Сучасна імміграція в Канаді: основні тенденції та особливості: Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / Т.Я. Лупул, Чернів. держ. ун-т ім. Ю.Федьковича. — Че

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*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. TH. OAAeUeEIAE*A

OAeE 971:314.74

Eoioe Oa?an ss?ineaaiae/

No/ania ?ii?a?aoe?y a Eaiaae?: iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa iniaeeaino?

07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ea-

oaae?e ?noi??? iiaiai oa
iia?oiueiai /ano

*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Ne/ Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiaeieyiei A?eai??e Eiinoyioeiiae/

*a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, eaoaae?a
aoiieia??,

aioe/ii? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii?
?noi???

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, aee?aeoi? oeaio?o

i?iaeai eaiaaenueeiai oaaea?ae?cio ?inoe-

oooo NOA ? Eaiaaee ?AI (i. Iineaa)

Oeei A’y/aneaa ?aaaiiae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.03 a *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a ca aae?anith: 274000,
i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Eaoaae?aeueia, 2 (ei?ion 14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
*a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a

(274000, i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Ean? Oe?a?iee, 23)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 22 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.E.EA?II

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

I?aeia?iaei? i?a?aoe??, oiaoi ianiaa ia?anoaaiiy ethaeae /a?ac ei?aeiie
?o eiiiaeoiiai i?iaeeaaiiy, ci?ia iino?eiiai i?noey ia?aaoaaiiy
iacaaaeaee /e ia o?eaaeee /an noaei ia nueiaiaei? iaeiei ?c
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo /eiiee?a anana?oiuei?noi?e/iiai cia/aiiy. Aa?oi
caoaaaeeoe, ui eiee o iiia?aaei? ?iee aieiai? iioiee ?ii?a?aoe?? eoee o
iai?yieo ?c ?icaeiaieo e?a?i o “a?euei?”, iacanaeai?, iainai?i?,
neaaei?icaeiai? ?aa?iie ieaiaoe, oi oaia? aiie eaeooue o cai?ioiueiio
iai?yieo — ?c iaio ?icaeiaieo e?a?i aei a?eueo ?icaeiaieo: ?c
ac?aonueeeo ? ao?eeainueeeo e?a?i a ?a?iio ? I?ai?/io Aia?eeo, ?c
Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee — o NOA ? Eaiaaeo, ?c e?a?i NIAe — a ?in?th ?
Oe?a?io, ?c Eeoath — o aeniei?icaeiai? e?a?ie, ?in?th ? e?a?ie
I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? Ac?? ? o.?i. Naia oiio ia?aniaeoeae ?icaeoeo aeayeeo
aea?aeaa ?iiae? caeaaeaoue — ? cia/iith i??ith — a?ae aieeao ia ieo
?ii?a?aoe??. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny e?a?i, aea ?ii?a?aoe?y aenooieea
iaaaeyeei oaeoi?ii noai?aiiy aea?aeaae, niiioeaeueiith neeith ?o
?icaeoeo, ?iaiaioiei iieacieeii nioe?aeueiiai caei?ia’y noni?euenoaa.
?ii?a?aioe o iiaiio noni?euenoa? noathoue ?iaeeeaoi?ii noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, ine?eueee aieea, yeee aiie cae?eniththoue ia i?eeiath/a
noni?euenoai, ca/?ia? aaeeea eiei i?iaeai (aeiiii?/ia i?aeianaiiy /e
caiaiaae, cono??/ ianoiaeeo eoeueoo?, aieea ia iaaeie?oi? na?aaeiaeua ?
o.ae.).

C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui “aeenoaioe?eiei iaai?oii” aeey no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a
noathoue o ia?oo /a?ao aeniei?icaeiai? e?a?ie, i?a?aoe?eiee ?oo ? ia
nueiaiaei? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a o i?ioean? inieneaiiy
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo e?ioey XX-ai noie?ooy. Iaeiei ?c iaeiii?oi?oeo
i?eeeaae?a oaeiai inieneaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aiae?oe/i?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai oaiiiaio a Eaiaae?. Cia/aiiy oaeiai
oaiiiaio iiaeeeai ioe?ieoe, aeine?aeaeoth/e iane?aeee ?ii?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a ia aecia/aeuei? noa?e noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo: aeiiii?eo,
iie?oeeo, aeaiia?ao?/i? i?ioeane, eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/i? aca?ieie. Naia
ioe?iee ? aeniiaee iaoeiaoe?a aeie?aieththoue iae?noioi?o? oa
iaeaaaeeea?o? ?ene oiai /e ?ioiai ?noi?e/iiai yaeua e aeicaieythoue
ia’?eoeaii ?aeiino?othaaoe nenoaio aca?iiae?th/eo ? aca?iiiia’ycaieo
i?ae niaith iniiaieo nioe?aeueieo eiiiiiaio?a, ui aecia/athoue oa?aeoa?
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.

?ii?a?aoe?eia i?iaeaiaoeea a oiio /e ?ioiio aniaeo? ia iieioea oaaae
aeiaeiiai c iaoeiaoe?a, ye? i?aoeththoue o noa?? eaiaaeiciaanoaa. ?o
ioe?iee aieeao ? iane?aee?a ?ii?a?aoe?? aeey E?a?ie eeaiiaiai eenoea ?
?iiae? ae?aiao?aeueii i?ioeeaaeieie. Iaeiae, eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
no/anieo i?aeoiae?a eaiaaeiciaaoe?a aei aena?oeaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a iathoue /?oe? iaoiaeieia?/i? ?aiee ? iaoeiai aeaaaeaiee
eaoaai??eiee aia?ao. Ia?aaeon?i oea ne?ae a?aeianoe aei oa/?e, eiaeia c
yeeo aeio?eio?oueny iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a, ye? c oai?aoe/ieo canaae
eiioe?eoieia??, a?oaa?i?ecio, iinoiiaea?i?cio,
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai aiae?co iaiaaathoueny aena?oeeoe ? ioiieoe
i?ioean ?ii?a?aoe?? a iaaeao nai?o iaoiaeieia?/ieo iinooeao?a.

Oa ana ae ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui ?iiae? aeine?aeieee, cina?aaeaeoth/e
aiae?c ia iaeiiio aniaeo? ?ii?a?aoe??, ia?aiineee nai? aeniiaee ia aanue
?ii?a?aoe?eiee ?oo ye oaeee, oeei naiei niioai?thaaee ? ia a?aeaeaaee
aaaaoiiai?oiino? i?ioeano ?ii?a?aoe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie iaoiiaeth?oueny ua e o??th ianoaaeiith, ui
aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a ii?iaeeei oaea
iaaaoeaia yaeua, ye aocuee?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?iaeai. sse iane?aeie,
iayaia iani?iiiaei?noue o iaaieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iiaa/eoe yaeua
?ii?a?aoe?? a onueiio eiai ?icia?oo?, neeaaeiino?, aaaaoia?aiiino?. Oiio
ia aeeaii, ui aaaaoi iaaooe?a eaiaaeiciaanoaa i?aeaeathoueny aino??e
e?eoeoe?, ye oae?, ui aea/athoue aeeeth/ii aocuee? iiiyooy, a cia/eoue
i?aaenoaaieee eiiaaeaciaa/i? iaoee ia coi?ee ioe?ieoe eaiaaenueeee
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, iaaooee a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy ?ii?a?aoe?eii?
iie?oeee.

Iei?oi? caaino?aiiy i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o eieeoi?o ?anioae?eao
N?N? ni?e/eieei i?aeaea?aeaai? i?a?aoe?? ia oa?aiao NIAe, a oiio
/ene? ? cia/iee iio?e i?a?aio?a a Oe?a?io. I?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane ?
aaeueie niaoeeo?/iith /anoeiith noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, oae ye
ia?aie?oathoueny c aaaaoiiai?oieie oaeoi?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy
no/anii? Oe?a?ie: aaia?ao?/ieie, aeiiii?/ieie, nioe?aeueii-eeaniaeie,
eoeueoo?ii-iiaooiaeie, ineoieia?/ieie. O ca’yceo c oeei i?a?aoe?eiee
oaiiiai aenooia? ye aaeueie neeaaeiee, aea ?acii c oei ? iaa?ae’?iiee
eiiiiiaio iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie. Oiio i?e iaiaaaii? aa?iii?coaaoe ?
?aoe?iiae?coaaoe ?ii?a?aoe?eiee iaieea c aeuacacia/aieie noi?iiaie
aeeooy noni?euenoaa Oe?a?i? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe aeina?ae oaei? aea?aeaae
ye Eaiaaea.

C iaeyaeo ia aeacai? i?e/eie oa iioeae a eaiaaeiciaa/?e aaeoc?
noni?eueieo ciaiue ?nio? iaaaeueia iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy no/aniiai
?ii?a?aoe?eiiai iioieo aei Eaiaaee, eiai i?noey ? cia/aiiy o
noni?eueiiio aeeoo? e?a?ie Eeaiiaiai eenoea, a oaeiae anoaiiaeaiiy
aaeaeaaoiino? iaoeiaeo ioe?iie iane?aee?a no/anieo ?ii?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1980-1990-o? ??., oiaoi
ia??iae, eiee ?ii?a?aoe?y nooo?ai ci?ieeany naia, a?ae/ooii ci?ieea
nioe?aeueio ? aoi?/io i?e?iaeo eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa ? eiee
c’yaeeenue iia?oi? ioe?iee oaeeo ci?i.

A oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii aea??ai?
/anii oa aeciai? iaoeiaoeyie ??cieo ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e caaaeuei?
i?eioeeie ?noi?e/ii? iaoeiaino? oa ia’?eoeaiino?. A?aoiaoth/e
niaoeeo?eo ia?aii? oaie, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeaeenue
?c canoinoaaiiyi oaeeo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a ye a?oaa?i?eci,
iaiia?eneci, ?ioa?aeoe?ii?ci, eiino?oeoea?ci. I?eioeeie a?oaa?i?ecio c
eiai iaaieinii ia a?ieia?/ii-iiaaae?ieia?e ae?yeueiino? ?iaeea?aea ye ia
aecia/aeueiiio oaeoi?? eieaeoeaieo ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ae?e
aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?e aiae?c? i?inoi?iai-oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?icnaeaiiy
?ii?a?aio?a oa ?o aaia?ao?/ii-?aa?iiaeueiiai aeeth/aiiy o eaiaaenueea
noni?euenoai. Ooo iai ei?eniith aeaeaeanue noaooy ?.Eeyeia11) Klein I.
Three Models of Explaining Ethnic Strife: Sociobiology, Neo-Marxism, and
Rational Choice // Canadian Ethnic Studies.-1985.- Vol.XVII, ?3.-
P.91-100.).

Aeey e?auiai inieneaiiy aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a ?ii?a?aoe?? aoee
canoiniaai? iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy iaiia?enecio. Aeaiee
i?aeo?ae ni?eya a?eueo aeeaieiio aiae?co i?e aea/aii? oaeeo i?ioean?a ye
ci?ie no?oeoo?e caeiyoino?, ia?ai?uaiiy ia ?eieo ?iai/i? neee,
ca?eueoaiiy /e ciaioaiiy aac?ia?ooy oiui.

Aea/ath/e aieea ?ii?a?aoe?? ia aoi?/io eiiiiceoe?th eaiaaenueeiai
noni?euenoaa, iaie aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaeieia?/i? eaoaai???
?ioa?aeoe?ii?cio oa eiino?oeoea?cio. Oae? ia?aaeeaie ?icaeyaeathoue
aoi?/iee oaiiiai ia ye i?eii?ae?aeueio, ?ac ? iacaaaeaee caaeaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio, a ye ?acoeueoao ?noi?e/ieo,
aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei oa neooaoe?eieo aca?iiae?e ? aieea?a.

Caaaeath/e ia iaoeiao aeooaeuei?noue, aaaeeea?noue ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai
oaiiiaio a no/ani?e Eaiaae?, a?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueiiai ?
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy oaie ye o ca?oa?aei?e, oae ? o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?, canoiniaoth/e aeuaaeacai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee oa
i?eioeeie, aaoi?ii iinoaaeaii ca iaoo cae?enieoe eiiieaeniee aiae?c
no/anii? ?ii?a?aoe?? oa ?? iane?aee?a aeey Eaiaaee.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaoiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy
ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

1) ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aieiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ? niaoeeo?eo no/anii?
?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaae?;

2) anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? aoi?/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo, noaoaai-a?eiaeo ci?i
a eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa? i?ae ae??th ?ii?a?aoe??;

3) iieacaoe aieea ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeanno ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia
aeeooy eaiaaenueei? oaaea?aoe??;

4) ioe?ieoe no/anio ?ii?a?aoe?eio iie?oeeo Eaiaaee oa iie?oeeo
eaiaaenueeiai o?yaeo uiaei aoi?/ieo a?oi.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? ?ii?a?aoe?y ye noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ia oa
aoiiiie?oe/ia yaeua no/aniiai eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? eiiieaenia aea/aiiy no/anii?
?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaae? oa ?? iane?aee?a aeey i?eeiath/iai noni?euenoaa.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a, yeee aecia/a? iaoeiao iiaecio, iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyiiio eaiaaeiciaanoa? ?iaeoueny ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ii?a?aoe?? a 1980-1990 ??. aei Eaiaaee c a?aooaaiiyi
iaaeaaiue no/anii? eaiaaeiciaa/i? ?noi??ia?ao??. Aia?oa a iaoeiaee ia?a
aaiaeeoueny cia/ia eiei iia?oi?o aeaea?ae, niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e a
aaeoc? ?ii?a?aioiciaanoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?aoe?aieeaie Aea?aeaaiiai
eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoe?iiaeueiinoae oa i?a?aoe?? uiaei
ae?iaeaiiy /?oei? ?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee, iaoai?ci?a aeeth/aiiy
?ii?a?aio?a o iiaa noni?euenoai, caiia?aaiiy aeieeiaiith i?aeaoi?/ieo
eiioe?eo?a. Iaoiaeieia?/i? noaie, cai?iiiiiaai? o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii?, iiaeooue ciaaeiaeoenue oao?aoeyi c? niaoe?aeueieo
?noi?e/ieo aeenoeeie?i, iniaeeai aoiieia??. E??i oiai, oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, iniiai? aeniiaee ? iieiaeaiiy iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoeny i?e
?ic?iaoe? niaoe?aeueieo oa ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Eaiaaee,
i?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeiai ?aa?iio, anana?oiuei? ?noi??? oa iaoiaeieia??
?noi???.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny eiai ni?yiiaai?noth ia
iaoeiaa inieneaiiy no/aniiai ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Eaiaae? oa
iaoeiai ia’?eoeaia ?icoi?iiy eaiaaenueeiai oaiiiaio a aiioo iia?oiueiai
/ano.

A yeino? aieiaieo iieiaeaiue aaoi? aeiineoue ia caoeno ianooii?:

1) ?ii?a?aoe?y 1980-1990-o ??. aei Eaiaae? aeyaeyea oaiaeaioe?th aei
c?inoaiiy aiane?aeie ci?i o i??i?eoaoao eaiaaenueei? ?ii?a?aoe?eii?
iie?oeee oa ia?ai?i, ui a?aeaoeenue o aeiaaeueiiio ianooaa?;

2) no/ania ?ii?a?aoe?y a oeth e?a?io ia? /?oe? ? nai???aei? ?ene, ye?
??cei a?ae??ciythoue ?? a?ae ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo iiia?aaei?o ?ie?a;

3) e?euee?nia ca?eueoaiiy ? ye?niee ??aaiue no/anii? ?ii?a?aoe???
aenooiathoue niiioeaeueieie neeaie oaeaeeeo ? aeeaieeo ci?i o no/ani?e
Eaiaae?, iniaeeai a aoi?/i?e no?oeoo?? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa??;

4) ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa? i?ae aieeaii
?ii?a?aoe??, aecia/athoue niaoeeo?eo ?ii?a?aioiciaa/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ?
aieeaathoue ia iaoeia? aeniiaee;

5) no/ania ca?oa?aeia ?ii?a?aioiciaanoai i?aaia aieeiooe ca aeiiiiiaith
nai?o iaoeiaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ia io?oe?ei? eiea Eaiaaee i?e ae?iaeaii?
?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee, iie?oeee o noa?? i?aeaoi?/ieo aca?iei, niinia?a
?ioaa?aoe?? ?ii?a?aio?a o iiaa noni?euenoai;

6) i?iaiae?ciaaiee aii??e/iee iaoa??ae aecia/a? iaoiaeieia?/iee ea?ean
ioe?iie ?ii?a?aoe??, a naia: i?ieea?noue ? ci?ie o noni?euena?
ni?e/eieee iiyao ? ooaa?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo eiino?oeoe?e, a yeeo ci?ia
aecia?oueny aieiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ethaenueei? ni?eueiioe.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/o?oueny canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno
iaoeiaeo cania?a, aaeaeaaoieo ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, iao? ? caaaeaiiyi
aeine?aeaeaiiy; iii?ith ia i?ia?aei? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee,
aeei?enoaiiyi cia/iiai ca ianyaii ? ??ciiiai?oiiai aeine?aeieoeueeiai
iaoa??aeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeaii o a?nueiio
noaooyo, ui iioae?eiaai? o oaoiaeo oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo ca??ieeao.
Aeena?oaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?? i?ieoee iaaiai?aiiy ia eaoaae?? ?noi???
iiaiai oa iia?oiueiai /ano *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
TH. Oaaeueeiae/a, o a?aeae?e? Eaiaaee ?inoeoooo NOA ? Eaiaaee ?AI,
Oeaio?? I?ai?/iiaia?eeainueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo anana?oiuei?
?noi??? ?AI. Aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ii?eethaeiai? ia
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? oa
noai oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iino? a ae?anii??: nooi?noue, ?aae??
eiioe?eoiino?, i?iaeaie oa i?iaiice ia ii?ic? OO? noie?ooy” (i.Ee?a,
22-25 o?aaiy 1997 ?.) oa i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oe?a?inueea ?ii?a?aoe?y a ?noi??? oa e?oa?aoo??” (i. Oa?iii?eue, 18-20
aa?aniy 1996 ?.)

