Стаціонарні електричні розряди з однорідним випаровуванням електрода у вакуумі та їх застосування в джерелах плазми, іонів та термоіонному напиленні:

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”

NA?IEI Aieiaeeie? Aioiiiae/

OAeE 621.387.2; 537.525; 533.9.02

NOAOe?IIA?I? AEAEO?E*I? ?IC?ssAeE C IAeII??AeIEI

AEIA?IAOAAIIssI AEAEO?IAeA O AAEOOI?

OA ?O CANOINOAAIIss A AeAEA?AEAO IEACIE,

?II?A OA OA?II?IIIIIO IAIEEAII?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.27.02

aaeooiia, ieaciiaa oa eaaioiaa aeaeo?ii?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiaiio Oeaio?? “?inoeooo ssaea?ieo Aeine?aeaeaiue”
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eaanueeee Aieiaeeie?
Iao?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo”, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Iaaeaeea Aaeaioei Ae?aiae/,

Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai
“Oa?e?anueeee aa?aoe?eiee ?inoeooo”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, *ooia TH??e ?aaiiae/,
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O. Oaa/aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aaciai? aeaeo?ii?ee (i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “21” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.002.08 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo” ca
aae?anith: 252056, Ee?a — 56, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae 37, ei?i. 12, aoae 114.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IOOO “EI?”.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “19” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.002.08,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? E.Ae.Iena?aiei

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo
?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?,
iaoiiaeai?, ianaiia?aae, iaiao?aei?noth ?icaeoeo aaeooiii-ieaciiai?
oaoiieia?? ia?iaee iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea, yea iaceaa?oueny “ieaciiaith
oaoiieia??th aenieeo aia?a?e” ? neeaaea?oueny c oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy,
a?aeiiiai ca ei?aeiiii ye “?iiia iaieeaiiy”, e ?iiii? ?iieaioaoe??.
Nthaee a?aeiinyoueny ?ic?iaee ieaciiaeo e ?iiieo aeaea?ae, ieaciiaeo
i?enei?thaa/?a ? ?aaeoi??a c ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith o oaa?ae?e oac? (a oiio
/ene? aeey eini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue), ?ic?iaee aaeooiieo ianin?a ?
ieaciiaeo oeaio?eooa, iaea?aeaiiy oi?eaeueieo iaaei?ia?aeieo,
iaaeoaa?aeeo, eiiiiceoe?eieo, aea?ino?eeeo, caoenieo, aeiaciiiae?aieo e
?ioeo ie?aie oa iie?eoo?a, aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo, iioe/ieo,
iaai?oieo, o?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae iiaa?oiiue, ?icaeoie ia??aiiaaaeii?
ieaciio?i?? c aenieeie aeaeo?iiieie oaiia?aoo?aie.

A a?eueo oe?ieiio ieai? ?ic?yaee c aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, iia’ycai? c no/aniei ?icaeoeii, ianaiia?aae,
o?ceee aaciaiai ?ic?yaeo ? ieacie, o?ceee ? o?i?? oiieeo ie?aie ?
iie?eoo?a, aaeooiii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??, i?enei?thaa/?a ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoeiie ? ian-naia?aoi??a, niaoeaeaeo?iiaoaeo?a?? e aeaeo?ii?ee.

Iaeii??aeiei iaceaa?oueny oaea aeia?iaoaaiiy aeaeo?iaea, i?e yeiio
?ici?? iaeano? aeia?iaoaaiiy ni?a?ici??iee c ?ici??ii ?iai/i? iiaa?oi?
aeaeo?iaea. Ca?ac iaea?eueoa iioe?aiiy caeiaoei iaiaeii??aeia eieaeueia
aeia?iaoaaiiy c eaoiaeii? ieyie aaeooiii-aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo. Aiii
iaaecae/aeii i?inoa ca cae?eniaiiyi, aea oiiae ooai?aiiy ? i?aeo?eiee
eaoiaeii? ieyie nooo?ai iaiaaeothoue aea?? ?iai/eo ?a/iaei ? ia?aiao?e
i?eno?i?a ia iniia? aaeooiii-aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo. E??i oiai, a iioioe?
ieacie c’yaeythoueny e?aie? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie eaoiaea, ye? ?iaeyoue
iaiiaeeeaith ieceo ae?iaieoeoa i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee, iioeee (eaca?ieo
aeca?eae) oa ?i. Canoinoaaiiy naia?aoi??a e?aiaeue oneeaaeith?
oaoiieia?/i? i?eno?i?, aaaea aei nooo?aiai ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie, oneeaaeith? ? caei?iaeo? ae?iaieoeoai,
aeeeeea? ?icaeoie aeueoa?iaoeaieo iaoiae?a iaeii??aeiiai aeia?iaoaaiiy
aeaeo?iaea o aaeooi?.

Iayai?noue aeaeo?iaea, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?,
oneeaaeith? ? aei oiai ia aeineoue aeineiiae? oai??? ?ic?yae?a, ye?
aeiaeaoeiai iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe:

1) iia? a?aie/i? oiiae ia aeaeo?iae?, ui aeia?iao?oueny ? noai?th?
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio ai?eoue ?ic?yae;

2) aaeee? a?aae??ioe eiioeaio?aoe?? iaeo?aeueieo ? ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoeiie o ?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo, ye? i?eaiaeyoue aei ci?ie oiia
?icaeoeo aeaeo?iiieo eaaei ?ii?caoe?? ? ieaciiaeo iano?eeinoae;

3) iiiaaeaiiy aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo /anoeiie ?c ?ic?yaeiiai ia’?io ia
aeaeo?iae, ui aeia?iao?oueny, oa ?io? aeaeo?iaee, yea i?eaiaeeoue aei
oneeaaeiaiiy aca?iica’yceo ia’?iii-?ic?yaeieo ? a?aie/ieo oiia.

Oaeeo oai??e ia noai?aii, oiio iaiao?aeii noaaeoe niaoe?aeuei?
aenia?eiaioe c aea/aiiy o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii,
ui aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, ?o aiaeia?e ? a?aei?i a?ae ?ic?yae?a o
aacao, a?aeooeoaaoe oiiae iaea?aeaiiy iaiao?aeieo oaoiieia?/ieo
ia?aiao??a. E??i oiai, iaei aea/aieie caeeoathoueny i?ioeane aca?iiae??
ieaciiaeo iioie?a ? a?aie/ieo aeaeo?iae?a, c yeeie iia’ycai?
iaeaaaeeea?o? canoinoaaiiy ?ic?yae?a o ieaciia?e ia?iaoe? a?aeiieo ?
neioac? iiaeo iaoa??ae?a. Oe? i?ioeane iio??aii aeei?enoaoe aeey
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa eiie?aoieo oiaa??a, aac yeeo iaiiaeeeaa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie o ae?iaieoeoai.

Iaoa ?iaioe:

1) aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
noaoe?iia?iiai i?ioiaeaeaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie o
aaeooi?, yeui iaeei c aeaeo?iae?a iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny ciai?oi?i
iaa??aa/ai, aeaeo?iiiei io/eii aai naiei ?ic?yaeii, oiaoi aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao iiaeo a?aie/ieo oiia ia i?ioiaeaeaiiy no?oio a nenoai? “oaa?aea
o?ei ??aeeia i?eaeaeo?iaeiee oa? iaiaeii??aeia ieacia ia?e ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie i?eaeaeo?iaeiee oa? oaa?aea o?ei”;

2) ?ic?iaea ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic?yae?a iiaeo oei?a aeaea?ae
ieacie e ?ii?a oa ieaciiaeo i?enei?thaa/?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?;

3) ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy o ?ic?iaoe? eiie?aoieo ae?ia?a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee,
i?e?iiaoai?ee, ?aae?i?cioiiieo oa iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a,
eiioaeo?a aei aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? iaaei?ia?aeii? ea?ai?ee,
aeaei?aoeaieo, ci?oeithth/eo ? aioeo?eeoe?eieo iie?eoo?a ia i?iieneia?
oa iiaooia? ae?iae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

1) i?iaaaeaia nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?ieiai eeano ?ic?yae?a c
aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, ?o aeanoeainoae,
ia?aiao??a ? i?aeoe/ieo canoinoaaiue, cie?aia aea/aii o??iaeiee,
io/eiai-ieaciiaee ? io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yaee; ?icaeyiooi oe?th/?,
aeoaia? e aeaeo?iiii-io/eia? ?ic?yaee, ye? aeicaieythoue ?ic?iaeyoe iia?
iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy ieacie, eiino?othaaoe aoaeoeai? aeaea?aea ieacie e
?ii?a, ieaciia? i?enei?thaa/? aeey ia?iaee iiaa?oi? oaa?aeiai o?ea oa
neioaco iaoa??ae?a, aeey ian-naia?aoi??a, i?enei?thaa/?a ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoeiie e ?ioeo canoinoaaiue, c iaeiiai aieo, ? ?icoe?eoe iao? oyaeaiiy
i?i aeanoeaino? aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a ? iaiaaeaii? iaiaeii??aeii? ieacie
c ae?oaiai aieo;

2) iieacaii, ui aeoaiaee ?ic?yae c eaoiaeii, ui iaeii??aeii
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, iiaeeeaee eeoa i?e iayaiino? oa?iiai?n??
aeaeo?ii?a c ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie aai iaoa??aeo oeaey, a yeee caaaioaaeaia
?iai/a ?a/iaeia; ?ic?yae c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c
ii?iaeienoiai oeaey-eaoiaea o aaeooi? iiae?aiee aei ?ic?yaeo c aeoieii
aaco /a?ac o?oaeo /e niiei o aaeooi; anoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ?ic?yaeo a?ae eiino?oeoe?? ii?iaeieie oeaey-eaoiaea;
aeine?aeaeai? aia?aaoe/i? niaeo?e aeaeo?ii?a e ?ii?a a ?ic?yae? oa
iiyniai? ?o iniaeeaino?; ?ic?iaeai? iai?yieai? aeaea?aea ieacie ia?e
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a, ye? iathoue aenieee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ? ea?iaaio ae?aa?aio iai?yieaiino? iioieo ieacie;

3) aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo c aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?; cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeine?aeaeaii iiaee
(o??iaeiee) oei ?ic?yaeo c aeaeo?iaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?;
aeiaaaeaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai o?aoueiai aeaeo?iaea, yeee
ioiieth? ?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie “eaoiae — aiiae”, nooo?ai ca?eueoo?
eiao?oe??io ?ii?caoe?? ia?e iaoa??aeo aiiaea, a ?aaeeie ?ii?caoe??
caeaaeaoue a?ae ?aaeeio ?iaioe ?icaea?aiiai eaoiaea aeiooaiiai aai
a?eueiiai, iacaeaaeii a?ae iayaiino? iicaeiaaeiueiai ii a?aeiioaiith aei
in? i?ii?aeeo “eaoiae — aiiae” iaai?oiiai iiey; a?aee?eoee ? iiyniaiee
aoaeo c?eao ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo ?aae?aeueiei aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii;
anoaiiaeai? oiiae ?nioaaiiy iaaaoeaiiai ieaaath/iai iioaioe?aeo a
caeaoiaeiiio i?inoi?? i?enei?thaa/?a ieacie c aeaeo?iaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny aeaeo?iiaie c ?icaea?aiiai eaoiaea, ? ?ic?iaeai? ieaciia?
iaoae?caoi?e ae?aeaeo?ee?a ia ?o iniia?, ye? oaeiae aoaeoeai? ? aeey
iaea?aeaiiy aenieiaaeaac?eieo, aeaei?aoeaieo, ciinino?eeeo,
ci?oeithth/eo oa ?ioeo aaciiaoaeaaeo ie?aie;

4) cae?eniaii io/eiai-ieaciiaee ?ic?yae a ia?? iaoa??aeo eieaeoi?a
aeaeo?ii?a /e aeiiii?aeiiai aeaeo?iaea iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o i?ia?aeiino?,
o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino?, i???ioaoe?? ii a?aeiioaiith aei aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea
a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iaai?oiiio iie?; ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee iaea?aeaii?
ieacie ia??a oaa?aeeo o?e ia iniia? io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo ?
aea/aii ian-ca?yaeiaee neeaae ieacie; ?ic?iaeaia oi?aa?naeueia aeaea?aei
?ii?a aac?a ? ia?e c oeei ?ic?yaeii; cai?iiiiiaaiee ? aeine?aeaeaiee
io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yae ia aacao ? ia?? oaa?aeeo o?e; aeiaaaeaii,
ui iiaeaaaiiy aeiaeaoii? iai?oae Vc ia oeee?iae?, yeee ioiieth?
aeaeo?iiiee io/ie o iiacaeiaaeiueiio iaai?oiiio iie?, i?eaiaeeoue aei
?inoo ?ii?caoe?? ia?e oaa?aeiai o?ea a iaiaaeai?e iaeano? aaee/ei Vc ,
yeui iaia? oa?iiai?n?? c iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iaea, ui aeia?iao?oueny; i?e
aia?a?yo aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea A0 10 eaA aeey aoaeoeaii? ?ii?caoe?? ia?e
iaoa??aeo eieaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a iaiao?aeia iaai?oia iiea c ?iaeoeoe??th A
0,04 Oe ? oene ia?e iaae ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith ?0 1 Ia; aeyaeaia ?
iiyniaia ciiia no?oeoo?a ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo i?e ci?i? A; ?ic?iaeai?
i?ea?iaeuei? aeaea?aea ieacie, ui aeei?enoiaothoue oeae oei ?ic?yaeo;
aeine?aeaeaiee ianaiino?eiee aeoaiaee ?ic?yae c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii a
ia?? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie, yea aeia?iao?oueny aeaeo?iiiei io/eii, ? ia eiai
iniia? noai?aia i?ea?iaeueia aeaea?aei ieacie iaoa??ae?a, yeei ia
aeanoeaa oa?iiaeaeo?iiia ai?n?y;

5) iaoiaeaie ian-niaeo?iiao???, cai?ioiueiai ?aca?oi?ae?anueeiai
?icn?thaaiiy ?ii?a, ?aioaai?anueeiai oeoi?anoeaioiiai aiae?co ? iioeee
aeine?aeaeaiee aeaiaioiee neeaae ieacie ia?e oaa?aeeo o?e ? iayai?noue
aeii?oie iaoa??aeo aeaeo?iae?a ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo a ieaci?, ui
aaia?o?oueny; aeiaaaeaii, ui a ?ic?yae? c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai oeaey-eaoiaea oe? aeii?oee ciaoiaeyoueny ia
??ai? 10-4 ; a ?ic?yae? a aeia?iaoaaiiyi aiiaea aeii?oee neeaaeathoue
10-2; a ?ic?yae? c aeaeo?iiiei io/eii 10-4.

6) ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a, yeee
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?aeiieo oei, ui ae?aeaeo?ee-i?aeeeaaeeieo
ai?uothoue o iio?e aeniei ?ii?ciaaii? ieacie ia?e ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie,
ioi/othoue eiai ii ia?eoa??? oo?eioaa/ai c aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiiai iaoa??aeo
? iiaeathoue ia iueiai aenieee iioaioe?ae oaei? aaee/eie, uia ?icieeaiiy
?iiaie ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ia?aaeuoaaei iaieeaiiy, iio?i iioaioe?ae
oo?eioaa/a-i?ia?aeieea cieaeothoue aei nioaiue aieueo ? iaieeththoue
aenieiaaeaac?eio ie?aeo.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

1) cai?iiiiiaai? ? aeine?aeaeai? iia? oeie ?ic?yae?a oe?ieiai aaeeoeo,
anoaiiaeai? iia? o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? ? aeanoeaino? oeeo ?ic?yae?a c
aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?; ?ic?iaeai? ?
ai?iaaaeaeai? iia? iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy ieacie ia?e oaa?aeeo o?e ia
iniia? oeeo ?ic?yae?a, iia? eiino?oeoe?? aeaea?ae ieacie e ?ii?a oa
ieaciiaeo i?enei?thaa/?a, iia? oaoiieia?? oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy
iaoaeaaeo ? aaciiaoaeaaeo ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a, ye? ai?iaaaeaeai? a
eiie?aoi? ae?iae;

2) ?ic?iaeai?, aeaioiaeai? e oni?oii aenieoaoothoueny ae??aiina??ei? ?
aeine?aei? c?acee aaeooiiiai iaeaaeiaiiy c iai?yieaieie ?
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaeie aeaea?aeaie ieacie, ieaciiaeie iaoae?caoi?aie,
ieaciiaeie i?enei?thaa/aie, ieaciio?i?/ieie ?aaeoi?aie, ye?
aeicaieythoue iaea?aeoaaoe i?aeaeuaiee eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie, ca?eueoaiee ?ici?? iiaa?oi? ia?iaee, aenie? aaeaac?th,
aonoeio, aeaeo?i- ? oaieii?ia?aei?noue ie?aie i?eeaae?a i?aeaeuaii?
iiooaeiino? ? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? iaaei?ia?aeii? ea?ai?ee, aaceiioaeoieo
aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a, iaianaiiy aeaei?aoeaieo, ia iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo
i?aeeeaaeeieao, a oiio /ene? ae?aeaeo?e/ieo, c ??ciith i???ioaoe??th a
i?inoi?? e aioo??oi?ie iiaa?oiyie;

3) ?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeuei? oaoiieia?? oa?ii?iiii? iaoae?caoe??
ae?aeaeo?ee?a, iaianaiiy aaciiaoaeaaeo ie?aie oa aaeineiiaeaia
oaoiieia?y oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy a oe?eiio; ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai?
eiie?aoi? oaoiieia?? ia cai?iiiiiaaieo i?eno?iyo aeey ie?aieo aeae?a
ae?ia?a, iaianaiiy neeaaeieo aaciiaoaeaaeo ie?aie, aeaioiaeaiiy
?aae?aoe?eii aacia/ieo aeniei?ano?nieo ?aae?i?cioiiieo i?eeaae?a,
?aioaai?anueeeo oioioaaeii?a c i?aeaeuaiith eiio?anoi?noth ?
?icae?eueiith caeaoi?noth, eiioaeo?a aei iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
aioeo?eeoe?eieo ? ci?oeithth/eo oa??a a ?ioeo ae?iaao;

4) ?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeai? ia Iineianueeiio caaiae? aeaeo?iaaeooiieo
i?eeaae?a, iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio ia’?aeiaii? “Enoie” (i. O?yc?ii), IEA
ae?iaie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy “Ieaiaoa” (i. Iiaai?iae), IAe? o?ci?iaeai ?i.
O.A. Eoe?ia (i. Iineaa), IEA (i. ?aiainueea, Iineianueea iae.), IAe?
“I??ii” (i. Ee?a),aeine?aeiiio caaiae? IAe? “I??ii” (i. Ee?a), NEOA c AA
IOe “?ssAe” (i. Ee?a), AO “Niaoeoaoi?ea” (i. Ee?a) oa ?ioeo.
?acoeueoaoe iniiaieo ai?iaaaeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeai? a?aeiia?aeieie
aeoaie ? aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

1) Ia iniia? aea/aiiy aieueo-aiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ic?yaeo c
??cieie eiino?oeoe?yie eaoiaea, aei??thaaiue oaiia?aoo?e no?iie
oeaey-eaoiaea o ??cieo oi/eao, aia?aaoe/ieo niaeo??a aeaeo?ii?a o
?ic?yae?, aieeao iaoa??aeo oeaey-eaoiaea ? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ia oiiae
ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoai?ci aeeoocii? (iaeii??aeii?)
i?ea’ycee aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo ia eaoiae?, yeee aeia?iao?oueny,
iaoiiaeaiee oa?iiaeaeo?iiiith ai?n??th aai ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie, aai ae
iaoa??aeo oeaey-eaoiaea. O oaeee niin?a iiyniththoueny aeine?aee I.A.
Aei?iaeiiaa c iaea?aeaiiy aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo ia i?ae? ? o?ii?, a naia:
?ic?yae i?aeo?eioaaany oa?iiaeaeo?iiiith ai?n??th c oeaey-eaoiaea, a ia
yeithnue “aiiiaeueiith” ai?n??th c i?ae? aai o?iio. Oaea o?aeoiaea
a?aee?eaa? iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo ia aoaeue-yeiio
iaoa??ae?, yeui aeeeth/aia o?i?/ia aca?iiae?y i?ae iaoa??aeii ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie ? no?ieaie oa?iiai?n?eiiai oeaey-eaoiaea, a oaeiae aeicaiey?
noai?eoe eiie?aoi? eiino?oeoe?? eaoiaeieo aoce?a ?ic?yaeo.

2) Aeoiaey/e c aei??thaaiue ?iciiae?eo oaiia?aoo?e no?iie
ii?iaeienoiai oeaey-eaoiaea ii eiai aeiaaeei?, ia?aiao??a ieacie ( ne,
Te ) iaae eaoiaeii anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic?yae ?c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai ooaiieaaeiai eaoiaea o aaeooi ? iaoiiethth/ei
eaoiae aiiaeii ? aiaeia?/iei aei ?ic?yaeo c aeoieii aaco /a?ac o?oaeo o
aaeooi. Oai??th oeueiai ?ic?yaeo ocaaaeueiaii ia aeiaaeie
iaiaeii??aeiiai ca oi?iith eaoiaea, a naia: ?ic?yae i?ea’yco?oueny aei
iaeano? c iaeneiaeueiei a?aae??ioii eiioeaio?aoe?? ieacie o iiia?a/iiio
ia?a??c? eaoiaea, oiaoi iiaeeco aeo?aeiiai c??co oeee?iae?e/iiai
eaoiaea, aai aei ia?aoyaeie iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co eaoiaea. Iieiaeaiiy
iaeano? i?ea’ycee ?ic?yaeo aecia/a? caeaaei?noue iaea?aeoaaiiai c
?ic?yaeo ?iiiiai no?oio a?ae aaee/eie ?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey, yea
iaeeaaeaii ia ?ic?yae, a naia: aiia ? e?i?eiith, yeui iathoue i?noea
caoaeaiiy ia eaoiae? e ?ii?caoe?y ieacie iaiiaia, aai iaiiiioiiiith i?e
oeee?iae?e/i?i ii?iaeieno?i eaoiae?.

?nioth/a oai??y ia iiynith? anoaiiaeaieo aaoi?ii aeaii? aeena?oaoe??
iniaeeainoae ?ic?yaeo c oeaio?aeueiei o?eii ? inueiaei aiiaeii. Oaeei
/eiii, ia o?eueee ocaaaeueiaii oai??th ?ic?yaeo ia eaoiaee ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e, aea ? noai?aii iaoeia? iniiae ?ic?iaee iiaiai eeano
aeaea?ae ieacie iai?yieaieo ieaciiaeo aeia?iaoaa/?a, ye? aia?oa
?aae?ciaaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai, aecia/aii ?o ia?aiao?e e
oeyoe iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo. Iai?yieai? aeia?iaoaa/? iaae?eii
i?aoeththoue c o?i?/ii iaeiaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie oeio i?ae?, n??aea,
cieioa. Oiio ?o canoiniaaii aeey noai?aiiy aenieiye?nieo
?aioaaiioaaeii?a, eiioaeo?a aei iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii?
iaoaeiea?ai?ee, n??aeaiiy aaaeo/eo o?aeo?a oaeeaaiae?a, i?aeiaiiy
ae?aeaeo?ee?a.

3) Ca?aeii c aeine?aeaeaiiyie caeaaeiino? aieueo-aiia?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee a?ae ?icaea?thaaiiy eaoiaea, iaoa??aeo ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie,
oeneo aaeanoiiai aai ?aaeoeaiiai aaco o ?ic?yaei?e eaia?? anoaiiaeaii,
ui aieueo-aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?iaeiiai aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii o ia?? iaoa??aeo aiiaea aecia/a?oueny oaieiaei
?aaeeiii (?icaea?thaaiiyi) eaoiaea: o a?eueiiio ?aaeei? c a?ae’?iiei
ia’?iiei ca?yaeii a?ey iiaa?oi? eaoiaea aieueo-aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
ia? iaeei iaeneioi, iia’ycaiee ?c caiaethaaiiyi ?ic?yaeo, i?ney /iai Va
niaaea? ca caeiiii Va=const/Ia , a aeae? aiiaeia iaae?iiy iai?oae ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oio ?icaea?thaaiiy eaoiaea ? aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie
aeia?iaoaaiiy e ?ii?caoe?? iaoa??aeo aiiaea. O aeiooaiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe
eaoiaea aac ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo aeaeo?ii?a o iiaa?oi? eaoiaea
aieueo-aiia?ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ia? aeaa iaeneioie, ia?oee c yeeo
iaoiiaeaiee caiaethaaiiyi ?ic?yaeo, a ae?oaee ia?aoiaeii a?ae
ianaiino?eiiai ?ic?yaeo aei naiino?eiiai c iaa??aaiiyi eaoiaea oeyoii
aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ?iiaie, ye? aaia?othoueny ?ic?yaeii. Iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe ca aeaeyaeii AAO o aaeooi? ocaiaeaeothoueny ?c aiaeii/an
iioae?eiaaieie ?iaioaie A. Ione, O. A??oa oa ?i., aea oe?oa ieo, ?
iiyniththoue aeaeyae AAO o aaeooi? ia i?inoei ciaioaiiyi i?eaiiaeiiai
no?eaea iioaioe?aeo, a ciaioaiiyi oeneo ia?e ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie o
?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo i?e ciaioaii? ?ic?yaeiiai no?oio, yea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei eiiieaeniiai ia?a?iciiae?eo iioaioe?aeo i?inoi?o o ?ic?yae?, o oiio
/ene? i?eaeaeo?iaeieo no?eae?a iioaioe?aeo. Naia oeei iiyniaii ia
o?eueee anth aaaaoiiai?oi?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo AAO ae?iaeiiai
?ic?yaeo c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii, yea niinoa??aaeany ? ia aoea iiyniaia
?ioeie aaoi?aie, aea ? noai?aii ia?aaeoiiae aeey i?aeoe/iiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?yaeo oeyoii eiai iiaea?i?caoe??.

4) Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ?ii?caoe?? ieacie ia?e iaoa??aeo
aiiaea ?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie “eaoiae — aiiae” ne?ae ioi/oaaoe
aeiaeaoeiaei oeee?iae?ii i?ae aeiaeaoi?i a?aeiinii cacaieaiiai eaoiaea
iioaioe?aeii ? ia?aoiaeeoe aei o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo a ia?? iaoa??aeo
aiiaea, ?aaeei ?ii?caoe?? a yeiio caeaaeeoue, ianaiia?aae, a?ae
oaieiaiai ?aaeeio (?icaea?thaaiiy) eaoiaea. AAO oeee?iae?a o ?ic?yae?
iiaea aooe ye c?inoath/ith, oae ? niaaeath/ith. Iiaeeeaee c?ea
o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo ?aae?aeueiei aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii Ic. Iaoai?ci c?eao
?ic?yaeo ? niiniae noaa?e?caoe?? oeueiai c?eao iia’ycai? ?c aieeaii Ic
ia noai?iue ?aeaenaoe?? io/ea aeaeo?ii?a c eaoiaea, ciaioaiiyi
i?eaiiaeiiai no?eaea iioaioe?aeo, eiee c?inoaiiy Ic ca?eueoo?
i?ia?aei?noue i?ae eaoiaeii ? aiiaeii , ciaioo? Va ? ?ic?yaeio
iiooaei?noue, yea aeae?ey?oueny ia aiiae?, ieae/a ii?iaa aeia?iaoaaiiy
iaoa??aeo aiiaea. sse o ae?iaeiiio, oae e o o??iaeiiio ?ic?yaeao
ieaaath/ee iioaioe?ae ieacie Vf o caeaoiaeiiio i?inoi?? ? a?ae’?iiei i?e
iaaaeeeeo oaeaeeinoyo aeia?iaoaaiiy iaoa??aeo aiiaea,
ii?yaeeo q 4 ii/n, ? iaaaeeeeo oeneao aeiaeaoeiaiai aaco ? 5.10-4
Ia. ?ic?yaee aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey iaoae?caoe?? ae?aeaeo?e/ieo
ie?aie. E??i oiai, ?ic?yaee ia?aae on?i o??iaeiee ?ic?yae o
iiacaeiaaeiueiio iaai?oiiio iie?, ? ia?niaeoeaieie aeey iaea?aeaiiy
neeaaeieo ca ci?noii ie?aie oeio i?o?eaeo oeoaio, ye? iaea?aeothoue ye
?acoeueoao neioaco i?ae ae??th ?iiiiai aiiaa?aeoaaiiy i?aeeeaaeeiee.
Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaii, aeine?aeaeaii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii iiaee oei
?ic?yaeo c iaeii??aeii aeia?iaoaaiei aeaeo?iaeii o??iaeiee ?ic?yae, oei
naiei noai?aii o?ceei-oaoi?/i? iniiae ?nioaaiiy iiaiai eeano ieaciiaeo
i?enei?thaa/?a c ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith o oaa?ae?e oac?, ye? canoiniaaii
aeey noai?aiiy aenieiaaeaac?eieo i?aeoa??a, iaoae?caoe?? ae?aeaeo?ee?a,
neioaco niieoe iaoae?a aai iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?c aacaie, iaea?aeaiiy
aeoeaieo aeniei?ano?nieo aeieia?/ii aacia/ieo oa??a ?aae?i?cioiiieo
i?eeaae?a.

5) Ian-niaeo?iiao?e/ieie, ?aae?ioaoi?/ieie (aei??thaaiiy IA*-ooi?a)
e iioe/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea c oaa?aeei o?eii o iiacaeiaaeiueiio ii a?aeiioaiith aei io/ea
iaai?oiiio iie? c aaee/eiith ?iaeoeoe?? A 0,04 Oe aeey aia?a?e
aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea A = 10 eaA caiaeth?oueny ieaciiai-io/eiaee ?ic?yae ?
noai?th?oueny aeniei?ii?ciaaia ieacia ia?e oaa?aeiai o?ea, yeui ?? oene
iaae o?eii ia?aaeuo? 1 Ia. I?e 0,01 A 0,04 Oe ? o?e aea ?aoo? oiia
iiaeeeaa caiaethaaiiy io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiiai ?ic?yaeo, eiee aeaeo?iiiee
io/ie ioi/aiee aeaeo?iaeii i?ae aeiaeaoi?i a?aeiinii oaa?aeiai o?ea
iioaioe?aeii, yeee ia?aaeuo? aeae?eueea iioaioe?ae?a ?ii?caoe?? aoii?a
ia?e. Iaoai?ci noai?aiiy ciiii? no?oeoo?e ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo i?e ci?i?
?iaeoeoe?? iaai?oiiai iiey iia’ycaiee c iniaeeainoyie ?ooo aeaeo?ii?a
io/ea o iaai?oiiio iie? oa c eiai iiiaaeaiiyi ia ?iai/o ?a/iaeio.

Aeey no?eeiai ai??iiy ieaciiai-io/eiaiai ?ic?yaeo i?e iiaeaaaii?
oaa?aeiai o?ea aonoeiith o aeaeyae? noa?aeiy ae?aiao?ii d ia ia?eoa??th
aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea i?ae eooii aei neee oyae?iiy c i?enei?aiiyi caiiiai
oyae?iiy g iaiao?aeii, uia iiaeaaaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ia ia?aaeuoaaei
aaee/eie:

dm/dt = ( 6d/g )2/3 ,
(1)

aea — eiao?oe??io iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao ?icieaao; — oaeaee?noue
aeia?iaoaaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie i?e oaiia?aoo?? ieaaeaiiy.

I?e i???ioaoe?? iiaa?oi? ?iai/iai oaa?aeiai o?ea aai ??aeeie a
iaeano? iiiaaeaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea o iaai?oiiio iie? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii
aei aa?oeeae? ieaciiai-io/eiaee ? ieaciiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yaee no?eei
ai?youe ia an?o ?a/iaeiao, iacaeaaeii a?ae ?o oaciaiai noaio,
oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy, aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? aac
i?enooiino? aaeanoiiai aaco o i?inoi?? ?ii?caoe?? e aac aeeiiaiiy
iaaaaeaiiai aeua ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Ca aeiiiiiaith io/eiai-ieaciiaiai
?ic?yaeo iaa?oue i?e oieiaeieo no?ieao ?ic?yaeii? eaia?e iiaeia
iaea?aeaoe aaaaoica?yaei? ?iie oaa?aeioacieo ?a/iaei, ye? ia
?iceeaaeathoueny.

Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeiee ca?yae ?ii?a Z0 i?e aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea c oaa?aeei o?eii, ??aeeiith aai aacii o iiacaeiaaeiueiio ii
a?aeiioaiith aei io/ea iaai?oiiio iie? aecia/a?oueny ae?acii net0
2/az, (2), aea ne — eiioeaio?aoe?y aeaeo?ii?a ieacie, t0 — /an ?o
ooiaeo c i?inoi?o ?ii?caoe??, az — eiao?oe??io oaea?ii? ?ii?caoe??
aeaeo?iiaie ieacie a ??aiyii? aaeaino /anoeiie. I?e aeei?enoaii?
aen?aeueii-neiao?e/ieo aeaeo?iiieo aa?iao ?c iiooaei?noth aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea (110) eAo iaea?aeo?ii Z0 2.

