Соціальні протиріччя у посттоталітарних системах: методологія дослідження та розв’язання: Автореф. дис… д-ра філос. наук / О.Г. Даніл’ян, Харк. війс

O A ? E ? A N Ue E E E A ? E N Ue E I A E E O I ? A A ? N E O A O

AeAI?E’ssI IEAA AAIIAAe?EIAE*

OAeE
14: (316.48 + 316.83)

NIOe?AEUeI? I?IOE??**ss O IINOOIOAE?OA?IEO

NENOAIAO:

IAOIAeIEIA?ss AeINE?AeAEAIIss

OA ?ICA’ssCAIIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y

oa o?einio?y ?noi???

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

OEIAeA Aieiaeeie?
Aaneeueiae/, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai
a?aeae?eo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai a?enueeiai? ina?oe Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? IEOAEUe*AIEI Ieeiea ?aaiiae/,
aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie;

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? AIE*AIEI ?aai
Aaneeueiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie;

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? OEOIA Aieiaeeie?
Aeaieeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith eia?ee Iaoe?iiaeueii? th?eaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
I?i?noa?noai aioo??oi?o ni?aa, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «24 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia

can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.702.05 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
a?enueeiaiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310043, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai
Naiaiaee, 6, aoae.Ae 606.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310043, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai
Naiaiaee, 6.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «21» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eicionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
IAIOEEIA ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. No/ani? iinooioae?oa?i? aea?aeaae,
cie?aia ? Oe?a?ia, ia?aaeeaathoue iaeei ?c iaeae?aiaoe/i?oeo ia??iae?a
nai?? ?noi???. Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caaino?aiiyi nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ o an?o noa?ao aeeooy noni?euenoaa, aeieeiaiiyi ia ?o iniia?
??ciiiai?oieo ? iaaecae/aeii aino?eo eiioe?eo?a: no?aee?a, c?oeiaiue ia
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiio r?oio?, i?ae?aa?iiaeueieo ? i?aeaea?aeaaieo
eiio?iioaoe?e. Noni?euenoao aeiaiaeeoueny ieaoeoe ca caaino?aiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aenieo oe?io: ?o iane?aeeii noaee ethaenuee?
aea?oae, iaeaino??oa aeiiii?/ia e?eca, iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue ?
iac/eneaii? ii?aeuei? ao?aoe. Aocee iiaooi?o eiioe?eo?a, ui ooai?eeeny
ia oa?eoi??? iinooioae?oa?ieo aea?aeaa, iia?iaeothoue ?nioaaiith ia
eeoa nioe?oi?a, ui ?o ii?iaeeee, aea e ethaenueei? oeea?e?caoe?? a
oe?eiio. Oiio ia aeiaaeeiai i?iaeaia nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aoooy iaaoea a no/anieo oiiaao iniaeeai?
aeooaeueiino?. A ca’yceo c oeei caea?oueny a?aie/ii aaaeeeaei
oai?aoe/ia iar?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea eiiieaeno i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c
niaoeeo?eith nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao,
aecia/aiiy ?o oeiieia??, oi?i ?icaeoeo ? iniaeeainoae i?iyao a
ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao ia i?e?i-, iae?i- ? aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo. Aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? i?iaeaia oeiiaeo ? iniaeeaeo aeanoeainoae iinooioae?oa?iiai
nioe?oio a aaia?aoe?? eiioe?eoiaaiieo i?ioean?a ? a ?aaeoe?yo ia
eiioe?eoi? i?ioeane.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia oaeiae aaeeeith i?aeoe/iith
iio?aaith a aeine?aeaeaiiyo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, eiioe?eo?a. O oie
/an, eiee neeaaei? nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? oa ?ioeo
iinooioae?oa?ieo aea?aeaaao iaiiaeeeai ?aoe?iiaeueii iiynieoe, a oei
a?eueoa aoaeoeaii ieie ea?oaaoe aac ?icoi?iiy ?ie? a ?oi?e aeeiai?oe?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, a?eueo?noue noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy (aea?aeaaieo,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, i?ioni?eeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e) aeyaeythoue neaaea
?icoi?iiy aioo??oi?o i?e/ei oiai, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny, iacaeaoi?noue
aaeaeaaoii ioe?ithaaoe ? ?aaaoaaoe ia e?ecia? yaeua. sse i?aaeei, oea
iia’ycaia c a?aenooi?noth aenia?oece aeieeath/eo eiioe?eo?a, i?eeeaaeieo
iaoiaeee iii?oi?eiao, noai?aiiy yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeaiei?
iaoiaeieia?/ii? ioe?iee aeania nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ oa ?o oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue. Ia iaio aaaeeeaa aeey aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
iinooioae?oa?ieie nenoaiaie oa oo?eiaiiy ?o o noai? iie?oe/ii? ?
nioe?aeueii? noaa?eueiino? i?iaeaiaoeea, iia’ycaia c iaoai?ciaie
?ica’ycaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy i?eoaiaiieo ?i i?ioe??/, iar?oiooaaiiyi
iai?yie?a ?o iioei?caoe?? a ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao.