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Caaaeaiiy, iaoa oa oa?aeoa? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe?? ianyaii 158 n. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio (n.4-11),
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (n.12-140), aeniiae?a (n.140-148), nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, ui aeeth/a? 121 iaeiaioaaiiy (n.149-158).

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie, ?? aeooaeuei?noue, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee,
ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, ?ice?eoa
iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie oa aeaea?aeueia aaca” —
iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?aeueii? aace oa cae?eniaii iaeyae
iaeaaaeeea?oeo caeiaooe?a a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo c
i?iaeaiaoeee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ii?a?aoe?y ye ?noi?eei-nioe?aeueia yaeua iaaoea aeineoue-oaee
iioe?aiiai aea/aiiy o eieeoi?e ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??. Iaei??th c
a?oioiaieo ?ia?o ? i?aoey iineianueei? aeine?aeieoe? E.I. Oo?niai?.
Iiiia?ao?y i?enay/aia iiai?ii?e ?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaaeo oa ?? aieeao ia
iaoe?iiaeueiee ? aeaiia?ao?/iee ?icaeoie e?a?ie. ?aoaeueii aena?oeai?
aniaeoe ?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee, aoi?/iiai neeaaeo ?ii?a?aio?a, ?o
?icnaeaiiy, a oaeiae i?ioean anei?eyoe?? ia?anaeaioe?a. I?e aiae?c?
oaeeo aniaeo?a aeine?aeieoey aeei?enoiaoaaea ?acoeueoaoe oa ioe?iee
eaiaaenueeeo iaoeiaoe?a. ?ii?a?aoe?y ye iaa?ae’?iiee aeaiaio aoi?/iiai
noaiiaeaiiy eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa ?icaeyaea?oueny ? o i?aoe?
I.ss.Aa?c?ii?. Oi/a oe? ?iaioe aena?oethaaee a?eueo ?aii?e ia??iae, aea
aiie aoee iaiao?aei? aeey ii??aiyiiy aniaeo?a ?ii?a?aoe?eieo oaeeue
1945-1970-o ??. ?c no/anieie i?a?aoe?eieie iioieaie.

Iaea?eueo iia?oi? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei i?iaeai ?ii?a?aoe?? ? ??
iane?aee?a aeey Eaiaaee cae?eniththoueny i?ae aa?aeith ?in?enueei?
Anioe?aoe?? aea/aiiy Eaiaaee oa anana?oiueia?aeiiei
no?aeii?a?iiaenueeei oeaio?ii eaiaaeiciaanoaa — ?inoeoooii NOA ? Eaiaaee
?AI. Ni?a?ia?oieoey aeaiiai caeeaaeo A. Aaea?aa iioae?eoaaea noaooth,
aea cono??/athoueny iiae?ai? aei iaoi? aeena?oaoe?eii? i?iaeaiaoeee
nthaeaoe. Cie?aia, aiia a?aene?aeeiao? i?iaeaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ii?a?aoe?? c aoi?/iith eiiiiceoe??th no/anii? Eaiaaee e??cue i?ecio
ioe?iie eaiaaenueeeie iaoeiaoeyie oaeeo yaeu, ye aaaaoieoeueoo?i?noue,
aiaei-o?aioeocueeee aeoae?ci, i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii? eaiaaenueei?
naiiaooiino?. Noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo NOA ? Eaiaaee A.?.
*a?eania, aecia/ath/e aei yei? iaae? no/ania ?ii?a?aoe?y aieeaa? ia
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy aoi?/ii? niaoeeo?ee eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa,
aaaaea?, ui ci?ie, ye? a?aeaoeenue o Eaiaae? i?ioyaii 1980-90-o ??.,
aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui Eaiaaea — e?a?ia aoi?/ieo iaioei, aea
aeiaeia aoi?/ia a?oia eaiaaeoe?a ia neeaaea? a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie
a oe?eiio.

Na?aae oe?a?inueeeo oao?aoe?a o aaeoc? ?ii?a?aioiciaanoaa oio?einue a
aeae?eeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeiiai a/aiiai *a?i?aaoeueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.?.Ne/a. Oae, /eiaei oe?eaaiai
iaoa??aeo ? aaaeeeaeo i??eoaaiue uiaei ac?aonueei? ?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaae?
? ?? iane?aee?a aeey oe??? e?a?ie i?noeoueny a eiai noaoo?,
iaae?oeiaai?e o aeo?iae? “NOA: YIE” 11) Nu/ A.E., Iaioeu? N.E. I
nia?aiaiiie aceaoneie eiiea?aoeee a no?aia //NOA:
YIE.-1997.-?12.-N.88-95.). A ?io?e nai?e noaoo? a?i oi?ea?oueny ieoaiiy
noiniaii inoaiiuei? oaee? ?ii?a?aoe?? c Oe?a?ie aei E?a?ie eeaiiaiai
eenoea.

??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe i?aeaoi?/ieo eiioaeo?a no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
aoi?/ii? a?oie a Eaiaae?, eio?a aeieeea aiane?aeie ?ii?a?aoe?eieo oaeeue
aiae?cothoueny o noaoo? i?ioani?a Eiaeieyiei A.E.22) Eiaeieyiei A.E.
Oe?a?ioe? Eaiaaee ia ii?ic? XXI no. oe?a?inueei? ina?oe // Ieoaiiy
noa?iaeaaiuei? oa na?aaeiueia?/ii? ?noi???, a?oaieia?? e aoiia?ao??.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaooae.- *a?i?aoe?, 1997.- Aei. 3.- N. 175-177.).
Aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueei? aoi?/ii? a?oie a no/ani?e Eaiaae?
aeine?aeaeo?oueny a i?aoeyo oa iaoeiaeo noaooyo Iaea?a TH.?., Iaea?a
A.TH., Eaiiaeea A.Ae.

Aoi?/iee oaiiiai ye aaaeeeaee eiiiiiaio aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai aeeooy
eaiaaenueei? aea?aeaae oa ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe iie?oeee
aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? noaee i?aaeiaoii oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co o i?aoeyo
i?ia?aeiiai oe?a?inueeiai aeine?aeieea o noa?? i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei
A.A.?aoooa.

Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e a oe?eiio ?aaeyinueeo, no/anio ?in?enueeo oa oe?a?inueeo
iaoeiao e?oa?aoo?o, yea oi?ea?oueny i?iaeai ?ii?a?aoe??, iiaeaii
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a i?e oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae i?ae?a?aiee c iaeaaeiith
?aoaeuei?noth, anaa?/ii inieneaiee, nenoaiaoeciaaiee ? oii?yaeeiaaiee.
?aaeyinueea ? iino?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y ?ii?a?aoe?? iineoaeeea
ooiaeaiaioaeueiith aeo?aeiith oi/eith ia eeoa i?e cae?eniaii?
eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? inieneaiiy aeaiiai oaiiiaio
eaiaaenueei? ?noi???, aea e neoaoaaea ae?iaeaiith aaeaeaaoiiai ?icoi?iiy
caaaeueiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo iaoeiaoe?a aei yaeua ?ii?a?aoe??
ye oaeiai. Aei oiai ae caoaaaeeii, ui caeiaooee eaiaaeiciaanoaa ia
oa?aiao eieeoiueiai N?N? iineee iaio ?aeaieia?/ii caaiaaaeiaaiee
oa?aeoa?, i?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy a aaeoc? aia?eeai?noeee. Oea caoaaaeothoue
? eaiaaenuee? ?noi?eee: “Ia?ac Eaiaaee o ?aaeyinueeeo ioae?eaoe?yo
?noioii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ia?aco NOA o oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio a?i
neeaany aei 1985 ?.” 11) Oeeo ca: Oeei A.A. Niaaoneee acaeyae ia Eaiaaeo
1917-1987 // NOA: YIE. — 1991. — ?2. — N. 116. ).

A ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? iaea?eueo aieeaiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ui
caeoioethaaee ye aeinyaiaiiy iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o no/anieo
aoiai?oa?ieo aeenoeeie?i, oae ? iaoeiai aea??aiee i?aea?? aii??e/iiai
iaoa??aeo, ? i?aoe? i?ioani?a Aioii? ??/iiiaea. ?iaioe ??/iiiaea
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ye nai?th a?oioiai?noth (aaoi? aea/aa ? ioe?ithaaa
?ii?a?aoe?th i?ae on?ia iiaeeeaeie ?aeo?naie: a?ae ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?
???aoe?iiaeueieo iioea?a iiaaae?iee ?ii?a?aio?a o iiaiio na?aaeiaeu? aei
i?iaeai noni?eueieo eiioe?eo?a), oae ? aeeaeiith aeniiae?a (iaoeiaaoeue
aoaeue-yea oaa?aeaeaiiy i?aee??ieth? noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie /e iaoeiaei
aei?iaeii ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a, ei?enooth/enue ??cieie iaoiaeieia?/ieie
noaiaie).