Oaeei /eiii, aia?oa iaea?aeaii io/eiai-ieaciiaee ?
io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yaee, ye? aaia?othoue aeniei?ii?ciaaio ieacio
ia?e oaa?aeioacieo ?a/iaei i?e aca?iiae?? iiooaeiiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea
c oaa?aeei o?eii o iiacaeiaaeiueiio ii a?aeiioaiith aei io/ea iaai?oiiio
iie? c ?iaeoeoe??th (0,05 0,5) Oe. Oei naiei noai?aii iiaee eean
eiino?oeoe?e aeaea?ae ieacie ia?e oaa?aeeo o?e, ye? ia o?eueee
eiieo?othoue ?c aeoaiaeie, A* ? IA* aeaea?aeaie ieacie i?e iiooaeiino?
io/ea aei 10 eAo, aea e ? ?aeeii iiaeeeaei ?ii?caoi?ii ia?e aeey
iaaeiiooaeieo aeaeo?iiieo aa?iao iiooaei?noth (102 103) eAo. Ca?aene
aeo?eathoue oi?eaeuei? iiaeeeaino? iaea?aeaiiy iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?c
ieaciiaiai noaio ?a/iaeie. Noai?aii ? ai?iaaaeaeaii aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaa
aeaea?aei ieacie c ianaiino?eiei aeoaiaei ?ic?yaeii o i?ioeane
aei?iuoaaiiy ie?aie iaoae?a, ye? iaea?aeaii a ?ic?yae? c aeia?iaoaaiei
aiiaeii. Ciaeaeaii oiiae iioeiaeueii? /enoioe ieacie oaeiai aeaea?aea,
ye? aeinyaathoueny iiaeaaaiiyi ia ?icaea?thaaiee eaoiae ? ae?ai
a?ae’?iiiai ii a?aeiioaiith aei eieaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a iioaioe?aeo.

6) ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae oa?ii?iiiiai inaaeaeaiiy ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a,
yeee a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae “?iiiiai inaaeaeaiiy” Ae. Iaooiena oei, ui
canoiniaothoueny ?ic?yaee c iaeii??aeiei aeia?iaoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaea o
aaeooi?, a ia aaeooiii-aeoaiaee aai aeaa??th/ee ?ic?yae ?c aaeanoiei
aacii. A?aei?iiith iniaeea?noth oa?ii?iiieo ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a ?, ia?aae
on?i, a?aenooi?noue e?aiaeue ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ia i?aeeeaaeeioe? ? a
ia’?i? ie?aee (o ii??aiyii? c aaeooiiith aeoaith), i?aeaeuaia /enoioa ?
u?euei?noue ie?aie (ii??aiyii c aeaa??th/ei ?ic?yaeii, o oiio /ene?
iaaiao?iiiei), a oaeiae iaaaaaoi a?eueoee ae?aiacii aa??thaaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a (i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?eno?i?a, aia?a?e /anoeiie,
aeiai?o ?iai/eo ?a/iaei). Cae?eniaii eiie?aoi? i?ea?iaeuei? niiniae
iaoae?caoe?? ae?aeaeo?ee?a ca ?aooiie ?o ai?uaiiy ?acii ?c i?eoeneoaa/ai
i?ae aenieee iioaioe?ae a?aeiinii aeaea?aea ieacie aai canoinoaaiiy
?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii ieaciiaeo i?enei?thaa/?a. Iaoiae oa?ii?iiiiai
inaaeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii o ae?iaieoeoai eiie?aoieo ae?ia?a (ieoiaea?i?
ia?e ianin?a, oi?noiee iaeueiiai aeecaeueieo aeaeaoi?a, i?oai?
aaia?aoi??a iaeo?ii?a, o?eo??a? aeaea?aea -aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
iaeo?ae?caoi?e noaoe/ii? aeaeo?eee, eiioaeoe ? aa?’??i? oa?e
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a, eaca?i? aeca?eaea. Oaeei /eiii, aeaia ?iaioa iioe?eea
o?ce/i? oyaeaiiy i?i ?ic?yaee iecueeiai oeneo, noai?eea iniiae iiai?
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??, yea aeei?enoiao? ?ic?yaee c iaeii??aeiei
aeia?iaoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaea o aaeooi?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c yaeu a ?ii?ciaaieo aacao
(I?inuee, 1981), III i V Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c o?ceee aaciaiai
?ic?yaeo (Ee?a, 1975, Iinuee, 1991), IV-VII Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c
o?ceee iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ieacie (Ee?a, 1975 ? 1978, Eai?ia?aae, 1983,
Oaoeaio, 1987), IV-VII Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c ieaciiaeo
i?enei?thaa/?a e ?ioeo ?iaeaeoi??a (I?inuee, 1976, Iineaa, 1982,
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1986, Oa?e?a, 1991), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c
o?ceee ieacie oa ?? canoinoaaiue (Caaieai?iae, 1986), Ananithci?e
eiioa?aioe?? AII “?ioaa?aoe?y ? iaoa?i?/ia noeioeyoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee” (Iineaa, 1981), III i IV Ananithcieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c o?ceee ? oaoiieia?? oiieeo ie?aie (?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1984 ? 1986), Ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo c i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee (Oaaai?ia,
1982, Oa?e?n?, 1987), Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? c oi?ioaaiiy iaoaeaaeo
eiiaeainao?a (Oa?e?a, 1990), Ananithciiio nai?ia?? “Iia? aaeooii?
iaoiaee iaea?aeaiiy oiieeo ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a” (Oa?e?a, 1991),
Ananithci?e ia?aae? c oeeeeio?iiieo i?enei?thaa/?a (Iineaa, 1971),
Ananithcieo nai?ia?ao c o?ceee ? oaoi?ee ?ioaineaieo ?iiieo io/e?a
(Ee?a, 1978-1993), Ananithcieo nai?ia?ao c iaea?aeaiiy ? aeanoeainoae
oiieeo ie?aie (Ee?a, 1977 ? 1978, Iaeana, 1982), Ananithciiio nai?ia?? c
aaaaoica?yaeieo ?ii?a (Oa?e?a, 1975), Ananithci?e ia?aae? c
i?enei?thaa/?a ?ii?a iecueeeo ? na?aaei?o aia?a?e (Ee?a, 1981),
aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “Oiie? ie?aee o ae?iaieoeoa?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a ? ?ioaa?aeueieo noai” (Oa?e?n?, 1981,
Iaeue/ee, 1983, Iineaa, 1987), I i IV Ananithci?e ? Ana?in?enuee?e
eiioa?aioe?yo c iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeanoeainoae eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a
io/eaie ca?yaeaeaieo /anoeiie (Oiinuee, 1988 ? 1996), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao
AI N?N? “Canoinoaaiiy iecueeioaiia?aoo?ii? ieacie” (Iineaa, 1989,
Iao?icaaiaenuee, 1990, ??eoonuee, 1991), iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? AI A?N?
“Aca?iiae?y ieacie c iiaa?oiath” (I?inuee, 1979), ?anioae?eainueeeo
nai?ia?ao “Aeaeo?iiii-?iiia oaoiieia?y ? iaeaaeiaiiy” (Ee?a, 1982,1985,
1987), iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo nai?ia?ao Oe?a?inueeiai aaeooiiiai oiaa?enoaa
(Oa?e?a, 1993, 1995, 1996), I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “Oiie? ie?aee a
aeaeo?ii?oe?” (Oa?e?a, 1997), Neiiic?oi? “ Aaeooii? oaoiieia?? ?
iaeaaeiaiiy” (Oa?e?a, 1998), I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo “I?iaeaie o?ce/ii? ? a?iiaaee/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee” (Ee?a,
1997, 1998).

E??i oiai, /anoeia ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe i?aaenoaaeyeanue ia
I?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo c yaeu a ?ii?ciaaieo aacao (Ienoi?ae, 1971,
Aeiaeoiaai, 1975, Aethnnaeueaei?o, 1983, Ooeoca, 1997), XI i XVII
I?aeia?iaeieo neiiic?oiao c ?ic?yae?a ? aeaeo?e/ii? ?cieyoe?? o aaeooi?
(Aa?e?i, 1984, Aeiaeoiaai, 1998) e ?ioeo eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao,
ia?aaeao, cie?aia ui??/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo IOe “?ssAe”. Aiie
aeaiiino?oaaeenue ia AAeIA N?N? ? O?N? o 1983-1990 ?.?.

?iaioa i?aeo?eioaaeanue AeEIO N?N?, I?aceae??th IAIO, AeE Oe?a?ie c
ieoaiue iaoee, oaoi?ee ? i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, I?iiaoee Oe?a?ie,
aini?ic?aooieiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie N?N?, Oe?a?ie ? ?in??. ?? ?acoeueoaoe
aa?eoee a iaoeia? ca?oe IOe “?ssAe” ca 1970-1997 ?iee., ca?oe c
ainiaeiaiai??a ? 4 eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe??, aeeiiai? i?ae iaoeiaei
ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a aeaii? aeena?oaoe??; aioo?oueny aei caoenoo 5-a
eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? aeeiio?oueny
Aea?aeaaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia AeIOI-97 c iai?yieo 05.07
“Iaoa??aee ? oaoiieia?? aeey iaieaaeaiiy ? iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue iaeyaee i?iaeai, an?
iinoaiiaee caaea/, ?o iaaiai?aiiy ? aeniiaee, a oaeiae aecia/aeueia
?ieue o aeiaoiaeao, ?ic?aooieao, i?iaeooaaii?, aei?iaoaaiiyo,
ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a, iniaeeai a ?iaioao, ye? ii/eiathoueny c
eiai i??caeua.

Ia`?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ia 357 noi??ieao
oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 129 ?enoie?a, 8 oaaeeoeue. Aiia ia? anooi, 5 aeaa,
caeeth/aiiy, aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e c 234 iaca. E??i
oiai, a aeiaeaoeo c?a?ai? aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiue ?ic?iaie.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a?eueo i?ae o 100
ia?oiaeaea?aeao, c yeeo o aeena?oaoe?? oeeoothoueny 20 aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoa, 63 noaoo? ( 3 iaeyaee), c ieo 40 iaca noaoae iiaeaii o
nieneo ioae?eaoe?e a aaoi?aoa?ao?.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ci?no ?iaioe, noai
i?iaeaie ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. Cie?aia
aeacaii, ui a?aeiia iai ia?oa caaaeea i?i aeaa??th/ee ?ic?yae c
aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c oeee?iae?e/iiai ii?iaeienoiai eaoiaea
iia’ycaia c ?iaioaie c iioe/ii? niaeo?ineii?? aoii?a. ?ic?yae c aiiaeii,
ui aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi? a iaai?oiiio iie?, cai?iiiiiaaiee a 1957 ?.
aeey ?iiiiai aeaea?aea ian-naia?aoi?a. I?ioa ?noioiee aieea ia
noeioethaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ? canoinoaaiue ?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui
iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, iaee eeoa ?iaioe Ae. Iaooiena,
ii/eiath/e c 1963 ?., c i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oiieeo ie?aie oeyoii ?iiiiai
aiiaa?aeoaaiiy i?aeeeaaeeiee. Ae. Iaooien ? eiai niiini?e aeia?a
ona?aeiiethaaee cia/aiiy oeeo ?ia?o ? ?o iane?aeee, iaeiae aeanoeaino?
?ic?yae?a ?o iaei oe?eaaeee, iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue i?ioeanai ia
i?aeeeaaeeioe?. Oa iacaaa?ii aoei cai?iiiiiaaii ?ic?yae c eaoiaeii, ui
aeia?iaoaaany o no?auaieo iieyo, ?ic?yae c ioieiaeaeaiei aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iaoaaany aac iaai?oiiai iiey, ?ic?yae c aeia?iaoaaiiyi iaoa??aeo
eieaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a aac iaai?oiiai iiey. Oei naiei aecia/eeenue o?e
iniiai? eeane noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui
iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, a naia: 1) ?ic?yaee c eaoiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny; 2) ?ic?yaee c aiiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny; 3)
aeaeo?iiii-io/eia? ?ic?yaee. Iniiaiee iaaeie?e oeeo ?ia?o, iieyaaa o
iecueeiio cia/aii? eiao?oe??ioa ?ii?caoe?? ia?e ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie a
iioioe? ieacie ? any ianooiia ?noi??y ?icaeoeo ?ic?yae?a c
aeaeo?iaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o
iaiaaaii? i?aeaeueoe ? i?aeneeeoe oei naiei ?iiia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy
i?aeeeaaeeiee e ?ioaineai?noue ?iiieo io/e?a.

?ic?yaee c eaoiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny. A iao?e eaiaeeaeaonuee?e
aeena?oaoe?? aoei iaea?aeaii 0,1, aea o?eueee ia i?ae?. Ianooiiei
e?ieii noaea ?iaioa A.I.Aei?iaeiiaa, aea iaea?aeaii 1 ia i?ae? ? o?ii?
? aeacoaaeinue, ui aeoaiaee ?ic?yae c ?icina?aaeaeaiith (aeeoociith)
i?ea’yceith ia eaoiae? ? iiaeeeaei caaaeyee “aiiiaeuei?e ai?n??”
aeaeo?ii?a c ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie eaoiaea i?e ia?aaeuaii? “e?eoe/iiai oeneo
ia?e”. Iniiaia caaaeaiiy aeaae 2 oe??? ?iaioe neeaaea? iiyniaiiy
?acoeueoao?a A.I.Aei?iaeiiaa, anoaiiaeaiiy ?noeiiiai iaoai?cio aeeoocii?
i?ea’ycee aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo ia eaoiae? ? noai?aiiy oaeiai aeaea?aea
ieacie, yea iiaei a i?aoethaaoe ia etha?e ?iai/?e ?a/iaei?, yea o?i?/ii
ia aca?iiae?? c oeaeai.

?ic?yaee c aiiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny. Aonaaei A.I. iaea?aeaii 1
caaaeyee iayaiino? aa?y/eo aocueeeo no?iie ?ic?yaeii? eaia?e a neeueiiio
iaai?oiiio iie?. A.I.Aei?iaeiiao aaeaeinue i?aeo?eiaoe aeoaiaee ?ic?yae
aac iaai?oiiai iiey ? 1 eeoa i?e iayaiino? oa?iiai?n?? ii?iaeienoiai
eaoiaea. I?ioa iaeia ?c iniiaieo ia?aaaa ?ic?yaeo c aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny, oieiaeiee oeaaeue-aiiae, a oeeo ?iaioao ia aeinyaiooa.
A?i c’yaeany o aeiaoiae? I.I.?eeae?ia oa ?i., iaeiae i?e oeueiio 0,1.
Oeae iaaeie?e e?ea?aeiaaii iaie oeyoii ai?uaiiy ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo a
no?auai? iiey. Oaeo ae i?iiiceoe?th i?ci?oa c?iaeee yiiioe?. Iaeiae
aeanoeaino? ?ic?yae?a c aiiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny, i?aeoe/ii ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue. ?icaeoie iaoiae?a iaea?aeaiiy 1, aecia/aiiy
iaoai?cio i?enei?aiiy ieacie ? oeyo?a ?? canoinoaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
iiai? o??iaeii? oi?ie ?ic?yaeo noaiiaeyoue iaoo 3-? aeaae aeena?oaoe??.
Ine?eueee iaa?oue aieueo-aiia?i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo ia
aoee aeine?aeaeai?, aenia?eiaioe ii/aeenue ia ae?iaeiiio ?ic?yae? c
?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith ia aiiae?, ui ioieiaeaeoaaany.

Aeaeo?iiii-io/eia? ?ic?yaee. ?iaioa ?.O.E??iiaey ia aeaaaea ia?niaeoea
ia iaea?aeaiiy cia/ieo a ?ic?yaeao c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie
aeaeo?iiiei io/eii. Oiio aoei cai?iiiiiaaii a ia?o ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie
ai?uoaaoe ?icaea?aiee eaoiae aai aeei?enoiaoaaoe A*-?ic?yae /e ?ic?yae
c i?io?eaiiyi aaeanoiiai aaco /a?ac ii?iaeieio eaoiaea. An? o?e
i?iiiceoe?? cian?i iai?eaeaoi? aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeaea?ae-?ii?caoi??a
aeey aeaeo?iiieo aa?iao iaaaaaoiiai ae?aiaciio iiooaeiinoae. Iaoa aeaae
4 aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo niinia?a aaia?aoe??
?ioaineaii? ieacie ia?e oaa?aeiai o?ea naiei aeaeo?iiiei io/eii oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy i?eno?ith yiiioe?a.