A?aeoae, iiaoaeiaa iaoeiai? eiioeaioe??, ui neioaco? i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, yaey? niaith iaaecae/aeii aeooaeueia oai?aoe/ia
caaaeaiiy, ??oaiiy yeiai aeicaieeoue nioe?aeueiei noa’?eoai on?o ??ai?a
iaoeiai iar?oioiaaii ae??ooaaoe nooi i?aeoe/i? caaaeaiiy caaacia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy eiioe?eoiaaiieie i?ioeanaie a iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao, aeai?o iioeiaeueii? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo, aecia/aiiy i?eeiyoii? nioe?aeueii? aa?oino? aeiiii?/ieo ?
iie?oe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui i?iaiaeyoueny.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aea?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee ?c caaaeaiiyie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?aoe? (IAeI) «Aoiai?caoe?y», ui cae?enith?oueny
eaoaae?ith o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
caaaeaiiyi I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie. Aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?ii?aeieo ca?oao IAeI.
I?iaeaie, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a aeena?oaoe??, o?nii iia’ycai? c
?aae?caoe??th iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao
ciaoiaeeoueny a ii/aoeia?e oac?. A oie aea /an eaoaai??y «nioe?aeueia
i?ioe??//y» — i?aaeiao oe?ieiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c na?aaeeie 70
-o ?ie?a. Ca ii??aiyii ei?ioeee ia??iae eaoaai??y aoea ?icaeyiooa a
i?aoeyo O.I.Ai?iaee?ia, I.I.Ei?yea (1989), A.I.Aooaiei (1989),
A.A?aeaeaina (1989), N.I.Aeoaeaey (1981), A.I.?ai?iaa (1986),
I.I.??oiaa (1976), A.?.Eiceianueeiai (1987), A.N.Naiaiiaa (1984),
I.I.?ooeaae/a (1980), TH.A.Oa??ia (1985), A.Ooaeea?a (1979), A.I.Oo?aena
(1977). A ieo, ye i?aaeei, ?ice?eaathoueny nooi?noue, niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, aiae?cothoueny iaea?eueo caaaeuei? oi?ie ?
iaoiaee ?o ?ica’ycaiiy. Aaeeeee aieea ia ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaiaoeee
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ni?aaeee aeine?aeaeaiiy A.I.Aaa?’yiiaa (1985),
I.A.Aeaen??aa (1983), A.N.Aao?uaaa (1963), A.I.Aa?/oaiaa (1992),
A.A.Ai?iaee?ia (1988), A.N.Ai?uiaa (1966), O.O.Ayeea?aaa (1985),
A.?.Ai?aa/a (1972), A.I.Aeo??ia (1994), A.I.Eaae?iaa (1971),
I.A.Eiii?ia (1973), I.I.Eaaeaaieiaa (1984), I.E.Iaia?aa (1980),
?.N.Ia?nueeiai (1969), A.?.Nooaiiaa (1976), I.O.Oaenoiiaa (1994),
I.I.Oaiooe?ia (1983) oa ?ioeo, a yeeo ?icaeyaeaeeny o? /e ?io? aniaeoe
ae?aeaeoe/ieo i?ioe??/, ?oi?o no?oeoo?ieo eaiie, ??ai?a ? eaoaai??e.

