Стабілізуючий ефект переднього спондилодезу та занурювальних фіксаторів: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / Хазайма Ахмед Абдель Кадер, Харк. НДІ ортоп

Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I. ?. Neoaiea

Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?

OAeE 617.547: 616-089. 22

NOAA?E?COTH*EE AOAEO IA?AAeIUeIAI NIIIAeEEIAeACO OA CAIO?THAAEUeIEO
O?ENAOI??A

14.01.21 — o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Eoaainueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? IIC
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OAAOeUe Ieaen?e ?aaiiae/

Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?UAIEI A?oae?e sseiae/

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae??, ea??aiee

Oe?a?inueeiai nieiaeueiiai iae?io??o?a?/iiai oeaio?o c ee?i?eith
o??o?a?? o?aaoa

  aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe

A?OIOIANUeEEE Aaiiaae?e Oa?eaii?eiae/

Oa?e?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?. Neoaiea,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiyi aa?oaa?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia

aeaaeai?y, eaoaae?a o?aaiaoieia??, i?oiiaae??

oa INA OEI, IIC Oe?a?ie, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 5 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. ia 11.30 ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae 64.607.01 o Oa?e?anueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? i?oiiaae??
oa o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io. I.?.Neoaiea (310024, i.Oa?e?a,
aoe.Iooe?inueea, 80).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?oiiaae?? oa o?aaiaoieia??
?i.i?io.I.?.Neoaiea (310024, i.Oa?e?a, aoe.Iooe?inueea, 80).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 5 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe ?aae/aiei A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

Iioeiaeaeaiiy ? caoai?thaaiiy iiia?aeiaiai ? a?oaeiiiia?aeiaiai
a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa iin?aeathoue i?ia?aeia i?noea a no?oeoo?? iaoieia??
o?aaoa, a?ae??ciythoueny aaeeeith ??ciiiai?oi?noth ca oa?aeoa?ii ?
nooiaiai o?aaeaiiy o?aaoa ? eiai ai?noo, caeeoathoueny aaaeeeaith
iaaee/iith ? nioe?aeueiith i?iaeaiith, yea i?eaa?oa? oaaao oe?ieiai eiea
aeine?aeiee?a (I.I. Ei?ae, 1979; A.?.Oaae??a, 1983; I.?.Oaenthe, 1984;
Farfan, 1989). Iioeiaeaeaiiy a?oaeiiiia?aeiaiai ? iiia?aeiaiai
a?aeae?e?a o?aaoa neeaaeathoue 46-78% an?o iioeiaeaeaiue o?aaoa
(A.A.Aaaiania, 1983; I.I.Aeai?/aa, A.I.Ia?eoeia, 1985; I.O.Aeo?ia, 1978;
Nachemson, 1976; Wh?te, 1978). An?, ooi ia?ai?n oneeaaeiaio o?aaio
o?aaoa ? 35% c iaoneeaaeiaiith o?aaiith noathoue ?iaae?aeaie (I.I.Ei?ae,
1994). A 28% aeiaaee?a ?icaeaathoueny a?aenooi? a iiiaio o?aaie /e
iineeththoueny ?nioth/? ?ai?oa iciaee caoe?eaaeaiino? iaaeoey?ieo
ooai?aiue, aae aei i??eiiao?? (A.N.THiaoaa oa ni?aaao., 1975).
Aeaaaia?aoeaii-aeano?oeoeai? i?ioeane, e??i ianoaa?eueiino? a o?aaoiaiio
?ooiaiio naaiaio? (O?N), i?ecaiaeyoue aei ??ciiiai?oieo iaoieia?/ieo
noai?a, ye? aeiaaathoue iia?aoeaii? ei?aeoe?? (I.?.I?iaeai, 1996;
A.I.?aae/aiei, 1996).

?ic?iaeaieie a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y iia?aoeaieie niiniaaie e?eoaaiiy
iiaeia aeinyaoe a?aeiiaeaiiy aiaoii?/ii? oi?ie o?aaoe?a ? o?aaoiaiai
eaiaeo, o?enoaaoe iioeiaeaeaiee naaiaio (I.O.Aeo?ia, 1978; N.N.Oea/aiei,
1979; A.A.O?e?iaiei, 1996; D?cson, 1978; Fredr?cson et al., 1982). Aei
oiai ae, iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy ? niiniae o?enaoe?? o?aaoa, ye?
canoiniaothoueny ia aeaiee /an, a?ae??ciythoueny aaeeeith
??ciiiai?oi?noth ? ia caaaeaee iaoiaaiaoe/ii ? a?iiaoai?/ii iaa?oioiaai?
ye ca oa?aeoa?ii, oae ? ca ianyaii ao?o/aiiy. Oa ae naia noino?oueny ?
i?neyiia?aoe?eii? o?enaoe??, ?? iaiao?aeiino?, oa?i?io. I?e
ianoaa?eueieo iioeiaeaeaiiyo canoiniao?oueny i?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac
(ION) ?c ia?aaei?o aeinooi?a, caaeiy o?enaoe?y caio?thaaeueieie
eiino?oeoe?yie (ss.E.Oe?a’yi, 1971; I.O.Aeo?ia, 1983; Lev?s, 1974). Aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy noaa?eueiino? aeei?enoiaothoue eiia?iiaai? ao?o/aiiy ia
ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o a?aeae?eao o?aaoa (Noaa?aa, 1996; I.?.Oaaoeue, 1991;
R?ska, 1981; Wh?tes?des, 1977). I?aeoiaee ? ??cieie ye a ia’?i?, oae ? a
oa?aeoa?? noaa?e?caoe?? O?N ? i?e ?ioeo iaoieia?/ieo noaiao o?aaoa.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oa?aeoa?o ? o?eaaeino? i?neyiia?aoe?eii? o?enaoe??
oaeiae aeoaea ??ciiiai?oi?. Ca iaeiaeiaeo oiia a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao
ciai?oiy ?iiia?e?caoe?y ia ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny cian?i (Z?mmerman, 1968), a
?ioeo — aaoi?e ?aeiiaiaeothoue ?iiia?e?caoe?th a a?iniaiio e?aeeo
(Staufer, 1975), aei?noeei ei?naoii (ss.E.Oe?a’yi, 1983; I.?.Oaaoeue,
1996; Crock, 1982), /e o?eueee ei?naoii, ui ci?ia?oueny (Bradford, 1977;
R?ska, 1981). A?iiaoai?/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii oe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ia
iaa?oioiaai?.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui caeeoathoueny iaae??oaieie aaaaoi
ieoaiue e?eoaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue ? caoai?thaaiue o?aaoa. Niiniae ? ia’?i
iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy iaoieia?? o?aaoa, ieoaiiy canoinoaaiiy
aioo??oiuei? o?enaoe??, iaiao?aeiino?, oa?i?i?a ? aeae?a ciai?oiuei?
o?enaoe?? aeiaaathoue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy, aaeineiiaeaiiy ?
oi?o?eaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ca?aeii ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe??
01950015999).

Oe?eue ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iie?ioeoe ?acoeueoaoe o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy iioeiaeaeaiue oa
caoai?thaaiue o?aaoa oeyoii oaeineiiaeaiiy oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caoiae?a i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco, aioo??oiuei?
o?enaoe??, ciaioeoe e?aoi?noue ? o?aaiaoe/i?noue iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy,
aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei ?iiia?e?caoe?? a ?aaa?e?oaoe?eiiio
ia??iae?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?e? iaie aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaeoe aenia?eiaioaeueio a?iiaoai?/io iiaeaeue aeey aea/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa.

2. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/eoe ia a?iiaoai?/i?e iiaeae? nooi?iue
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? o?aaoa i?e ?oeioaaii? eiai ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o
e?noeiai-ca’yceiaeo no?oeoo?.

3. Aea/eoe a aenia?eiaio? ia a?iiaoai?/i?e iiaeae? noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo
i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco.