Aea/ath/e ci?ie a no/ani?e aoi?/i?e no?oeoo?? Eaiaaee i?ae aieeaii
?ii?a?aoe??, iaoo oaaao i?eaa?ioea noaooy Aeae. Aa???, yeee i?aeaeaa
aiae?co i?ioean aca?iinoinoie?a i?eeiath/iai noni?euenoaa c
iiaii?eaoeueoeyie ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/i? noaie oaeeo
a?aeiinei, ui aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iaea?eueo aacaie?niee, ia eiai
aeoieo, oeyo aoiaeaeaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a aei iiaiai noni?euenoaa.
?ii?a?aoe?th, ye aaaeeeaee /eiiee nioe?aeueieo ci?i no/aniiai
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, aeciathoue oae? iiaaaei? oao?aoe? a aaeoc?
eaiaaeiciaanoaa, ye Ae.A?aoii, A.?na?a, O.Eaeueaao, A.?aeoe. ?o
eieaeoeaia i?aoey /?oei aeie?aieth? iaeio c iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?ieo ?en
no/aniiai ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo — in?aeaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a ia?aaaaeii o
aaeeeeo i?noao. Iaoeiaoe? aeine?aeeee ? ci?ie a aoi?/i?e iica?oe?
eaiaaenueeiai i?noa i?ae aieeaii iiaii?eaoeueoe?a. Oe?eaaei ? a ?o eiec?
? aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?? cai?ioiueiai aieeao, a naia: i?ioeano
o?aai?caoe?? ia aoi?/i? aca?iica’ycee na?aae naieo ?ii?a?aio?a.

Ni?eueia aeine?aeaeaiiy eaiaaenueeeo iaoeiaoe?a A.?ay, A.Oaenaoa,
A.Aeaeiiniia aoei noieoniaaia ia aiae?c? i?iaeai i?inoi?iaiai a?aaeo
?icnaeaiiy no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a. C iaeyaeo ia no/aniee ia??aiii??iee
aaia?ao?/ii-oa?eoi??aeueiee ?iciiae?e ?ii?a?aio?a o e?a?i? i?eaoooy, ?o
i?aoeth ne?ae aaaaeaoe aeineoue aaaeeeaei aianeii o no/ani?
?ii?a?aioiciaa/? nooae??.

Uia neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i i?noea, ?ieue ? cia/aiiy ?ii?a?aoe?? a aoi?/i?e
aaaaoioeeaaeiino? eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa 1980-90-o ??., /eiaei
ei?enii? ?ioi?iaoe?? iiaeia ii/a?iiooe ?c aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioani?a
A.Oa/oa,?.Aiaaneaiaa. A?oiooth/enue ia aaia?ao?/iiio i?aeoiae?, aaoi?e
aea/aee aoi?/i? ci?ie na?aae ianaeaiiy iaaiiai ?aa?iio, ui aoee
aeeeeeai? ?ii?a?aoe?eieie oaeeyie.

Cacia/aiith i?iaeaiaoeeith oe?eaaeeenue ? o?aieiiiai? aeine?aeieee.
Cie?aia, aiie caa?oaee oaaao, a ia?oo /a?ao ia aieea ?ii?a?aoe?? ia
aoi?/iee neeaae ianaeaiiy oa aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie, aeeth/aiiy
iiaii?eaoeeo o iiao nioe?aeueio nenoaio ? o.ae. Caaaeii, yeeoinue
i?eioeeiiaeo ?ica?aeiinoae a ioe?ieao ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano i?ae
aiaei-eaiaaenueeeie oao?aoeyie ? o?aiei-eaiaaenueeeie iaoeiaoeyie iaia?.
? o?, ? ?io? aaaaeathoue, ui ?ii?a?aoe?y ? ?iaiaioiei iieacieeii
no/aniiai eaiaaenueeiai oa eaaaaenueeiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo.
Caaaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia ?o aeoieo, iieyaa? o ae?iaeaii?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey o?yaeiaeo e?e c iaoith oi?ioethaaiiy iaeaaeii?
iie?oeee noiniaii aeeth/aiiy ?ii?a?aio?a o iiao aeey ieo nioe?aeueio
nenoaio.

A inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy aaaaoi oaaae ?i?a?aoe?eiei i?ioeanai ? ?o ca’yceo
c o??th /e ?ioith aoi?/iith a?oiith aoei a?aeaaaeaii o i?aoeyo
aeine?aeiee?a, ye? ca nai?i iioiaeaeaiiyi ? i?aaenoaaieeaie ??cieo
aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio. Aaeaea aaaeeeai aeey iaoeiai? ia’?eoeaiino? aea/eoe
oa, ye ioe?iththoueny ci?ie o noni?euenoa? oeie, ooi ? ?o iin??i.

C oe??th iaoith aeena?oaio caa?ioany aei eieaeie, ui aeoiaeeee o na???:
“Iieie?iiy: ?noi??y ia?iae?a Eaiaaee”, o ye?e a?aeaeca?eaeai? iiaeyaee
aaoi??a ia ?noi??th oa no/aniee noai oeo aoi?/ieo a?oi, i?aaenoaaieeaie
yeeo aiie ?.

Iiyaa ie?aieo aoi?/ieo a?oi, ui aeieeee aiane?aeie ?ii?a?aoe??, a oaeiae
? iiaeyaee ?o i?aaenoaaiee?a a?aeaeeenue ia noaaeaii? o?yaeo aei oeeo
iaioei, yeee nai? noaaeaiiy ao?eea o oi?io iie?oeee aaaaoieoeueoo?iino?.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ioe?iee oaei? iie?oeee eieeaathoueny a?ae
aiieiaaoe/ieo aei ae?ae iaaaoeaieo ? caia?a/eeaeo, an? aac aeiyoeo
iaoeiaoe? aaaaeathoue, ui iie?oeea aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? — oea o?yaeiaa
a?aeiia?aeue ia ci?ie, ni?e/eiai? ?ii?a?aoe??th a aoi?/i?e iica?oe?
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Ii?yae c io?oe?eieie aeieoiaioaie eaiaaenueeeo aeanoae, eio?? aecia/eee
nooi?noue ?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee Eaiaaee, e?auiio ?icoi?iith i?iaeaie
ni?eya iaoa??ae, ui i?noeoueny a aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.O?iia?a, A.Ae??ena.
Aeacai? aeine?aeieee ia eeoa i?ine?aeeoaaee aaiethoe?th ?ii?a?aoe?eii?
iie?oeee, aea e aecia/eee ?? iaenooo?a?o? ?ene oa i??i?eoaoe.

Bieea ?ii?a?aoe?? ia aeiiii?/ia aeeooy eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa
i?ine?aeeiao?oueny o i?aoeyo O.Oie?in, I. Iiae? oa Ae. Ia?niia.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee aianie ?ii?a?aio?a oa ioe?iee ci?i no?oeoo?e
caeiyoino? ia ?eieo ?iai/i? neee, ia?ai?ie o oa?aeoa?? i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee, ca?eueoaiiy /e ciaioaiiy ?iai/i? caeiyoino? ye na?aae eaiaaenueeiai
ianaeaiiy, oae ? na?aae naieo ?ii?a?aio?a iaea?eueo a?aoiaioiaaii
aeeeaaeaii o i?aoeyo Ae.Aeoia, A.A?aiue?, I.Aoiaea?niia.

Na?aae i?aoeue caaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye? ?ice?eaathoue nooo?a? iiiaioe
iie?oe/ii? oa nioe?aeueii? ?noi??? no/anii? Eaiaaee,a oaeiae
aecia/athoue iniaeeaino? ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai iioieo 1980-90-? ??. OOno. Aei
E?a?ie eeaiiaiai eenoea ne?ae iacaaoe i?aoe? ?.Aicaaeea, I.Aainoaaea,
A.Aeoaeana.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aeneo?n a ?ii?a?aioiciaanoai c i?iaeaiaoeee
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa aoiiiie?oe/ieo ianeiaee?a ?ii?a?aoe?? aeey
Eaiaaee, ie iiaeaii a?aei?oeoe ianooiia. ?nioth/a ?icia?ooy
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a, aea??ai? /anii oa aeciai? iaoeiaoeyie ??cieo
?noi??ia?ao?/ieo oe?e oi?aa?naeuei? i?eioeeie aeaaeai?/iiai aiae?co
aeicaieeee neioacoaaoe aaeeeee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, aea/eoe e?euee?ni?
iieacieee, aeyaeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo no/anii? eaiaaenueei?
?ii?a?aoe??.

Iaeiae, aiae?c a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e aea? iai
ciiao noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iacaaaeath/e ia iaai? caeiaooee a ?ic?iaoe?
ie?aieo aniaeo?a iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie, a?aenooi?
eiiieaeni?, ocaaaeueithth/?, i?aenoiiaoth/? i?aoe? c aaaaoianiaeoiiai
aiae?co iane?aee?a no/anii? ?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaae?.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca

Aeaea?aeueiith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? i?e aiae?c? ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai
i?ioeano a Eaiaae?, oaiaeaioe?e eiai ?icaeoeo oa iniaeeainoae noaee
iioae?eiaai? noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee, inoaii? ia?aiene ianaeaiiy, iaeiia?o?
eaiaaenuee? ui??/ieee, o?yaeia? aeaeaiiy, ui i?noyoue aeai? i?i
e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ia?aiao?e no/aniiai ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo aei
Eaiaaee, noaoenoe/i? aeiaeaoee aei iiiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue ??cieo
aeine?aeiee?a.