?noioieie iaaeie?eaie ?yaeo aeine?aeaeaiue nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ 70-o —
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ? ?oiy iaaei??ia ?aeaieia?caoe?y, i?eieaeaiiy
cia/aiiy i?ioe??/ o ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, ?icoi?iiy naiiai ?icaeoeo ye
i?ioeano iiaeieaiiy, onoiaiiy i?ioe??/ ?c aeeooy noni?euenoaa,
aaniethoecaoe?y oa ?aeaae?caoe?y ?aeiino? ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa,
caia?a/aiiy ?nioaaiiy i?ioeeaaeieo ?ioa?an?a o eiai ??cieo nioe?aeueieo
noa’?eo?a. Aeine?aeieee iinoeiioi?noe/iiai ia??iaeo A.?.Aiiaea?aa,
O.I.Eineoeeia, A.O.Ua?aeia oa ?io? iiaeaee o nai?o ?iaioao a?aoiaioiaaio
e?eoeeo oeeo iaaeie?e?a, iaeiae oaiaeaioe?y a?ae??aaiino? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae i?iaeai no/aniino? iiaeieaia ia iiai?noth.

Cia/iee ?ioa?an aei i?iaeai nioe?aeueieo eie?c?e aeyaeee ? cao?aei?
aeine?aeieee Aeae.Aa?ia?ae, Aeae.Aa?oii, E.Aioeae?ia, ?.Aaeooia,
?.Aea?aiaei?o, E.Aeie/, I.Aeie/, A.C?iiaeue, E.Eica?, ?.Eiee?ic,
E.E??naa?a, N.I.E?inao, E.I?o/ae, A.?aiiiii?o, E.?aeo, Aeae.Oa?ia?,
TH.Oaaa?ian oa ?io?, ye? c?iaeee iacaia?a/iee aianie o aea/aiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o oi?i? eiioe?eoo. Na?aae iaea?eueo cia/ieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?e oai??? eiioe?eoo iiaeia iacaaoe eiioeaioe?? eiioe?eoiiai
ooieoe?iiae?cio (A.C?iiaeue, E.Eica?), ae?aeaeoe/ii? oai??? eiioe?eoo
(?.Aea?aiaei?o), caaaeueii? oai??? eiioe?eoo (E.Aioeae?ia), aiae?oe/ii?
oai??? eiioe?eoo (?.Eiee?ic), oi?iaeueii? eiioe?eoii? oai??? (O.Eaieio).