O an?o o?ueio eeanao ?ic?yae?a aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
iaiao?aeii aoei aeoiaeeoe ca ?aiee canoinoaaiiy oai??e ?ic?yae?a, aanoe
iiooe aeaeo?io?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ?ic?yae?a, aecia/aoe ?o ia?aiao?e e
oiiae iaea?aeaiiy cia/ieo , ciaoiaeeoe canoinoaaiiy ciaeaeaiei
caeiiii??iinoyi, eiino?othaaoe i?eno?i? ? ?ic?iaeyoe iia? oaoiieia??.
Ioaea, aaea ei?ioeee iaeyae ?ia?o iieaco?, ui ieoaiiy i?i aeae?eaiiy
noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, a naiino?eiee iai?yiie o?ceee, oaoi?ee oa
oaoiieia?? aei iinoaiiaee aeaii? ?iaioe i?eei iaa?oue ia noaaeeinue,
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee aeiaaeeiaee iaocaiaeaeaiee oa?aeoa?. Aeaia ?iaioa
iieeeeaia aianoe nooo?aee aianie o ?icaeoie o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo iniia
iaea?aeaiiy ?ioaineaii? ieacie ia?e oaa?aeeo o?e ? iaieeaiiy ie?aie oa
iie?eoo?a ia i?aeeeaaeeiee ethai? i?ia?aeiino?, o iiyniaiiy iniaeeainoae
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiiai oeio ?ic?yae?a, o ciaoiaeaeaiiy
? ao?eaiiy oeyo?a ?o i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Aeacaiei cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? ia ae/a?io?oueny. Aiia neeaaea? a?oio
ianooiiiai ?icaeoeo aeaiiai oeio aeine?aeaeaiue ? canoinoaaiue. I?i oea
na?ae/eoue aeaeaei ia iiaiee nienie iineeaiue ia ?iaioe, ui aa?eoee aei
aeena?oaoe??, a ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, iaeyaeao, iiiia?ao?yo, eieaeeao,
o/aiaiio iin?aieeo, i?ioioeiao aeiaoiae?a, iiioey?i?e e?oa?aoo??. I?e
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe aeena?oaioii aaaaeai? iia? iiiyooy:
“io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yae”, “o??iaeiee ?ic?yae”, “?ic?yaee c
aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?”, “iai?yieaiee
ieaciiaee aeia?iaoaa/”, “o??iaeia aeaea?aei ieacie”, “i?enei?thaa/
ieacie c aiiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny” e ?io?, ye? aoiaeyoue o iaoeiao
oa?i?iieia?th. Aaea cae??ieany oa?i?i, aaaaeaiee aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe??:
“oa?ii?iiia iaieeaiiy”. Na?aae ?ia?o c oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy
iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe aeena?oaoe?th A.I.A?eaanueeiai, oaia yei?
?icaeaa?oueny ? a aeai?e aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?o?e aeaa? (?icae?e?) iaaiaeyoueny iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue:
ciiaee Eaiaith?a, iioeea, cai?ioia ?aca?oi?ae?anueea ?icn?thaaiiy ?ii?a,
?aioaaii-oeoi?anoeaioiee aiae?c, ian-niaeo?iiao??y,
oa?iiiao??y.A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany iiaee ia`?eo aeia?a
?ic?iaeaieie eeiane/ieie iaoiaeaie, uia ia noaaeoe i?ae noii?a
iaae?ei?noue aei??thaaiue. Ia a?aei?io a?ae eeane/iiai aaciaiai
?ic?yaeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaoiaeeee oneeaaeithaaeenue iaieeaiiyi
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie aeaeo?iae?a ia ae?aaiinoe/i? i?eno?i?, ui iaiao?aeii
aoei eiio?iethaaoe. C ae?oaiai aieo, oea aeicaieyei aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia
o?eueee ieaciia?, a e oiieiie?aeia? iaoiaee.

A ae?oa?e aeaa? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?ic?yaee c eaoiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny. Oe? ?ic?yaee ae?eyoueny ia aea? aaeee? a?oie: ?ic?yaee c
ieineei eaoiaeii ? ?ic?yaee c ii?iaeienoei eaoiaeii. A oaeiio ae
ii?yaeeo aeeeaaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?o aeine?aeaeaiue.

?ic?yaee c ieineei eaoiaeii. A?aeiia?aeii aei iiia?aaei?o ?ia?o
“aiiiaeueia ai?n?y” aeaeo?ii?a ii/eia?oueny, eiee oene ia?e ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie iaae eaoiaeii ia?aaeueoue aeayeo e?eoe/io aaee/eio. Oiio ca
?iai/o ?a/iaeio iaie aoei acyoi eaaei?e [7,8], oene iane/aii? ia?e yeiai
i?a ?aaoethaaoenue a iaaeao ? = (10-3103) Ia i?e ii??aiyii iaaaeeeeo
ci?iao oaiia?aoo?e oeaey O = (50500) 0N. Aeey ii??aiyiiy a?aeanue
i?aeue, ia ye?e ?ai?oa aoa iaea?aeaiee aeoaiaee ?ic?yae.

Ca?aeii c [7,8], i?e ethaeo ?iciiae?eao iioaioe?ae?a i?ae aeaeo?iaeaie
? oeneao ia?e eaaei?th ? = (10-3103) Ia aaeaeiny iaea?aeaoe o?eueee
aeaa??th/ee ?ic?yae c ?ic?yaeiei no?oiii Ia 20 iA. Ni?iaa ca?eueoeoe
no?oi Ia i?eaiaeeea aei no?eaeiiiae?aiiai ia?aoiaeo a aeoaiaee ?ic?yae c
eaoiaeiith ieyiith. No?eaie iiaeia aoei cao?eiaoe aei Ia 250 iA, yeui
ci?iaany oaieiaee ae?ai ? /anoeia oa?iiaeaeo?ii?a c ieoee i?ae?a??aaiiy
oeaey iiiaaeaea a ?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie. Ni?iaa c?iaeoe Ia 250 iA
i?eaiaeeea aei ia?aeeaeaiiy ?ic?yaeo ia oeth ieoeo, yea noaaaea eaoiaeii
?ic?yaeo. I?ney oeueiai aoei a?aeoai?aii ?ic?yae ia i?ae?. Oiiae ? 40
Ia, O = 1500 0N aoei aeineoue aeey iaea?aeaiiy no?oi?a Ia 5 A ?
ianooiia ca?eueoaiiy iaiaaeoaaeinue ?ic?yaeiei iii?ii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
iiia?aaeiee?a, iaie aoei anoaiiaeaii neeueiee aieea iacaiiaiaii?
?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith aeiaaeeie oeaey L ia aaee/eio aiiaeii? iai?oae [7],
oiaoi a i?aeo?eiaii? aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo nooo?ao ?ieue a?aa ia no?eueee
oene ia?e ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ?, ia yeiio iaaieiooaaee iiia?aaeieee,
ne?eueee nai oeaaeue. Ine?eueee a aeine?aeao c eaaei??i ? i?aeaeth
oeaaeue aoa iaeiei ? oei naiei (iie?aaeaiiaei), oi nooo?ao ?ieue iiaeiia
aoea a?aoe ?iai/a oaiia?aoo?a oeaey, yea i?iyaey?oueny ia o?eueee /a?ac
aaee/eio ?, a e oa?iiai?n?th. Oiaoi, a i?aeo?eiaii? iaeii??aeiiai
aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c eaaeiieaaeei eaoiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny,
aecia/aeueio ?ieue a?a? oa?iiai?n?y oeaey. Oeae aoaeo, i?e?iaeii,
iiaeiai aooe neeuei?oei o a?eueo aeeaieiio oeae? c ?icaeiaiith a?eueiith
a?ae ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie iiaa?oiath. Oiio iniaeeao oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii
aeoaiaiio ?ic?yaeo c ii?iaeienoei oeaeai-eaoiaeii. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy
iaae?eiino? aeine?ae?a aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ii?iaeieno? oeae?-eaoiaee
??cieo eiino?oeoe?e. Oaoiieia?/i? iiaeeeaino? ?ic?yae?a aea/aeenue o
[9-13].

?ic?yaee c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai eaoiaea.
Aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ?ic?yaee c ii?iaeieiith ??cieo
eiino?oeoe?e [14-17].Aaciaei eaoiaeii aoa oeee?iae?e/iee eaoiae “a”,
ae?aiao? ? aenioa yeiai ci?ithaaeenue a iaaeao dK = (0,516) ii, hK =
(560) ii. Oiaueia no?iee noaiiaeea = (0,21) ii. A?eueo?noue
aei??thaaiue aeeiiaia i?e dK=15 ii, hK=60 ii, =1 ii. Caaaioaaeaiiy
oeaey-eaoiaea noaiiaeei m=(350) a. A ?yae? aeine?ae?a oeae
oeaaeue-eaoiae caaa?thaaany o aa?oi?e /anoei? ae?ao?aaiith ae?aiao?ii
(0,63) ii, ui a?aeiia?aea? oeaeth “a”. Iaea?eueoa aeine?ae?a aeeiiaii c
niieiiiae?aieie oeaeyie “a” [16-19]. Eaa??eioiee eaoiae aeicaieya
iaieethaaoe “caa?oo — aiec” [11]. Eiaen?aeueiee eaoiae “ae” neeaaeaany c
aeaio oeee?iae??a ae?aiao?ii 24 ? 10 ii, a?aeiia?aeii, [13]. A ieaei?e
/anoei? i?ii?aeie i?ae oeee?iae?aie caaa?thaaany ae?ao?aaiith. Eaoiae
“a” yaeya niaith niiei c oeaio?aeueiith anoaaeith [12]. O an?o
oeae?a-eaoiae?a aei aeia i?eaa?thaaeanue o?oai/ea aeiaaeeiith (58) ii ?
ae?aiao?ii (12) ii, aei yei? anoaaeyeenue oa?iiia?e. Iaa??aaeenue
eaoiaee aeaeo?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi c aieueo?aiiai? ni??ae?. Iaeaea on?
eaoiaee, yeui ia oea niaoe?aeueii ia aeacaii, aeaioiaeyeenue ?c
iie?aaeaio. Iniiai? aei??e aeeiiai? ia i?ae?, a oaeiae eaaei??, n??ae?,
cieio?, o?ii?, aethi?i??. Eiaen?aeueiee eaoiae “ae” ? niiei c
oeaio?aeueiith anoaaeith “a” aeicaieyee ci?ithaaoe a?aie/i? oiiae ia
o?eueee ia eaoiae?, aea e ia aiiae?. Aeey oeueiai aiiaeii neoaeeee ia
o?eueee oeee?iae?e /e eiione a iaai?oiiio iie?, aea e noa?aei?, ye?
i?ioiaeeee ii in? eaoiae?a “ae” oa “a” [12-13].

A ia?oeo aeine?aeao [9-11] ca?eueoaiiy aeinyaaeinue canoinoaaiiyi
iaai?oiiai iiey A. Aaee/eia A iaei ci?ithaaea aieueo-aiia?i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ic?yae?a, a yeeo aiiae iaoaa/oaaa eaoiae. Iaea?eueo
neeueii A aieeaa? ia aaee/eio ?iiiiai no?oio Ii ia oo?eioaa/
i?aeeeaaeeiie. Aeey eaoiae?a “a” ? “a” oeae aieea i?iyaeyany a
iaiiiioiiiino? Ii(B), [10]. Aeey eaoiae?a “a” ? “a” Ii(B) aoea e?i?eiith
[9,18], ?ic?yaee c eaoiaeaie “ae” ? “a” oa inueiaei aiiaeii acaaae?
aaneeenue iaai?oiei iieai [13]. Aeieeaei ieoaiiy i?i iiyniaiiy oeeo
?acth/eo a?aei?i a e?eaeo Ii(B) aeey ??cieo oei?a eaoiae?a,
ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio ?o ?nioaaiiy. sseui ooo aecia/aeueio ?ieue iaea
a?aoe oaiia?aoo?a no?iie, oi iio??aii aoei “iiaa/eoe” oa?iiaeaeo?iie c
??cieo eaoiae?a. Oiio aoee aeine?aeaeai? aia?aaoe/i? niaeo?e aeaeo?ii?a
[14,15] ??cieo ?aaeei?a ? c ??cieie oeiaie eaoiae?a. Aeyaeeinue, ui a
aeoaiaiio ?aaeei? (ia niaaeath/?e ae?eyioe? aieueo-aiia?ii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee) ia eaoiae? “a” niaeo? i?inoyao?oueny a?ae ieaciiaeo
aeaeo?ii?a c iaeaea ioeueiaith aia?a??th aei oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a,
aia?a?y yeeo a aeaeo?ii-aieueoao /enaeueii aei??aith? iaae?iith iai?oae
ia ?ic?yae?, Va, [14]. ?icaeai?iiy a?oie oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a, ?o oiiea
no?oeoo?a o aeaeyae? aeaio iaeneioi?a aoee ?ioa?i?aoiaai? o [14,15] ye
iayai?noue aeaeo?ii?a, ui aeeoee c aa?oiueiai e?ath eaoiaea (i?aaee
i?e), ? c aieiai? no?iee eaoiaea (e?aee i?e). I?aaee i?e iniaeeai
?ioaineaiee a eaoiae? “a” ? caaaeaee a?aenooi?e a eaoiae? “a”. Oea
aeicaieeei aeneiaeoe aeoieo, ui ae?eyiea, yea ai?oo? aeaeo?iie, a
eaoiae? “a” ciaoiaeeoueny a?eueo aeeaiei, i?ae a eaoiaeao “a” ? “a”.
Oeth aeoieo iiaeia ia?aa??eoe, yeui eaoiae “a” caaaioaaeeoe ?iai/ith
?a/iaeiith aei naiiai e?eoe/iiai ia?a??co (caoaeaiiy), oiae? a?i noaia
ca oiiaaie aeo?eaiiy ia?e iiae?aiei aei eaoiaea “a”. ? ae?enii, i?e
oeueiio niaeo? aeaeo?ii?a o?ainoi?io?oueny a?ae oeiiaiai aeey niiea aei
oeiiaiai aeey eii?/iiai /e oeee?iae?e/iiai eaoiaea “a” [15]. Ca?aene
aeo?ea?: a ??cieo ca eiino?oeoe??th ii?iaeienoeo eaoiaeao aeaeo?iie
ai?oothoueny ??cieie ae?eyieaie iiaa?oi? eaoiaea. Oea aaaeeeaee aeey
?icoi?iiy o?ceee ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo aeniiaie, ? eiai aaaeaii aoei
i?aeoaa?aeeoe ?ioeie iacaeaaeieie aeaieie. Oiio aeine?aeaeoaaeenue
aia?aaoe/i? niaeo?e ?ii?a, ui aeoiaeyoue /a?ac a?aee?eoee e?ae eaoiaea a
?ic?yae? [16]. Onoaiiaeaii [16], ui aeey eaoiaea “a” niaeo?
iiiio?iiaoe/iee c iai?aoe?eiith o aeae?eueea aeaeo?ii-aieueo ?
iaeneiaeueiith aia?a??th Em = eVa. Aeey eaoiae?a “a” ? “a”
iiiio?iiaoe/i?noue niaeo?a iiaea ii?oooaaoenue ? Em eVa. Oaea
caeiiii??i?noue ni?aaaaeeeaa, yeui a iaeano? caoaeaiiy iiia?a/iiai
ia?a??co eaoiaea ooai?th?oueny iiaea?eiee oa? o ieaci?. Oea iiaeeeai,
yeui /a?ac caoaeaiiy i?ioiaeeoue no?oi, oiaoi yeui a eaoiaeao c
ia?aoyaeeith ia?a??co ciia, yea ai?oo? aeaeo?iie, ciaoiaeeoueny ia?aae
ia?aoyaeeith, aeanue iiaeeco ia?. I?yiei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeeo
aeniiae?a ? aaciina?aaei? i??iiao?e/i? aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e acaeiaae
no?iee eaoiae?a ??cii? eiino?oeoe?? [17]. Aiie iieacaee ui iaeneioi
oaiia?aoo?e no?iee On eaoiae?a c ia?aoyaeeith ?nio? naia ia ia?aoyaeoe?.
O oeee?iae?e/iiio ii?iaeienoiio eaoiae? “a” ?acoeueoao aeyaeany
neeaaei?oei [17]: iaeneioi On ia?ai?uo?oueny ?c ci?iith oiia ai??iiy
?ic?yaeo. Caeiiii??iino? oeueiai ia?ai?uaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe oai???th
aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c aeo?eaiiyi aaco /a?ac o?oaeo o aaeooi, oiaoi
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?ic?yae iiae?aiee aei inoaiiueiai. Oey iiae?ai?noue ia
iiaia, ine?eueee a iaoiio ?ic?yae? aeo?aoe ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie dm/dt
caeaaeaoue a?ae oaieiaiai ?aaeeio eaoiaea a ?ic?yae?, a a ae?oaiio
aeiaaeeo ? iacaeaaeiei ia?aiao?ii.

?icaeioo? Ae.E. Aeaeuee?oa e A.?. O??iaeaaea a oai??? aeoaiaiai
?ic?yaeo c aeo?eaiiyi aaco o aaeooi oyaeaiiy i?i ?iai/o ciio i?ea’ycee
?ic?yaeo ia eaoiae? iiaeia iioe?eoe ia ?ic?yae c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai eaoiaea ? iiynieoe eiai aeanoeaino? oa
oa?aeoa?enoeee ye ?acoeueoao aieeao oiai /e ?ioiai ia?aiao?o ia
iieiaeaiiy ciie i?ea’ycee ?ic?yaeo. Aeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaaaeueieee
oai??th ia aeiaaeie eaoiae?a c ia?aoyaeeith iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co [16] ?
aoee i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ianooiieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia aacao. Aiie aeacaee
ia iaae? oai???. Aeyaeeinue, ui oyaeaiiy i?i ?iai/o ciio ia eaoiae?
caa??aathoueny aeey eaoiaea “a”, i?ioa ?icoaoiao?oueny aiia ia o
caoaeaii? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co, a ia oeaio?aeuei?e anoaaoe? [12]. sse
o?eueee ana oea noaei c?icoi?eei, c’yaeeenue aeiaoiaee [18,19]. Oeae
eean i?eeaae?a iacaaiee iaie “iai?yieaieie ieaciiaeie aeia?iaoaa/aie”.
Iniiae ?o eiino?othaaiiy iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio. Aeo?aeiee e?ae oeaey
iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoe iaiao?aeio oa?iiai?n?th oeaey ? iaoe iaeneiaeueio
oaiia?aoo?o Op. A i?noe? ?icoaooaaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie iaiao?aeii
i?aeo?eioaaoe oaiia?aoo?o aeia?iaoaaiiy Oa . Oaieii?ia?aei?noue i?aeee
oo?eioaa/a eaoiaea aecia/a?oueny ca ??ai?noth (3) aeey iioie?a oaieioe
/a?ac oeaaeue ? i?aeeo.

