo ?iioeuen?a neee, ui ae?thoue ia aeaiaio,
aecia/aii c caeiio ci?ie ?iioeueno i?e oaea??, ca?aeee iaea?aeaii
ca’ycie i?ae ei?aeyoe?eieie ooieoe?yie oaea?ieo ?iioeuen?a oa oaeaeeino?
oaea?ii? aca?iiae?? o aeaeyae?

Ciaeaeaio ia iniia? oe??? caeaaeiino? ei?aeyoe?eio ooieoe?th
?ioa?i?aoiaaii o aeaeyae? aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano, noaio yeiai iieacaii ia
?en. 10.

C iaoith iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean ca oeiii ?en. 10
o?ainoi?-iiaaii a iaaeeaeaiee ciaeici?iiee aeiaaeeiaee i?ioean oa
?icaeyiooi ae?th ciaeici?iieo ?iioeuen?a neee ia iae?i?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy
aeaiaioa. Ia ?en. 11 iieacaii oeiiaee caeii ?ooo aeaiaioa aeeiai?/ii?
nenoaie aa?noaoa i?ae ae??th aeiaaeeiaiai ?iioeueniiai ciaeici?iiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeeiai?/io nenoaio aeine?aeaeaii oeyoii cai?ie iaeaoa aeiaaeeiaeo
?iioeuen?a, ui ae?thoue i?ioyaii i?aia??iaea eieeaaiue aeaiaioa iaeiei
aea?aaeaioiei ?iioeuenii. Anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy
iacaoooath/eo aaoieieeaaiue i?ae ae??th aeiaaeeiaeo ?iioeuen?a
iaaaioaaeaiue. Aeieeiaiiy iacaoooath/eo aaoieieeaaiue aecia/aii ye
noaoenoe/iee ?aciiain, oiaoi ?aciiaini? yaeua eiia??i? i?ae ae??th
aeiaaeeiaeo cao?aiue aeaiaioa aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie oaea?ieie ?iioeuenieie
iaaaioaaeaiiyie c aieo ?ioeo aeaiaio?a aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie aa?noaoa.

?aciiaini? yaeua aeieeathoue, yeui ci?ia ?iioeuen?a a?aeiia?aea? 1-e,
2-e, 3-e /e iiaeaeueoei iiae?aiei oi?iai aeiaaeeiaiai i?ioeano ci?ie
?iioeueniiai iaaaioaaeaiiy .

Anoaiiaeaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia?aiao??a aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie, i?e yeeo
iathoue i?noea ?aciiaini? yaeua. Aiii ia? aeaeyae noeoiiino?
o?ainoeaiaeaioieo ??aiyiue, ui ioiieththoue an? iiaeeea? oi?ie
aeiaaeeiaeo ci?i ?iioeueno

aea

– ia?aiao?, ui a?aoiao? neee iii?o i?e ?on? aeaiaioa a

iaaeao ethooa.

Ia ?enoieo 12 iiaeaii oeiiaee inoeeeia?ao?/iee caien eieeaaiiue
i?ii?aeiiai aaea ei?iaee oaeaeeinoae aa?noaoa ui ia? i?noea i?ae ae??th
a?a?aoe?e oeia o?ainii?oieo.

?ic?aooiee aaoieieeaaeueieo ?aaeei?a a?aeiia?aeathoue aenia?eiaioaeueiei
aeaiei. Oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo nyaa? 5…15 %. I?e oeueiio cia/aiiy
aiie?ooae eieeaaiue neeaaea? 0,01…0,5 ii (5?…50?), a cia/aiiy /anoio
aaoieieeaaeueieo ?aaeei?a 10…20; 40…80; 100…120; 180…220;
250…300 Aoe a caeaaeiino? a?ae iane aeaiaioa. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaea?aea ?ioaineaieo
a?a?aoe?e o aeaeyae? iiooaeii? a?ae?iia?aaea/? aen?aeueii-ii?oiaaiai
oeio. Niaeo? a?a?iaeonoe/ii? ae?? iaa iieino /anoio aei 5000 Aoe.
?ioaineai?noue cao?aiue ?aaoethaaeanue oeyoii ci?ie oeneo a
a?ae?iia?aaea/? a ae?aiacii? 1…32 IIa oa caaacia/aiiyi
a?a?ii?enei?aiiy aei 10 g.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao a?a?aoe?e (oeia o?ainii?oieo) ia
aaiiao?e/io oi/i?noue aa?noao?a. A oaae. 1 iaaaaeaii iaea?aeai?
ia?aiao?e oi/iino? aeey aa?noao?a oiea?ii? a?oie.

Oaaeeoey 1. Aieea a?a?aoe?eieo o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia
aaiiao?e/io oi/i?noue aa?noao?a oiea?ii? a?oie

(a /enaeueieeo – iaoaiaoe/ia niiae?aaiiy, a ciaiaiieeo –
na?aaeiuei-eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy ia?aiao?a).

Ia?aiao? oi/iino? ii AINO 22267-76 Aeiionoeia cia/aiiy aeey aa?noao?a
eeano “I”, iei Aei??e aac a?a?aoe?e *an ae?? a?a?aoe??, aiaeei

5 10 20 40 80

?aae?aeueia aeooy ciai?oiuei? aacoth/i? iiaa?oi? oi?iaeaey 6 2,21 –––––
0,82 4,83 –––– 1,44 5,44 –––– 1,84 5,48 –––– 1,76 6,07 –––– 2,01 8,56
–––– 2,04

Oi?oeaaa aeooy iii?ii? iiaa?oi? oi?iaeaey 10 3,54 ––––– 1,23 8,55 ––––
2,24 9,44 –––– 2,12 11,25 –––– 2,56 11,51 –––– 2,82 12,4 –––– 3,0

I?yiie?i?ei. ? ia?aeaeuei. ia?ai?uaiiy noii?oa: – a ai?eciioaeuei?e
ieiuei? – o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? 6 3,25 ––––– 0,84 4,72 –––– 1,23 4,95
–––– 1,42 4,48 –––– 1,31 5,92 –––– 1,65 7,84 –––– 2,04

10 4,87 –––– 1,25 6,26 –––– 1,84 5,84 –––– 1,92 6,82 –––– 1,98 7,35
–––– 2,25 6,05 –––– 2,82

C ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue aeieeaa?, ui i?ae ae??th aeiaaio?eaaeeo
a?a?aoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue (60-70 aiaeei), ui a?aeiia?aea? (1,0..5,0)106
oeeee?a, ia? i?noea ??cea cieaeaiiy oi/iino?. Oea iiynith?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi ethoo?a ? caci??a, i?ae aieeaii iaaaioaaeaiue, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae /an ?aciiainieo aaoieieeaaeueieo ?aaeei?a.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi caeiiii??iino? oa?i?/ieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo. Oeyoii aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aei???a iaea?aeaii caeaaeiino? aeiaiaeo ci?i oaiia?aoo?e ia ??cieo
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo e?a?i, cie?aia ?iae??, Aiaiee, Eoae, a
oaeiae A?oc?? oa i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y
oa?aeoa-?eco?oueny ??ceeie ci?iaie i?ioyaii aeiae.

Aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e aaaaeaii ii?iae?ciaaiee
?ic?aooieiaee caeii aeiaiai? ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e o aeaeyae?
o?aiaoe??iiae?aii? eaiaii? e?i?? (?en. 13).

Ii?iae?ciaaiee caeii a iiaeaeueoiio iiaeaii o aeaeyae? ?iceeaaeo a

?yae Oo?ue’? aeaeo

, (2)

0).

Oaiia?aoo?a iia?o?y a oeaoo i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa ia? aeiaaeeia?
oeoeooaoe?? ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeayeei ae?aiaciiii ?ica?aeiinoae
cia/aiue (?en. 14).

Oeyoii noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aei???a oaiia?aoo? iaea?aeaii a?noia?aie
oeoeooaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e (?en.15), a oaeiae ciaeaeaii ?oi? noaoenoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Caeii ?iciiae?eo aeiaaeeiaeo oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e
iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeecueeei aei ii?iaeueiiai, a ei?aeyoe?eio ooieoe?th –
aei ae?aco

caeaaeeoue a?ae eiie?aoieo oiia ?icoaooaaiiy aa?noaoa a oeaoo.