A?eueo?noue c oeeo eiioeaioe?e aa?ooue nai? aeoiee c o?einionueei?
nenoaie E.Ia?ena, yeee ia?oei iieeaa iiiyooy eiioe?eoo a iniiao
nioe?ieia?/ii? oai???, ui iaaeiaai aecia/eei iai?yiie cia/ii? /anoeie
nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia Caoiae?. Ia oea iaiaeii?aciai aeacoaaee
no/ani? cao?aei? nioe?ieiae (N.Eioe, A.?i/a? oiui). Ae?enii, E.Ia?en o
nai?io a/aii? i?i noni?eueii-aeiiii?/io oi?iaoe?th ? ?ieue eeaniai?
ai?ioueae a noni?eueiiio ?icaeoeo aeiaiaeea ia’?eoeai?noue ? iiceoeaio
ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a, ?ice?ea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iiiyoue eiioe?eo ? aioaaii?noe/ia i?ioe??//y oiui. A oie aea /an o
oai??? ia?enecio iiiyooy eiioe?eoo ia? iio?aeiee oa?aeoa?, a a
ae?aeaeoe/iiio aiae?c? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ae??oaeueia ?ieue
a?aeaiaeeoueny nioe?aeueiei i?ioe??//yi. Iaeiae i?aaenoaaieee no/anii?
eiioe?eoieia?? aei yaeu nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ noaaeyoueny aia?aaeaioii.
C iaeiiai aieo, aiie c?iaeee /eiaeee aianie o noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
oai??? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, aeeaiei ? anaa?/ii aeine?aeeee e?aeith
oi?io ?icaeoeo i?ioe??//y, iaeiiai c eiai noai?a — eiioe?eoo. Aeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaaee ia?aaeeaio eiioe?eoo a iaeio c i?ia?aeieo o
noni?euenoaiciaanoa?. C ?ioiai aieo, aaciina?aaeiuei eaoaai??y
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioe??//y a no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo eiioe?eoieia?? ua
ia ciaeoea aeeaieiai, anaa?/iiai iiyniaiiy ? oe?ieiai i?aeoe/iiai
canoinoaaiiy, i?aei?iy?oueny iaeiicia/ieie iiiyooyie: noaeiioe?eo, oaca
iai?oae, ia??ai?noue noa’?eo?a, eaoaioiee eiioe?eo oa ?i. ?o aaeeea
e?euee?noue ? iaiaeiicia/ia o?aeooaaiiy cia/ii oneeaaeiththoue i?ioean
i?ciaiiy eiioe?eo?a, i?ecaiaeyoue aei naiaioe/ieo o?oaeiiu?a i?e
?ica’ycaii? ?aaeueieo nioe?aeueieo eie?c?e. Aacia?a/ii, ui caa?iaiiy aei
oai??? ? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie cao?aeii? eiioe?eoieia?? iaiao?aeia, iaeiae
iaoai?/ia ia?aianaiiy noeoiiino? oeeo ?aeae o ?aae?? no/anieo
iinooioae?oa?ieo aea?aeaa, cie?aia e Oe?a?ie, ia ? i?iaeoeoeaiei. Oiio
aeioe?eueii ia o?eueee aaeaiooaaoe eiioeaioe?? eiioe?eoieia?? aei oiia
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, aea, acyaoe ana ?aoe?iiaeueia, i?iaeiaaeeoe
oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeai?e noa??.

Iaai? coneeey a oeueiio iai?yieo aaea ?icii/eiaeeny aeayeeie
oe?a?inueeeie aeine?aeieeaie, ye? ?ic?iaeythoue ??ci? aniaeoe oai???
nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a (A.I.Aiae?ouaiei, TH.E.Aoaian’?a, I.I.Aaiaeo?ea,
?.?.Aaeaoe?ia, E.Ae.Aaacaiei, ?.A.Aie/aiei, A.A.Aieiaaoa, A.?.A??iee,
A.A.Ae?ocue, ?.TH.Caiieia, A.O.?oio?aoia, A.A.E?aiaiue,
TH.A.Iaoe??anueeee, I.?.Ieoaeue/aiei, I.?.I??ai, ?.A.Iiaeieuenueea,
I.O.I?ioeaiei, I.ss.?aaeueei, TH.?.?eia?aiei, A.A.Oaaoeia oiui).

Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aiae?cii eiioe?eo?a o a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i?e noa??,
iaoiaeieia?th ?o ?aaoethaaiiy ie?aeii aeine?aeaeothoue o nai?o i?aoeyo
A.A.Aae??a, I.I.Aii/a?aiei, ?.?.Aeaienaiei, A.I.Iaeneiaiei,
A.I.Ia?aiaeeoey, A.A.?eaaeea.

Cia/iee aianie o ?ic?iaeo oai??? eiioe?eoo ? oi?i eiai i?iyao a
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao c?iaeee ?in?enuee? a/ai? A.Ae.Aiaaoo?ia,
A.A.Aieei, I.I.Aaee?i, TH.A.Cai?oaenueeee, A.A.Cae?aaiieneia,
I.A.?eue?i, I.A.Eiaaeueia, E.A.Eie?niaa, I.I.*oieeia, I.?.Oaaei?euaaa.

Eiioe?eoiaaii? i?ioeane, oa?aeoa?i? aeey no/anieo iinooioae?oa?ieo
nioe?oi?a, cia/ii caaino?eee oaaao aeine?aeiee?a aaaaoueio e?a?i aei
i?iaeaie aeania nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/. Oea ni?eyei iiya? oe?eaaeo
i?aoeue, a yeeo aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iyae i?ioe??/ o ??cieo noa?ao
aeeooy ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa (I.Eaiiaae?, I.I.Ao?aa?/ia, I.N.Ao?a?i,
N.Noiyiiae/, A.Oiooea?, O.Ooeoyia, I.O.Oa?oeoei, A.I.TH?oa?a), cie?aia ?
a i?aeaoi?/i?e, i?aeoeea?e?caoe?ei?e noa?? (A.E.Aieeia, Aeae.Iaen,
N.Oaio?iaoii, A.E.Oane?).