=i(Oa-Oi)/(O?-Oa), (3)wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¬yyya???I?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy??????????pµG??«Y

aea i,Oi — oaieii?ia?aei?noue oeaey oa oaiia?aoo?a i?noey e??ieaiiy
i?aeee aei aaeooiii? onoaiiaee. Aiaeii/an ??ai?noue (3) neeaaea? oiiao
noaoe?iia?iino? ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo ? ni?aaaaeeeaa ia o?eueee aeey aeaea?ae
ieacie, aea e aeey aeaea?ae ?ii?a, a yeeo iaea?aeaii iiaio ?ii?caoe?th
ia?e ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie [18].

Iai?yieai?noue iioieo ieacie iniaeeai aaaeeeaa a eiino?oeoe?yo aeey
iaieeaiiy ie?aie aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a, eiee aaea?oueny o 23 ?ace
i?aeaeueoe eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie [11]. Iiaeaeueo?
?aca?ae caa??aathoueny a iaoiaeao ?ic?aooieo niiae, i?aeai?? iaoa??aeo
oeae?a-eaoiae?a ? aeeiiaii? eiie?aoieo eiino?oeoe?e. I?eno??e [14]
aeicaiey? ea?oaaoe ae?aa?aiith iai?yieaiino? ieacie ca aeiiiiiaith
iaai?oiiai iiey, a ia o?eueee oi?iith eaoiaea.

A o?ao?e aeaa? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?ic?yaee c aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny.

?ic?yaei? i?ii?aeee . ?iai/a ?a/iaeia ?c Cu, Ni, Cr, Al, Ti, U, Sc, Si
oa ?ioeo iaoa??ae?a caaaioaaeoaaeanue a oeaaeue /e eeaeanue
aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?aeiee /e iie?aaeaiiaee aiiae [20]. Ia a?aenoai? LK
= (1020) ii a?ae ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ciaoiaeeany eaoiae i?yiiai
?icaea?thaaiiy. Ae?aiao? eaoiaeieo e?eaoeue 10 ii, ae?aiao? ae?ioo
(0,71,0) ii. ?aae?aeueia aeaeo?e/ia iiea iiaei noai?thaaoenue oieiaeieie
aieueo?aiiaeie e?eueoeyie oa oeee?iae?ii. E?eueoey ?icoaoiaoaaeenue ia
a?aenoai? (24) ii a?ae eaoiaea ? iaee ae?aiao? (1820) ii. Ae?aiao?
oeee?iae?a noaiiaea 8 ni, aenioa — 10 ni. Nieaii?ae ioiiethaaa eaoiae ?
aiiae oa noai?thaaa iaai?oia iiea A = (0 0,03) Oe. ?ii?caoe?y a
?ic?yaeiiio i?ii?aeeo eiio?iethaaeanue no?oiii Ii ia eieaeoi? ?ii?a.
?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie iiiooaaany ia?aaaaeii a onoaiiaeao O?I.3.279.014;
OAI-83-I1. A?aie/iee aaeooi onoaiiaie 2.10-4 Ia. Iaione aaco
a?aeaoaaany /a?ac e?eueoea c ioai?aie, yea ?icoaoiaoaaeinue iaae
oeee?iae?ii, /e ca aeiiiiiaith niiea. I?e iaoae?caoe?? o?iiii naio??iaeo
e?eaoeue e ?ioeo ae??aieo aeaoaeae aeei?enoiaoaaany i?eno??e c?
noa?aeiaaei aiiaeii [21].

Ae?iaeiee ?ic?yae. A ia?oiio oeeee? aei??thaaiue [22,23]
aeine?aeaeoaaany ?ic?yae i?ae eaoiaeii e aiiaeii o a?aenooiino? ?ioeo
aeaeo?iae?a. sseui ia ?iai/?e ae?eyioe? Va ia caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oio
?icaea?aiiy eaoiaea Ii , oea — a?eueiee ?aaeei ?iaioe eaoiaea c
a?ae’?iiei ia’?iiei ca?yaeii oa?iiaeaeo?ii?a a?ey iiaa?oi? eaoiaea. A?i
aiaeia?/iee a?aeiia?aeiiio ?aaeeio ia aacao, aea a?ae??ciy?oueny oei, ui
Va a?eueoa, i?ae ia aacao, ai aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae oaieiaei
?aaeeiii aeia?iaoaaiiy aiiaea. sseui eoe ii aieueo-aiia?i?e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? a?ae a?eueoeo aei iaioeo Ia , oi aiia
iieno?oueny i?eaeeciei ??aiyiiyi: VaIa = W = const, aea W —
i?i?iaeueia iiooaei?noue ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo. Oi/i?oa, iiooaei?noue Wa, ui
aeae?ey?oueny ia aiiae?, neaaei c?inoa? c ?inoii Ia i?e Ia 5 A,
c?inoa? oene ia?e ?, a oaeaee?noue aeia?iaoaaiiy dm/dt i?iii?oe?eia aei
Wa .

Aiaeia?y c ?ic?yaeii ia aacao caa??aa?oueny ? o aeiooaiiio ?aaeei?
?iaioe eaoiaea [23] oa i?e ia?aoiae? a naiii?ae?a??aiee ?aaeei [24].
Cia/ia c?inoaiiy Ii i?e Ii0 aaaea aei c?inoaiiy Va ? oaeaeeiai
?icii?ioaiiy eaoiaea, oiio ??aeei aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe??
?ii?caoe?? ? aeia?iaoaaiiy aiiaea a ?ic?yae?. I?inoa ca?eueoaiiy Ia
oaeiae iaei ca?eueoo? , ai noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny c?inoaiiyi dm/dt, oiaoi
oaeaeeino? iaieeaiiy ie?aee q. Oiio aoei cai?iiiiiaaii [25,26] aeey
ca?eueoaiiy canoinoaaoe aeiaeaoeiaee aeaeo?iae ? ia?aoiaeeoe aei
o??iaeieo ?ic?yae?a.

O??iaei? ?ic?yaee. Aieea no?oio oeee?iae?a Ic aaaea aei nooo?aiai
c?inoaiiy ? caa??aa? ?ioee aaaeeeaee oaoiieia?/iee ia?aiao? q [26].
Oey ae caeiiii??i?noue caa??aa?oueny ? i?e iayaiino? iaai?oiiai iiey A,
eiee ?ic?yae iaceaathoue ianaiino?eiei aeoaiaei ?ic?yaeii o no?auaieo
iieyo. Iaie [23] aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea iioaioe?aeo oeee?iae?a Vc ia
oaeee ?ic?yae, anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue oeueiai aieeao a?ae ?aaeeio
?iaioe eaoiaea. Ia?aiao?e Ia, Va, Ii caeaaeaoue ianaiia?aae a?ae Ic, a
ia Vc, ine?eueee ii?yae ?c c?inoath/eie e?eaeie Ic(Vc) niinoa??aaeenue ?
niaaeath/?, oiaoi iaeiiio cia/aiith Ic a?aeiia?aeaei aeaa cia/aiiy Vc.
Aeyaeaii iiaeeea?noue c?eao o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo ?aae?aeueiei aeaeo?e/iei
no?oiii Ic [25], ui iia’ycaii ?c aieeaii Ic ia aaee/eio i?eaiiaeiiai
no?eaea iioaioe?aeo Va [28]. O a?eueiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe eaoiaea
ca?eueoaiiy Ic aaaea aei oiai, ui ca?eueoo?oueny no?oi c eaoiaea,
i?ia?aei?noue ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeea c?inoa?, a Va niaaea?. Oea aaaea aei
ciaioaiiy iiooaeiino? aeaeo?iiiiai iioieo ia aiiae?, q niaaea? ? ?ic?yae
c?eaa?oueny. O aeiooaiiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe eaoiaea i?e c?inoaii? Ic an?
aeaeo?iie, ui aeeoee c eaoiaea, ?ic?a?ai? aiiaeii ? oeee?iae?ii,
i?ia?aei?noue ieacie iaaea?, q i Va c?inoathoue, iinoa/aiiy ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie a ?ic?yaeiee i?ii?aeie ca?eueoo?oueny ? ?ic?yae ia aania.
Iiae?aiiai yaeua ia aacao ia niinoa??aaeinue ? oea ? niaoeeo?eith
o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo c aeaeo?iaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny. Ioaea, oeae
?ic?yae ia? iia? aeanoeaino?, ui aeicaiey? i?enai?oe eiio niaoe?aeueio
iacao, yea a?ae??ciy? eiai a?ae ae?iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo.

Aeine?aeaeai? ae?aa?aie iai?yieaiino? ieacie ?ic?yae?a c aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi? [27]. Iaea?eueo aocueeith aiia ? aeey ae?iaea a
iaai?oiiio iie? e iieno?oueny caeaaei?noth n n0 cos8, aea — eoo i?ae
a?nnth neiao??? ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo ? iai?yieii aei??thaaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? ieacie. Iaeeaaeaiiy Vc Va ia ?ic?yae ?icoe?th? ae?aa?aio
o aeaa ?ace (/ioe?e ii ieiu? ia?iaee). Iaea?eueo oe?iea ae?aa?aia n = n0
cos4 niinoa??aa?oueny a o??iaeiiio ?ic?yae? aac iaai?oiiai iiey [26].
A?aei?iiith ?enith aeaieo ?ic?yae?a a?ae ?ic?yae?a c eaoiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny, ? iayai?noue a?ae’?iiiai ieaaath/iai iioaioe?aeo a
caeaoiaeiiio i?inoi?? i?e q 4 ii/n ia anueiio ia?a??c? ieaciiaiai
iioieo, oiaoi aeai? i?eno?i? i?aoeththoue ye i?enei?thaa/? ieacie aei
aia?a?e (10103) aA, ye? noai?ththoue eiiiainiaai? ca ca?yaeii ?iii?
iioiee [28]. Ca?aene aeieeaa? iaeia c iniiaieo canoinoaaiue aeaiiai
eeano ?ic?yae?a aeey noai?aiiy aenieiaaeaac?eieo ie?aie ia ae?aeaeo?eeao
iaieeaiiy ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ie?aie. I?aeeeaaeeiee iiaeooue
?icoaoiaoaaoenue ia o?eueee iaae oeaeai, a e i?ae ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith o
aeaeyae? noa?aeiy [21]. ?c ??aiino? aaae e?aie? ? nee iiaa?oiaaiai
iaoyao aeo?ea? ae?ac aeey oaeaeeino? iiaeaaaiiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie
dm/dt, yea caaea?oueny ae?acii (1). sseui dm/dt ia?aaeueoue i?aao
/anoeio ??aiyiiy (1), a?aeaoaeaoueny c?ea e?aie? ? ii?ooeoueny
noaoe?iia?i?noue ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo.

Aeey ca?eueoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?eno?i?a ?o ?iaeyoue ia
oeee?iae?e/ieie, a e?i?eieie (aeaiaei??ieie) [21] ; iiaeeea? e ?io?
aaeineiiaeaiiy [3]. ?ic?yaee caiaeththoueny i?e iai?oaao Va, ui cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue ?iai/?. Oeae iaaeie?e e?ea?aeo?oueny iaioneii aaco a
?ic?yaeiee ia’?i [29], i?ney /iai ?ic?yae nii/aoeo caiaeth?oueny ia aac?
? c c?inoaiiyi eiai iiooaeiino? ia?aoiaeeoue ai??oe ia ia?? iaoaeo oa
aac?. I?ney oeueiai iaione aaco iiaeia i?eieieoe, yeui a?i ia iio??aai.
A ?aaeei? ?iaioe ?ic?yae?a ye ieaciio?i?/ieo ?aaeoi??a, i?e iaieeaii?
ie?aie oeio ieo?eaea oeoaio, ?aaeoeaiee aac aiaeii/an neoaeeoue ? aeey
caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo. Aia?iiey?iee iaoai?ci i?enei?aiiy ieacie c
iecueeei ieaaath/ei iioaioe?aeii caa??aa?oueny ? i?e iaioneo aaco aei
oene?a ? 1 Ia [29].

A /aoaa?o?e aeaa? ?icaeyaeathoueny aeaeo?iiii — io/eia? ?ic?yaee.

Io/eiai — ieaciiaee ?ic?yae. Iiaeeea?noue caiaethaaiiy
io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo i?e aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea c oaa?aeei
o?eii o iaai?oiiio iie? ia aeo?ea? c oai??? io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo,
yea noai?aia i?ci?oa iaoi? ?iaioe [30]. Aenia?eiaioe aaeenue ia aeaio
aeine?aeieo noaiaeao [30,31]. A noaiae? ?1 iaai?oia iiea noai?thaaeinue
iiethnaie aeaeo?iiaai?oa ae?aiao?ii 1i. A?aenoaiue i?ae iiethnaie — 0,35
i. ?iaeoeoe?y iaai?oiiai iiey A = (0,30,65)Oe. ?ic?yae noai?thaaany
aeaeo?iiiei io/eii c? no?oiii I0 = (0,12)A e aia?a??th A0 = (13) eA.
?iie aeoyaoaaeenue aeoaioii, yeee noaiiaea /anoeio ian-niaeo?iiao?a
Aeaiinoa?a c iiai?ioii ? oieonoaaiiyi io/ea ?ii?a ia eoo o 1800.
?icae?eueia caeaoi?noue ian-niaeo?iiao?a 50. ?iie ?a?no?oaaeenue
oeee?iae?ii Oa?aaeay, ui ia?ai?uoaaany o oieaeuei?e ieiuei?
ian-niaeo?iiao?a. Ian-ca?yaeiaee niaeo? ?ii?a ?a?no?oaaany naiiienoeai
YII-09.

A noaiae? ?2 [30] ?ic?yae noai?thaaany ana?aaeei? eioooee
aeaeo?iiaai?oo c ?iaeoeoe??th A = (0,050,1) Oe. ?iai/ee aaeooi noaiaea
ia a??oa ? = 1.10-3 Ia. Ia?aiao?e aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea o? ae, ui ? ia
noaiae? ?1. I?e caiaethaaii? ?ic?yaeo c’yaeyany no?oi ?iiiiai io/ea Ii e
?ioaineaia aei?ii?ithaaiiy a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? /anoio a?ae ?aae?iooi?a
aei iioe/ieo. ?ic?yae caiaethaaany i?e iiooaeiino? io/ea aeaeo?ii?a
0,5-1 eAo ? oeneo ia?e iaae ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith ?1 Ia, iacaeaaeii a?ae
i?ia?aeiino?, o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino?, i???ioaoe?? oaa?aeiai o?ea ii
a?aeiioaiith aei io/ea, aea i?e iiaeaaaii? noa?aeiy ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie ia
ia?eoa??th io/ea iaiao?aeii aeeiioaaoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1).

Iaea?eueo eiia??iee ca?yae ?ii?a neeaaeaa Zm=2 [32], ca?aene iiaeia
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?aeaii neeueii ?ii?ciaaio ieacio c 1. Ia
enaiii? Zm=7. Ca?aeii c [33], Zm iiaeia ae?aoiaoaaoe ca oi?ioeith (2),
yea iaea?aeaia iaie aeey ieaciiaeo nenoai ?c nooi?i/anoith ?ii?caoe??th
aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii ? ?aeiia?iaoe??th ia aieiaeo no?ieao ?ic?yaeii?
eaia?e.

Io/eiai-ieaciia? aeaea?aea ca iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie [33] aoee
aeecueeeie aei ia?aiao??a ?iiieo aeaea?ae ?c ianaiino?eiei ?ic?yaeii
Iaii?iaa, aea ia a?aei?io a?ae inoaiiueiai ia iio?aaoaaee i?enooiino?
aaeanoiiai aaco o ?ic?yaei?e eaia??, ui iie?auoaaei aaeooii? oiiae o
i?enei?thaa/? ?ii?a (oeeeeio?ii?) /e ian-naia?aoi??, aea aiie
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue. A?ae ?iiieo aeaea?ae ia iniia? aaeooiii-aeoaiaiai
?ic?yaeo io/eiai-ieaciia? aeaea?aea a?ae??ciythoueny cia/ii oe?oei
iaai?ii ?iai/eo ?a/iaei (cie?aia ae?aeaeo?ee?a) ? a?eueo aaaaoei
niaeo?ii aenieica?yaeieo ?ii?a [33]. Caiaethaaiiy io/eiai-ieaciiaiai
?ic?yaeo noaiiaeoue ?aeeiee niin?a ?ii?caoe?? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie aeey
aa?iao iaaaaaoiiai ae?aiaciio iiooaeiinoae [4].