4. Aea/eoe a aenia?eiaio? ia a?iiaoai?/i?e iiaeae? noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo
caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a.

5. Aea/eoe aeeiai?eo ?aioaaiiiao?e/ieo iieaciee?a i?e i?aeo?eiaiio
niiiaeeeiaeac?.

6. Aea/eoe iaeaeeae/? ? a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe noaa?e?coth/eo iia?aoe?e
ia o?aao? a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo niiiaeeeiaeaco oa ciai?oiuei?
o?enaoe??.

7. ?ic?iaeoe aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy a?aeiiaeaiiy
iin?eieo iii? O?N oa iaoiae?a aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe?? aeey
caaacia/aiiy aaeaeaaoii? noaa?e?caoe?? caoe?eaaeaiiai O?N.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iaoeiaa iiaecia caeeth/a?oueny a oiio, ui iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie ?ic?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae? ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino?
ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o no?oeoo? O?N, a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? iin?eii?
iii?e. Ca oa?aeoa?ii ?oeioaaiiy no?oeoo? iiaeaeue iaaeeaea?oueny aei
ee?i?/ieo, iaoiaiaoii?/ieo neooaoe?e o?aaeaiiy O?N, a ca oa?aeoa?ii
a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?e?niino? no?oeoo? O?N iiaeaeue iiaoi?th? i?eeiie, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe?. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aecia/aii
noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco, caio?thaaeueieo
o?enaoi??a ? ?o noeoiiiai canoinoaaiiy. Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c ia?aiao??a noaa?e?coth/iai aoaeoo aeacaieo i?eeii?a o eiie?aoieo
iaoieia?/ieo neooaoe?yo. Iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoiaeeea
ioieoe?eiiai niiiaeeeiaeaco i?e i?iieeeeo ? ?icaeaaeaieo ia?aeiiao o?ea
o?aaoey, yea a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae a?aeiieo iaoiaeee iaioith
o?aaiaoe/i?noth ? a?eueoith iaae?ei?noth.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Aia?oa ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ee?i?/ieo aeaieo
cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai niiniao a?aeiiaeaiiy
iin?eieo iii? o?aaoa, aecia/aii oe?eani?yiiaai? eiia?iaoe?? i?aeo?eiaiai
niiiaeeeiaeaco ? aioo??oiuei? o?enaoe??, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi
aeai?o niiniao ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe?? caeaaeii a?ae ia?aii? iaoiaeeee
niiiaeeeiaeaco. Aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeicaiey? o iaaieo neooaoe?yo ciaioeoe
ianya ? e?aoi?noue iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue, nei?ioeoe oa?i?ie e?aeeiaiai
?aaeeio, oa?i?ie ia?aaoaaiiy oai?iai a noaoe?iia??, ciaioeoe iia?/i?
ae?? a?iiaeeiai?? ? ciai?oiuei? aei?noei? o?enaoe??.

?ic?iaeaiee ao?aaiaoe/iee niin?a i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? iin?eii? iii?e o?aaoa caiia?aa? ?icaeiaiith
iino?aaiaoe/iiai inoaioiiae?ico. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
a?aeae?eaiiyo o i?noao Eoaainueei? iaeano?, Oa?e?anueeiai, Oe?a?inueeiai
IAe? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? c ?ioa?iaie ? e?ea?yie ia eaoaae?ao o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae??
Aeiiaoeueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai iaaee/ieo oi?aa?neoao?a, ia eaoaae??
o?aaiaoieia?? ? i?oiiaae?? Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ea??a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

Aaoi? naiino?eii aeeiiaa o iiaiiio ianyc? aenia?eiaioaeueio /anoeio
?iaioe, naiino?eii i?iaiae?coaaa ? nenoaiaoecoaaa a?o?aiee iaoa??ae (306
?noi??e oai?ia ? ?aioaaiia?ai), aea/ea a?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy
? i?ia?a ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy. Aeeiiaa ?aioaaiiiao??th, a?aa
o/anoue a iia?aoe?yo ia ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o a?aeae?eao o?aaoa.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii a iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?ii
aeai?eoio aeai?o niiniao iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ? ciai?oiuei?
?iiia?e?caoe??. Ni?eueii ?c ni?ai?aoe?aieeaie eaoaae?e ?ic?iaea iiaee
niin?a ooiaeueiiai i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco, i?ia?a i?e oeueiio
iiia?aaei? aiaoii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aa o/anoue a i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaioo ? oai?aoe/ieo iaa?oiooaaiiyo niiniao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ?icaeyioo? oa iaaiai?ai? ia
?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a
(i.Eoaainuee, 1996), ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? i?oiiaae?a-o?aaiaoieia?a (i.sseoa, 1997 ?.), ia can?aeaiiyo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? ?aaee o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a Eoaainueei? iaeano?
(1997-1998 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 8 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, a oiio
/ene? 4 noaoo? o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 4 /anoei, aeniiae?a,
ia?ae?eo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoea. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 217
noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. ?iaioa i?noeoue 43 oaaeeoe? oa 43
iaethiea. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e neeaaea?oueny ?c 354 aeaea?aea,
o oiio /ene? 170 ?iicaiieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

C iaoith aea/aiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o?enaoi??a, noaa?e?coth/iai
aoaeoo ?iieaioao?a i?e i?aeo?eiaiio niiiaeeeiaeac? ? noaa?e?coth/iai
aoaeoo eiia?iaoe?? ?iieaioao?a ? o?enaoi??a i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
36 i?aia?aoao aeieo iiia?aeiaeo o?aaoe?a a?ae o?oi?a. Aeiee aeeth/aee
Th12–L 5 — o?aaoe?. A?iiaoai?/i? ia?aiao?e aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ia
onoaiiaoe?, yea aeicaiey? aecia/eoe a?aeoeeaiiy o?aaoe?a o o?aaoiaiio
?ooiaiio naaiaio? i?e caeiaeueieo ? ?icaeiaeueieo ae?yo ia iueiai.

Aea/aiiy a?iiaoai?/ieo ia?aiao??a i?iaiaeeeiny a oiiaao ii?ooaiiy
noaa?eueiino? o?aaoiaiai ?ooiaiai naaiaioa, a?aeiiaeaii? ia?aaeiuei?
iii?e, o?enaoe?? ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-?, OIAe?IO-?? oa RoyCam?lle.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia 8 na??yo aeoyaiooeo aeie?a. Eiaeia na??y
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaiaeeeany ia 6 aeieao o?aaoa.

A aenia?eiaio? iiaeaethaaeenue oae? aa??aioe ii?ooaiue oe?e?niino?
o?aaoiaeo no?oeoo?:

1. ?oeioaaiiy aeenea (iiaeaethaaiiy aeeneaeoii??);

2. ?oeioaaiiy aeenea ? caaei?o no?oeoo? (iiaeaethaaiiy aeaeoo ?
ia?aeiiiaeaeoo);

3. ?oeioaaiiy o?ea o?aaoey (iiaeaethaaiiy ?icaeaaeaiiai ia?aeiio,
aeano?oeoe?? o?ea o?aaoey, ?acaeoe?? o?ea o?aaoey i?e caa?aaeaii?
caaei?o no?oeoo?);

4. ?oeioaaiiy o?ea o?aaoey ? eiai caaei?o no?oeoo? (iiaeaethaaiiy
?icaeaaeaiiai ia?aeiio o?ea o?aaoey c ?oeioaaiiyi caaei?o no?oeoo?
o?aaoey, c aeaeoii eiai /e aac, oioaeueii? niiiaeeeaeoii??).