Aaaeeeaa ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei /enaeueiiai neeaaeo no/anii? ?ii?a?aoe?? aei
Eaiaaee aoea ii/a?iiooa c iia?oi?o iaoa??ae?a, ui aeaeathoueny
i?i?noa?noaaie oa a?aeae?eaie oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo a?aeiia?aeaeueieie
ca ?ii?a?aoe?eio iie?oeeo a e?a?i?, oaeeie ye Aeaia?oaiaio A?iiaaeyinoaa
? ?ii?a?aoe?? Eaiaaee oa Aeiiii?/iith ?aaeith Eaiaaee. Aeey aecia/aiiy
i?e/ei ci?i iniiaieo e?a?i-aeaea?ae ?ii?a?aoe?? aei Eaiaaee,
anoaiiaeaiiy aoi?/ii? i?eiaeaaeiino? no/anieo iiaii?eaoeueoe?a, aiae?co
iniaeeainoae i?ioeano ?icnaeaiiy no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a ii i?ia?ioe?yo,
iaea?eueoa i?eneoaeeeenue e?euee?ni? aeai?, eio?? c?a?ai? ?
nenoaiaoeciaai? o eaiaaenueeeo noaoenoe/ieo ui??/ieeao.

?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/iee neeaae no/anieo
iiaii?eaoeueoe?a, ?o ?iciiae?e ii eaoaai??yo a?aeiia?aeii aei /eiiiai
?ii?a?aionueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Eaiaaee ie ii/a?iioee ?c eaiaaenueeiai
ui??/ieea 1997 ?ieo. Ci?ia iniiaieo e?a?i-aeaea?ae ?ii?a?aoe?? aei
Eaiaaee oa ii??aiyeueia i?ioeaioia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy o 1960-1970-o ??. oa
1980-1990-o ??. aea/aia aeena?oaioii ia iniia? nioe?ieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a, ui iayai? o ui??/ieeo 1992 ?ieo.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui no/ania oaeey ?ii?a?aoe?? neeaaea?oueny ia 70% c
i?aaenoaaiee?a ac?aonueei — ao?eeainueeiai ?aa?iio, i?e/eie ?o ianiaiai
i?eaoooy aei Eaiaaee, niaoeeo?eo i?enoinoaaiiy aei i?eeiath/iai
noni?euenoaa, anoaiiaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?o aieeao ia aoi?/io no?oeoo?o
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, aiae?c aeaiia?ao?/iiai ?ano?no
iiaii?eaoeueoe?a iai aaeaeinue aeine?aeeoe ia iniia? e?euee?nieo
iieaciee?a, eio?? c?a?ai? a ??ciiiai?oieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo oa
noaoenoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ui i?noyoueny o i?aoeyo oaeeo oao?aoe?a c
?ii?a?aioiciaanoaa oa eaiaaeiciaa/eo nooae?e ye A.E?iaenopiia, A.Iioe?n,
?.Aiaei, A.N?iiiina. E?euee?ni? ci?ie o aeaiia?ao?/i?e eiiiiceoe??
eaiaaenueeiai ianaeaiiy i?ae aieeaii ?ii?a?aoe?? cae?eniaii ia iniia?
aiae?co iaeiia?oeo ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy aeeeaaeaieo o ?ioi?iaoeai?e
noaoo? A. ?aii oa AE. Aaaeaoea.

Ioaea, iayai? aeaea?aea aeathoue caaaeii /eiaei ?ioi?iaoe?? uiae
a?aecia/eoe iaea?eueo oa?aeoa?i? ?ene ?ii?a?aoe??, /?oei cao?enoaaoe
ci?ie, ye? iaee i?noea i?ae ?? aieeaii a nioe?aeuei?e noa??, aeine?aeeoe
nooi?noue aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a no/aniiai
?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea no/aniiai
?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo aei Eaiaaee”, eio?ee neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
ia?aa?ao?a — ?icaeyaeathoueny i?e/eie iineeaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo ia?anoaaiue
iai?ee?ioe? OO no., ie?aneth?oueny aeeiai?ea ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo aei
Eaiaaee a 1980 — 1990 ??., oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eiai
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiee oa aeaiia?ao?/iee neeaae, aecia/athoueny aieiai?
i?eioeeie ? caaaeaiiy ?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee eaiaaenueeiai o?yaeo ia
no/aniiio aoai?.

Niaoeeo?ea aaia?ao?/iiai eaiaeoaooo Eaiaaee oa aeaiia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino?
oe??? e?a?ie i?ioyaii aaaaoi??/ii? ?noi??? noaaaee niiioeaeueieie
iioeaaie caeo/aiiy ?ii?a?aio?a. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no., eiee Eaiaaea
noaea iaei??th c iaea?eueo ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo, ?ii?a?aioe c?iaeee
/eiaeee aianie o aeeiai?/iee ?icaeoie eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa.
Ianiaee iio?e iiai?iii? ?ii?a?aoe?? iiaeeeai ii??aiyoe ca /enaeuei?noth
o?aa ui c ?ii?a?aoe??th e?ioey O?O — na?aaeeie OO no., eiee Eaiaaea
i?eeiyea iaeaea oaeo ae e?euee?noue ?ii?a?aio?a, a yeui a?aooaaoe ?
?ii?a?aoe?th i?ae /an Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie, oi e ia?aaa?oeea ??.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa noni?eueiiai aeeooy aecia/aeenue i??i?eoaoi?
caaaeaiiy oa oe?e? ?ii?a?aoe?eii? iie?oeee Eaiaaee o iiai?ii?
aeanyoe??//y. Iie?oeea oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo a aaeoc? ?ii?a?aoe?? o
iiai?ii? ?iee aaiethoe?iioaaea a?ae aei?noeiai ?ano?eeoe?eiiai a?aeai?o
ca ?aniaeie iciaeaie oa iaoe?iiaeueiith i?eiaeaaei?noth, ui aoei
niaaeeii 1930-o ??., aei a?aei?ie aoaeue-yeeo iaiaaeaiue ca eieuei?ii
oe??e o 1960-o ??. ?acoeueoaoii aeaii? iie?oeee aeyaeeinue iinooiiaa
c?inoaiiy c ?ieo a ??e aeo?aeoe?a c e?a?i O?aoueiai na?oo.

Ia niiioeaeuei? iioeae ?ii?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a cia/iee aieea ni?aaeee
aaiiie?oe/i? ci?ie a no/aniiio na?o? oa ci?ie o aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiio
aeeoo? aaaaoueio e?a?i, ui o?aaeeoe?eii aoee aeaea?aeaie ?ii?a?aoe?? aei
Eaiaaee. Oae, o 1980-1990-o ??. aeiei??iii ci?ieeanue iie?oe/ia ea?oa
Ac?? ? Ao?eee. Ia i?noe? eieeoi?o eieii?e ? iai?aeieii?e c’yaeeenue
iacaeaaei? e?a?ie, ye? a?aecia/aee ae?ae ianoaa?eueiei
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iei noaiiaeuai. Oae? iiae??, ye a?iiaaeyinuee? a?eie
a Nuea??a-Eaiia, Aoaai?noai?, Eiiai, eiioe?eo a Eaoi??? i?ae Iaeenoaiii
? ?iae??th ia oe? iaaoooy ieie noaoono yaea?ieo aea?aeaa, ia?ao?ae
Aiieiiao i?ae th?enaeeeoe?th Eeoath, caaino?aiiy iie?oe/ieo i?iaeai o
a?aeiineiao i?ae Oaeaaiai ? eiioeiaioaeueiei Eeoa?i,
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? iio?yn?iiy 1998 ?ieo a e?a?iao I?aaeaiii-No?aeii?
Ac??, — ana oea ni?eyei iineeaiith i?a?aoe?eieo ?oo?a o no/anio aiioo.

Ia iaio cia/iith ?enith aeey e?a?i O?aoueiai na?oo ? ia nueiaiaei?
ao?oeeaee i?e??no ianaeaiiy. “Aeaiia?ao?/iee aeaoo” o oaeeo e?a?iao
ni?aiaa c iaae?iiyi oaii?a ia?iaeaeoaaiino? o aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?iao.
Ioaea, oea noaei ua iaeiei iiooaeiei /eiieeii iineeaiiy i?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a.