Io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiee ?ic?yae. Iiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy ?ic?yaeo i?e A
0,05 Oe caaacia/o?oueny, yeui aeaeo?iiiee io/ie ioi/eoe oeee?iae?ii /e
e?eueoeai i?ae aeiaeaoi?i ii a?aeiioaiith aei eieaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a io/ea
iioaioe?aeii Vc 0. Oeei ie ia?aoiaeeii aei ?ic?yaeo, iacaaiiai iaie
io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiei [34]. Aeine?aee [35] aaeenue c aa?oeeaeueii
i???ioiaaiith caa?thaaeueiith aeaeo?iiiith aa?iaoith O-250 ae?iaieoeoaa
?AC ?i. A.I.Iaoiia. Io/ie aa?iaoe a?aeoeeyany iiai?ioiei iiia?a/iei
iaai?oii [5]. Oiiae aaaaeaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea c iiia?a/iiai iaai?oa a
iiacaeiaaei? aei io/ea iiea aeaeo?iiaai?oa ocaiaeaeoaaeenue ca
aeiiiiiaith iaai?oiiai ae?aia. No?oi io/ea noaiiaea ?0 =(50-200) iA,
aia?a?y A0 =(4-15) eA. Io/ie i?eeiaany ia eieaeoi? c ?iai/ith
?a/iaeiith. Eiion ?aae?aeueiiai iiey iaa na?aaei?e ae?aiao? 3 ni, eiai
iioaioe?ae caaeaaaany ie?aiei aeaea?aeii aeeaeaiiy. Iaae iiia?a/iei
iaai?oii ia a?aenoai? 18 ni a?ae oeaey-eieaeoi?a i?ae iioaioe?aeii Vi
=200A ciaoiaeeany oo?eioaa/ i?aeeeaaeeiie, a eie? yeiai aei??thaaany
?iiiee no?oi ?? .

Oeiia? caeaaeiino? no?oi?a eiiona ?n ? i?iii?oe?eiiai eiio ?? a?ae
?iaeoeoe?? A aeaeo?iiaai?oa i?e ??cieo Vc aeacothoue ia iaiiiioiii?noue
e?eaeo ?n(A), ??(A) ? ia oie oaeo, ui ?ic?yae iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiee i?e
A4.10-2 Oe [6]. Aeineoue eiia??ia i?e/eia iaiiiioiiiino? e?eaeo ?n(A),
??(A) iieyaa? a ia??iaee/iino? oieonoaaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea iaai?oiei
iieai ia ?iai/?e ?a/iaei?, yeui io/ie aoiaeeoue i?ae iaaaeeeei eooii aei
in? iaai?oiiai iiey nieaii?aea. Ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ?ic?yaeo i?e
A4.10-2 Oe iia’ycaia ?c ii/aoeii caiaethaaiiy io/eiai-ieaciiaiai
?ic?yaeo. O?ae e?eaeo ?n(A), ??(A) ia caeaaeaa a?ae i?ia?aeiino? ?iai/i?
?a/iaeie (Al, Cu, Al2O3:Cr+++). Oea ieaciiaa aeaea?aei aeicaieyei
ia?iaeyoe i?aeeeaaeeiee ae?aiao?ii 14 ni [6].

?iiiee no?oi ?? nooo?ai c?inoa? c ?inoii Vc 200 A. Aeae? Ii(Vc)
ia?aoiaeeoue o iane/aiiy [6]. Oea a?ae??ciy? ?ic?yae c aeia?iaoaaiiyi
a?ae ?ic?yaeo ia aacao [34]. O aeiaaeeo aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaaiai
caa?thaaiiy iaoae?a o iaai?oiiio iie? caiaethaaiiy io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiiai
? io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yae?a iaaaaeaia, ai ia noai?aiiy ieacie
aeo?a/a?oueny aei 1/3 iiooaeiino? io/ea. Iaeeaaeaiiy ?aae?aeueiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia io/eiai-ieaciiaee ?ic?yae ?icoe?th? ae?aa?aio
iai?yieaiino? iioiea ieacie iaeaea o 2 ?ace.

?ic?yae ?c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii. I?e iecueeeo ? na?aaei?o iiooaeiinoyo
aeaeo?iiieo aa?iao ?10 eAo aeineoue aoaeoeaiei caniaii ?ii?caoe?? ia?e
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie eieaeoi?a aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea ? aaaaeaiiy a iio?e ia?e
?icaea?aiiai oa?iieaoiaea. I?ioa caeeoaeenue iaanoaiiaeaieie iioeiaeuei?
oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie ai??iiy ?ic?yaeo, iaiao?aei? iioaioe?aee
aeaeo?iae?a ? eiino?oeoeaia ??oaiiy ?ii?caoi?a. Oe? caaaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue iaoo aeine?ae?a [36], ui iienothoueny ieae/a.

Aeaeo?iiia aa?iaoa c iiooaei?noth aei 10 eAo ? a?aeoeeaiiyi i?iiaiy ia
270 0 aeia?iaoaaea ?iai/o ?a/iaeio o aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaiiio oeae?, yeee
?icoaoiaoaaany i?ae iiethnaie aeaeo?iiaai?oa. Aeania ?ii?caoi?
neeaaeaany c oa?iieaoiaea ? ooe?iaiai aiiaea c iioaioe?aeii Va.
Oa?iieaoiae i???iooaaany acaeiaae iaeiiai ?c iiethn?a aeaeo?iiaai?oa.
Aiiae ?ici?uoaaany iaai?ioe, acaeiaae ae?oaiai iiethna i?ae oeaeai ?
i?aeeeaaeeieith. Oaea i???ioaoe?y aeaeo?iae?a noai?th? iioeiaeuei? oiiae
aeey aaaaoi?aciai? inoeeeyoe?? aeaeo?ii?a a ?ic?yae? i?ae iiethnaie
aeaeo?iiaai?oa i?e ?on? acaeiaae neeiaeo e?i?e iaai?oiiai iiey oa
ae?aeoiaiio ia?ai?uaii? iiia?ae iaai?oiiai iiey aei oeo i??, iiee
aeaeo?iie a no?auaieo iieyo ia ia?aoiieyoueny aiiaeii.

Nai aeaeo?iiiee io/ie aeeeeeaa ?ii?caoe?th, yea noai?thaaea ?iiiee
no?oi ia i?aeeeaaeeieo ?? 13 iA. Aonoeia no?oio ia i?aeeeaaeeieo
noaiiaeea j 0,2 iA/ni2. Aieeaiiy aiiaeii? iai?oae Va = 600 A
ca?eueooaaei ?ii?caoe?th o aeaa??th/iio ?ic?yae? aei j = 0,8 iA/ni2.
Ia?aoiaeii aei ?ic?yaeo c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii aaea i?e aiiaeiiio
no?oi? ?a 2 A aeinyaaeinue j2 iA/ni2 ? oaeaeeino? iaieeaiiy q =
(15-30) ii/n, ui i?eeiyoia aeey oaoiieia??. Cai?ia e?i?eiiai ae?ioo
eaoiaea ia ni??aeue aeaea iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe ?a = 20 A, j = 10
iA/ni2. O ie?aeao ?iiae? niinoa??aaeenue aeii?oee Fe c a?iaoo?e ? no?iie
aaeooiii? eaia?e. Aeey ciaioaiiy aeii?oie Fe aiiae cacaieeee, a ia
eaoiae iiaeaee a?ae’?iiee iioaioe?ae Va. Ieacia i?eeiyea iioaioe?ae,
aeecueeee aei iioaioe?aeo aaeooiii? eaia?e ? ea?onae?. E??i oiai, ieacio
ioi/eee ae?aiii i?ae iioaioe?aeii eaoiaea. ?iiia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ae?aia a
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia oe?aeeeaa, ai a?i iie?eoee ?iai/ith ?a/iaeiith. Oea
e?ea?aeoaaei aeii?oee Fe. E??i oiai, i?e ?iaio? ia oa?iiai?n?eieo
iaoa??aeao (Ti, Ta, Mo) canoinoaaiiy ?icaea?aii? ni??ae? aieueo?aio
ca?eueoeei a 1,5 — 2 ?ace i?e iaeieo ? oeo naieo Ia oiio, ui a ?ic?yae
aaeaeinue aeeanoe a?eueoo iiooaei?noue. Oaoiieia?/ia eaia?a iaea
i?ea?iaeuei? nenoaie /euaiiy i?aeeeaaeeiie oa naia?aoi? e?aiaeue ?
oaieiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

O i`yo?e aeaa? ?icaeyaea?oueny oaoiieia?y oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy.

?ic?iaee oaoiieia?? oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy ?iciiae?eythoueny ia aeaa
iai?yiee, eiee aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny aai oaoiieia?/iei i?eeiiii, yeee
ni?aaaaeeeaee aeey an?o aeaea?ae ieacie, aai aeai?ii eiino?oeoe??
aeaea?aea ieacie.

Iaoae?caoe?y ae?aeaeo?ee?a. Ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?aeeeaaeeiea e??ieoueny aei
eieaeoi?a ?ii?a niaoe?aeueiei i?eoeneoth/ei aeaeo?iaeii, yeee
ciaoiaeeoueny a iioioe? ieacie iaoaeo [37]. Ia i?eoeneoth/ee aeaeo?iae
iiaea?oueny i?enei?thth/ee ?iie iioaioe?ae oaei? aaee/eie, uia
i?iaeoe?eia aeiaaeeia i?ia?ao Ri ?iia ia?aaeuoaaea oiaueio eiiaeainaoa
di a iiiaio iiyae iiacaeiaaeiuei? i?ia?aeiino? ie?aee. I?ia?aei?noue
c’yaey?oueny i?ney iaianaiiy 5 — 10 iiiioa??a. I?e oeueiio iioaioe?ae
ie?aee noa? ??aiei iioaioe?aeo i?eoeneoth/iai aeaeo?iaeo ? aeayeee /an
aenieiaia?aaoe/i? ?iie i?ioiaeyoue ne??cue ie?aeo ? i?iieeathoue o
i?aeeeaaeeieo. Oei naiei noai?th?oueny ia?ao?aeiee iiaa?oiaaee oa? o
ae?aeaeo?eeo. sseui eiao?oe??io ?ii?caoe?? ieacie a iioioe? iaaaeeeee ?
i?ioean eiiaeainaoe?? nooo?ai ia?aaaaea? i?ioean ?iiiiai ?icii?ioaiiy,
/an oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o t aecia/a?oueny ae?acii: t = Ri/q, aea
q — oaeaee?noue eiiaeainaoe?? ie?aee. Aeica ?ii?a, ye? oi?iothoue
ia?ao?aeiee oa?, noaiiaeoue Di = ji*t, aea ji*- aonoeia ?iiiiai no?oio
iane/aiiy ia i?aeeeaaeeieo. Aeey ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii oe??? aeena?oaoe??
oa?ii?iiieo i?eno?i?a t =(10-100) in ?, yeui ia i?yio? aei 1, Di
iaaeinoaoiy aeey caaacia/aiiy aaeaac??. Oiio aeey oi?ioaaiiy a
i?aeeeaaeeioe? iiaa?oiaaiai i?ia?aeiiai oa?o, e??i oiiae Ri>di,
iaiao?aeii aeeiiaoe ua iaeio oiiao: oaeaee?noue ?icii?ioaiiy iiaeiia
ia?aaeuoaaoe oaeaee?noue eiiaeainaoe?? ie?aee. Oea aea?aaeaioii
aeeiiaiith ni?aa?aeiioaiiy >1/S, aea S- eiao?oe??io naii?icii?ioaiiy
eiiaeainaoo. I?e aeeiiaii? aeaio aeacaieo oiia i?ioean iaoae?caoe?? eaea
oaeei /eiii: a iiiaio iiiaaeaiiy ieacie ia i?aeeeaaeeieo iiaa?oiy
inoaiiuei? ca?yaeaea?oueny aei ieaaath/iai iioaioe?aeo ? ??no ie?aee
a?aeaoaa?oueny aac aiiaa?aeoaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie. I?ney iiyae
iiacaeiaaeiuei? i?ia?aeiino? eiiaeainaoo ii/eia?oueny aiiaa?aeoaaiiy
aenieiaia?aaoe/ieie ?iiaie, a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o
i?aeeeaaeeiee ? ?icii?ioaiiy ie?aee aei iiiaioo cieeiaiiy
iiacaeiaaeiuei? i?ia?aeiino?. Aeae? i?ioean iiaoi?th?oueny. Ie?aeo
ia?iuothoue i?ney noai?aiiy ia?ao?aeiiai oa?o, eiee ciaioothoue
iioaioe?ae i?eoeneoth/iai aeaeo?iaea. Oaea iaoae?caoe?y oeyoii ?iiiiai
ia?ai?ooaaiiy aoii?a aeicaiey? cai?ieoe o?aaeeoe?ei? aaeueaai?/i?
iie?eooy ia aeieia?/ii /eno? [1-3]. A?aei?ii?noue no?oeoo?e oa?ii?iiieo
ie?aie a?ae oa?i?/ieo aea/aeanue a [11,38], aea iieacaii, ui ?iiia
aiiaa?aeoaaiiy ia ci?ith? a?aenoai? i?ae aoiiaie a ie?aoe?, a
ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae ?iiieo eiiaeainao?a ii??aiyii c oa?i?/ieie
iia’ycaia ?c ciaioaiiyi ionoio (ii?) a ?o ia’?i?, oiaoi oa?ii?iii?
ie?aee a?eueo u?euei?, i?ae oa?i?/i?. Aeey iaoae?caoe?? ae?aeaeo?ee?a
niaoe?aeueii i?enoiniaaii ieaciia? i?enei?thaa/? c aiiaeii, ui
aeia?iao?oueny [39].

?aaeoeaia oa?ii?iiia iaieeaiiy. Iaiao?aei?noue iaioneo aaco a
oaoiieia?/iee ia’?i iiaea ci?ithaaoe oiiae ?iaioe aeaea?ae ieacie
iaoae?a /e ?ioeo oaa?aeeo o?e. Cie?aia, aeaea?aea c aeia?iaoaaiiyi
?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai eaoiaeo iiaeooue i?aoethaaoe o?eueee o
naiii?ae?a??aiiio ?aaeei? aai ?ic?a??aaiiy aeaeo?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi
oeaey-eaoiaea o?aaa cai?ieoe ia oa?i?/ia. Iieacaii [40], ui iaione aaco
a oaoiieia?/iee ia’?i ciaioo? iioaioe?ae caiaethaaiiy ?ic?yaeo a ia??
iaoa??aeo aiiaea ? ni?iuo? nenoaio eiai aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy. I?e oeueiio
iecueeee ieaaath/ee iioaioe?ae a i?noe? ?icoaooaaiiy i?aeeeaaeeiee
caa??aa?oueny i?e oeneao ?aaeoeaiiai aaco ?6.10-2 Ia, oiaoi aeaiee
?ic?yae iniaeeai aoaeoeaiee o ieaciio?i?/iiio ?aaeoi?? aeey iaea?aeaiiy
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ie?aie aac aeaeo?e/ieo i?iai?a, o??uei, i?ieie?a, ii? e
?ioeo aeaoaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c iiaa?oiaaei aeaeo?e/iei ca?yaeii
ae?aeaeo?eea. Ua ?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui neioac i?o?eae?a e ?ioeo niieoe
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iiaa?oi? i?aeeeaaeeiee i?e ?? aiiaa?aeoaaii? ?iiaie,
ye? ooai?ththoueny a ia’?i? ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo ye c iaoaeo, oae ? c
?aaeoeaiiai aaco. Oea yaeua aeei?enoaii aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ii/aoeiai?
aaiiao??? ?icieethaaeueieo oi?noiie an?o oei?a aeecaeueieo aeaeaoi?a
[29,39].

Eiie?aoi? oaoiieia??. A NEOA c AA IOe ?ssAe iaeaaiaeaeaia
ae??aiina??eia ae?iaieoeoai aeaea?ae ieacie c aeaeo?iaeii, ui
iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi? [3], a naia: i?eno?i? c
ii?iaeienoei eaoiaeii (O?I-1), c aeia?iaoaaiei aiiaeii (O?I-2) e
aeaeo?iiii-i?iiaiaa? c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii (O?I-3). Iiioothoueny
ieaciia? aeaea?aea a na??eieo i?iieneiaeo onoaiiaeao c aeiaeaoeiaeie
aeaea?aeaie aeaeo?iaeeaeaiiy. Iaeii/anii c i?eno?iyie ?ic?iaeyeenue
eiie?aoi? oaoiieia?? ?o canoinoaaiiy ca aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aaoi?a
aeena?oaoe?? [1-4].