Eiaeiiio aeaeo ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? no?oeoo? a?aeiia?aeaea iiaeaeue
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? iii?e (cai?ia i?aeo?aaoeaaiai aeenea, cai?ia
?iieaioaoii o?ea o?aaoey). A naith /a?ao i?e eiaeiiio aa??aio? ii?ooaiue
no?oeoo?e o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?? i?iaiaeeeinue aea/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? o?aaoiaiai ?ooiaiai naaiaioa a oiiaao o?enaoe?? ieanoeiaie
OIAe?IO-?, OIAe?IO-?? ? Roy-Cam?lle. O?enaoe?y ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-? ?
OIAe?IO-?? i?iaiaeeeany ca i?aaeeii “3+2”, ca?aeii c yeei aa?oiy oi/ea
o?enaoe?? a?aeiia?aea? aeoaeoe? oa inoenoiio a?ae?inoeo o?aoueiai
o?aaoey, ui eaaeeoue aeua ??aiy aa?o?aee aeaoi?iaoe??, a ieaeiy oi/ea —
aeoaeoe? e inoenoiio a?ae?inoeo ae?oaiai ca ?aooieii ieaeiueiai o?aaoey.

Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia o?aaoiaee aeie i?aeaeuoaaeenue aeiciaaii. I?e oeueiio
iiiaio aeaeio O?N aecia/aany ca oi?ioeith:
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00006604330066046600660499006604cc006604ff006604003366043333660466336604
99336604cc336604ff33660400666604336666046666660499666604cc66660400996604
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6633990499669904cc669904ff339904339999046699990499999904cc999904ff999904
00cc990433cc990466cc660499cc9904cccc9904ffcc990400ff990433ff990466cc9904
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3333cc046633cc049933cc04cc33cc04ff33cc040066cc043366cc04666699049966cc04
cc66cc04ff6699040099cc043399cc046699cc049999cc04cc99cc04ff99cc0400cccc04
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ccffcc04ffffcc043300cc046600ff049900ff040033cc043333ff046633ff049933ff04
cc33ff04ff33ff040066ff043366ff046666cc049966ff04cc66ff04ff66cc040099ff04
3399ff046699ff049999ff04cc99ff04ff99ff0400ccff0433ccff0466ccff0499ccff04
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80808004ff00000400ff0004ffff00040000ff04ff00ff0400ffff04ffffff0404000000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00005064aa00aa0009000000320a80020202010000003d00e60009000000320a9003b903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aea I — iiiaio aeaeio;

? — iaaaioaaeaiiy;

d — iea/a – a?aenoaiue a?ae oi/ee oii?o aei oi/ee iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae caniiaaii ia aea/aii? ?noi??e oai?iae ? ?aioaaiia?ai
i?iiia?iaaieo oai?eo a aeeiai?oe?. I?iaiae?ciaaii 306 ?noi??e oai?iae
iaoe??io?a a?eii a?ae 17 aei 63 ?ie?a. Caaaeueio a?oio neeaee oai?? c
iioeiaeaeaieie o?aaoeyie (205 oai?eo). O? ae, ui caeeoeeenue, aoee c
i?oiiaaee/iith iaoieia??th: aeaaaia?aoeai? ? niiiaeeeie?ci?
niiiaeeeie?noace (52 /ieia?e), ianoaa?euei? oi?ie inoaioiiae?ico (15),
a?eae? ? i?io?oc?? aeenea (27), iooeeie o?aaoe?a (4), ianiaoeeo?/i?
aeenoeeoe (3).

Ee?i?/iee iaoa??ae aoa ?iciiae?eaiee ia a?oie ca?aeii c aiaeia?/ieie i?e
aea/aii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? iiaeae?.

Aei 1-? a?oie a?aeianai? oai?? c ianoaa?eueieie oi?iaie inoaioiiae?ico,
aeaaaia?aoeaieie niiiaeeeie?noacaie, aeenoeeoaie, eiii?an?eieie
ia?aeiiaie o?aaoe?a ??-??? no.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaee oai?? c? niiiaeeeie?cieie niiiaeeeie?noacaie,
aeaeoaie ? ia?aeiiiaeaeoaie o?aaoe?a, canoa??eeie iioeiaeaeaiiyie
o?aaoe?a ?c e?oioe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th.

O?aoy a?oia — oai?? c ineieeiaeie ia?aeiiaie o?e o?aaoe?a, ye?
iio?aaothoue a?aeiiaeaiiy c?oeiiaaieo no?oeoo? oa iooeeiieo o?aaeaiue
o?ea o?aaoey aac caoe?eaaeaiino? i?aeie o?aaoe?a ? caaei?o iii?ieo
no?oeoo?.

*aoaa?oo a?oio neeaee oai?? ?c c?oeiiaaieie ia?aaei?ie ? caaei?ie
no?oeoo?aie o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa, iooeeiieie o?aaeaiiyie o?e oa caaei?o
aeaiaio?a o?aaoe?a, ui iio?aaothoue oioaeueiiai aeaeaeaiiy o?aaoey
(niiiaeeeaeoii??).

Aiae?coaaeenue aieiaiei /eiii aiaoii?/i? ?acoeueoaoe. Iniiaiei caniaii
aeey aecia/aiiy aiaoii?/iiai ?acoeueoaoo aoee ?aioaaiia?ao?y,
?aioaaiiiao??y.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ioe?iea noaa?e?coth/iai aoaeoo i?aeo?eiaiai
niiiaeeeiaeaco ? caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a

Aea/aiiy a?aeoeeaiue a O?N i?e iiaeaethaaii? ??cieo aa??aio?a ii?ooaiiy
noaa?eueiino? naaiaioa oa eiai a?aeiiaeaiiy aea? /?oea oyaeaiiy i?i
“iiaaae?ieo” O?N a ??ciiiai?oieo neooaoe?yo, aeyaey? caeiiii??iino?
noaa?e?coth/iai aoaeoo caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a, i?aeo?eiaeo
?iieaioao?a oa ?o eiia?iaoe??.

Aea/aiiy caeaaeiino? oiia aeaoi?iaoe?? O?N ?ioaeoiiai aeieo a?ae
iaaaioaaeaiiy aecia/eei ??aiii??ia c?inoaiiy a?aeoeeaiiy o?aaoey i?e
iaaaioaaeaiiyo aei 180 ea/ni. Iaaaioaaeaiiy aeua ca 180 ea/ni (1764
I/ni) i?ecaiaeeei aei ?oeioaaiiy eiino?oeoe?? (o?c?ieia?/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ca aeaieie A. ?. Oaae??aa (1983), E. I. Eeaoia (1989)
neeaaeathoue 1107 I/ni). ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa?eueiino?
iioeiaeaeaiiai aeieo a oiiaao o?enaoe?? ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-?, OIAe?IO-??
? Roy-Cam?lle aeiaaee, ui an? ia?ae?/ai? eiino?oeoe?? caaacia/othoue
aei?noeo o?enaoe?th o?aaoiaeo naaiaio?a i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo, ye?
ia?aaeuothoue o?c?ieia?/i? a 2 ?ace. ?o ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea iieacaea,
ui iaea?eueoee noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo ye a ?aaeei? caeiaiiy, oae ? a
?aaeei? ?icaeiaiiy caaacia/othoue ieanoeie OIAe?IO-??. Iacia/ii
iinooiathoueny ?i ca o?enoaaeueieie aeanoeainoyie ieanoeie Roy-Cam?lle.
O?enoaaeuei? aeanoeaino? ieanoei OIAe?IO-? cia/ii ieae/a cacia/aieo aeua
eiino?oeoe?e.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ooiiino? o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa a oiiaao ?acaoee?oaaiiai
aeenea aeiaaee cia/ia ii?ooaiiy ia?a?nieo o?enoaaeueieo aeanoeainoae,
iiyao cia/ii? ianoaa?eueiino? naaiaioa. I?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo, aeecueeeo
aei o?c?ieia?/ieo, a?aeoeeaiiy a O?N iaeaea a 1,5 ?ace ia?aaeuothoue
oae? ae a iaiioeiaeaeaiiio aeioe?. Ua a?eueo? a?aeoeeaiiy aeieeathoue
i?e ?icaeiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo. Ieanoeie OIAe?IO-I, OIAe?IO-II ?
Roy-Cam?lle caaacia/othoue aei?noe?noue noaa?e?caoe?? iioeiaeaeaiiai
naaiaioa c a?eueoei “caianii i?oeiino?”. I?e oeueiio iaea?eueoee
noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo aecia/a?oueny o ieanoei OIAe?IO-II.