Ia iniia? iieno ciai?oi?o ci?i oaiia?aoo?e ciaeaeaii ia?aiao?e
oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa. A aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino?
a?ae no?iie oaieio?ce/i? aeanoeaino? aa?noaoa ?ic?aoiaaii ca iiaeaeeth
oaieii?ia?aeii? i?aieiueie, ia iaae? yei? oaiia?aoo?a ci?ith?oueny ca
aa?iii?/iei caeiiii. I?e oeueiio ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa aeieeathoue
oaiia?aoo?i? oaee?. Caaaeueia cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e iaea?aeaia ye
noia?iiceoe?y ??oaiue, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ie?aiei aa?iii?eai ciai?oi?o
ci?i oaiia?aoo?e o oi?ioe? (2), ? ia? aeaeyae

aea O – a?aenoaiue a?ae iiaa?oi? aa?noaoa aei oi/ee c oaiia?aoo?ith O.

?ic?aooiee ca aeaiith caeaaei?noth iieacaii ia ?en. 16.

Ia iniia? ae?aco (3) cai?iiiiiaaii /anoioio oi?io caieno ??cieoe?
oaiia?aoo? ana?aaeei? ? ciai? aa?noaoa o aeaeyae?

yaeythoue niaith aiie?ooaeii-/anoioio oa oaci/anoioio oa?aeoa?enoeee
ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e a na?aaeei? aa?noaoa i?e aa?iii?/ieo eieeaaiiyo
ciai?oiuei? oaiia?aoo?e c /anoioith ?e.

*anoioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?aeiaii aaaaeaiiyi /anoioii? o?ainoi?ioth/i?
ooieoe?? (aiie?ooaeii-oaciai? /anoioii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e), yea ia? aeaeyae

Oeiiaee aeaeyae ?ic?aooieiai? /anoioii? o?ainoi?ioth/i? ooieoe?? ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e, iiaeaiee ia eiiieaeni?e ieiuei? a eii?aeeiaoao U=ReaeW(j?),
V=ImW(j?) , iieacaii ia ?en. 17.

Aaaaeaiiy /anoio-ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey iieno ci?ie oaiia?aoo? aeaei
ciiao aecia/eoe ye aeaoa?i?iiaai?, oae ? noioanoe/i? ci?ie oaiia-?aoo?e
ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa. Cie?aia ciaeaeaii niaeo-?aeueio aonoeio oeoeooaoe?e
oaiia?aoo?e i?e aeiaaeeiaeo ci?iao oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua:

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa ?
iniiaith aeey aiae?co oa?i?/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ie?aieo aeaoaeae ? aeey
aecia/aiiy ia?ai?uaiue aaciaeo iiaa?oiiue, ui aieeaathoue ia oi/i?noue
aa?noaoo. Aecia/aii cie?aia a?aeoeeaiiy aaiiao??/ieo inae oi?iaeaey oa
?ino?oiaioa i?e aeiaiaeo eieeaaiiyo oaiia?aoo?e. Aiie a?aeiia?aeathoue
oaiia?aoo?iiio ae?aeoo iieacieea oi/iino? a iaaeao aeiioneo (?en. 18.).
Ianoaoe?iia?i? oaiia?aoo?i? iiey nooo?aei /eiii aieeaathoue ia iieacieee
oi/iino? aa?noaoa, ui aecia/athoueny i?ioyaeieie aeaoaeyie. Cie?aia, oea
i?yiie?i?ei?noue iai?yiieo ea?aoee, ia?aeaeuei?noue iai?yiieo,
ia?aeaeuei?noue inae iai?yiieo ? i?iie? oa ?i.

Ia ?en. 19 iieacaii ci?io i?yiie?i?eiino? iai?yiieo i?ioyaii aeiae.
Iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy iai?yiie?i?eiino? iathoue i?noea i?ae /an ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e ? a?aeiia?aeathoue iayaiino? ianoaoe?iia?ii-oaiia?aoo?iiai
iiey ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa.

A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii ?iai/? i?ioeane i?iieeiaiiy aieiae, ooai?aiiy
eiiaeainaoo ? eoioeyoe?? aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a o ii?iaeieiao aa?noao?a.

An? ii?iaeieie ?iciiae?eaii ia ?yae ??cii??aeieo a?oi, cie?aia: caieioo?
oa a?aee?eo? ii?iaeieie, ui niieo/athoueny c aoiinoa?ith ei?ioeei
ioai?ii /e eai?ey?iei eaiaeii. Aeey caieiooi? ii?iaeieie, yea
ia??iaee/ii a?aee?eaa?oueny, ?icaeyiooi caeiiii??iino? eiiaeainaoe??
aieiae oa iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaiiai aiaeii-nieaaiai ?ic/eio. Eiiaeainaoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e.

Ia ?en. 20 iieacaii iaea?aeai? a?ao?ee ci?ie iane aa?aneaiiai ?ic/eio oa
aiaeyii? ia?e a ii?iaeiei? i?ioyaii aeiae.

Ci?ia eiioeaio?aoe?? aa?aneaiiai ?ic/eio a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae ae??th
aeaio ??cii??aeieo i?ioean?a: aeia?iaoaaiiy oa eiiaeainaoe?? ia
iiaa?oi?. Aecia/aii ??cieoeth ianiia?aiino aieiae c iiaa?oi? ?ic/eio o
aeaeyae?

sseui ae?ac o i?aa?e /anoei? oi?ioee (4) ia? ciae «+», oi eiioeaio?aoe?y
nieae a aa?aneaiiio ?ic/ei? ca?eueoo?oueny. Caaaeueia iana eiiaeainaoo
ca?eueoo?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ia??iaee/iiai niieo/aiiy ii?iaeieie c
aoiinoa?ith ? aecia/a?oueny caeaaei?noth

Aieiaa oa caa?oaeithth/? /anoeiee iiiaaeathoue o a?aee?eo? ii?iaeieie
/a?ac ioai?e. I?ioeane ianiia?aiino cae?eniththoueny aeaiia
??cii??aeieie oeyoaie, a naia: ca ?aooiie eiiaaeoe??, ye iieacaii ia
?en. 21, a oaeiae ca ?aooiie iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc?? (?en. 22).

O ii?iaeieiao, ye? niieo/athoueny c aoiinoa?ith ei?ioeei ioai?ii,
eiiaaeoeaiee ianiia?aiin caa?oaeiaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae iaeneioio ??cieoe?
oaiia?aoo? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? ii?iaeieie i?e i?i?iaeuei?e
aaniethoi?e oaiia?aoo?? a inoaii?e, a naia:

Ia i?ioeane eiiaaeoeaiiai ia?aiino aieeaathoue oaeiae aeiaaeeia?
oeoeooaoe?? oaiia?aoo?e. C o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai eiiaaeoeaiee ia?aiin iane
caa?oaeiaiue ?c iaaeieeoiueiai i?inoi?o a ii?iaeieio aecia/aii o
aeaeyae?

Aiaeia?/ii aecia/aii ia?aiin caa?oaeiaiue ca ?aooiie aeeooc??. A?i
caeaaeeoue a?ae ??cieoe? eiioeaio?aoe?e ii aeiaaeei? ioai?o. Aeey
ciaoiaeaeaiiy aeeooc?eiiai ia?aiino caa?oaeiaiue iaea?aeaii oi?ioeo

Aeae? ?icaeyiooi i?ioeane iiiaaeaiiy aa?aneaieo oaa?aeeo oa
aiaeii-nieaaeo caa?oaeiaiue o ii?iaeieie aa?noao?a, ui iathoue aeaeyae
eai?ey?ieo u?eei (?en. 23).

A oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?aiin iane cae?enith?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie
iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc?? a u?eei?, oiio aeey aiae?co ianiia?aiino
?icaeyiooi i?ioean aeeooc?e o u?eei?. A ?acoeueoao? ae??oaiiy ??aiyiiy
aeeooc?? aecia/aii caaaeueio iano caa?oaeiaiue, ye? iiiaaeathoue o
u?eeio i?ioyaii aeiae,

A?aoiaaii oaeiae eiiaaeoeaiee ia?aiin iane a ii?iaeieio.

A ?iaio? ?icaeyiooi iaaaoeai? iane?aeee aieeao o?ii?/iiai oa
noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia ?iaioo aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Ei?ic?y
aeaoaeae ? iniiaiei iaaaoeaiei iane?aeeii oeueiai aieeao ? i?eaiaeeoue
cie?aia aei cieaeaiue oi/iino? aa?noao?a. Iaoai?cie ei?ic?? ye?nii ??ci?
aeey a?eueii eiioaeooth/eo c aoiinoa?ith iiaa?oiiue (aoiinoa?ia ei?ic?y)
? ??cii??aeieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae, eiioaeooth/eo i?ae niaith. Ei?ic?y
aeaoaeae aa?noao?a aeine?aeaeoaaeanue a iniiaiiio aenia?eiaioaeueieie
iaoiaeaie. ?icaeyiooi iane?aeee ei?ic?? aeey ??cieo iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae
aa?noao?a. Aoiinoa?ia ei?ic?y caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio a?ae iaoa??aeo
aeaoae?, aeaeo iie?eooy oa o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ianoeea, yea iaiineoueny ia
iiaa?oith aeaoae?. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiinoa?ii? ei?ic??
i?iaiaeeeenue o o?ii?/ieo ?aeiiao ?iae?? e noao?ii?eao ia aa?noaoao ? ia
c?aceao, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue oeiiaei aeaoaeyi aa?noao?a. Ia ?en. 24
iieacaii oeiiao aenia?eiaioaeueio caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? ei?ic??
eaaiaaii? noae? o ??cieo ee?iaoe/ieo ciiao n?ao?ii?e?a.