Oiio c?icoi?ei /iio iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ?ii?a?aio?a o ia??iae c 1980
ii 1989 ??. aei Eaiaaee aeaee e?a?ie Ac??, Ao?eee, Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee.
Aeo?aeoe? c oeeo eiioeiaio?a o aeacaiee ia??iae a ?ii?a?aoe?eiiio
iioioe? noaiiaeee a?ey 70%. O ia?o?e iieiaei? 1990-o ?ie?a aieiaieie
e?a?iaie ?ii?a?aoe?? aeey Eaiaaee noaee: 1) Aiieiia; 2) O?e?ii?ie; 3)
?iae?y; 4) eiioeiaioaeueiee Eeoae. O 1994 ?ioe? o?eueee oe? aea?aeaae
aeaee iaeaea iieiaeio a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? an??? ?ii?a?aoe?? —
42,6%. I?aaenoaaieee oae caaieo “o?aaeeoe?eieo” aeaea?ae ?ii?a?aoe?? —
e?a?ie Cao?aeii? ? I?ai?/ii? ?a?iie o e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? (ie??i
Aaeeeia?eoai??, yea caeia? aae ainueio iiceoe?th) iieieeenue iica ia?oei
aeanyoeii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “?ii?a?aoe?y ye oaeoi? ci?i a aoi?/i?e no?oeoo??
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa” — aeine?aeaeo?oueny iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/iee
neeaae no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a oa ?o aieea ia aoiie?iaa?noe/io eiiiiceoe?th
i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie, aea/athoueny ci?ie a aoi?/i?e “iica?oe?” Eaiaaee
i?ae aieeaii oaia??oiuei? ?ii?a?aoe?eii? oaee?. Aena?oeth?oueny iie?oeea
aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? o 1980-1990 ??. ?icae?e ia? o?e ia?aa?aoe.

Ianiaa i?eaoooy ia?anaeaioe?a c ??cieo e?a?i ? eiioeiaio?a iineeth? ?
o??ciiiai?oith? aoi?/i? eiiiiiaioe a aaaaoieoeueoo?i?e iae?o?? no/aniiai
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ca aeaieie ia?aieno 1991-ai ?ieo, o Eaiaae?
ia?aoiao?oueny iiiaae 100 aoi?/ieo a?oi, ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy a e?a?i?
aeoiaeyoue ia 60 iiaao. I?e/iio oaea no?ieao?noue a ia?oo /a?ao noaea
iiaeeeaith caaaeyee ?ii?a?aoe??.

Aoi?/ia eiiiiceoe?y no/anii? Eaiaaee, noi?iiaaia i?ae aieeaii
?ii?a?aoe??, aeaeyaea? ianooiiei /eiii. ?ii?a?aoe?y aei Eaiaaee
1989-1997 ??. noaiiaeea o na?aaeiueiio a?eueoa, i?ae 200 oen. a ??e. ?c
oeo, ooi inaeeany a Eaiaae? o 1996 ?ioe? c caaaeueii? e?eueeino? 225
oen. iiaii?eaoeeo, o?eueee 10 oen. neeaaeaee aeo?aeoe? c ?a?iie, a 144
oen. ?c e?a?i Ac??.

Iaiiaae oa?eoi??aeueiei oieonii oaei? “no?aeiecaoe??” noaea i?ia?ioe?y
A?eoainueea Eieoia?y, aea ia 1991 ??e 11% ianaeaiiy noaiiaeee aeo?aeoe?
c Ac??. A eeoaenueea ni?eueiioa ia nueiaiaei? ? iaea?eueoith aoi?/iith
a?oiith na?aae ?ioeo aoiin?a ia o?eueee o i. Aaieoaa?, aea e o ?ioeo
iaea?eueoeo eaiaaenueeeo i?noao.

Oaea aieiaia oaiaeaioe?y a aoi?/ieo i?ioeanao no/anii? Eaiaaee
i?eaiaeeoue aei aaeueie ciaiaiiiai oaiiiaio, iane?aeee yeiai oaia?
iaa?oue aaaeei ia?aaeaa/eoe, a naia: ciaioaiiy ieoiii? aaae aiaei- ?
o?aiei-eaiaaeoe?a o caaaeuei?e i?iii?oe?? eaiaaenueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Eiee o 1991 ?. aiaei-eaiaaeoe? neeaaeaee iaioa, i?ae 40% a?ae noeoiii?
/enaeueiino? aeeoae?a eaiaaenueei? eiioaaea?aoe??, oi a 1996 ?ioe?
aiaei-eaiaaeoe? noaiiaeee aaea eeoa 38,9% caaaeueiiai /enea ianaeaiiy
Eaiaaee.

Aaeeeee iaieea ?ii?a?aio?a c e?a?i O?aoueiai na?oo a?ae/ooii ci?iea ?
aoiie?iaa?noe/io no?oeoo?o no/aniiai eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa.
A?ae/ooiee iio?e ?ii?a?aio?a c EI?, Aiieiiao, Oaeaaith c?iaea eeoaenueeo
iiao o?aoueith ?iciiaiith a e?a?i?.

Inoaii? noaoenoe/i? aeai? ia?aieno ianaeaiiy a Eaiaae? aeyaeee ianooii?
— iaaiith i??ith nainaoe?ei? — iiiaioe. ??aeiith iiaith aeey eiaeieo
naie ?c aeanyoe no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a ? ?ioa, ai?ae aiae?enueea /e
o?aioeocueea. I?e/iio, /enei in?a, ye? acaaae? ia ?iciiaeythoue ai?
aiae?enueeith, ai? o?aioeocueeith iiaaie caaaeyee ?ii?a?aoe?? ca ia??iae
c 1981 ii 1991 ?. iiaeai?einue, a cia/io /anoeo a oe?e eaoaai???
noaiiaeyoue aeo?aeoe? c EI? oa ?niaiiiiaieo e?a?i.

I?e oiia? caa?aaeaiiy aeacaieo oaiaeaioe?e aeaye? aeine?aeieee
i?iaiicothoue, ui aei 2050 ?. i?aaenoaaieee a?ei? ?ane aoaeooue
noaiiaeoe iaio?noue ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e — “?ii?a?aoe?y a eiioaeno? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a o Eaiaae? a e?ioe? OO no.” — i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith
i?iaeaie ?iai/i? caeiyoino? no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a ia eaiaaenueeiio ?eieo
?iai/i? neee oa i?iaeaie aca?iica’yceo aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy ?ii?a?aioa
c eiai nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiei noaoonii o i?eeiath/?e e?a?i?. ?icae?e
ia? aeaa ia?aa?aoe.

Aecia/ath/e oa?aeoa? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iane?aee?a ?ii?a?aoe?? aeey
eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa, o oiio /ene? aeine?aeaeoth/e i?iaeaie
caeiyoino? iiaii?eaoeeo o i?eeiath/iio noni?euenoa?, aa?oi caoaaaeeoe
ianooiia. Caaaeyee ?ii?a?aoe?? eaiaaenueeee ?eiie ?iai/i? neee ? iaeiei
c iaea?eueo a?aaoeueiaaieo na?aae ?iaeono??aeueieo aea?aeaa na?oo, aei
oiai ae ?ii?a?aoe?y ? iaeiei c iaa?ae’?iieo oaeoi??a caaaeueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo Eaiaaee; aaeaea aiia ? niiioeaeueiith neeith
noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?no, caaacia/aiiy caooo aeey eaiaaenueeeo
oiaa??a, ?aaoey?ii? nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, onoiaiiy ianoa/? a ?iai/?e nee?,
oo?eiaiiy ia iaeaaeiiio ??ai? iaae? nioe?aeueii? caaacia/aiino? ?
aeioiae?a. Aoi?/ia iioiaeaeaiiy ?ii?a?aioa a?eueoa ia ? aecia/aeueiei
oaeoi?ii eiai nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiiai noaiiaeua a e?a?i?; uia aecia/eoe
i?noea ?ii?a?aioa o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e ???a?o?? i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie
e?aua acyoe aei oaaae oae? /eiieee ye noa?oia? iiaeeeaino? ?ii?a?aioa,
??aaiue ina?oe, e?a?io inoaiiueiai i?noeaia?aaoaaiiy, ciaiiy iia,
eaae?o?eaoe?th ? o.?i. I?e iayaiino? cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?aaenoaaiee?a
“aeaeeieo iaioei” o i?a?aoe?eiiio iioioe? ii/aa iaaoaaoe neee oaiiiai
“cnoao” aeiiii?/ii? ?i?oe?aoeae a?ae o?iaeaeaioe?a Eaiaaee aei
?ii?a?aio?a. No/ani? ?ii?a?aioe c O?aoueiai na?oo aeineoue oaeaeei
i?iieeathoue o i?anoeaei? aaeoc?, a, ioaea, ci?iththoue i?e?iaeo ?
oa?aeoa? ye aeiiii?/ii? caeiyoino?, oae ? caaaeueio i???ioaoe?th
aeiiii?/ii? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Eaiaaee, a ye?e aeine?aeieee aaea ia
nueiaiaei? aeae?eythoue “ac?aonueeee aaeoi?”. Oae, eaiaaenuee?
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i? ?iaanoeoe?? o e?a?ie ac?aonueei-oeoiieaainueeiai
?aa?iio ia nueiaiaei? neeaaeathoue 10% a?ae noeoiieo ?iaanoeoe?e Eaiaaee
o ca?oa?aei? e?a?ie ? aeyaeythoue oaiaeaioe?th aei c?inoaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaieioo?oueny ia
ianooiiiio :