A?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? i?aeo?eiai? iii?e i?ney ?acaeoe?? aeenea
caaacia/o? a?eueoo noaa?euei?noue a O?N, ui aeine?aeaeoaaany a ?aaeei?
caeiaiiy. Ca aei?noe?noth noai naaiaioa iiaeia ii??aiyoe c?
noaa?e?caoe??th naaiaioa caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie. A ?aaeei?
?icaeiaiiy iia?euei?noue O?N ? oaiaeaioe?y aei eiai ?oeioaaiiy
caeeoathoueny.

Aeiaeaoeiaa o?enaoe?y caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie ia iaaaaaoi i?aeaeuo?
aei?noe?noue eiino?oeoe?? a ?aaeei? caeiaiiy, aea a?aeiiaeth?
aei?noe?noue eiino?oeoe?? a ?aaeei? ?icaeiaiiy.

A oiiaao iiaii? ianoaa?eueiino? i?e ?acaoee?oaaiiio aeeneo ? c?oeiiaaieo
caaei?o e?noeiaeo no?oeoo?ao noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo o?enaoe??
caio?thaaeueieie eiino?oeoe?yie cia/ii ciaioo?oueny.

Noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a i?iyaey?oueny i?e
iaaaioaaeaiiyo aei 150 ea/ni (a iaaeao o?c?ieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue). I?e
oeueiio iaeiaio? noaa?e?coth/? aeanoeaino? aeyaeyea ieanoeia OIAe?IO-?.
Ia?aaeuaiiy o?c?ieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ooiiino? a O?N, aeaiiioaaeo eiino?oeoe?e aai ?oeioaaiiy
nenoaie “o?aaaoo?enaoi?”. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui aeey ciaioaiiy
aiie?ooaee ?oo?a a O?N iaiao?aeia aeiaeaoeiaa (ciai?oiy) o?enaoe?y.

A?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? iii?e i?e o?c?ieia?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo
caaacia/o? noaa?euei?noue a O?N i?e caeiaii?. Aeiaeaoeiaa noaa?e?caoe?y
O?N caio?thaaeueieie o?enaoi?aie a oiiaao a?aeiiaeaii? ia?aaeiuei? iii?e
aea? aei?noeo o?enaoe?th i?e caeiaeueii-?icaeiaeueieo ?ooao i?e
iaaaioaaeaiiyo, ye? cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue o?c?ieia?/i?, ? ia iio?aao?
aeiaeaoeiai? (ciai?oiuei?) o?enaoe??.

I?e ?acaeoe?? o?ea o?aaoey c? caa?aaeaiiyi caaei?o no?oeoo?
aecia/a?oueny cia/ia ianoaa?euei?noue a O?N a ?aaeei? ye caeiaiiy, oae ?
?icaeiaiiy. O?enaoe??th ieanoeiaie aeinyaa?oueny a?aeiinia aei?noe?noue,
aea oey o?enaoe?y ia caaacia/o? iaae?eii? noaa?eueiino? a O?N iaa?oue
i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo, iaaeeaeaieo aei o?c?ieia?/ieo. Ia?aaei?e
niiiaeeeiaeac ei?oeeaeueii-aoa/anoei o?ainieaioaoii aac aeei?enoaiiy
o?enaoi??a a?aeiiaeth? iii?iiaae?ei?noue oa no?ee?noue naaiaioa aei
caeiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ia aieeaath/e ia ?ooii?noue a O?N i?e
?icaeiaii?. Aeiaeaoeiaa o?enaoe?y caio?thaaeueieie eiino?oeoe?yie
caaacia/o? aenieo noaa?euei?noue a O?N c aaeeeei “caianii i?oeiino?” ?
?iaeoue iaiio??aiith aeiaeaoeiao aei?noeo ciai?oith o?enaoe?th.

I?e ?acaeoe?? o?ea o?aaoey c? c?oeioaaiiyi caaeiueiai iii?iiai eiiieaeno
c a?aeiiaeaiiyi ia?aaeiuei? i?aeo?eiai? iii?e noaa?euei?noue nenoaie
iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e aeei?enoaii? caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a. Oey
eiino?oeoe?y noaa?eueia i?e coneeeyo o iaaeao o?c?ieia?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia?aaeuaiiy ?o i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy
?ooiiino? a nenoai? oa aei ?? c?oeioaaiiy.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a canoinoaaiiy ia?aaeiueiai niiiaeeeiaeaco ?
caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a

A?oio c ianoaa?eueieie oi?iaie inoaioiiae?ico, aeaaaia?aoeaieie
niiiaeeeie?noacaie ? aeenoeeoaie neeaee 72 oai?eo. An?i oai?ei oe???
a?oie i?iaaaeai? oioaeueia aeeneaeoii?y, i?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac
aooio?ainieaioaoaie c a?aaaiy e?eea eeoaiai? e?noee. I?aeo?eiaee
niiiaeeeiaeac aeeiioaaany a 3-o aa??aioao:

1. ?iceeeithaaeueiee niiiaeeeiaeac ca ss.E.Oe?a’yiii i?e
inoaioiiae?icao.

2. I?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac i?e aioae?noacao ca iaoiaeeeith
Ae.?. Aeace??ia, i?e ye?e ?icoei aeeneo i?iaiaeeoeny a ein?e ieiueie
caa?oo aiec nia?aaeo iacaae.

3. I?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac i?e ?ao?ie?noacao ca iaoiaeeeith,
cai?iiiiiaaiith I.?. Oaaoeai, i?e ye?e ?icoei aeenea i?iaiaeeoeny a
iai?yieo caa?oo aiec ccaaeo iaia?aae.

I?e inoaii?o aeaio aa??aioao neeaaeathoueny oiiae aeey “naiiei?aeoe??”
aeaoi?iaoe??.

Icia/ai? ao?o/aiiy aac aioo??oiuei? o?enaoe?? cae?eniaii 44 (61%)
oai?ei. Na?aae ieo o?enaoe?y a?iniaei ei?naoii a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio
ia??iae? i?iaiaeeeany 27 (61,4%) oai?ei, ?ioei oai?ei ?iiia?e?caoe?y
i?iaiaeeeanue ci?iiei ei?naoii Eai?ia?aaenueeiai oeio. Oeei iaoe??ioai
i?neyiia?aoe?eiee e?aeeiaee ?aaeei i?iaiaeeee aei 2-4-o oeaei?a. O an?o
oai?eo, ca aeiyoeii iaeiiai, io?eiaii e?noeiaa ceeooy o?e o?aaoe?a.
A?aenooi?noue ?noioii? ??cieoe? a e?ioeaaiio aiaoii?/iiio ?acoeueoao? o
oai?eo c o?enaoe??th a?iniaei ? ci?iiei ei?naoaie aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe, ui
oai?ei i?ney aeeneaeoii?? c i?aeo?eiaei niiiaeeeiaeacii a oiiaao
oe?e?niino? caaei?o e?noeiaeo no?oeoo? ne?ae ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe e?aeeiaee
?aaeei a i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? o?eaae?noth aei 2-o oeaei?a c
ianooiiith o?enaoe??th ci?iiei ei?naoii.

Caa?aaeaiiy noaa?e?coth/iai aoaeoo i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco a
aeeiai?oe? aecia/aii ?aioaaiiiao?e/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie o 44 oai?eo,
yeei i?iaiaeeany aei?? aaee/eie i?aeo?eiaiai i?ii?aeeo a ia?o? 2 oeaei?
i?ney iia?aoe?? ? /a?ac 8 i?nyoe?a. Aei??e iieacaee a?aenooi?noue
?noioii? ??cieoe? a 43 aeiaaeeao. Oeae oaeo na?ae/eoue i?i oe?e?noue
ianyao ? i?oeiinieo aeanoeainoae o?ainieaioaoa a i?ioean? ia?aaoaeiae.