Iaoai?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e aieiaiai noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo nai? ii nia? ia
oae ei?ic?eii aeoeai?, ye oaeoi? caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?ae?a aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui oaeaee?noue ei?ic??
aoaeaoeaai? eaaiaaii? noae? a i?eii?nuee?e cii? i?e iayaiino? aieiae
caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? nieae. Iaoai?ieia?/i? oaeoi?e
a iacaa?oaeiai?e aoiinoa?? iaei aieeaathoue ia oaeaee?noue ei?ic??
noae?. Ia oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? aeaoaeae aa?noao?a ca iaeiaeiaeo
iaoai?ieia?/ieo oiia i?aeaeuaia nieii?noue iaioa aieeaa? ia noae?
aiane?aeie aeieeiaiiy caoenieo ie?aie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy canieaiino? ?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y a i?ea?aaei?e cii? ?aeiio Aaooi? iieacaea, ui
oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? c?ace?a

ca naciiieie oeeeeaie ca’ycaia ia o?eueee c iaoai?ieia?/ieie oiiaaie,
aea e

c aaee/eiith canieaiino? ?, a iniiaiiio, c aaee/eiith caa?oaeiaiino?
iia?o?y

a ??ci? ii?e ?ieo.

A o?ii?/ieo ? noao?ii?/ieo ?aeiiao niinoa??aa?oueny neeueia ?oeioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiy i?ae ae??th ie?niyaeo a?ea?a, ui
ooai?ththoueny i?ae ae??th aieiae ? i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e iia?o?y, a
oaeiae ieeo. I?e oeueiio ??cei ciaiueoo?oueny oi/i?noue ia?iaee.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy iieacaee, ui /ei iaioee ia?aiao? oi?noeino? iiaa?oi?
aeaoae? aa?noaoa, aeaioiaeaiiai c aoaeaoeaai? noae?, oei i?ci?oa ii/eia?
ooai?thaaoeny ie?niyaa.

Oaeaee?noue aoiinoa?ii? ei?ic?? aeaoaeae aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, e??i
iaoai?ieia?/ieo oaeoi??a, caa?oaeiaiue iia?o?y ? a?ioaeoi??a, a cia/i?e
i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae /anoioe ii?ooaiiy aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae i?ae
iaoaeii ? na?aaeiaeuai. Iaoa??ae aeaoaeae, ui ciaoiaeeoueny a i?noeyo
/anoeo ci?i oiia ciai?oiueai na?aaeiaeua, ca iaeei ? oie aea ia??iae
/ano i?aeeyaa? ?oeioaaiith o cia/ii a?eueo?e i???, i?ae iaoa??ae, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeii??aeieo oiiaao. O?eaae?noue ciaoiaeaeaiiy
aeaeo?ie?oe/ii? ie?aee ia iiaa?oi? iaoaeo ? iaeiei ?c aieiaieo oaeoi??a,
ui ni?eythoue aoiinoa?i?e ei?ic??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeathoue i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?ioean aoiinoa?ii? ei?ic?? iiaa?oi? aeaoae? aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
aecia/a? iaoai?ieia?/i? aeai? ia o?eueee ie?aieo nacii?a ?ieo, aea e
ie?aieo ia??iae?a aeiae. Oiio o?aaa aaaaeaoe, ui an? iiaa?oi? aa?noao?a,
ye? aenieoaoothoueny a aea?aeaaao

c o?ii?/iei oa noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii, ciaoiaeyoueny a aa?aneaiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, aaee/eia aa?aneaiino? yeiai iiaea ci?ithaaoeny a 10 ?ac?a ?
a?eueoa. Oiio an? ciai?oi? iiaa?oi? iiaei? aooe aeaioiaeai? c
ei?ic?eiino?eeeo iaoa??ae?a aai iaoe caoeni? iie?eooy. Iiaa?oi? iiaeii?
aooe aeaaeeeie ? ia iaoe i?noeue iaeiie/aiiy ieeo oa a?oaeo. Aeniea
oaa?ae?noue i?aeaeuo? ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue aeaoaeae aa?noao?a.

O aa?noaoiiio iaeaaeiaii? ia? i?noea aaaaoi niieo/aiue ?c ??cii??aeieo
iaoa??ae?a. I?e niieo/aii? aeaio aai aeae?eueeio ??cii??aeieo a
aeaeo?io?i?/iiio a?aeiioaii? iaoae?a, aeieea? eiioaeoia ei?ic?y. I?e
eiioaeoi?e ei?ic?? aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue aoi?eii? yaeua, ui
aeyaeythoueny o ci?i? iioaioe?aeo eiioaeoieo ia?. Oae, i?e eiioaeo? No.3
c eaaiaaiith ia?aeaa?th/ith noaeeth (O18I9O) a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeioaaiiy
No.3 ye aiiaea, aea ?acii ?c oei a i??o iaeiie/oaaiiy i?iaeoeo?a ei?ic??
ia ia?aeaa?th/?e noae?, aeinooi eenith oo?oaeith?oueny ? inoaiiy
i?aeeyaa? ?oeioaaiith. I?e oeueiio ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy u?eueiaee aoaeo,

a oaeiae iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaiiai eiiaeainaoo.

A oiiaao ii?nueeiai ? i?eii?nueeiai aieiaiai o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai
ee?iaoo eiioaeoia ei?ic?y a?eueo iaaacia/ia, i?ae a ?ioeo, ine?eueee
iaeii/anii ae?thoue aieiaa ? ii?nuee? nie?, ui iineeththoue
?ioaineai?noue aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a. O ?iaio? iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i
oaeaeeino? eiioaeoii? ei?ic?? i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? ??cieo oeiiaeo iaoae?a
aeaoaeae aa?noao?a, ui i?iaiaeeeeny i?ioyaii ?ieo. Ei?ic?y o u?eeiao ?
caci?ao iniaeeai iaaacia/ia a i?eii?nuee?e cii? aieiaeo o?ii?e?a oa
noao?ii?e?a, aea ?? i?iaeoeoe iathoue oei?eaee ? noeueoaoe, ui
ni?eythoue iiaeaeueoiio ?oeioaaiith iaoaeo. Aei oeueiai aeiaea?oueny
oaeiae aieea i?iaeoeo?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? i?e?ii?aai?ci?a. Aiie
cieaeothoue ?I ? oei naiei i?aeneeththoue i?ioean ?oeioaaiiy iaoaeo a
u?eeiao.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaio?a anoaiiaeaii, ui ei?ic?y a
u?eeiao i?ae ??cii??aeieie iaoaeaie iaaaaaoi neeuei?oa, i?ae o u?eeiao
c iaeii??aeiiai iaoaeo. Oiio aeey caoenoo iiaa?oi? u?eei i?ae aeaoaeyie
aa?noao?a iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee ?
niaoe?aeuei? iie?eooy iiaa?oi? u?eei, ui caiia?aathoue ooai?aiith
aa?aneaieo eiiaeainao?a.

Ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue aeaoaeae iniiaieo aoce?a aa?noao?a a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae aeaieo, ye? iaea?aeai? aeey ie?aieo iaoae?a. Oea iiynith?oueny
neeaaeiith eiino?oeoe??th aoce?a, iayai?noth a ieo caieiooeo ia’?i?a,
cano?eieo cii, u?eei ? caci??a, ciai?oi?o

? aioo??oi?o niieo/aiue aeaoaeae, oiui. Oiio, e??i aei?iaiaoaaiue
ie?aieo iaoae?a

? iie?eoo?a, i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aa?aaao?a ? aa?noao?a a
oe?eiio. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iiae?aieo aenia?eiaio?a aoei iniauaii noaiaee
a?aee?eoiai, iai?acae?eoiai ? cae?eoiai oei?a, noaiae i?aeaeuaii?
oaiia?aoo?e ? aieiaino?, iaa?ne. Aei?iaoaaiiy ia ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue
aeeiioaaeinue aeey aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui ia? aeaoae? c /aaoio,
noae?, aethi?i?th, i?ae?, oeoaio. Aeey noai?aiiy aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua
canoiniaoaaeanue aaiia c aa?y/ei ?ic/eiii NaCl (9 %), a?ey yei?
aeo?eioaaeenue aeaoae? aa?noao?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy ?oiuei? ei?ic?eii?
no?eeino?.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee, ui ??ci? aeaoae? c iaeiiai iaoa??aeo
ei?iaeothoue ii-??ciiio. Oea iiynith?oueny eiio?ao?aoe??th aeaoae?,
i?noeai ?icoaooaaiiy o aoce? ? iiaeeea?noth i?iieeiaiiy aieiae ? iia?o?y
a caieioo? ia’?ie, ii?iaeieie ? ea?iaie aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei iaaaoeaiei oaeoi?ii ei?ic?? ? iaeiie/aiiy
eiiaeainaoo a ii?iaeieiao. C iaoith caoenoo iiaa?oiiue a?ae ei?ic??
i?iaiaeeeenue aei?iaoaaiiy ??cieo aaeueaai?/ieo iie?eoue, ieanoe/ieo
ianoee, aoii-oaoi?/ieo ae?ia?a, iie?ia??a.

Ei?ic?y ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o iiaa?oiiue aeaoaeae aa?noao?a iaaaoeaii
aieeaa? ia ?oi? aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Cie?aia ei?ic?y
i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ciaioaiiy oi/iino? aa?noao?a. A ?acoeueoao?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui oaeaee?noue ci?ie
oi/iino? aa?noao?a neeaaea? 30…50 % ia ??e a?ae caaaeueiiai aeiionoeiiai
cia/aiiy i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao ?iaioe aa?noaoa. Aeey oiia aenieoaoaoe??
aa?noaoa a o?ii?eao ? noao?ii?eao cieaeaiiy oi/iino? nyaa? 150..300% ia
??e a?ae caaaeueiiai aeiioneo. A ii?iaeueieo oiiaao aeey ?aae?aeueiiai
aeooy ciai?oiuei? aacoth/i? iiaa?oi? oi?iaeaey oaeaee?noue ca?eueoaiiy
aeooy neeaaea? 1,6…2,8 iei/??e i?e aeiionoeiiio cia/aii? 6 iei. A
ee?iaoe/i?e eaia??, ui a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai o?ii?e?a, oaeaee?noue
ca?eueoaiiy aeooy nyaa? 4,0..12 iei/??e.

A oaae. 2 iaaaaeai? cia/aiiy ?aae?aeueiiai aeooy eii?/iiai ioai?o
oi?iaeaey, yea ia? i?noea aiane?aeie ei?ic?? iiaa?oi? ioai?o.

Oaaeeoey 2. Aieea aoiinoa?ii? oa u?eueiai? ei?ic?? ia iieacieee oi/iino?
oi?iaeaeueiiai aocea aa?noaoa

(?aae?aeueia aeooy eii?/iiai ioai?o oi?iaeaey)

Aeiionoei? cia/aiiy *an caa??aaiiy aa?noao?a, ae?a

20 50 100 200 300 400

Aeooy ii?aaee a?ae oi?oea oi?iaeaey: – 6 iei ia a?aenoai? 30 ii – 12 iei
ia a?aenoai? 330 ii 3,6 8,5 3,9 9,4 5,0 9,8 6,6 10,5 7,2 14,2 7,8
16,4

A ?iaio? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii caoiaee ii cieaeaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia aa?noaoia iaeaaeiaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaii noaiaeiaa iaeaaeiaiiy aeey ia?aa??ee ? i?enei?aieo
aei?iaoaaiue aa?noao?a, ui iinoa/athoueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei oa
noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii. ?ic?iaeaia noaiaeiaa iaeaaeiaiiy aea?
iiaeeea?noue cae?enithaaoe ye o?eaae? aei?iaoaaiiy eiiieaeoieo aa?noao?a
a ?aaeeiao, aeecueeeo aei iaoo?ieo, oae ? oaeaee?ni? aei?iaoaaiiy
aa?noao?a ca niaoe?aeueieie iaoiaeeeaie. E??i oiai, ?ic?iaeaia noaiaeiaa
iaeaaeiaiiy aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aei?iaoaaiiy, aenia?eiaioaeueia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aoce?a ? aa?aaao?a aa?noao?a c iaoith ?oiueiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Aeey o?eaaeeo ? oaeaee?nieo aei?iaoaaiue aeei?enoaii eaia?o c
?aaoeueiaaiith oaiia?aoo?ith i?e iaeaaeiaii? ?? iaiao?aeiei
onoaoeoaaiiyi, ui caaacia/o? a?aeiia?aeio aieia?noue, canieai?noue oa
caieeaii?noue na?aaeiaeua. Ia ?en. 25 iieacaii i?eioeeiiao noaio
oa?iieaia?e 1, a ye?e onoaiiaeth?oueny aeey aei?iaoaaiiy aa?noao 2.
Oaeiae o i?e anoaiiaeaii onoaoeoaaiiy 3, 4 aeey caieiaeoaaiiy ?
caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua nieueiaeie ? ieeiaeie aeii?oeaie.

Eaia?o iniauaii eiio?ieueii-aei??thaaeueiith aia?aoo?ith 5, 6, ui
aeiacaiey? ?aaoethaaoe ? cai??yoe ??aaiue caa?oaeiaiiy na?aaeiaeua. A
eaia?? i?e iaiao?aeiino? anoaiiaeth?oueny aeaea?aei oeueo?ao?ieaoiaiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy 7, ui ?i?oo? niiy/io ?aae?aoe?th, yea ae?? ia aa?noao o
?aeiiao o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo.

Aieia?noue iia?o?y aecia/aeanue ineo?iiao?ii, eiino?oeoe?th ? i?eioeei
?iaioe yeiai iiaeaii a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?. A i?e oaeiae
cai?iiiiiaaii niaoe?aeuei? eiino?oeoe?? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey caieiaeaiiy
aiaeii-nieueiaeie aeii?oeaie aeaoaeae aa?noao?a ? aeey iaea?aeaiiy
aiaeyiiai ooiaio (?en. 26) oa aeey noai?aiiy ieeiaeo caa?oaeiaiue (?en.
27).

?en. 26 ?en. 27

Aei?iaoaaiiy aa?noao?a ia a?a?aoe?ei? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aeieeathoue i?e
o?ainii?ooaaii?, i?iaiaeeeenue ?c aeei?enoaiiyi niaoe?aeuei?o noaiae?a.

Aeey aeciaia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ni?aoethaaiiy aoce?a ? aeaoaeae
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui iathoue iino?eia ??aeea ciauaiiy ia? oa?oy,
?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii niaoe?aeueiee noaiae i?enei?aieo aei?iaoaaiue.
I?enei?ai? aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a ianoeei (?iai/o
??aeeio) caa?oaeiaiue o aeaeyae? aa?aceaieo /anoie, a oaeiae aiaee,
nieueiaeo ?ic/ei?a, ??cieo aeii?oie.

Iaaaoeaiee aieea aei?noeeo ee?iaoe/ieo oiia o?ii?/iiai oa noao?i?i?/iiai
ee?iaoo iiaeia cia/ii cieceoe, aeei?enoaaoe cai?iiiiiaai? eiino?oeoeai?
caoiaee ii aaeineiiaeaiith aoce?a ? aeaoaeae aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
(?en. 28).

Oe? i?iiiceoe?? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aei aeei?enoaiiy ia aa?noaoiaoae?aieo oa
?aiiioieo i?aei?e?inoaao.

?en. 28. Eiiieaen eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo

??oaiue, cai?iiiiiaaieo ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee

1. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo ia?aaeiaeo ?iicaiieo o??i, ye?
ae?iaeythoue iaeaaeiaiiy aeey e?a?i c o?ii?/iei ? noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii,
?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey
aenieoaoaoe?? a aei?noeeo oiiaao o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo,
iniiaia /anoeia yeeo iieyaa? a:

o?aooaaii? iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaiai oaeoi?a aieeao ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua, a naia, oaeaeeino? ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e, aeey /iai
i?iiiio?oueny oi?aa?naeueiee ii?iae?ciaaiee caeii, a yeiio oaeaee?noue
ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ia? aeaeyae, iaaeeaeaiee aei i?yiieooiiai ?iioeueno,
ia?aiao?e yeiai iaea?aeai? oeyoii oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy ci?i
oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia ??cieo e?a?i;

aeei?enoaii? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo oa iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oa
ioe?iee aeiaaeeiaeo oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa caeaaeii
a?ae eiai eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae;

o?aooaaii? i?e eiino?othaaii? aa?noao?a iiaeeeai? iayaiino? oiia
?nioaaiiy aeiaaio?eaaeeo aaoieieeaaiue i?ae ae??th ciai?oi?o aeeiai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, ye? aecia/athoue iniaeeaee, ?ai?oa iaa?aeiiee aeeiai?/iee
?aaeei ?iaioe aoce?a (noaoenoenoe/iee ?aciiain), yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aeieeiaiiyi eieaeueieo no?eaeiaeo ?ioaineaieo aaaaoioeeeeiaeo oaea?ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue o aeaoaeyo aa?noao?a.

2. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy oa?i?/ieo i?ioean?a, ye? iathoue i?noea o
aa?noaoiiio iaeaaeiaii?, ui aenieoaoo?oueny a oiiaao o?ii?e?a oa
noao?ii?e?a, anoaiiaeaii:

2.1. E??i ?aaeaiaioaoe?? iaeneiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e oa aieiaino? ?iaioe
iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai
ee?iaoo, iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaei oaeoi?ii aieeao ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua ? oaeaeea ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e, ui aieeaa? ia iieacieee yeino?
aa?noao?a. Oaiia?aoo?a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ci?ith?oueny i?ioyaii
aeiae ca caeiiaie, ui a?aecia/athoueny aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aaia?ao?/ieo, ee?iaoe/ieo oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a. Aeey
iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno aeaoa?i?iiaaii? neeaaeiai? aeiaiai? ci?ie
oaiia?aoo?e aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe oi?aa?naeueiee ii?iae?ciaaiee caeii
o aeaeyae? iaaeeaeaiiai aei o?aiaoe??iiae?aiiai ?iioeueno.
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeaiiai caeiio aa?iii?/iei ?yaeii (a?ae??ceii ?yaeo
Oo?’?) aea? iiaeeea?noue o?aooaaoe ye?ni? ci?ie oaiia?aoo?iiai ?aaeeio
i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e a?aioe? oa aaa/a??.

2.2. A oiiaao o?ii?e?a oa noao?ii?e?a iayai? aeiaaeeia? oeoeooaoe??
oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Ania?eiaioaeueii ciaeaeaii caeii
?iciiae?eo eiia??iinoae oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e, aeecueeee aei
ii?iaeueiiai, i?e/iio na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy oeoeooaoe?e
oaiia?aoo?e neeaaea? 1… 3 E.

2.3. Neeaaeaia caaaeueia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ianoaoe?iia?iiai
oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa ?icaeyaea? eiai o aeaeyae?
noia?iiceoe?? aace?ia/ii? e?eueeino? oaiia?aoo?ieo oaeeue. Aeey
?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a oaiia?aoo?ieo oaeeue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe
aia?ao /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ia?aiao?e yeeo aecia/athoueny /anoioith
ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiiai na?aaeiaeua oa oaieio?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie
aeaoaeae aa?noaoa.

2.4. ?ic?aooiie aeiaaeeiaeo ioeuenaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e aeeiiaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi /anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee. I?e oeueiio anoaiiaeaii, ui caeii
?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo? ana?aaeei? aa?noaoa aeecueeee aei ii?iaeueiiai.

3. Ia aac? aea/aiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy ? eoioeyoe??
aiaeii-nieueiaeo oa ieeiaeo /anoeiie o ii?iaeieiao aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy:

3.1. Ciaeaeaii:

3.1.1 caeiiii??iino? aeaoa?i?iiaaieo ci?i oaiia?aoo?e oa noaoenoe/i?
a?aeoa?enoeee oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e a oiiaao o?ii?e?a oa noao?ii?e?a ?
iieacaii, ui i?e ??ce?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e i?ioyaii aeiae o ii?iaeieiao
aa?noaoa aeieeathoue ianoaoe?iia?i? noioanoe/i? oaiia?aoo?i-aieia?ni?
?aaeeie, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue noia?iiceoe?? oe?ieiiieiniiai niaeo?a
oaiia?aoo?ieo oaeeue oa aeiaaeeiaeo oeoeooaoe?e oaiia?aoo?e;

3.1.2. caeiiii??iino? ?iai/eo i?ioean?a i?iieeiaiiy oa eoioeyoe??
aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei o ii?iaeieie aa?noao?a ? aeiaaaeaii, ui ooai?aiiy e
iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a oa eiie?aiaio?a o u?eeiao ? ii?iaeieiao
aa?noaoa ? ae?ae iaaacia/iei oaeoi?ii, yeee i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai
cieaeaiiy iaae?eiino? oa oi/iino? ?iaioe ? iia??oaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aa?noaoa;

3.2. Anoaiiaeaii:

3.2.1. an? ii?iaeieie aa?noao?a, iaaacia/i? c oi/ee ci?o iaeiie/aiiy
eiiaeainaoo, iiaeooue aooe ?icae?eai? ia o?e a?oie, a naia: iaiaaeai?,
caieiai? ii?iaeieie, ui ia??iaee/ii niieo/athoueny c aoiinoa?ith,
a?aee?eo? ii?iaeieie, ye? niieo/athoueny c aoiinoa?ith ioai?ii c
ei?ioeith ai?eiaeiith oa ii?iaeieie o aeaeyae? u?eei, ye? c’?aeiothoueny
c aoiinoa?ith eai?ey?iei eaiaeii.

3.2.2. i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei a ii?iaeieie ??ciiai aeaeo iathoue
ye?nii a?aei?iiee oa?aeoa?: aeey ii?iaeiei, ui aaioeeththoueny, aiie
aecia/athoueny caeiiii??iinoyie eiiaaeoeaiiai ianiia?aiino, a aeey u?eei
? caci??a i?iieeiaiiy aa?aneaieo ?a/iaei a?aeiia?aea? ciaeaeaiei
caeiiii??iinoyi iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc??;

3.2.3. o ii?iaeieiao aa?noao?a ia? i?noea aeiaaeaiiy eiiaeainaoo oa
iaeiie/aiiy aa?aneaieo ?ic/ei?a oa ?ioeo caa?oaeiaiue. Ia iiaa?oi?
eiiaeainaoo iayai? i?ioeane aeia?iaoaaiiy oa eiiaeainaoe?? aieiae. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia iiaeeeaa ca?eueoaiiy ia’?io eiiaeainaoo aai eiai
aeia?iaoaaiiy c aeiaaeaiiyi nieae ia iiaa?oith aeaoaeae aa?noaoa.

3.2.4. Ia?aiin caa?oaeiaiue o ii?iaeieio cae?enith?oueny aiane?aeie
i?ioean?a aeeooc?? ? eiiaaeoe??, i?e/iio a ii?iaeieiao c ei?ioeei
ioai?ii ia?aaaaeathoue i?ioeane eiiaaeoe??, a o u?eeiao – aeeooc??.

4. A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiai oai?aoe/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy oa aiae?co ae??
a?a?aoe?e oeio o?ainii?oieo ia aocee ? aeaoae? aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeaiiy
anoaiiaeaii:

4.1. A aeeiai?/ieo nenoaiao aa?noao?a i?e o?eaaeiio o?ainii?ooaaii? a
ie?aieo aoceao, ye? iathoue ethooe oa caci?e, i?ae ae??th a?a?aoe?eieo
o?ainii?oieo iaaaioaaeaiue aeieeathoue ?ioaineai? iae?i?ei?
aaoieieeaaiiy, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aeieeiaiiyi aeiaaio?eaaeeo
iaia?a?aieo aeiaaeeiaeo iaaaioaaeaiue o eiioaeoao i?ae aeaoaeyie,
i?e/iio /enei oeeee?a iaaaioaaeaiue nyaa? 107 ? aeua i?e /anoioao ci?ie
iaaaioaaeaiiy 50…200 Aoe.

4.2. I?ii?aei? aaee ei?iaie oaeaeeinoae oa ?io? ethooia? c’?aeiaiiy
e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a aa?noao?a i?ae ae??th a?a?aoe?e cae?eniththoue
iae?i?ei? aaoieieeaaiiy, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny oaea?ieie
iaaaioaaeaiiyie aeiaaeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Aaoieieeaaiiy aeieeathoue i?ae
ae??th neioacieo ?iioeuen?a neee /e iaeao?a ?iioeuen?a ?
a?aeiia?aeathoue iniaeeaiio ?aaeeio ?iaioe aoce?a (noaoenoe/iee
?aciiain).