1) o no/aniiio na?o? neeaeanue, c iaeiiai aieo, a?aeiinii iaaaeeea a?oia
aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?i, o oiio /ene? Eaiaaea, c? no?eeith iie?oe/iith
nenoaiith, aenieeie oaiiaie ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
cia/iei ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai aeaaiono?ith, c ?ioiai —
iniiaia iana e?a?i, ui ia?aaoaathoue ua o ia??iae? ?iaeono??aeueii?, a
oi e ia?aae?iaeono??aeueii? oaoiieia??; o oaeeo noni?euenoaao iathoue
i?noea ianiaa a?aei?noue, ao?oeeaee i?e??no ianaeaiiy, ianoaa?euei?noue
aioo??oiueiiie?oe/iiai aeeooy; yeui aeiaeaoe nthaee ua e iino?ei?
i?aeaoi?/i? eiioe?eoe ye ana?aaeei? oaeeo e?a?i, oae ? c non?aei?ie
aea?aeaaaie, oi aaaaoueia aeeoaeyie iiae?aieo ?aa?ii?a ?aeeiee aeo?ae o
iie?auaii? naiai aeeooy aaa/a?oueny o ia?anaeaii? a ?icaeiai? e?a?ie;

2) iane?aeeii oeueiai aeyaeeanue ci?ia e?a?i-aeaea?ae ?ii?a?aoe?? aei
Eaiaaee oa ??cea ca?eueoaiiy /enea aeo?aeoe?a c e?a?i O?aoueiai na?oo o
caaaeueiiio ?ii?a?aoe?eiiio iioioe? (aeiaeia c e?a?i Cao?aeii? ?
I?ai?/ii? ?a?iie, a oaeiae NOA ia aoiaeeoue ia nueiaiaei? aei i’yo??ee
e?a?i, ui aeathoue iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue ?ii?a?aio?a) ?, ioaea,
c?inoaiiy o eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa? aoi?/ieo a?oi, ui iaeaaeaoue aei
oae caaieo “aeaeeieo iaioei”;

3) iaieea /eiaei? e?eueeino? i?aaenoaaiee?a “aeaeeieo iaioei” ia oii?
ciaioaiiy noeoiii? /enaeueiino? aiaei- oa o?aiei-eaiaaeoe?a iaa nai?i
iane?aeeii aeineoue a?ae/ooio aoi?/io ia?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?th eaiaaenueeiai
noni?euenoaa, ye?e i?eoaiaii? ianooii? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene:

a) iiaii?eaoe? i?eaaee aei ciaioaiiy aaeeaaiiy io?oe?eieo iia o e?a?i?
(o?aoueith ?iciiaiith iiaith a Eaiaae? ? eeoaenueea, yea o 1990-o ??.
aeo?nieea c oe??? iiceoe?? ?oae?enueeo);

a) noeeuei?noue ?ii?a?aio?a inaeyoenue o iaea?eueoeo iaaaiie?nao e?a?ie
oa o aeniei?icaeiaieo i?ia?ioe?yo, a ia?oo /a?ao Iioa??i, A?eoainuee?e
Eieoia??, Eaaaaeo, i?eaaee aei ia?aaaae aoi?/ieo a?oi c
ao?i-ac?aonueeiai ?aa?iio oa Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee iaae aeo?aeoeyie ?
iauaaeeaie c ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i oa iineeeee aeenaaeain o oa?eoi??aeueia
canaeaiiy e?a?ie, ine?eueee aeaye? ?aa?iie Eaiaaee caeeoeeenue iaeaea
iacaeiaieie iiaii?eaoeeie;

a) iath/e yaio /enaeueio ia?aaaao iaae ?ioeie aoi?/ieie a?oiaie o
eieaeueieo a?aaeao ?icnaeaiiy, no/ani? ?ii?a?aioe aeineoue oaeaeei
ae??aiththoue nai? aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ?c i?noeaaeie aeeoaeyie; iath/e
iaiiaai? noa?oia? iiaeeeaino?, iiaii?eaoe? c /anii aeo?niythoue c? naiai
a?aaeo i?noeaaeo aeeoae?a ?, oaeei /eiii, ci?iththoue o?ce/iee oa
eieaeueiee aaiioei e aaia?ao?/iee eaiaeoaoo iaaii? i?noeaaino?;

a) ine?eueee oae? ci?ie, ye i?aaeei, aeeeeeathoue iaaia caiaiiei?iiy
caieo “/a?oa?ieo a?oi” Eaiaaee, a aei oiai ae ?ii?a?aoe?y ia? ?iaiaioio
?eno eiioe?eoiino?, oi oaaea?aeueiee o?yae, i?aaio/e aa?iii?coaaoe
i?aeaoi?/i? ca’ycee, aaeaany aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeieo?eie aoi?/iiai
ieth?ae?cio o oi?i? iie?oeee aaaaoieoeueoo?iino?; aea oae ye aeaia
iie?oeea ? a?aeiia?aeaeth ia noni?euei? ci?ie a aoi?/i?e oea?ei? aeeooy
eaiaaeoe?a, oi oaeo iie?oeeo ie ?icaeyaea?ii ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy iiai?
eaiaaenueei? nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino? ? ye eiinoaoaoe?th oiai oaeoo, ui
Eaiaaea ia nueiaiaei? — oea e?a?ia aoi?/ieo iaioei, aea aaea iaa?oue
aiaei- oa o?aiei-eaiaaeoe? ia iathoue cia/ii? /enaeueii? ia?aaaae; a a
oaeeo i?noao, ye Oi?iioi ? Aaieoaa?, aiaei-eaiaaeoe? aaea iaa?oue ia ?
aoi?/iith a?eueo?noth aaea c 1980-o ??., oi/a e i?iaeiaaeothoue ua aooe
“aeii?ioth/eie” a aeiiii?/i?e oa iie?oe/i?e ae?oao;

4) nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?ei? uaae?, ye? caeiathoue no/ani? ?ii?a?aioe aaea
ia aecia/athoueny nueiaiaei? o?eueee aoi?/iei iioiaeaeaiiyi, ye oea aoei
oa?aeoa?ii aeey iiia?aaei?o oaeeue ?ii?a?aoe??, eiee ?ii?a?aioe aoee
iaaeii?aaenoaaeai? o aeueo aoaeiiao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ???a?o??
noni?euenoaa ? ia?ai?aaenoaaeai? o ieae/eo; a iaeaea aeeeth/ii
noa?oiaeie iiaeeeainoyie na?aae naieo ?ii?a?aio?a, eio??, aei ?a/?,
iathoue /eiae? eiooe aeey aeeaaeaiiy a aeiiii?eo i?eeiath/i? e?a?ie;

5) i?iieeiaiiy no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a o i?anoeaei? aaeoc? aeiiii?ee ?
i?eaianaiiy a e?a?io i?euey?aeieo ?iaanoeoe?e (iai?. 29 ie?ae. aeie. o
1993 ?.) ci?ith? ye i?e?iaeo ? oa?aeoa? aeiiii?/ii? caeiyoino?
ana?aaeei? e?a?ie, oae ? caaaeueio ni?yiiaai?noue aaaeaiiy
ciai?oiueioi?aiaaeueii? iie?oeee.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii aaoi?ii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1) Eoioe O. Aeaye? aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe no/anii? ?ii?a?aoe?? a Eaiaae? //
Iaoeia? caienee Oa?iii?euenueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y:
?noi??y. -Oa?iii?eue.- 1999.- Aei. IX.- N. 146-149.

2) Eoioe O.ss. Eiiea?aoeey eae oaeoi? yoie/aneeo eciaiaiee a Eaiaaea
(80-90-a aiaeu) // NOA — Eaiaaea: Yeiiiieea, Iieeoeea, Eoeueoo?a.-
1999.- ? 8.- N. 98-103.

3) Eoioe O. Iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee a no/aniiio eaiaaeiciaanoa? aei
aea/aiiy i?ioeano ?ii?a?aoe?? (1980 -1990-? ??.) // Iaoeia? caienee
Oa?iii?euenueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y: ?noi??y.-
Oa?iii?eue.- 1999.- Aei. VIII.- C. 190-194.

4) Eoioe O.ss. I iaeioi?uo eiioeaioeeyo eiiea?aoeee a nia?aiaiiie
aiaeieaiaaeneie enoi?eia?aoee // ?inneeneea enneaaeiaaiey i Eaiaaea. —
1997.- Aui.2. — N. 178 — 188.

5) Eoioe O. I?iaeaia aoii-aeaiia?ao?/iiai aieeao ?ii?a?aoe?? ia
eaiaaenueea noni?euenoai o 1980-1990 ??. // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? iiaiai oa
iia?oiueiai /ano (Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae). — *a?i?aoe?: ?ooa, 1997. —
Aei. 6.- C. 287-296.

6) Eoioe O.ss. Nia?aiaiiua iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu a Eaiaaea //
?inneeneea enneaaeiaaiey i Eaiaaea. — 1999.- Aui. 3.- N. 168- 181.

7) Eoioe O., Ne/ I. Nioe?aeueia aeeiai?ea iaeeo ?ii?a?aionueeeo a?oi o
eaiaaenueeiio noni?euenoa? // Oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y a ?noi??? oa
e?oa?aoo??. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 18 — 20
aa?aniy 1996 ?. — Oa?iii?eue, 1996.- N. 74 — 77.