O 28 oai?eo, yeei i?aeo?eiaie niiiaeeeiaeac aoa aeiiiaiaiee
aioo??oiueith o?enaoe??th A-iiae?aieie ieanoeiaie, e?ioeaaee aiaoii?/iee
?acoeueoao aoa oaeee aea, ye ? a a?oi? aac o?enaoe??.

Ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i
aenieee nooi?iue noaa?eueiino? O?N i?e i?aeo?eiaiio niiiaeeeiaeac?. A
ca’yceo c oeei aeiiiaiaiiy iniiaiiai aoaio iia?aoe?? caio?thaaeueieie
o?enaoi?aie caeaa ? iaiaa?oioiaaia.

C eiii?an?eieie eeeiiiiae?aieie ia?aeiiaie o?e o?aaoe?a II-III nooiaiy
i?iiia?iaaii 80 oai?eo. An?i oai?ei i?ney ?aee?iaoe?? i?iaiaeeeanue
o?enaoe?y o?aaoiaeie ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-?? ca i?aaeeii “3+2”. Ciai?oiy
o?enaoe?y iaci?iiei a?iniaei ei?naoii i?iaaaeaia 47 (59%) oai?ei. A 33
aeiaaeeao (41%) ?iiia?e?caoe?y i?iaaaeaia ci?iiei ei?naoii
Eai?ia?aaenueeiai oeio. Caa?aaeaiiy aeinyaiooi? ei?aeoe?? a icia/aieo
a?oiao io?eiaii a 95,7% ? 94% aeiaaee?a a?aeiia?aeii. Oe? aeai?
na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui o?enoaaeuei? aeanoeaino? ieanoei OIAe?IO — ??
aeinoaoi?, uia noaa?e?coaaoe O?N ? caaacia/eoe oiiae aeey eiinie?aeaoe??
iioeiaeaeaieo o?aaoe?a aai oi?ioaaiiy e?noeiaiai ceeooy o?e o?aaoe?a.
Ciai?oiy ?iiia?e?caoe?y i?e oeueiio iineoue aeenoeeie?ioth/ee oa?aeoa? ?
iiaea aooe caaacia/aia ci?iiei iai?aaei?noeei ei?naoii.

A a?oi? c? niiiaeeeie?ciei niiiaeeeie?noacii (ii?ooaiiy oe?eino?
ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o no?oeoo?) aea/aii ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy 25 oai?eo,
ui oaeiae aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia a?oie c o?aooaaiiyi i?iaaaeaiiy ?i
ia?aaeiueiai niiiaeeeiaeaco, eiia?iiaaiiai niiiaeeeiaeaco, o?enaoe??
a?iniaei oa ci?iiei ei?naoii. ?acoeueoaoe niiiaeeeiaeaco aeiaaee, ui i?e
ia?aaeiueiio ION c aeeiiaiiyi i?eeii?a, ye? ciaiooaaee neee c?oeioaaiiy
(eiacaiiy), e?noeiaee aeie ianoa? i?e ciai?oi?e ?iiia?e?caoe?? aei?noeei
ei?naoii ia ??aeoa, i?ae i?e ia?aaeiuei-caaeiueiio niiiaeeeiaeac?.
Aeiaeaoeiaa o?enaoe?y caio?thaaeueieie eiino?oeoe?yie aei?a/ia i?e
iaiao?aeiino? oieeiooe ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe?? a?ii?caeeei a?iniaei
ei?naoii oa a?aeiinii aaeeeeo no?ie?a e?aeeiaiai ?aaeeio.

C? na?aeeie ia?aeiiaie o?e o?aaoe?a ??-??? nooiaiy ? iioeiaeaeaiiyi
caaei?o no?oeoo?, aeaeoaie ? ia?aeiiiaeaeoaie i?iiia?iaaii 63 oai?eo.
On?i oai?ei aoea i?iaaaeaia iia?aoeaia ei?aeoe?y aeaoi?iaoe??, o?enaoe?y
ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-?? c ianooiiith o?enaoe??th a?iniaei aai ci?iiei
ei?naoii. O an?o a?oiao iaea?aeai? aeia?? ?acoeueoaoe a?ae 80% aei 100%.
Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui o oeeo oai?eo iaea?eueo iioeiaeueiith ?
noaa?e?caoe?y o?aaoa caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie c ianooiiith
o?enaoe??th aei?noeei ei?naoii.

Iae/ano?oeie ? oeiiaeie i?iyaaie ?oeioaaiiy o?ea o?aaoey a ee?i?/ieo
oiiaao ? ineieeia? ? eiii?an?eii-ineieeia? ia?aeiie (EII) o?e o?aaoe?a.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c 26 aeiaaee?a iia?aoeaiiai e?eoaaiiy EII, a iieiaei?
c yeeo cae?eniaii /anoeiao ?acaeoe?th o?ea ceaiaiiai o?aaoey (*?OO) ?c
cai?uaiiyi aeaoaeoo ei?oeeaeueii-aoa/anoei o?ainieaioaoii. *?OO c
cai?uaiiyi aeaoaeoo o?ainieaioaoii aac caio?thaaeueiiai
iaoaeiinoaineioaco c?iaeaia 8 oai?ei c o?eaae?noth e?aeeiaiai ?aaeeio a
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? aei 2-3-o oeaei?a o 4 oai?eo, aei 4-o
oeaei?a — oaeiae o 4 oai?eo c ianooiiith ?iiia?e?caoe??th a?iniaei
ei?naoii. A on?o aeiaaeeao io?eiaii e?noeiaa ceeooy o?aaoe?a ?
ia?aaoaeiaa e?noeiaiai o?ainieaioaoa c? caa?aaeaiiyi aeinyaiooi?
ei?aeoe??.

Oae? aea ?acoeueoaoe io?eiai? o 5 oai?eo, yeei *?OO c cai?uaiiyi
aeaoaeoo o?ainieaioaoii aeiiiaithaaeany caaeiueith aioo??oiueith
o?enaoe??th caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie. Ii??aiyiiy e?ioeaaeo
?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy a oeeo aeaio a?oiao na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui o
aeiaaeeao c /anoeiai caa?aaeaiith ia?aaeiueith iii?ith /anoeiaa
?acaeoe?y o?ea o?aaoey c caiiaiaiiyi aeaoaeoo ei?oeeaeueii-aoa/anoei
o?ainieaioaoii noaa?e?co? O?N a nooiai?, aeinoaoiueiio aeey oo?eiaiiy
o?aaoe?a a?aeiinii iaeei iaeiiai, ? caaacia/o? oiiae aeey iiaiioe?iii?
ia?aaoaeiae o?ainieaioaoa ? e?noeiaiai ceeooy eiai c iaoa?einueeei
eiaeai ? noi?aeieie o?aaoeyie. I?iaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? aioo??oiuei?
o?enaoe?? caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie a oeeo neooaoe?yo caeaa.

I?e niiiaeeeaeoii?yo ieoaiiy uiaei aioo??oiuei? o?enaoe??, ca?eueoaiiy
oa?i?io e?aeeiaiai ?aaeeio ? ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe?? aei?noeei ei?naoii
caaaeaee ae??oo?oueny iaeiicia/ii.

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c
e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c iaeii??aeiei oa?aeoa?ii
iaoieia?/ii? ? a?oeo?oe?eii? ianoaa?eueiino? O?N aeicaieeee iai
?ic?iaeoe ? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe a i?aeoeeo aeai?eoi aeai?o aeaeo iia?aoeaiiai
ao?o/aiiy i?e ii?ooaii? iin?eieo iii? o?aaoa (oaaeeoey 1).