?ic?iaeaii eiioaeoi? nenoaie aei eaaeiii-i?ie?oieo ae?iae?a (EIAe) ?
iaaei?ia?aeii? ea?ai?ee. Canoinoaaiiy aia?oa iaea?aeaiiai oa?ii?iiiiai
cieioa a oaoiieia?? EIAe aeicaieeei oieeiooe aei?iuoaaiiy ie?aie cieioa
aeaeo?io?i?/iei oeyoii, i?aeiyei ?o aonoeio ? ni?inoeei aeaioiaeaiiy.
Aeniea aaeaac?y oa?ii?iiieo eiiaeainao?a ?icoe?eea ae?aiacii iaoa??ae?a,
ye? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue ye aoaeoeai? aa?’??i? oa?e, ui
niia?eueiththoue aeaeo?iaeeooc?th a i?ioean? ?iaioe i?eeaaeo ? oei naiei
i?aeaeueee oa?i?i neoaeae ae?iae?a. Ciaioaiiy oaieiaiai iii?o eiioaeo?a
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a aea? iiaeeea?noue aenieoaooaaoe ?o i?e
a?eueo aenieeo iiooaeiinoyo c aenieith aa?aioiaaiith iaae?ei?noth ? c
aenieith iaae?ei?noth aeaiae?a i?ney oa?ii-eiii?an?eiiai caa?thaaiiy.

Aono? oa?e iaoae?a (cieioi, o?ai), ?o aaeaac?y ni?eythoue
oioie?oia?ao??. Iniiaith ?aioaaiioaaeiia o ae?iaieoeoa? IA?N
i?aeaeuaiiai nooiaiy ?ioaa?aoe?? neoaeeoue a?eueia iaia?aia iie?ai?aeo
/e iie?e?aii?th caaoiaoee 3-5 iei, ia yeo iaiineoueny aacaeaoaeoia
u?eueia cieioi /e ?ioee iaoae c aenieith aoiiiith aaaith. Oiie?noue
oeueiai i?ioeano aecia/a?oueny iai?eeiyoi?noth ia?aa??aaiiy iaia?ai, ui
aeinyaa?oueny ye ?aaeeiii ?iaioe aeaea?aea ieacie, oae ? neaioaaiiyi
iaia?aie-i?aeeeaaeeiee.

Oa?ii?iiia n??aei ia aioo??oi?o iiaa?oiyo oaeeaa?ae ieo o?aeo?a
iino?eiiai ? ci?iiiai ia?a??c?a ciaioo? caoooaiiy ii??aiyii c
aaeueaai?/iei iie?eooyi ia 30%.

Aaea o 1977 ?. [29] oa?ii?iiia iaieeaiiy aoei canoiniaaia a oaoiieia??
?aae?i?cioiiieo i?eeaae?a, cie?aia i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaoae-o?eo??aeo
i?oaiae aaia?aoi??a iaeo?ii?a. Iaiao?aei?noue oaei? oaoiieia??
aeaioiaeaiiy ie?aie (TiH1,8 ; TiD1,8 ; TiT1,8) aeeeeeaia ?ico??neoaaiiyi
? ineiaiiyi iaoaea-ni?aaioa i?e iane/oaaii? aiaeiai, aeaeoa???i,
o?eo??i. Oea ii?oooaaei aeiiae ?aae?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee aaciaee ?
ciaiooaaei oa?i?i neoaeae i?oaiae aaia?aoi??a iaeo?ii?a, aaia?aoi??a
oi?iiey?ieo ?ii?a, iaeo?ae?caoi??a noaoe/ii? aeaeo?eee e ?ioeo
?aae?i?cioiiieo i?eeaae?a. Iaieeaiiy ieacie ia?e ??aeeicaiaeueieo
aeaiaio?a ? oeoaio c ?iiiei aiiaa?aeoaaiiyi i?aeeeaaeeiee caiia?aaei
ineiaiith ie?aee, iaeiae iaeii/anii ia 10% ciaiooaaeanue ?o ni?aoe?eia
caeaoi?noue, ine?eueee a?eueo u?eueia ie?aea iaoaea-ni?aaioa a??oa
iane/oaaeanue ?cioiiaie aiaeith. Oiio o no/ani?e oaoiieia??
?aae?i?cioiiieo ae?ia?a ?iiia aiiaa?aeoaaiiy i?aeeeaaeeiee
canoiniao?oueny o?eueee ia aoai? noai?aiiy aenieiaaeaac?eiiai oa?o
iaoaeo oiaueiith (2-5)10-2 iei, a iio?i ie?aea aei?iuo?oueny aei oiauei
o aeae?eueea i?e?ii, aea aaea aac ?iiiiai aiiaa?aeoaaiiy. Oaea ie?aea
aeia?a ni?ao? aeaeoa??e aai o?eo?e ? aea? i?aeoe/ii oie aea iio?e
iaeo?ii?a aai -/anoeiie, ui ? oa?i?/ii iaieeaia ie?aea, aea ianeiaiiy
iaoaea-ni?aaioa aeeeth/aia.

Ca aeiiiiiaith aeaea?ae i?enei?aii? ieacie ia?e iaoa??aeo aiiaea a?eueo
ye 10 ?ie?a oiio ae??oaia i?iaeaia iaieeaiiy eaca?ieo aeca?eae c
i?aeaeuaiith i?iiaiaaith ? aioeei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth. Iaea?aeai? ia
oeeo i?eno?iyo ie?aee i?o?eaea oeoaio aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ye aeaei?aoeai?
ia iiaooiaeo i?eeaaeao, ye aioeo?eeoe?ei? a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?. Ie?aee
iaoae?a ? nieaa?a neoaoaaee ye oa?iiiii?e. A oe?eiio, ?ic?iaeai?
aeaea?aea ieacie cia/ii ?icoe?ththoue iiaeeeaino? aaeooiii-aeoaiaeo
aeaea?ae c ani?oeiaioo iaoa??ae?a, ia?aiao??a ieaciiaiai iioieo,
a?aenooiino? e?aiaeue o iioioe?. Aiie ua aoaeooue aaeineiiaethaaoenue,
niaoe?ae?coaaoenue, aaoiiaoecoaaoenue, ca?eueooaaoe oa?i?i aacia?a?aii?
ae??, ?icoe?thaaoe iaa?? ?iai/eo ?a/iaei ? aaeocae canoinoaaiue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ? aeniiaee

1. Anoaiiaeai? iia? o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ? aeanoeainoae
?ic?yae?a c aeaeo?iaeii, ui iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?.
Ciaeaeaii, ui aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy noaoe?iia?iiai aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
eaoiaeii, yeee iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny o aaeooi?, iaiao?aeia
oa?iiai?n?y c iaoa??aeo ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie aai oeaey. ?ic?yae c
aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie c ii?iaeienoiai eaoiaea iiae?aiee aei
?ic?yaeo c aeoieii aaco /a?ac ii?iaeieio o aaeooi.

2. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ci?ia eiio?ao?aoe?? ooaiieaaeiai oeaey-eaoiaea a
noaoe?iia?iiio aeoaiaiio ?ic?yae? c eaoiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny o
aaeooi?, caiaeeoueny aei ci?ie iaeano? i?ea’ycee ?ic?yaeo ia eaoiae?,
cie?aia i?e iayaiino? ia?aoyaeee iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co oeaey-eaoiaea
?ic?yae i?ea’yco?oueny aei iaeano?, aeecueei? aei ia?aoyaeee, a a
eiaen?aeueiiio /e niieiiiae?aiiio eaoiae? c oeaio?aeueiith anoaaeith —
aei iaa?iaiiai aei ?ic?yaeo e?ath oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie oeaey-eaoiaea.

3. Iieacaii, ui aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aeaeo?ii?a aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
ii?iaeienoei eaoiaeii i?inoyaa?oueny a?ae ieaciiaeo aeaeo?ii?a aei
oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a, ai?oiaaieo eaoiaeii. Ai?oiaai? aeaeo?iie iathoue
aia?a?th a aeaeo?ii-aieueoao, /enaeueii aeecueeo aei iaae?iiy aiiaeii?
iai?oae. Iaeneioi aia?a?? oaeaeeeo aeaeo?ii?a iiaea iaoe oiieo
no?oeoo?o, yea iia’ycaia c aeaeo?iiaie, ui aeeoee c aieiai? ? oi?oeaai?
ae?eyiie eaoiaea. Oiiea no?oeoo?a a?aenooiy a eaoiaeao ?c ianaaeeith o
aeaeyae? niiea Eaaaey. Aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? ?ii?a aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo c
ii?iaeienoei eaoiaeii ia? iaeneioi a iaeano? aia?a?e, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue aiiaeiiio iaae?iith iai?oae ia ?ic?yae?. A
oeee?iae?e/ieo eaoiaeao iai?aoe?eia iaeneioia noaiiaeoue aeae?eueea
aeaeo?ii-aieueo ? ca?eueoo?oueny a eaoiaeao c ia?aoyaeeith iiia?a/iiai
ia?a??co.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui aeanoeaino? ?ic?yaeo c aiiaeii, ui
iaeii??aeii aeia?iao?oueny aeaeo?iiaie c ?icaea?aiiai eaoiaea,
aecia/athoueny ?aaeeiii ?iaioe eaoiaea: a?eueiei /e aeiooaiei.
Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa ?ii?caoe?? ieacie a iioioe? a?ae ?ic?yaeiiai
no?oio i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iaeneioi ? ia ia?aaeuo? 0,1.

5. Nooo?ai? ?ii?caoe?? a ?ic?yae? c aiiaeii, ui aeia?iao?oueny, iiaeia
aeinyaoe aaaaeaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaiai aeaeo?iaea ? ia?aoiaeii aei o??iaeiiai
?ic?yaeo, aeanoeaino? yeiai oaeiae aecia/athoueny ?aaeeiii ?iaioe
eaoiaea. Ciaeaeaii ? iiyniaii aoaeo c?eao o??iaeiiai ?ic?yaeo
?aae?aeueiei aeaeo?e/iei no?oiii. Iieacaii, ui o a?eueiiio ?aaeei?
?iaioe eaoiaea ae?iaeiee ? o??iaeiee ?ic?yaee iathoue o caeaoiaeiiio
i?inoi?? ieaaath/ee iioaioe?ae, yeee ? iaioei ca iioaioe?ae eaoiaea
iacaeaaeii a?ae iayaiino? iaai?oiiai iiey. Oea ?iaeoue aeai? ?ic?yaee
iniaeeai ia?niaeoeaieie aeey iaoae?caoe?? ae?aeaeo?ee?a ? iaea?aeaiiy
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ie?aie.

6. Anoaiiaeaii yaeua caiaethaaiiy io/eiai-ieaciiaiai ?ic?yaeo i?e
aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea c oaa?aeei o?eii o iiacaeiaaeiueiio
iaai?oiiio iie? A 0,04 Oe oa oeneo iane/aii? ia?e iaae ?icieaaii ?
1 Ia. Ian-ca?yaeiaee neeaae ?ii?a ieacie ia?e aecia/a?oueny ??aiyiiyi
aaeaino /anoeiie c ?ii?caoe??th aeaeo?iiiei oaea?ii ? ?aeiia?iaoe??th ia
no?ieao ?ic?yaeiiai i?ii?aeeo. Iaea?eueo eiia??iee ca?yae ?ii?a a
?ic?yae? iaei caeaaeaa a?ae i?ia?aeiino?, o?i?/ii? aeoeaiino?, niiniao
iiaea/? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie a iaae? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea ? noaiiaea Zm=2 aeey
aeaeo?iiieo io/e?a c iiooaei?noth (1- 3) eAo ? A = (0,3-0,6) Oe.

7. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ioi/aiiy aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea oeee?iae?ii i?ae
aeiaeaoi?i a?aeiinii eieaeoi?a aeaeo?ii?a iioaioe?aeii ni?ey?
caiaethaaiith iiaiai oeio ?ic?yaeo, yeee iacaaii io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiei.
Aeey eiai i?aeo?eiaiiy aeaeo?iiiee io/ie o?aaa ai?uoaaoe a iiacaeiaaei?
iaai?oia iiea. A aeaeo?iiii-io/eiaeo ?ic?yaeao ?c ?icaea?aiei eaoiaeii a
ia?? ?iai/i? ?a/iaeie iaea?eueoa /enoioa ieacie aeinyaa?oueny, eiee
eaoiae ia? iioaioe?ae, iaioee ca iioaioe?ae eieaeoi?a aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea. E??i oiai, oaoiieia?/iee ia’?i ioi/o?oueny ae?aiii i?ae
iioaioe?aeii eaoiaea.

8. ?ic?iaeaii o?ceei-oaoi?/i? iniiae ?iaioe ? a?eueo i?ae 15
eiino?oeoe?e aeaea?ae ieacie, ?ii?a, ieaciiaeo i?enei?thaa/?a
(ieacii-o?i?/ieo ?aaeoi??a). Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
oa?ii?iiieo ie?aie i?ae?, cieioa, i?o?eaeo oeoaio, aeaeoa?eae?a,
o?eo?ae?a ia eiie?aoi? ae?iae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aeaeo?ii?ee,
i?e?iiaoai?ee, ?aae?i?cioiiieo i?eeaae?a ? o.i. ?ic?iaee ai?iaaaeaeaii o
ae?iaieoeoai.

Iniiai? ?iaioe c oaie aeena?oaoe??

1. Naaiei A.A. Ono?ienoaa oa?iieiiiiai inaaeaeaiey /iaci?/. // IOY.
-1985. -?3. -N.9-21.

2. Naaiei A.A. Noaoeeiia?iua yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu n enia?ythueiny a
aaeooia yeaeo?iaeii (iaci?) // Oaieioeceea aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. — 1989.
O.27. -?5. -N.1007-1017.

3. Naaiei A.A. Enoi/ieee ieaciu e eiiia n iaeii?iaeii enia?ythueiny
yeaeo?iaeii (iaci?) // I?iaeaiu niaoeeaeueiie yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. -1997.
-?3. -N.35-60.

4. Naaiei A.A. Eioaineaiua noaoeeiia?iua yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu n
iaeii?iaeii enia?yaiui a aaeooia yeaeo?iaeii // I?eeeaaeiay oeceea. —
1997. -?4. -N.48-66.

5. Naaiei A.A. Iieo/aiea ieaciu ia?ia iaoaeeia // IOY. -1990. -?4.
-N.174-176.

6. Naaiei A.A. Noaoeeiia?iua yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu n aeeooocii
enia?yaiui a aaeooia yeaeo?iaeii // Aanoiee EAO. -1988. -?29.
-N.103-107.

7. Naaiei A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A. I aeeooociie i?eaycea ?ac?yaea n enia?yaiui
a aaeooia eaaeiieaaeei eaoiaeii // Oeceea ieaciu. -1990. -O.16. —
A.11. -N.1381-1385.

8. Aea?ea/ A.A., Naaiei A.A. ?ac?yae n aeeooocii enia?ythueiny eaoiaeii
a aaeooia // Oaieioeceea aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. -1991. -O.29. -?3. —
N.378-381.

9. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Aa?aiae/aiei A.I. Ieaciaiiue
enia?eoaeue // IOY. -1983. -?4. -N.166-168.

10. Naaiei A.A.. Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Aa?aiae/aiei A.I. Enoi/iee ia?ia
iaoaeeia n iieui eaoiaeii.// Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee
iaoa?eaeia.-1986.-?2.-N.60-63.

11. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Aa?aiae/aiei A.I., E?aaaoeeee A.A.
Enia?eoaee n iieui eaoiaeii./ IOY. -1985. -?1. -N.210-215.

12. Naaiei A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A., Aa?aiae/aiei A.I. Iai?aaeaiiue enoi/iee
ieaciu// IOY.-1991. -?1. -N.179-181.

13. Aea?ea/ A.A., Naaiei A.A. Enoi/iee ieaciu ia?ia iaoaeeia n inaaui
aiiaeii// IOY. -1990. -?6. -N.174 -175

14. Aea?ea/ A.A., Naaiei A.A. ?ani?aaeaeaiea yeaeo?iiia ii yia?aeyi a
?ac?yaea n enia?ythueiny iieui eaoiaeii// Oaieioeceea aunieeo
oaiia?aoo?.-1991. -O.29. -?5. -N.840-846.

15. Naaiei A.A., Ieoaoaeaa A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A. ?ac?yae n iieui eaoiaeii
neiaeiie eiioeao?aoeee// Oeceea ieaciu. -1989. -O.15. ?8. -N1008-1011.

16. Naaiei A.A., Ieoaoaeaa A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A. ?ac?yae n enia?aieai
?aai/aai aauanoaa ec iieiai eaoiaea n ia?aoyaeeie// Ecaanoey NI AI NNN?.
Na?ey oaoi. iaoe. -1990. -A.2. -N.84-91.

17. Naaiei A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A. Oaiia?aoo?iua
enneaaeiaaiey iieiai eaoiaea-oeaey a yeaeo?e/aneii ?ac?yaea//Oaieioeceea
aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. -1988. O.26. -?3. -N.450-454.

18. Naaiei A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A. ?ac?yaeiay eaia?a enoi/ieea eiiia iaoaeeia
// IOY. -1990. -?4. -N.176-177.

19. Naaiei A.A., Aea?ea/ A.A., Aa?aiae/aiei A.I. Enoi/iee eiiia iaoaeia
n ai?y/ei iieui eaoiaeii. // IOY. -1987. -?1. -N.154-156.

20. Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Ai?the N.A., Naaiei A.A. Enoi/iee ieaciu ia?ia
iaoaeeia. // IOY. -1987. -?2. -N.136-138.

21. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Ai?the N.A. Ono?ienoai oa?iieiiiiai
inaaeaeaiey // Neae?neee oeceei-oaoie/aneee aeo?iae. -1992. -A.1.
-N.113-115.

22. Naaiei A.A., Eieiieaoe I.O. ?ac?yae a ia?ao iaoa?eaea aiiaea //
Oeceea e oeiey ia?aaioee iaoa?eaeia. -1984. -?6. -N.38-41.

23. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Ai?the N.A. Ianaiinoiyoaeueiue
aeoaiaie ?ac?yae n enia?yaiui aiiaeii a ne?auaiiuo E x B iieyo //
Oaieioeceea aunieeo oaiia?aoo?. -1990. O.28. -?1. -N.170-172.

24. Naaiei A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A., ?oaeieoeeee A.A. Iaoaieci ai?aiey
?ac?yaea n enia?ythueiny a aaeooia aiiaeii // Iaoa?eaeu aaeaaiaeiie
eiioa?aioeee EssE. -1997. -N.286-290 ; Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. -1998.
-? 9. -N.95-97.

25. Naaiei A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A., ?oaeieoeeee A.A. I n?uaa ?ac?yaea n
enia?ythueiny aiiaeii oieii aeiiieieoaeueiiai yeaeo?iaea // Ibid.
-N.291-294; Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. -1998. -? 10. -N.93-96.

26. Ai?enaiei A.A., E?aa/aiei A.A., Naaiei A.A. Aaciaaieoiue ieaciaiiue
iaoaeeecaoi? // IOY. -1992. -?2. -N.257-261.

27. Ai?enaiei A.A., E?aa/aiei A.A., Naaiei A.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeeaa?aiiu
iai?aaeaiiinoe eiiiie eiiiiiaiou ieaciaiiiai iaoaeeecaoi?a aeeyeaeo?eeia
// Neae?neee oeceei-oaoie/aneee aeo?iae. -1992. -A.6. -N.78-82.

28. Na?iei A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A., ?oaei?oeueeee A.A. Aieea aeiaeaoeiaiai
aeaeo?iaea ia aeoaiaee ?ic?yae c aeia?iaoaaiiyi aiiaea // OOAE. -1998.
-O.43, ? 8. -N.817-819.

29. Naaiei A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A., ?oaeieoeeee A.A. ?aaeoeaiia oa?iieiiiia
iaiueaiea oiieeo ieaiie // IOY. -1998. -? 3. -N.134-136.

30. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E. Ieaciaiii-io/eiaue ?ac?yae a ia?ao
iaoaeeia // AEOO. -1976. O.46. -?.12. -N.2523-2528.

31. Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Ai?iaueaa A.Ae., Naaiei A.A., O?aoueyeia TH.I.
Enneaaeiaaiea ca?yaeiaiai ninoaaa eiiia a nenoaia “ieacia-io/ie”. I. //
AEOO. -1971. -O.41. A.6. -N.1141-1145.

32. Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Naaiei A.A., O?aoueyeia TH.I. Enneaaeiaaiea
ca?yaeiaiai ninoaaa eiiia a nenoaia “ieacia-io/ie” II. // AEOO. -1973.
-O.43. A.8. -N.1652-1655.

33. Naaiei A.A., Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., O?aoueyeia TH.I. Io/eiai-ieaciaiiue
enoi/iee eiiia // IOY. -1977. -?3. -N.34-38.

34. Naaiei A.A., Eanoiia I.I. Ianaiinoiyoaeueiue ?ac?yae a ne?auaiiuo
iieyo // AEOO. -1974. -O.44. -E.6. -N.1206-1209.

35. Eo/a?aiei A.O., Naaiei A.A. Oa?iieiiiia inaaeaeaiea oiieeo ieaiie //
IOY. -1976. -?3. -N.261-263.

36. Naaiei A.A., Naaaeeueiue I.A. Eiiecaoi?u e yeaeo?iiii-eo/aaui
enia?eoaeyi // IOY. -1993. -?2. -N.209-212.

37. Aea?ea/ A.A., Naaiei A.A. Aaeooiii-ieaciaiiay iaoaeeecaoeey
aeeyeaeo?eeia // IOY. -1991. -?2. -N.211-213.

38. Aeaaeeie?ia A.E., Eoeeeianeee A.TH., Ieeyieaae/ A.I., ?ieeoeeee
A.A., Naaiei A.A., Nie?iia A.I. No?oeoo?a ieaiie iaaee, iieo/aiiuo
oa?iieiiiui inaaeaeaieai // Iiaa?oiinoue. Oeceea, oeiey, iaoaieea.
-1985. -? 11. -N.50-53.

39. Naaiei A.A., Ai?enaiei A.A., ?oaeieoeeee A.A. Ieaciioeie/aneea
?aaeoi?u neioaca iaoa?eaeia // I?iaeaiu niaoeeaeueiie
yeaeo?iiaoaeeo?aee. -1998. -? 3. -N.29-34.

40. Saenko V.A. Discharges with the Electrode Homogeneously Evaporated
in Vacuum (DEHEV). // na. Yeaeo?iieea e naycue. -1997. -?2, /.1.
-N.42-44.; Contrib. Papers of the XVIII ISDEIV. Eindhoven, The
Netherlands. -1998. -V.2.-P.709-712.

Na?iei A. A. Noaoe?iia?i? aeaeo?e/i? ?ic?yaee c iaeii??aeiei
aeia?iaoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaea o aaeooi? oa ?o canoinoaaiiy a aeaea?aeao
ieacie, ?ii?a ? oa?ii?iiiiio iaieeaii? (?oeiien). Aeena?oaoe?y ia
caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino?
05.27.02 — aaeooiia, ieaciiaa ? eaaioiaa aeaeo?ii?ea. Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Ee?a,
1999 ?.

Ia caoeno i?aaenoaaeaiee ?icaeyae aeanoeainoae ? oa?aeoa?enoee
noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a c iaeii??aeiei aeia?iaoaaiiyi
aeaeo?iaea, i?e yeiio ?ici??e iaeano? aeia?iaoaaiiy ni?a?ici??i? c
?ici??aie ?iai/i? /anoeie aeaeo?iaea, oiaoi, c? anueiai ??ciiiai?ooy
noaoe?iia?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo ?ic?yae?a c aeia?iaoaaiiyi aeaeo?iaea
noaiiaeyoue aeiyoie o?eueee ?ic?yaee c aeia?iaoaaiiyi ?c eaoiaeii? ?
aiiaeii? ieyi aaeooiii-aeoaiaiai ?ic?yaeo.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaieo ?ic?yae?a ?ic?iaeaii a?eueo i?ae 15
eiino?oeoe?e aeaea?ae ieacie, ?ii?a ? ieaciiaeo i?enei?thaa/?a. Aiie
canoiniaai? a oaoiieia?? oa?ii?iiiiai iaieeaiiy ie?aie ? iie?eoo?a, a
oiio /ene? a oaoiieia?? eiie?aoieo ae?ia?a iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy,
i?e?iiaoai?ee, aeaeo?ii?ee, ?aae?i?cioiiieo ? iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
i?eeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?e/iee ?ic?yae, aaeooi, aeia?iaoaaiiy, ieacia,
?ii, aeaea?aei, iaieeaiiy.

Naaiei A.A. Noaoeeiia?iua yeaeo?e/aneea ?ac?yaeu n iaeii?iaeii
enia?yaiui a aaeooia yeaeo?iaeii e eo i?eiaiaiea a enoi/ieeao ieaciu,
eiiia e oa?iieiiiii inaaeaeaiee (?oeiienue). Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
o/aiie nooiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.27.02 —
aaeooiiay, ieaciaiiay e eaaioiaay yeaeo?iieea. Iaoeeiiaeueiue
oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”,
Eeaa, 1999 a.

I?e caueoa ?anniao?eaathony naienoaa e oa?aeoa?enoeee noaoeeiia?iuo
yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia n iaeii?iaeii enia?yaiui a aaeooia yeaeo?iaeii.
Iaeii?iaeiui iacuaaaony oaeia enia?aiea yeaeo?iaea, i?e eioi?ii ?acia?u
iaeanoe enia?aiey niecia?eiu n ?acia?aie ?aai/ae /anoe yeaeo?iaea, o.a.
ec anaai iiiaiia?acey noaoeeiia?iuo yeaeo?e/aneeo ?ac?yaeia n enia?yaiui
yeaeo?iaeii eneeth/athony oieueei ?ac?yaeu n enia?aieai ec eaoiaeiiai e
aiiaeiiai iyoai aaeooiii-aeoaiaiai ?ac?yaea.

Iaci? i?aaeoanoaothueo ?aaio ii aeaiiiio iai?aaeaieth enneaaeiaaiee,
iinoaiiaea caaea/e, oeaeue ?aaiou i?eaiaeyony ai aaaaeaiee. Ia?aay aeaaa
aeenna?oaoeee yaeyaony iaoiaee/aneie: iienuaathony eeanne/aneea
ieaciaiiua, ei?ioneoey?iua e oaa?aeioaeueiua iaoiaeeee i?eiaieoaeueii e
enneaaeiaaieyi ?ac?yaeia n enia?yaiui yeaeo?iaeii e i?iaeoeoia iaiueaiey
yeaeo?iaeia ia iiaeeiaeee.

N?aaee aeoaiauo ?ac?yaeia n enia?yaiui eaoiaeii ?anniao?eaathony
?ac?yaeu n enia?aieai ec «ieineiai» eaoiaea e ?ac?yaeu n enia?aieai ec
iieiai eaoiaea (aeaaa 2). Iaa ?ac?yaea eiatho iaeio e oo aea oece/aneoth
iiaeaeue ?ac?yaea ia aaca: aeoaiaie ?ac?yae n iaeaeaiiui eaoiaeii. A
neo/aa ?ac?yaea n iieui eaoiaeii iaeanoue i?eaycee ?ac?yaea ia eaoiaea
iiaeao ia?aiauaoueny ii iiaa?oiinoe eaoiaea a caaeneiinoe io aai
eiino?oeoeee e ?aaeeia ai?aiey ?ac?yaea. Naienoaa ?ac?yaea a i?inoaeoai
neo/aa iienuaathony iiaeaeueth ?ac?yaea n enoa/aieai aaca /a?ac o?oaeo a
aaeooi. Aeey ?ac?yaeia n oeaio?aeueiie anoaaeie a iieii eaoiaea
iaaethaeathony ioeeiiaiey io oai?ee. ?ac?yae n iieui eaoiaeii iaeaieaa
i?eiaiei aeey inaaeaeaiey ieaiie ae?aaioeaiiuo iaoaeeia, iineieueeo
eiaao iaeaieueoee eiyooeoeeaio eniieueciaaiey ?aai/aai aauanoaa,
enia?yaiiai ec eaoiaea. E?iia oiai, ii yaeony iniiaie aoaeoueo
?ac?aaioie enoi/ieeia eiiece?iaaiiuo iieaeoey?iuo iioieia e eeanoa?ia.

Aoi?ui oeiii ?ac?yaeia yaeythony ?ac?yaeu n enia?yaiui iaoa?eaeii
aiiaea (aeaaa 3). Enia?aiea inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ai?y/aai eaoiaea.
?acee/athony aeeiaeiua e o?eiaeiua ?ac?yaeu a iaaieoiii iiea e aac iaai.
Oa?aeoa?enoeee ?ac?yaeia caaeathony ?aaeeiii ?aaiou oa?iieaoiaea:
naiaiaeiui eee auioaeaeaiiui. Iaia?oaeaiu e iauyniaiu yooaeou n?uaa
aeeiaeiiai ?ac?yaea oieii aeiiieieoaeueiiai yeaeo?iaea e n?uaa enia?aiey
iaoa?eaea aiiaea iaioneii aaca a ?ac?yaeiue iau?i. I?aaeeiaeai e
?aaeeciaai iaoiae “aaciaiai iiaeaeeaa” ?ac?yaeia. Iieacaii, /oi
o?eiaeiue ?ac?yae iaania/eaaao ?aaoee?iaaiea eiyooeoeeaioa eiiecaoeee
ieaciu ia?ia ?aai/aai aauanoaa iacaaeneii io nei?inoe iaiueaiey ie?iie,
eioi?ay caaea?ony iiuiinoueth aeeiaeiiai ?ac?yaea. Aeinoeaiooi 80 %.
Iniiaiia aeinoieinoai ?ac?yaeia — aiciiaeiinoue aaia?e?iaaiey onei?aiiuo
iaeo?aeeciaaiiuo ieaciaiiuo iioieia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony, i?aaeaea
anaai, aeey iaoaeeecaoeee aeeyeaeo?eeia, iaiueaiey aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo
ieaiie, neioaca niaaeeiaiee iaoaeeia eee iieoi?iaiaeieeia n oeie/anee
aeoeaiuie aacaie.

E o?aoueaio oeio ?ac?yaeia (aeaaa 4) ioiinyony yeaeo?iiii-io/eiaua
?ac?yaeu n enia?aieai yeaeo?iaea yeaeo?iiiui io/eii. ?acee/athony
io/eiai-ieaciaiiua, io/eiai-iaaiao?iiiua e ?ac?yaeu n iaeaeaiiui
eaoiaeii a ia?ao ?aai/aai aauanoaa. Iniaaiii ia?niaeoeaiu
io/eiai-ieaciaiiua ?ac?yaeu. Iie aaeeinoaaiii aiciiaeiu aeey eiiecaoeee
ia?ia, aaia?e?oaiuo yeaeo?iiiuie iooeaie iaaaaaooiiai aeeaiaciia
iiuiinoae. Enneaaeiaai ca?yaeiaue ninoaa eiiia a io/eiai-ieaciaiiii
?ac?yaea e iieacaii, /oi ii ii?aaeaeyaony o?aaiaieai aaeaina /anoeoe a
?ac?yaea, aaea iniiaiie aeeaae aiineo oaea?iay nooiai/aoay eiiecaoeey
aoiiia ieaciaiiuie yeaeo?iiaie e a?aiy oaea?aeaiey eiiia a i?ino?ainoaa
eiiecaoeee. Aeinoeaiooi 50 %. Iaeaieaa /enoay ieacia ia?ia ?aai/aai
aauanoaa a ?ac?yaea n iaeaeaiiui eaoiaeii iaaethaeaaony i?e
io?eoeaoaeueiii iioaioeeaea eaoiaea e ie?oaeathuaai ieacio
iaoaeee/aneiai ye?aia ii ioiioaieth e iioaioeeaeo cacaieaiiiai oeaey,
eiaaea i?eiane ninoaaeytho iaiaa 10-2 % io iniiaiiai ninoaaa ieaiee.

Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiiuo ?ac?yaeia ?ac?aaioaii aieaa 15 eiino?oeoeee
enoi/ieeia ieaciu, eiiia e ieaciaiiuo onei?eoaeae, ieaciioeie/aneeo
?aaeoi?ia e oaoiieiaey iaoaeeecaoeee aeeyeaeo?eeia. Iie i?eiaiaiu a
oaoiieiaee oa?iieiiiiai inaaeaeaiey ieaiie e iie?uoee ia iiaeeiaeee
ethaie i?iaiaeeiinoe, a oii /enea a oaoiieiaee eiie?aoiuo ecaeaeee
iaoeiino?iaiey, iee?iiaoaieee, yeaeo?iieee, ?aaeeiecioiiiuo e
iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo i?eai?ia (aeaaa 5).

A caeeth/aiea i?eaiaeyony auaiaeu ec ?aaiou e oeacuaathony ia?niaeoeau
aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aeaiiuo iai?aaeaiee oeceee, oaoieee e oaoiieiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?e/aneee ?ac?yae, aaeooi, enia?aiea, ieacia, eii,
enoi/iee, iaiueaiea.

Saenko V.A. Stationary Electric Discharges with the Electrode
Homogeneously Evaporated in Vacuum and their Usage in Plasma and Ion
Sources and on Thermoionic Deposition (manuscript). The dissertation
for obtaining of the scientific degree of the doctor of technical
science, corresponding to the speciality 05.27.02 — vacuum, plasma and
quantum electronics, National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv
Politechnic Institute”, Kyiv, 1999.

The properties and characteristics of stationary electric discharges
with the electrode homogeneously evaporated in vacuum is made and
represented for defence. The electrode evaporation is considered to be
homogeneous when the sizes of evaporation area are comparable with those
of the electrode working part, i.e. from all the variety of stationary
electric discharges only the discharges evaporating from cathode and
anode spots of a vacuum arc are excluded.

More than 15 designs of plasma and ion sources, and of plasma
accelerators have been developed on the basis of the discharge studies.
They are used in the technology of thermoionic film deposition and
coatings including the technogies of specific machine-building,
micromechanics, electronic items, and radioisotopic and semiconductor
devices.

Key words: discharge, vacuum, evaporation, plasma, ion, source,
deposition.

Caeiaoaa/ A. A. Na?iei

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