8) Eoioe O.ss. No/ania oe?a?inueea ?ii?a?aoe?y aei Eaiaaee ? ?? aieea ia
naiiaooith eoeueoo?o oe?a?inueeeo eaiaaeoe?a // Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee
?icaeoie a Oe?a?i? oa noai oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iino? a ae?anii??:
nooi?noue, ?aae?? eiioe?eoiino?, i?iaeaie oa i?iaiice ia ii?ic? OO?
noie?ooy. Oace i’yoi? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 22 —
25 o?aaiy 1997 ?. — Ee?a — *a?i?aoe?, 1997.- (0,12 ae?.a?e.).

Aiioaoe?y

Eoioe O.ss. No/ania ?ii?a?aoe?y a Eaiaae?: iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa
iniaeeaino?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y.- *a?i?aaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?i?aoe?, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaiiy aea/athoueny iniiai? aniaeoe no/aniiai
?ii?a?aoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Eaiaae?. Aeine?aeaeaii /eiieee iineeaiiy
i?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo iai?ee?ioe? noie?ooy, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?ii?a?aoe?eio
iie?oeeo oa iie?oeeo aaaaoieoeueoo?iino? Eaiaaee ia no/aniiio aoai?,
aena?oeaii /enaeuei?noue, iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/iee oa
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiee neeaae no/anieo ?ii?a?aio?a. Aeacaii ia
iniaeeaino? aaia?ao?/iiai ?icnaeaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a o e?a?i? i?eaoooy. Aoei
anoaiiaeaii, ui no/ania oaeey ?ii?a?aoe?? aei Eaiaaee ia? /?oe? ?
nai???aei? ?ene, ui ??cei a?ae??ciy? ?? a?ae iiia?aaei?o oaeeue, a
oaeiae a?ae/ooii aieeaa? ? ci?ith? aoi?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
eiiiiiaioe eaiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aiae?c no/aniiai ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai
i?ioeano a Eaiaae? aeicaiey? ae?iaeoe iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
?ii?a?aoe?eii? oa aoi?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae. Ia?niaeoeaiei ?
aeei?enoaiiy caeiaooeo aeniiae?a o iaa/aeueieo eo?nao c iia?oiuei?
?noi??? Eaiaaee, ?noi?e/ii? aoiieia?? oa iaoiaeieia?? ?noi???.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ii?a?aoe?y, aoi?/i?noue, ?ioaa?aoe?y, ?iai/a neea,
?iai/a caeiyo?noue, “aeaeei? iaioeie”.

Aiiioaoeey

Eoioe O.ss. Nia?aiaiiay eiiea?aoeey a Eaiaaea: iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee e
iniaaiiinoe. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — Anaie?iay enoi?ey. — *a?iiaeoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. TH. Oaaeueeiae/a, *a?iiaoeu, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee eco/aiu iniiaiua aniaeou nia?aiaiiiai eiiea?aoeeiiiiai
i?ioeanna a Eaiaaea. Enneaaeiaaiu i?e/eiu oneeaiey iea?aoeee a eiioea OO
noieaoey, aeai aiaeec eiiea?aoeeiiiie iieeoeee e iieeoeee
iiiaieoeueoo?iinoe Eaiaaeu ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia, inaauaiu /eneaiiinoue,
iaoeeiiaeueii-yoie/aneee e nioeeaeueii-i?ioanneiiaeueiue ninoaa
nia?aiaiiuo eiiea?aioia. Iieacaiu iniaaiiinoe aaia?aoe/aneiai ?annaeaiey
eiiea?aioia a i?eieiathuae no?aia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi nia?aiaiiay aieia
eiiea?aoeee a Eaiaaeo eiaao ii?aaeaeaiiua e naiaia?aciua /a?ou, eioi?ua
?acei ioee/atho aa io i?aaeuaeoueo, a oaeaea iuooeii aeeytho e eciaiytho
yoie/aneea e nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea eiiiiiaiou eaiaaeneiai iauanoaa.
Nia?aiaiiay eiiea?aoeey a Eaiaaea i?aaeaea anaai ioee/aaony
cia/eoaeueiui /eneii auoiaeoeaa ni no?ai “O?aoueaai ie?a” (77 % io
iauaai eiee/anoaa i?eauaoeo a ia?aie iieiaeia 1990-o aiaeia); iuooeiu
yaeythony iieacaoaee ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy eiiea?aioia n
aiooeoaeueiuie noa?oiauie yeiiiie/aneeie aiciiaeiinoyie. Aeeyiea,
eioi?ia ieacuaaao eiiea?aoeey ia yoie/aneea e aeaiia?aoe/aneea
i?ioeannu, a nia?aiaiiii eaiaaeneii iauanoaa yaeythony iaiaeiaaaeiuie
aeey iniuneaiey oaiiiaia eaiaaeneie nia?aiaiiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe.
Eiaaony aaeaeo, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue, oaaee/aiea /enea a?aaeaeai
iaaiaeieaiaaeneiai e iao?aieieaiaaeneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ia iauai oiia
iaaeaiey iauae /enaeueiinoe aiaeieaiaaeneie e o?aieieaiaaeneie
yoie/aneeo a?oii. Nia?aiaiiua eiiea?aiou eiatho aenoea iieacaoaee
noiia?iie oa?oeeueiinoe iaaeaee auoiaeoeu ec aiaeiycu/iie e
o?aieiycu/iie n?aaeu. A nayce n yoei aeaiia?aoe/aneia aeaaeaiea
eiiea?aioia ia eaiaaeneia iauanoai i?iyaeyaony a iiieaaeeaaiee
aic?anoiie no?oeoo?u eaiaaeoeaa. Iieeoeea eaiaaeneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa a
noa?a eiiea?aoeee aeinoaoi/ii auno?i io?aaae?iaaea ia eciaiaiey
iieeoe/aneiai eaiaeoaooa ie?a. Eae e a i?aaeuaeouea aiaeu, aeaaiui
e?eoa?eai, eioi?ue o/eouaaaony i?e ?ac?aaioea e inouanoaeaiee
eiiea?aoeeiiiie iieeoeee, inoaaony yeiiiie/aneee eioa?an no?aiu; oaeaea
o/eouaathony /eiiaieeaie io eiiea?aoeee e oaeea /a?ou, eae yoie/aneay
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue iioaioeeaeueiiuo eiiea?aioia, iauai e
oeaeaniia?aciinoue iioiea eiiea?aoeee a iaeioi?ua i?iaeioeee, aeeyiea ia
i?ioeann i?eiyoey e iaoaieci ?ac?aaioee eiiea?aoeeiiiuo caeiiia ?aciuo
oaiaauo no?oeoo? iieeoe/aneeo eiaaenoia, n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee n
oeaeueth iaania/aiey eioa?ania oao eee eiuo yoie/aneeo iaiueoeinoa.
Oaeea oaeoi?u niinianoaiaaee oiio, /oi iaeaieaa caiaoiie iniaaiiinoueth
a eiiea?aoeeiiiie iieeoeea auea noaaea ia oaaee/aiea iaeaieaa aaaeiie
eaoaai?ee — “yeiiiie/aneeo eiiea?aioia” (aecian-eiiea?aiou +
aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua niaoeeaeenou), eioi?ua noaiiayo aieaa iieiaeiu
io iauaai /enea eiiea?aioia a 1990-o aa. Aiaeec eaiaaeiaaae/aneeo
iiaeoiaeia ioiineoaeueii i?iaeaiu aaeaioaoeee e eioaa?aoeee eiiea?aioia
eiaao ?aeiiaiaeaoeeiiiue oa?aeoa? aeey eiiea?aoeeiiiie e yoie/aneie
iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa. Ia?niaeoeaiui aeaeeony eniieueciaaiea iieo/aiiuo
a aeenna?oaoeee auaiaeia a o/aaiuo eo?nao ii iiaaeoae enoi?ee Eaiaaeu,
enoi?e/aneie yoiieiaee e iaoiaeieiaee enoi?ee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiea?aoeey, yoie/iinoue, eioaa?aoeey, ?aai/ay neea,
?aai/ay caeiyoinoue, “aeaeeiua iaiueoeinoaa”.

Summary

Lupul T.Y. Modern Immigration in Canada: Main Trends and Specialities.-
Manuscript.

Dissertation for the Candidate’s degree in the field of historical
sciences, specialization 07.00.02 — World history. Chernivtsi State
University named after Yu.Fedkovich.- Chernivtsi, 1999.

The thesis presented deals with main figures of the modern immigration
process in Canada. It has been studied the factors of force migrations
in the last decade of the XXth century, immigration policy and
multicultural policy of modern Canada, quantity, ethnic origins and
social / professional status of immigrants. It was indicated the
character of geographic location of immigrants in host country. The
research has proved that new wave of immigrants to Canada has
differentiated from previous ones. Except that, modern immigration in
Canada has powerful influence on the charter groups. The analysis of
Nanadian studies concerning to problems of integration and adaptation of
immigrants in a process of involving them into a new society can be
adapted by the government of Canada (or Ukraine) to implement new
governmental policies and procedures. The research information obtained
may also be used as subject matter in the teaching of contemporary
history of Canada, Ethnology and Methodology of History.

Key words: immigration, ethnicity, integration, force labour,
employment, visible minorities.

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