4.3. Aeiaaeeia? ?iioeuene iaaaioaaeaiiy aeioe?eueii iienaoe iaoaiaoe/ii
ciaeici?iiei aeiaaeeiaei i?ioeanii c ei?aeyoe?eiith ooieoe??th, ui
a?aeiia?aea? iiiioiiii niaaei?e caeaaeiino? aeniiiaioe?aeueiiai oeio.

4.4. I?ae ae??th ia??iaee/ieo aeiaaeeiaeo ?iioeuen?a aeieeathoue
?aciiaini? ?aaeeie eieeaaiue (noaoenoe/iee ?aciiain), ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aiie?ooaeaie eieeaaiue 0,01…0,5 ii (5`…50`).
Cia/aiiy /anoio eieeaaiue a?aeiia?aeathoue iieinai 10…20; 40…80;
100…120; 180…220; 250 … 300 Aoe.

4.5. Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooie?a aaoieieeaaeueieo ?aaeei?a c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie i?aeoaa?aeeei oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a
aiie?ooaee a iaaeao 5…15 %, a /anoioe – 5…10 %. *anoioe e aiie?ooaee
eieeaaiue o ?aciiainiiio ?aaeei? iiaeooue ieaaii ci?ithaaoeny, i?e/iio
ci?ia /anoioe iiaea nyaaoe 50 %, a ??cieoey aiie?ooae aaoieieeaaiue
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 15 %.

4.6. A ?acoeueoao? aeiaaio?eaaeiai ?nioaaiiy ?aciiainieo ?aaeei?a ia?
i?noea ??cea (a 2..3 ?ace) cieaeaiiy oi/iino? aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

5. A ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy aieeao iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo
ia ?iaioo aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy anoaiiaeaii:

5.1. Oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? ie?aieo aeaoaeae aa?noao?a, a oiio /ene?,
u?eueiai? ei?ic??, yea a ia?o? 100 ae?a o 5-10 ?ac?a aeua, i?ae o
iiaeaeueoiio.

5.2. ?oeioaaiiy iie?eoo?a oa iiaa?oi? iaoaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?noeyo,
aea iaeiie/othoueny aa?aneai? ?ic/eie. Oai oaeiae niinoa??aa?oueny
?ioaineaia a?ieia?/ia ei?ic?y.

5.3. U?eueiaa ei?ic?y ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith cieaeaiiy oi/iino?
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai ? noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo.

6. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
ii cieaeaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia ?iaioo
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

6.1. ?ic?iaeaii noaiaeiaa iaeaaeiaiiy oa niaoe?aeuei? i?eno?i? aeey
aei?iaoaaiue aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aeno?aiaeueieo oiia
o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo.

6.2. Cai?iiiiiaaii eiinooeoeai? i?iiiceoe?? oa noaii? ae??oaiiy ie?aieo
aoce?a ? aa?aaao?a aa?noao?a, ye? cieaeothoue aieea aei?noeeo
ee?iaoe/ieo oiia ia ?iaioo aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy, i?aeaeuothoue eiai
oi/i?noue ? iaae?ei?noue.

6.3. Noi?ioeueiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey ooi/iaiiy iaoa??ae?a aeaoaeae
aa?noao?a, iie?eooy iiaa?oiiue, aeei?enoaiiy iaiao?aeieo ianoee oa
caoenieo noi?oae, ui i?aeaeuothoue no?ee?noue aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy a
o?ii?eao oa noao?ii?eao.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a ?iaioao:

1. Iao?aiei A.A., No?ooeineee A.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoaeei?aaeouaai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey o?iieeia e noao?iieeia: Iiiia?ao?y. – E??iaia?aae:
E?NI, 1998. – 236 n. (Iiiia?ao?y ia? anooi, cae?i/aiiy ? 11 ?icae?e?a.
Aeaa’youe ?icae?e?a – 1, 2, 5-11 – iaienai? iaeiiin?aii caeiaoaa/ai
Iao?aieii A.A.)

2. Iao?aiei A.A. Iniiai? oaeoi?e aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
o?ii?e?a ? noao?ii?e?a ia iaoaei??caeueia iaeaaeiaiiy // O?oaeu
oaa?e/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?ioaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee. – Iae?oiiieue. –
1999. – Oii 7, aei.2. – N. 6-11.

3. Iao?aiei A.A. Caoiaee ii cieaeaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao o?ii?/iiai oa
noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia ?iaioo iaoaei??caeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy // O?oaeu
oaa?e/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?ioaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee. – Iae?oiiieue. –
1999.

– Oii 7, aei.2. – N. 3-6.

4. Iao?aiei A.A. Aiaeii-nieaaua i?eiane a ia?aie/aiiie caieiooie iieinoe
aioo?e noaiea // Aanoiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa
Oe?aeiu «EIE». Iaoeiino?iaiea. – Eeaa. – 1998. – ?33. – N. 384-387.

5. Iao?aiei A.A. Niaoeeaeueiua eaia?u aeey i?iaa?ee e onei?aiiuo
eniuoaiee noaieia, iai?aaeyaiuo a no?aiu n o?iie/aneei eeeiaoii //
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae. – 1998. –
Aei.4. – N. 140-144.

6. No?ooeinueeee A.A., Iao?aiei A.A. Caeiiii??iino? aeieeiaiiy
?aciiainieo ?aaeei?a i?ae ae??th aeiaaeeiaeo oaea?ieo iaaaioaaeaiue
(noaoenoe/i? ?aciiaine) oa ?o iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ?iaioo aa?noaoiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy // A?niee AEeoiie?nueeiai ?iaeaia?ii-oaoiieia?/iiai
?inoeoooo. – 1998. – ?7. – N.60-66. (Caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeaii iaoaiaoe/iee
aiae?c iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo ?aciiainieo eieeaaiue o iae?i?eieo
nenoaiao, ca’ycie ia?aiao??a eieeaath/eo aeaiaio?a aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie).

7. Iao?aiei A.A, AEica Aaia?iaeo AEiao, Othiue Aeee Aueao
Eiino?oeoeaieaiua ia?u caueou aeaoaeae io ei??icee // I?iaeaie
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei. – E??iaia?aae. – 1996.
– N. 19-21. (Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaai? eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee ii caoenoo
aeaoaeae).

8. Iao?aiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe oaniiiuo oieioiaiee
noaii/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?eiaieoaeueii e ?aaioa a aeanoeeo
oaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.
– E??iaia?aae. – 1998. – Aei.2.

— N. 157-161.

9. Iao?aiei A.A. Iniaaiiinoe yenieoaoaoeee iaoaeei?aaeouaai
iai?oaeiaaiey a niaoeeaeueiuo oneiaeyo no?ai Acee, Ao?eee e Eaoeineie
Aia?eee: Iaoiaee/i? aeac?aee aei i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c eo?no. –
E??iaia?aae: E?NI, 1988. – 35 n.

10. Iao?aiei A.A. Aeooaeueiinoue niaa?oainoaiaaiey noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey ?aaiou a oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

— E??iaia?aae. – 1998. – Aei.4. – N. 135-139.

11. Iao?aiei A.A. Aoiinoa?iay ei??icey iaoaeee/aneeo aeaoaeae noaieia a
?aeiiao noao?iieeia e o?iieeia // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae. – 1997.

– Aei.1. – N. 12-15. (Caeiaoaa/ i?iaiae?coaaa aeina?ae aeine?aeaeaiue
caoenoo aeaoaeae a?ae ei?ic?? a oiiaao o?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo).

12. Iao?aiei A.A. Io?eoeaoaeueiua yaeaiey, eiathuea ianoi a noaii/iii
iai?oaeiaaiee i?e o?ainii?oe?iaaiee ec Oe?aeiu a no?aiu n o?iie/aneei
eeeiaoii // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae. – 1998. –
Aei.2.

— N. 195-201.

13. Iao?aiei A.A., Iao?aiei I.A., Eaeea?iai TH.?. Aa?neee A.A. Iiaeai?
aiaeiaia ia aeae?ii?eaiae eiii?oiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei //
I?iaeaiu ?ac?aaioee i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei. – Ee?a. –
1990. – N. 177-181. (Caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?ae?ii?eaiaeo ?iii?oieo iaoei).

14. No?ooeinueeee A.A., Iao?aiei A.A. Iniiaiua enoi/ieee
aea?iaeonoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe noaii/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae. – 1998. – Aei.4.

– N. 129-134. (Caeiaoaa/ai i?iaaaeai? aeine?aee iniiaieo aeaea?ae
a?a?iaeonoe/ii? aeoeaiino? ??cieo aoce?a aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy).