Aeey oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoai oa ?oi?o i?ioe??/ aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue eiioeaioe??
oioae?oa?ecio ? eiai a?aoiaioiaaia e?eoeea ye iie?oe/iiai ?aaeeio, ye?
noi?ioeueiaai? a i?aoeyo cao?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a ?.A?iia, O.Aaei?ii,
O.A?aiaeo, E.A.Aaeeano?aia, C.Aaeac?inueeiai, E.Oi?aeoa, O.Oae?ea,
E.O??ae??oa, a oaeiae a/aieo iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?i ?.?.Aeno?eoeueeiai,
A.E.Aine?anainueeiai, E.N.Aaaeaee?aa, I.A.Caaeaae?ia,
TH.?.?a?eoeueeiai, ?.E.Ei/anieiaa.

Aieiai? eiioeaioe?? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai, ye? iiaeia
aeei?enoaoe ye oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, ?ice?eo? a
i?aoeyo A.Aaina, C.Aaeaceinueeiai, ?.Ayo?a, A.I’Aeiiiaea ? O.Oi?ooa?a,
?.Eaoa?aei, ?.I.Eeyie?ia, A.I.I?a?aiyia, A.Ioaai?nueeiai, Ae.A.?anoio,
Ae.A.Oaae??aa, I.A.Oa?eoiiiai?.

Aiae?c oai??e iiaea?i?caoe?? ? iinoiiaea?i?caoe?? (Aeae.Aeaenaiaea?,
N.Aecaiooaaeo, ?.A?ii, N.I.E?inao, Ae.Aaee, E.Ae?aiaiae, A.A?aeaeain,
E.N?eaao oiui) ? ?oi?o no/anieo iine?aeiaiee?a (A.I.Ai?aaoaiei,
A.I.C?ai?ia, A.A.E?aneeueueeia, TH.I.E?nianueeee, I.?.Iiai??eee,
A.I.?oeaaeoi?eia, A.I.?o/ea, A.A.Oai/a?, A.A.?yaia) aeicaieea c?iaeoe
aeniiaie i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeaiii? aaiethoe?eii?
eiioeaioe?? ye oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aeey Oe?a?ie,
?in??, ?ioeo iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?i.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ?icoi?iiy caeiiii??iinoae o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai iathoue aeena?oaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a
(A.I.Aa?aiianueeiai, N.I.Aieoiae/a, N.E.Eaoa?aa, O.I.Oiea??ai?,
I.A.Ooio?y, I.A.Oo?a, A.I.Oaethea), a/aieo ?ioeo iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?i
(E.A.A?ooeiai?, ?.A.Aaneeue?ai?, Aeio Ai, A.N.Aeoae/aiei, I.I.Ei/aoeiaa,
TH.I.Iaaeaaae?aa, I.A.Nieieiaa, ?.E.?icaiaa?a?na, *aeai Ooooa),
a oaeiae iecea eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?e, ca??iee?a, iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a
yeeo aiae?co?oueny i?noea ? ?ieue aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? nenoaie
noni?euenoaa a ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao, aeine?aeaeothoueny i?iyae
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o ??cieo noa?ao aeeooy iinoeiioi?noe/iiai
noni?euenoaa (Iie?oieia?y iinoeiioi?cio: Iie?oe/iee aiae?c
iinoeiioi?noe/ieo noni?euenoa. — E., 1995; Iie?oe/i? no?oeoo?e oa
i?ioeane a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?: Iie?oieia?/iee aiae?c.- E., 1995; Oe?a?ia
iinoeiioi?noe/ia: noia?a/iino? oa ia?niaeoeae nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo // Iie?oe/ia aeoiea. — 1993. — ? 1. oiui.)