Oaaeeoey 1 – Aeioe?euei? aeaee ao?o/aiue i?e ii?ooaii? iin?eieo iii?
o?aaoa

? i/iOa?aeoa? ii?ooaiue iin?eieo iii? o?aaoaIIONCAO oa
CNIaia’yc-eiaiAaaeaiiCaeaaIaia’yc-eiai AaaeaiiCaeaa1.*anoeiaa ii?ooaiiy
III (EIOO ??-??? no.)2.?oeioaaiiy III

a) c /anoeiaei caa?aaeaiiyi ?? o?enoaaeueieo aeanoeainoaea) /anoeiaa
?acaeoe?y OO3.Aeaoaeo III a iaaeao aeenea (AeA i?e IO, AeN)4.Ii?ooaiiy
oe?e?niino? III ? CII aac aeaoaeoo e?noeiai? oeaieie (aeaeoe,
ia?aeiiiaeaeoe)5.Ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? III ? CII c aeaoaeoii oeaieie a
ianyc? aeenea (AeA i?e NNE, IEAN)6.Ii?ooaiiy III c aeaoaeoii oeaiei a
ianyc? OO(oioaeueia ?acaeoe?y OO)7.Ii?ooaiiy III ? CII c aeaoaeoii a ieo
a ianyc? naaiaioa

Oae, i?e /anoeiaiio ii?ooaii? III (EIOO ??-??? nooiaiy) i?iaaaeaiiy IION
caeaa i?e iaia’yceiaiio i?iaaaeaii? CAO. I?e /anoeia?e ?acaeoe?? o?ea
o?aaoey c? caa?aaeaieie caaei?ie e?noeiaeie no?oeoo?aie
ei?oeeaeueii-aoa/anoee o?ainieaioao caaacia/o? noaa?euei?noue O?N ?
oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy e?noeiaiai aeieo. A oe?e neooaoe?? i?iaaaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiai? noaa?e?caoe?? caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie caeaa. I?e
ia?aeiiiiiaeaeoao c? caa?aaeaiith e?noeiaith no?oeoo?ith a III
aeinoaoiuei CAO. Ia?aoo?, neooaoe?y c? c?oeioaaiiyi ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o
no?oeoo? O?N aeiaaa? a iaia’yceiaiio ii?yaeeo ye IION, oae ? CAO.

Oaeiae ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy aeaeo ? oa?i?i?a
i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?iiia?e?caoe?? (oaaeeoey 2).

Oaaeeoey 2 –Aeai?eoi aeai?o aeae?a ? oa?i?i?a i?neyiia?aoe?eii?
?iiia?e?caoe?? i?e iia?aoe?yo ia o?aao?

? i/iOa?aeoa? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue ? iaoieia?y o?aaoaE?aeeiaee
?aaeeiAEi?noeee ei?naoCi?iiee ei?naoAei 2-o oeaei?aAei 4-o oeaei?aAei
2-o i?nyoe?aAei 4-o i?nyoe?aAei 4-o i?nyoe?aIiiaae 4-o i?nyoe?a1.CAO i?e
EIOO ??-??? nooiaiy2.a) /anoeiaa ?acaeoe?y OO c ION i?e IIOOa) /anoeiaa
?acaeoe?y OO c ION ? CAO i?e IIOOa) CAO i?e IIOO3.Aeeneaeoii?y, ION i?e
IO ? AeN4.CAO ? CN i?e aeaeoao ? ia?aeiiiaeaeoao5.a) IION i?e NNE,
IEANa) IION+CAO i?e NNE, IEAN6.a) oioaeueia ?OO, IIONa) oioaeueia ?OO,
IION+CAN7.Niiiaeeeaeoii?y, ION+CAO

Nei?i/aiiy a iaaaaeaieo oaaeeoeyo:

AeA — aeeneaeoii?y;

AeN — aeaaaia?aoeaiee niiiaeeeie?noac;

CAO — caaeiy aioo??oiy o?enaoe?y;

CII — caaeiy iin?eia iii?a;

CN — caaei?e niiiaeeeiaeac;

EIOO — eiii?an?eiee ia?aeii o?ea o?aaoey;

ION — i?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac;

IIOO — ineieeiaee ia?aeii o?ea o?aaoey

IO — inoaioiiae?ic;

IEAN — iinoeyi?iaeoii?/iee neiae?ii;

IION — ia?aaei?e i?aeo?eiaee niiiaeeeiaeac;

III — ia?aaeiy iin?eia iii?a;

?OO — ?acaeoe?y o?ea o?aaoey.

NNI — niiiaeeeie?ciee niiiaeeeie?noac;

OO — o?ei o?aaoey.

AENIIAEE

1. ?ic?iaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia a?iiaoai?/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe nooi?iue noaa?eueiino? o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa i?e caeiaeueieo ?
?icaeiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

2. A oiiaao ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? no?oeoo? o?aaoa cia/ii ciaiueoo?oueny
eiai noaa?euei?noue. I?e ?oeioaaii? aeenea iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeecuee? aei
o?c?ieia?/ieo, ca?eueoothoue ?ooii?noue a naaiaio? o 1,5 ?ace ii??aiyii
c eiio?ieueiith a?oiith. I?e ?acaeoe?? o?ea o?aaoey ianoaa?euei?noue a
naaiaio? cia/ii c?inoa? ii??aiyii c iiia?aaeiueith a?oiith.

3. A?aeiiaeaiiy a aenia?eiaio? ia?aaeiuei? iin?eii? iii?e i?e ?acaeoe??
aeenea a oiiaao caa?aaeaii? oe?e?niino? caaei?o no?oeoo? a ?aaeei?
caeiaiiy caaacia/o? noaa?euei?noue a O?N, yeo iiaeia ii??aiyoe c
o?enaoe??th caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie. Aeiaeaoeiaa o?enaoe?y
caio?aieie eiino?oeoe?yie ia iaaaaaoi i?aeaeuo? aei?noe?noue
eiino?oeoe?? a ?aaeei? caeiaiiy ? oiio ao?a/a? nain.

Noaa?e?caoe?y O?N caio?thaaeueieie o?enaoi?aie a oiiaao a?aeiiaeaii?
ia?aaeiuei? iii?e i?e c?oeiiaaiiio aeeneo ? caaei?o e?noeiai-ca’yceiaeo
no?oeoo?ao noai?th? aei?noeo o?enaoe?th O?N ? ia aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiai?
(ciai?oiuei?) o?enaoe??. A?aeiiaeaia ia?aaeiy iii?a i?e ?acaeoe?? o?ea
o?aaoey c? caa?aaeaiiyi caaei?o no?oeoo? caaacia/o? aenieo
noaa?euei?noue O?N a ?aaeei? caeiaiiy. Aeey onoiaiiy aai iiia?aaeaeaiiy
aenoaic?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue iaiao?aeia aeiaeaoeiaa ciai?oiy aai aioo??oiy
o?enaoe?y. Noaa?e?caoe?y O?N caio?thaaeueieie o?enaoi?aie aeanoue aenieo
noaa?euei?noue eiino?oeoe??, ui ia aeiaaa? ciai?oiuei? o?enaoe??.

I?e ?acaeoe?? ia?aaei?o ? caaei?o no?oeoo? o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa
(niiiaeeeaeoii?y) a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aaeiuei? iii?e aeey noaa?e?caoe?? O?N
ae?ae iaaeinoaoiuei. O?enaoe?y caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie caaacia/o?
a?aeiinio noaa?euei?noue O?N i?e iaaaioaaeaiiyo, aeecueeeo aei
o?c?ieia?/ieo. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeinoaoith i?oei?noue eiino?oeoe??
“o?aaoiaee aeie — o?enaoi?” ? iio?aao? aeiaeaoeiai? (ciai?oiuei?)
o?enaoe??.