15. Iao?aiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea oa?aeoa?enoee oi?oaeo oieioieoaeueiuo
i?ieeaaeie, i?eiaiyaiuo a oanoa?aiiuo aeae?iianinao // Eiino?oe?iaaiea e
oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoei. – E.: Oaoieea. –
1986. – Aui. 16 – N. 90-94.

16. Iao?aiei A.A. Auiaaeaiea eiiaeainaoa a eciee?iaaiiuo aicaeooieo
iieinoyo ia?aiaiiiai iauaia oeia «iaeaoe-aooeea» noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?eueneiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae. – 1998. –
Aei.2. – N. 201-206

17. Iao?aiei A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee ianoaoeeiia?iiai oaiia?aoo?iiai
iiey, aicieeathuaai a noaii/iii iai?oaeiaaiee, ?aaioathuai a oneiaeyo
o?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa // I?aoe?, i?enay/ai? 100-??//th
iaoai?ei-iaoeiiaoae?aiiai ? 50-??//th caa?thaaeueiiai oaeoeueoao?a,
«I?ia?aneaia oaoi?ea ? oaoiieia?y iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy ?
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa». – Ee?a.

— 1998. – N. 168-176.

18. Iao?aiei A. A. Iniiai? oaeoi?e aieeao ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
o?ii?e?a ? noao?ii?e?a ia iaoaei??caeueia iaeaaeiaiiy // O?oaeu
oaa?e/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?ioaoie/aneie aeaaeaiee. – O. 7., aui. 2.
– Iaeeoiiieue: OAAOA, 1999. – N. 6-11.

19. Iao?aiei A. A. Caoiaee ii cieaeaiith iaaaoeaiiai aieeao o?ii?/iiai
oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia ?iaioo iaoaei??caeueiiai oa ?ioiai
iaeaaeiaiiy // O?oaeu oaa?e/aneie ainoaea?noaaiiie aa?ioaoie/aneie
aeaaeaiee. – O. 7., aui. 2. – Iaee-oiiieue: OAAOA, 1999. – N. 3-6.

20. A.n. 1565640 NNN?, IEE A 23 Q 3/08. Caaeeiiia ono?ienoai /
A.I.Ianooiia, A.A.Iao?aiei (NNN?). – ?4407896/25-08; Cayaeaii 25.01.88;
Iioae. 23.05.90, Athe. ?19. – 4 n.

21. A.n. 1407649 NNN?, IEE A 21 I 5/00. Niinia ainoaiiaeaiey coa/aouo

eiean / I.E.*a?iiaie, A.A.Iao?aiei, TH.A.Eoeaoeia e ae?. (NNN?).

— ?3980869/30-27; Cayaeaii 19.11.85; Iioae. 07.07.88, Athe. ?25. – 2
n.

22. A. N. 672379 NNN?, IEE F04C1/04, F04 C 1/8. Oanoa?aiiay aeae?iiaoeia
/ A. A. Iao?aiei (NNN?). – ?2580535/25-06; Cayaeaii 15.02.78; Iioae.
05.07.79., Athe. ?25. – 3n.

23. Iao?aiei A.A., Iao?aiei I.A., Aaooa A.O. Iiuo iiaeai?a aiaeiaia

ia aeae?i(iiaaii)nenoaiu eiii?oiuo noaieia //O?oaeu i.-o. eiio.
«Niaa?oainoaiaaiea e aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia
aeae?aaee/aneeie e iiaaiaoe/aneeie ono?ienoaaie». – *aeyaeine. – 1991. –
N. 56-57. (Caeiaoaa/ aeeeaa aeina?ae i?aeii?o aiaeia?a ia a?ae?inenoaie
?iii?oieo aa?noao?a).

24. Iao?aiei A.A., Eaeea?iai TH.E., Iao?aiei I.A., Aa?neee A.A.
Aiciiaeiia i?eiaiaiea i?iiuoeaiiiai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
aeae?iaeeoioeyoi?iiai i?eaiaea // O?oaeu II i.-o. eiio. ANIAI. – Eeaa. –
1992. – N. 45.

25. Oea/aiei A.A., Iao?aiei A.A. ?ac?aaioea e enneaaeiaaiea iiaie
eiino?oeoeeee nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e i?aaeio?aiaiey io ia?aa?ocee
aeae?inoaoe/aneie o?ainiennee ANO-90 // O?oaeu IV i.-o. eiio. AN IAI. –
Eeaa. – 1994. – N. 22. (Caeiaoaa/ cai?iiiioaaa iai?aaeaiiy ii
aeine?aeaeaiith nenoaie oi?aae?iiy o?aini?n?? ANO-90).

26. Iao?aiei A.A., AEica Aaiaeiaeo AEiao. Eiino?oeoeaiua iaoiaeu caueou
aeaoaeae io ei??icee // O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee «Aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa ecaeaeee a
iaoeiino?iaiee». – Eoaaine. – 1996. – N. 45. (Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaai?
eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee ii caoenoo aeaoaeae).

27. Iao?aiei A.A. AEica Aaia?iaeo AEiao. Iniaeeaino? aenieoaoaoe?? iaoei

o o?ii?/iiio ee?iao? // I?aoe? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??.

– E??iaia?aae. – 1996. – N.71-72. (Caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaai?
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? caoiaee aeey caaacia/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino?
aeaoaeae).

Aiioaoe?y

Iao?aiei A.A. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
aeey o?ii?e?a oa noao?ii?e?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.03.01 – i?ioeane iaoai?/ii? ia?iaee, aa?noaoe oa
?ino?oiaioe. –Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?noeoao Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo», Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iniia aaeineiiaeaiiy
aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy ye caoiae?a aeey caoenoo a?ae aei?noeeo oiia
o?ii?/iiai oa noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo i?e eiai iinoaaoe? e aenieoaoaoe??.
Ooi/iaii eiei iaoeiaeo i?iaeai, ye? noiyoue ia?aae ?ic?iaieeii i?e
aeaioiaeaii? aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aeey e?a?i c o?ii?/iei oa
noao?ii?/iei ee?iaoii. Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoe/i? caoiaee aeey cieaeaiiy
aieeao ia aa?noaoia iaeaaeiaiiy iaaaoeaieo ae?e a?a?aoe?e (cie?aia, oeo,
ui iathoue i?noea i?e o?ainii?ooaaii?). Anoaiiaeaii eiie?aoi?
oaiia?aoo?i? oiiae ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy, ye? a?aoiaothoue oaeaee?noue
i?aeaeuaiiy ? cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e. Noi?ioeueiaaii eiie?aoi?
i?iiiceoe?? aeey cieaeaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a aieeao o?ii?/iiai oa
noao?ii?/iiai ee?iaoo ia ?iaioo aa?noaoiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii
noaiaeiaa onoaoeoaaiiy aeey ia?aa??ee ? oaeaee?nieo aei?iaoaaiue
aa?noao?a, ui iinoa/athoueny a aea?aeaae c o?ii?/iei oa noao?ii?/iei
ee?iaoii. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaea?aeaee ae?iaie/o ai?iaaoe?th.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?noaoia iaeaaeiaiiy, o?ii?ee, iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy, o?ainii?ooaaiiy aa?noao?a, a?a?aoe?y, ci?ia oaiia?aoo?e,
aieia?noue, canieai?noue, caa?oaeiai?noue, eoioeyoe?y eiiaeainaoo,
ei?ic?y, caoeno, noaiaee, eiino?oeoeai? caoiaee, iie?eooy.

Aiiioaoeey

Iao?aiei A.A. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau niaa?oainoaiaaiey noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey o?iieeia e noao?iieeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.01 – i?ioeannu iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioee, noaiee

e eino?oiaiou. – Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu
«Eeaaneee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo», Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia niaa?oainoaiaaiey
noaii/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey eae ia? caueou io aeanoeeo oneiaee o?iie/aneiai
e noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa i?e aai iinoaaea e yenieoaoaoeee. A ?aaioa
noi?ioee?iaaiu e aeaoaeueii iainiiaaiu oeaeue, caaea/e e iaoiaee/aneia
iaania/aiea enneaaeiaaiee, ?anniio?aii ninoiyiea ?acaeoey noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey a ?aciuo no?aiao e naeaeai iaci? eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia.