Aeey aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a, a yeeo aeieeathoue, ?icai?oathoueny ?
?ica’ycothoueny i?ioe??//y, a aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiao?oueny
iiaea?i?ciaaia iiiyooy nioe?aeueia nenoaia. ?ice?eooth nooiino?, ci?noo
iiiyooy nioe?aeueia nenoaia aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eyee eeaneee nioe?ieia??
I.Aaaa?, A.Aeth?eaaei, I.Eiio, A.Ia?oaee, A.Ia?aoi, O.Ia?niin,
A.Niaina?. Ia iaio ieeueia oaaaa aei nioe?aeueieo ci?i, aeeiai?ee,
aaiethoe??, o?ainoi?iaoe?? nioe?oi?a i?eae?ey?oueny e ?ioeie
aeine?aeieeaie (Aeae.Aeaenaiaea?ii, A.N.Aae??iaei, I.Aa?aa?ii,
A.Aineiaei, I.Ao?aeue?, I.Eieiie, I.Eoiaiii, ?.I.I?aaeai?nueeith, I.
Niaeca?ii, ?. O???e’yiii).

Aaaeeeaee aniaeo o aeine?aeaeaii? iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai —
?o oa?aeoa?enoeee ? aecia/aiiy nooiino? iiiyooy ia?ao?aei?noue, yea
anaa?/ii ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?aoeyo ?.Aiaea?a, Ae.?.Aeae??ia,
I.E.Iaia?aeaoa?e?, I.Iaeiee, I.I.Ni?ie?ia, N.Noiyiiae/a,
ss.Uaiaiuenueeiai. Iaeieie c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo i?iaeai o
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oiao, ye? ?ic?iaeyeeny ua a eeane/i?e nioe?ieia??,
?: aiii?y, nioe?aeueia iaoieia?y, aeno?aiaeuei? ? e?ecia? neooaoe??.
Aeacai? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeoaaee: A.?.A?iieueae, ?.?.Aieiaaoa,
A.Aeth?eaaei, E.E??naa?a, I.A.Iai?ia, ?.I?eaiaeei, A.Iooeye,
?.TH.Noiae??a, N.A.Oiooaa??a, N.I.Iaioeeia.

Ii??aiyii iaaeaaii ii/aea aeine?aeaeoaaoeny eaoaai??y iaoai?ci
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/. Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoai?ciii ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ (aai ca ?ioith oa?i?iieia??th: ciyooyi iai?oae, o?aaoethaaiiyi
eiioe?eo?a, nioe?aeueiith noaa?e?caoe??th ? ei?aeoe??th),
aena?oeththoueny a i?aoeyo AE.A?iei, I.Aaaa?a, E.Eica?a, A.I.Eioaaa,
TH.I.E?aniaa, N.?.Iaeneiiaa, O.Ia?niina, E.Iiiia?a, A.O.Naa?/aiei,
A.?.Nooaiiaa, I.Oaeaeaaaa?a. Aeacai? aaoi?e ?ice?eaathoue o? /e ?io?
ooieoe?? iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, aiae?cothoue ??ai? eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a nioe?aeueieo ni?eueiinoyo. I?iaeaia ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/, aeinyaiaiiy eiinainono a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa ?ic?iaey?oueny a eiioeaioe?yo TH.Oaaa?iana, Aeae.?ioena ?
O.Eueioa?a. Iaeiae ?oi? eiioeaioe??, ?ic?aoiaai? ia cao?aeia
noni?euenoai, ia iiaeooue aooe aaciina?aaeiuei canoiniaai? aeey aiae?co
i?ioean?a o no/anieo iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oiao.