4. Iaea?eueo? o?enoaaeuei? aeanoeaino? a a?oi? ieanoei/anoeo o?enaoi??a
iathoue ieanoeie OIAe?IO-??. Iacia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae ieo ieanoeie
RoyCam?lle. I?e ?ioeo ??aieo oiiaao canoinoaaiiy ieanoei OIAe?IO-??
a?eueo aei?aaaeaia c iiaeyaeo iaei? o?aaiaoe/iino?, oaoi?/ii? i?inoioe
iia?aoe?? ? iaioi? iaaaciaee ?io?aiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue.

5. ?aioaaiiiao?e/iee aiae?c i?aeo?eiaiai i?ii?aeeo i?e ?acaeoe?? aeenea
? i?aeo?eiaiio niiiaeeeiaeac? ei?oeeaeueii-aoa/anoei o?ainieaioaoii
na?ae/eoue i?i caa?aaeaiiy eiai ianyao ? i?oeiinieo aeanoeainoae a
i?ioean? ia?aaoaeiae ? oi?ioaaiiy e?noeiaiai ceeooy.

6. Ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy iiai?noth i?aeoaa?aeeee aeai?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i noai noaa?eueiino? O?N a oiiaao
??ciiiai?oieo iaoieia?/ieo noai?a, a?oeo?oe?eii? ianoaa?eueiino? ? a
oiiaao a?aeiiaeaii? ia?aaeiuei? iii?e.

7. ?ic?iaeaiee ia i?aenoaa? ee?i?ei-aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueieo niinia?a noaa?e?caoe?? O?N, o?eaaeino?
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai iino?eueiiai ?aaeeio, ??aii ye ? oa?aeoa?o ?
aeioe?eueiino? ciai?oiuei? ?iiia?e?caoe?? aeicaiey? ciaioeoe
o?aaiaoe/i?noue ? e?aoi?noue ao?o/aiiy, iicaaaeoe oai?iai a?ae
ciai?oiuei? ?iiia?e?caoe?? aei?noeei a?iniaei ei?naoii.

NIENIE ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Ianoi noaaeeecaoeee iicaiii/iiai
naaiaioa a oe?o?aee iicaiii/ieea // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ?
iaaeeoeeie.- Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a,1998.- ?16.- N.92-97.

2. Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia iiaeaee?iaaiea
noaaeeecaoeee iicaiii/iiai naaiaioa // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ?
iaaeeoeeie.- Iieoaaa-Oa?e?a,1998.- ?17.- N.83-88.

3. Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Aiaoiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiia iainiiaaiea
noaaeeece?othueo iia?aoeee i?e niiiaeeeieenoaca // Oe?a?inueeee
iaaee/iee aeueiaiao.- 1998.- ?3.- N.156-158.

4. Oaaoeue I.?., ?a/aiei A.E., Naiieeaiei I.A., ?iae?/e?i A.I., Oacaeia
Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. I?noea oa ?ieue ?iieaioao?a o i?aeo?eiaiio
niiiaeeeiaeac? // I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e i?ioace?iaaiea.- 1998.-
?3.- N.39-43.

5. Oaaoeue I.?., Ooaeia?i A.TH., Aaa??eia ?.?., Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue
Eaaea?. Iia?aoeaia noaa?e?caoe?y i?e o?aaiao ? caoai?thaaiiyo o?aaoa //
Aeaaiaaeoeyoee c’?cae o?aaiaoieia?a-i?oiiaae?a Oe?a?ie: Iaoa??aee
c’?caeo.- Ee?a, 1996.- N.243.

6. Oaaoe A.E., Naiieeaiei A.A., Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?.
Ioieoeeiiiue iaaeoaeiaie niiiaeeeiaeac a ea/aiee i?iieeathueo e
ineieue/aouo ia?aeiiia oae iicaiieia // Iiaia a i?oiiaaeee,
o?aaiaoieiaee e eaiaonoeieiaee: Iaoa?eaeu aeieeaaeia ?ani. iao/.-i?aeo.
eiio. o?aaiaoieiaia-i?oiiaaeia E?uia “E?uineea aa/a?a”.- ?anioae. E?ui,
sseoa, 1997.- N.91-93.

7. Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey
noaaeeueiinoe iiynie/iiai ioaeaea iicaiii/iiai noieaa // Iiaia a
i?oiiaaeee, o?aaiaoieiaee e eaiaonoeieiaee: Iaoa?eaeu aeieeaaeia ?ani.
iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. o?aaiaoieiaia-i?oiiaaeia E?uia “E?uineea aa/a?a”.-
?anioae. E?ui, sseoa, 1997. — N.68-69.

8. Oaaoe A.E.. Naiieeaiei A.A., Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. ?ieue
noaaeeecaoeee iicaiii/iiai naaiaioa a oe?o?aee iicaiii/ieea //
Iaaeeei-a?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio: Ca. Iaoeiaeo noaoae
a/aieo Eoaainueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo. —
Eoaainuee,1997.- Aei.1.- N.194-197.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Noaa?e?coth/ee aoaeo ia?aaeiueiai
niiiaeeeiaeaco oa caio?thaaeueieo o?enaoi??a.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01. 21 — o?aaiaoieia?y ? i?oiiaae?y. — Oa?e?anueeee
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo i?oiiaae?? ? o?aaiaoieia?? ?i. i?io.
I.?. Neoaiea. — Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeth/a? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A
aenia?eiaio? ia 36 aeieao iiia?aeiaiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa noai?aia
iiaeaeue /ioe?ueio aeanoaa?e?coth/eo noai?a a o?aaoiaiio ?ooiaiio
naaiaio?: 1) ?acaeoe?y aeenea, 2) ?acaeoe?y aeenea ? caaei?o
e?noeiai-ca’yceiaeo no?oeoo?, 3) ?acaeoe?y o?ea o?aaoey, 4) ?acaeoe?y
o?ea o?aaoey ? caaei?o no?oeoo? (niiiaeeeaeoii?y). Aea/aiee nooi?iue
ao?aoe noaa?eueiino? a naaiaio? i?e icia/aieo neooaoe?yo, a?aeiiaeaii?
?? i?e o?enaoe?? caio?thaaeueieie ieanoeiaie OIAe?IO-?, OIAe?IO-??,
Roy-Cam?lle a oiiaao ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? no?oeoo? ? a oiiaao
i?aeo?eiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaco. Ee?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeth/eee aiae?c
306 ?noi??e oai?iae ? ?aioaaiia?ai oai?eo, ui aoee ?iciiae?eai? ia
a?oie, aiaeia?/i? aenia?eiaioaeueiei ca i?eioeeiii i?eaeaaii? aai
a?oeo?oe?eii? ianoaa?eueiino?. Ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee
aeai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?i noai noaa?eueiino?
o?aaoiaiai ?ooiaiai naaiaioa i?e ii?ooaiiyo eiai oe?e?niino?, a oaeiae a
oiiaao a?aeiiaeaii? ia?aaeiuei? iii?e ? o?enaoe?? caio?thaaeueieie
eiino?oeoe?yie. ?ic?iaeaiee ia i?aenoaa? oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeai?eoi
aeai?o iioeiaeueieo niinia?a noaa?e?caoe?? o?aaoiaiai naaiaioa,
o?eaaeino? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai e?aeeiaiai ?aaeeio ? oa?aeoa?o ciai?oiuei?
?iiia?e?caoe?? aeicaiey? ciaioeoe o?aaiaoe/i?noue ? e?aoi?noue
iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aaoiaee ?ooiaee naaiaio, ii?ooaiiy noaa?eueiino?,
caio?thaaeuei? o?enaoi?e, ciai?oiy ?iiia?e?caoe?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oacaeia Aoiaae Aaaeaeue Eaaea?. Noaaeeece?othuee yooaeo ia?aaeiaai
niiiaeeeiaeaca e iia?oaeiuo oeenaoi?ia.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.21 — o?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey.- Oa?ueeianeee
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo i?oiiaaeee e o?aaiaoieiaee ei. i?io.
I.E.Neoaiei.- Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Caueuathony 8 iao/iuo ?aaio, eioi?ua io?aaeatho iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia ea/aiey aieueiuo
n iia?aaeaeaieyie e caaieaaaieyie iicaiii/ieea, eioi?ui i?iaiaeeeinue
iia?aoeaiia ea/aiea.