Noaii/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, eioi?ia yenieoaoe?oaony a no?aiao n o?iie/aneei
e noao?iie/aneei eeeiaoii, a neo/aa iaaeinoaoi/iiai auiieiaiey anao
iaiaoiaeeiuo oaoie/aneeo ia? eiaao n?ie ?aaiou cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa
oeacaiiiai a ianii?oiuo aeaiiuo. A ?aaioa ooi/iai e?oa iao/iuo i?iaeai,
eioi?ua noiyo ia?aae ?ac?aaio/eeii i?e ecaioiaeaiee noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey, iinoaaeyaiiai a no?aiu n o?iie/aneei e noao?iie/aneei
eeeiaoii. Aeey ooi/iaiey yoeo i?iaeai eco/aeny iiuo aaaeoueo
noaieino?ieoaeueiuo oe?i Aa?iaiee, O?aioeee, Eoaeee, Oaaeoea?ee, NOA,
ssiiiee e ae?. ?anniio?aiu caeiiiia?iinoe oa?ie/aneeo ?aaeeiia ?aaiou
noaii/iiai iai?oaeiaaiey a oneiaeyo o?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa. Iooai
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ecia?aiee iieo/aiu caaeneiinoe nooi/iiai eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u a ?acee/iuo no?aiao.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi, e?iia ?aaeaiaioaoeee iaeneiaeueiie oaiia?aoo?u

e aeaaeiinoe ?aaiou iaoaeei?aaeouaai iai?oaeiaaiey a oneiaeyo
o?iie/aneiai e noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa, iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiui
oaeoi?ii aeeyiey aiaoiae n?aaeu yaeyaony nei?inoue eciaiaiey
oaiia?aoo?u.

I?aaeeiaeaii o/eouaaoue nei?inoue eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u aiaoiae n?aaeu
aaaaeaieai oieaa?naeueiiai ii?iaeeciaaiiiai caeiia, a eioi?ii nei?inoue
eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u eiaao aeae, i?eaeeaeathueeny e i?yiioaieueiiio
eiioeueno, ia?aiao?u eioi?iai iieo/aiu iooai oai?aoe/aneiai iaiauaiey
eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?iuo oneiaee ?acee/iuo no?ai.

A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu ?aai/ea i?ioeannu i?iieeiiaaiey aeaae, ia?aciaaiea
eiiaeainaoa e eoioeyoeee aa?anneaiuo ?anoai?ia a iieinoyo noaieia. Ana
iieinoe ?acaeaeaiu ia ?yae ?acii?iaeiuo a?oii, a /anoiinoe: caieiooua e
ioe?uoua iieinoe, eioi?ua niaaeeiythony n aoiinoa?ie ei?ioeei ioaa?noeai
eee eaieeey?iui eaiaeii. Iaeaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiuo
eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u e noaoenoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee oeoeooaoeee
oaiia?aoo?u a oneiaeyo o?iieeia e noao?iieeia. Iieacaii, /oi i?e ?aceii
eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u ia i?ioyaeaiee nooie a iieinoyo noaiea aicieeatho
ianoaoeeiia?iua noioanoe/aneea oaiia?aoo?ii-aeaaeiinoiua ?aaeeiu,
eioi?ua ioaa/atho noia?iiceoeee oe?ieiiieiniiai niaeo?a oaiia?aoo?iuo
aiei e neo/aeiuo oeoeooaoeee oaiia?aoo?u.

Aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaiu: iaoiae e iaoiaeeea ?an/aoiie ioeaiee neo/aeiuo
oeoeooaoeee oaiia?aoo?u aioo?e noaiea. Iaeaeaiu caeiiiia?iinoe ?aai/eo
i?ioeannia i?iieeiiaaiey e eoioeyoeee aa?anneaiuo ?anoai?ia a iieinoyo
noaieia e aeieacaii ia?aciaaiea e iaeiieaiea aa?anneaiuo ?anoai?ia e
eiie?aiaioia a uaeyo e iieinoyo noaieia, /oi yaeyaony i/aiue iianiui
oaeoi?ii, eioi?ue i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio nieaeaieth iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaiou e
oooaeoaieth yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee noaiea.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?iieeiiaaiey aa?anneaiuo ?anoai?ia aauanoa a iieinoe
?acee/iiai aeaea eiatho ea/anoaaiii ?acee/iue oa?aeoa?: aeey ionoio,
eioi?ua aaioeee?othony, iie ii?aaeaeythony caeiiiia?iinoyie
eiiaaeoeaiiai ianniia?aiina, a aeey uaeae e caci?ia i?iieeiiaaiea
aa?anneaiuo ?anoai?ia ioaa/aao iaeaeaiiui caeiiiia?iinoyi iieaeoey?iie
aeeooocee.

Onoaiiaeaii oaeaea, /oi i?e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiii o?ainii?oe?iaaiee a
ioaeaeueiuo oceao noaiea, eioi?ua eiatho ethoou e caci?u, iiae
aeaenoaeai aea?aoeeiiiuo o?ainii?oiuo iaa?ocie aicieeatho eioaineaiua
iaeeiaeiua aaoieieaaaiey.

Iaeaeaii oneiaea nouanoaiaaiey aeieaia?aiaiiuo aaoieieaaaiee iiae
aeaenoaeai aiaoieo neo/aeiuo aeeiaie/aneeo iaa?ocie, eioi?ua
ii?aaeaeytho iniaaiiue, ?aiaa iaecaanoiue aeeiaie/aneee ?aaeei ?aaiou
oceia (noaoenoe/aneee ?aciiain). Iie oa?aeoa?ecothony aicieeiiaaieai
eieaeueiuo, nea/eiia?aciuo, eioaineaiuo, iiiaioeeeeiauo oaea?iuo
iaa?ocie a aeaoaeyo noaieia. I?aaeeiaeaiu i?aeoe/aneea ia?u ii
nieaeaieth aeeyiey ia noaii/iia iai?oaeiaaiea io?eoeaoaeueiuo
aicaeaenoaee aea?aoeee (a /anoiinoe, eiathueo ianoi i?e
o?ainii?oe?iaaiee).

Onoaiiaeaiu eiie?aoiua oaiia?aoo?iua oneiaey ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey,
eioi?ua o/eouaatho nei?inoue iiauoaiey e nieaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u.
Noi?ioee?iaaiu i?aaeeiaeaiey aeey nieaeaiey io?eoeaoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee
aeeyiey o?iie/aneiai e noao?iie/aneiai eeeiaoa ia ?aaioo noaii/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey (caueou io ei??icee oceia e aeaoaeae, aeey eo
niaa?oainoaiaaiey).

?ac?aaioaii noaiaeiaia iai?oaeiaaiea aeey i?iaa?ee e onei?aiiuo
eniuoaiee noaieia, eioi?ua iai?aaeythony a no?aiu n o?iie/aneei e
noao?iie/aneei eeeiaoii.

?acoeueoaou ?aaiou i?ioee i?iecaiaenoaaiioth ai?iaaoeeth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaii/iia iai?oaeiaaiea, o?iieee, iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea, o?ainii?oe?iaaiea noaieia, aea?aoeey, niaia oaiia?aoo?u,
aeaaeiinoue, canieaiiinoue, caa?yciaiiinoue, eoioeyoeey eiiaeainaoa,
ei??icey, caueoa, noaiaeu, eiino?oeoeaiua ia?u, iie?uoey.

SUMMARY

Petrenko V.A. Theoretical grounds for the improvement of the machine
equipment to be used in the tropics and subtropics. – Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.03.01 – mechanical
treatment processes, machines and tools. – The National Technical
University of Ukraine «Kyiv Politechnical Institute», Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the development of theoretical grounds
for the machine equipment improvement to work out the ways to provide
rigorous tropical and subtropical climate protection in the course of
delivery and operation. A number of scientific problems that a machine
equipment designer is faced with in manufacturing machines to be
delivered to the countries with tropical and subtropical climate have
been specified. Some technologies to reduce harmful influence of
transportation vibration on machine equipment are proposed. The concrete
temperature and dampness working regimes depending on the rate of
temperature changes are determined. The ways to reduce negative
consequences of the harmful tropical and subtropical climate influence
upon machine equipment are formulated. Stand equipment to carry out
examination and accelerated tests of the machine equipment to be sent to
the countries with tropical and subtropical climate is worked out. The
investigation results have got the industrial approvement.

Key words: machine equipment, the tropics, mathematical modeling,
machine transportation, vibration, temperature changes, dampness,
salinity, contamination, condensate cumulation, corrosion, protection,
stands, the tropics climate simulation, constructive measures, coatings.

Eiii’thoa?ia aa?noea Aieoa?a N.A.

Caeaii aei iaai?o 27.01.99. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 1.02.99. Oi?iao 60×84
1/16. Iai?? a?eee. Iaae?oeiaaii ia ?ecia?ao?. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 2.25.
Cai. ? /99. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

© ?AE E?NI i. E??iaia?aae, i?. I?aaaee, 70-A, oae. 597-541, 559-254,
587-551.

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