Aeenna?oaoeey aeeth/aao yenia?eiaioaeueiua e eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey.
A yenia?eiaioa ia 36 aeieao iiynie/iiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea nicaeaia
iiaeaeue /aou?ao aeanoaaeeece?othueo ninoiyiee a iicaiii/iii
aeaeaaoaeueiii naaiaioa: 1) ?acaeoeey aeenea, 2) ?acaeoeey aeenea e
caaeieo einoii-nayci/iuo no?oeoo?, 3) ?acaeoeey oaea iicaiiea, 4)
?acaeoeey oaea iicaiiea e caaeieo no?oeoo? (niiiaeeeyeoiiey). Eco/aia
noaiaiue iioa?e noaaeeueiinoe a naaiaioa i?e oeacaiiuo neooaoeeyo,
ainnoaiiaeaiea aa i?e oeenaoeee iia?oaeiuie ieanoeiaie OIEEIO?,
OIEEIO-??, Roy-Cam?lle a oneiaeyo ia?ooaiey oeaeinoe no?oeoo? e a
oneiaeyo iaaeoaeiaiai niiiaeeeiaeaca.

I?iaaaeaii ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeaeaeiinoe a iicaiii/iii aeaeaaoaeueiii
naaiaioa i?e naeaaoaeueiuo e ?acaeaaoaeueiuo iaa?oceao n oneeeai io 30
aei 240 ea·ni. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ieanoei OIEEIO-?, OIEEIO-?? e
Roy-Cam?lle iieacaea, /oi iie iaania/eaatho aeanoeoth oeenaoeeth
iicaiii/iuo naaiaioia i?e iaa?oceao, i?aauoathueo oeceieiae/aneea aieaa,
/ai a 2 ?aca. I?e yoii iaeaieueoee noaaeeece?othuee yooaeo iaania/eaatho
ieanoeiu OIEEIO-??. ?ac?ooaiea iaaeiicaiii/iiai aeenea i?eaiaeeo e
aeanoaaeeecaoeee iicaiii/iiai naaiaioa. Ainnoaiiaeaiea ia?aaeiae iii?u
iinea ?acaeoeee aeenea iaania/eaaao au?aaeaiioth noaaeeueiinoue a
enneaaeoaiii naaiaioa a ?aaeeia naeaaiey. Aeiiieieoaeueiay oeenaoeey
iia?oaeiuie ieanoeiaie ia iaiiiai oaaee/eaaao noaaeeueiinoue
eiino?oeoeee e a yoie neooaoeee eceeoiyy. I?e ?ac?ooaiee
iaaeiicaiii/iiai aeenea e caaeieo no?oeoo? noaaeeece?othuee yooaeo
ieanoei ?aaeecoaony eeoue i?e iaa?ocea aei 150 ea·ni, /oi oeacuaaao ia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeiiieieoaeueiie (aiaoiae) oeenaoeee. Ainnoaiiaeaiea
ia?aaeiae iii?u iaania/eaaao noaaeeueiinoue naaiaioa i?e oeceieiae/aneeo
iaa?oceao a ?aaeeia naeaaiey. AEanoeinoue iicaiii/iiai naaiaioa
ianooiaao i?e noaaeeecaoeee aai iia?oaeiuie ieanoeiaie e a yoie
neooaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiay (aiaoiyy) oeenaoeey iaoeaeaniia?acia.
?ac?ooaiea oaea iicaiiea aeanoaaeeece?oao naaiaio, a oeenaoeey
ieanoeiaie iaania/eaaao noaaeeueiinoue aai i?e oeceieiae/aneeo
iaa?oceao. Ia?aaeiee niiiaeeeiaeac n i?eiaiaieai eiieaioaoa
ainnoaiaaeeaaao iii?iniiniaiinoue a iicaiii/iii naaiaioa e naeaaoaeueiui
iaa?oceai i?e oneeeyo, cia/eoaeueii i?aauoathueo oeceieiae/aneea, ii ia
aeeyao ia iiaeeueiinoue naaiaioa i?e ?acaeaaoaeueiuo oneeeyo. I?e
oeenaoeee aai iia?oaeiuie ieanoeiaie aeinoeaaaony aeanoeay
noaaeeecaoeey, eneeth/athuay iaiaoiaeeiinoue aiaoiae oeenaoeee.

Eeeie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aeeth/eee aiaeec 306 enoi?ee aieacie e
?aioaaiia?aii aieueiuo, eioi?ua auee ?ani?aaeaeaiu a a?oiiu, aiaeiae/iua
yenia?eiaioaeueiui ii i?eioeeio i?eia?aoaiiie eee a?oeoeoeeaeueiie
ianoaaeeueiinoe. Eeeie/aneea iaaethaeaiey iiaeoaa?aeeee aeaiiua
yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee i ninoiyiee noaaeeueiinoe iicaiii/iiai
aeaeaaoaeueiiai naaiaioa i?e ia?ooaieyo aai oeaeinoe, a oaeaea a
oneiaeyo ainnoaiiaeaiiie ia?aaeiae iii?u e oeenaoeee iia?oaeiuie
eiino?oeoeeyie. ?ac?aaioaiiue ia iniiaaiee yoeo enneaaeiaaiee aeai?eoi
auai?a iioeiaeueiuo niiniaia noaaeeecaoeee iicaiii/iiai naaiaioa,
aeeeoaeueiinoe iineaiia?aoeeiiiiai iinoaeueiiai ?aaeeia e oa?aeoa?a
aiaoiae eiiiaeeecaoeee iicaieyao nieceoue o?aaiaoe/iinoue e e?aoiinoue
iia?aoeaiuo aiaoaoaeuenoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iicaiii/iue aeaeaaoaeueiue naaiaio, ia?ooaiea
noaaeeueiinoe, iia?oaeiua oeenaoi?u, aiaoiyy eiiiaeeecaoeey.

SUMMARY

Hazaima Ahmed Abdel Kader. Stabilizing effect of anterior spondylodesis
and internal fixators.

Thesis for degree of the candidate of medical sciences in a speciality
14.01.21 — traumatology and orthopaedics.- Kharkov research institute of
orthopaedics and traumatology named after M.I.Sitenko.- Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis deal with the experimental and clinical observations. In this
study among 36 complexes of lumbar vertebrae 4 types of destabilisation
was done by: 1) resection of the disc, 2) resection of the disc and
posterior osteoligamentous structures, 3) resection of vertebral body,
4) resection of vertebral body and posterior structures (spondylectomy).

The degree of destabilisation in the segment in the above mentioned
situations, restabilisation by internal f?xat?on with KHINIOT-I,
KHINIOT-II and Roy-Cam?lle’s plates of destab?l?zed segment and segment
after carrying out ?ntervertebral spondylodes?s was studied.

Cl?n?cal stadies were carried out by analysing of 306 cases h?stor?es
and X-rays of patients with art?f?c?al and or?g?nal destab?l?zat?on and
class?f?ng them ?n groups analog?cally w?th exper?mental types. Cl?n?cal
observat?ons conf?rmed the results of exper?mental study.

On the bas?c of these stud?es were formed recommendat?on charts for the
cho?ce of opt?mal methods of stab?l?zat?on of vertebral segment,
postoperat?ve per?od ?n the bed and type of external ?mmob?l?zat?on,
wh?ch reduced the trauma and mult?pl?c?ty of large operat?ve
?ntervent?on.

Key word: vertebral locomotor segment, damage of stab?l?ty, ?nternal
f?xator, external ?mmob?l?zat?on.

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