Aea/aiiy e aiae?c aeaea?ae ? ioae?eaoe?e aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a?aenooi? niaoe?aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy, a yeiio
a i?yi?e iinoaiiaoe? ieoaiiy ye naiino?eia caaaeaiiy cae?enithaaany a
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao. I?iaaaeaiiy ae eiiieaeniiai, nenoaiiiai
aiae?co i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo nioe?oiao aeicaieeoue ia?aeoe aei
oi?aae?iiy ieie ye ona?aeiieaiiai aieeao ia oe? nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y
? eiioe?eoe, aei a?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?oiuei? ?oo?eii? neee,
aeicaieeoue i?i?i?coaaoe iaieio/? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee eiioe?eoiaaiieo
i?ioean?a a oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai,
aeiiii?/iiai ? aeooiaiiai aeeooy iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ?? iaaeinoaoiy iaoeiaa
?ic?iaeai?noue, i?aeoe/ia nioe?aeueia cia/ei?noue ? iaoiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nioe?oie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iniaeeaeo oiiaao
nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino? — o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei
aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aoooy.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y o iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao ? iaoai?cie ?o ?ica’ycaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy) a oiiaao
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e nooi?iue ?ic?iaeaiino?
i?iaeaie, a oaeiae ?? aaaaoia?aii?noue, o aeena?oaoe?? noaaeoueny iaoa:
eiiieaenii ?ice?eoe nooi?noue, i?noea ? ?ieue nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o
i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai, iaoai?cie ? oaoiieia??
?o ?ica’ycaiiy, a oaeiae iar?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee iioei?caoe??
oeeo iaoai?ci?a o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao.

?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ??oaiiy oaeeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

— cae?enieoe ii??aiyeueiee nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c oioae?oa?ii?
? aeaiie?aoe/ii? nioe?aeueieo nenoai ? aecia/eoe ia oe?e iniia? aieiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee iinooioae?oa?iiai nioe?oio;

— c’ynoaaoe aeeiai?eo nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae,
?ice?eoe ?o iniaeeaino? e aeueoa?iaoeae;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe aieiai? eiioeaioe?? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoai ye oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo;

— ?icaeyiooe aeaye? i?aeoe/i? iiaeae? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoai, aecia/eoe ?o iniaeeaino? ? caaaeuei? ?ene;

— noi?ioethaaoe ?icoi?iiy nooiino?, no?oeoo?e ? niaoeeo?ee nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao, aecia/eoe ?o i?noea ? ?ieue o
nioe?aeueieo i?ioeanao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo;

— iar?oiooaaoe ?icai?iooo oeiieia?th nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ?
i?iaiae?coaaoe ?? ia i?eeeaae? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aieiai? oi?ie ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ia
nooi?niiio ? oaiiiaiaeueiiio ??aiyo ? ?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai
i?iyao o ia?ao?aeieo nioe?oiao;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe nooi?noue, aieiai? aeaiaioe iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao ? ?oi? iaeaaaeeea?o? iiaeeo?eaoe??;

— oai?aoe/ii iar?oiooaaoe ? ?ice?eoe aieiai? iai?yiee iioei?caoe??
iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia
i?ciaaaeueia eiioeaioe?y ?icaeyaeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao, ca?aeii c yeith iaoiaeieia?y aiae?co ?
iaoai?cie ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ a oiiaao «iacaeiaaiyth/i?»
iiaea?i?caoe??, ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao??
oi?iothoueny ? aeei?enoiaothoueny ye aeaiaioe eiiieaeniiai,
aaaaoi??aiaaiai nioe?aeueiiai i?ciaiiy. Ia oe?e i?ciaaaeuei?e aac?
aeyaeaia niaoeeo?ea, oeiieia?y, oi?ie i?iyao i?ioe??/ o no/anieo
oiiaao, ?icaeyioo? iaoai?cie ? oaoiieia?? ?o ?ica’ycaiiy o
iinooioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoaao, a oaeiae iar?oioiaai? iaeaaaeeea?o?
iai?yiee iioei?caoe?? oeeo iaoai?ci?a o iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?iao.

O ?aieao ?iaioe aenoiooa iecea iieiaeaiue, ye? eiie?aoecothoue iaoeiao
iiaecio:

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai
aiae?co nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ a oiiaao no?oeoo?ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iae?ic?ooaiue nioe?aeueieo nenoai, nain yeiai iieyaa? a oe?e?niiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano ?icai?oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo
nenoaiao a?ae ?o aeieeiaiiy aei ?ica’ycaiiy. Oea aeicaieeei aecia/eoe
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ia’?eoeaieo oiia ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a o aaia?oaaii?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?oiueiai i?iyao o ia?ao?aeieo
i?ioeanao ia i?e?i-, iae?i- ? aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo, aeiaanoe, ui a
ia?ao?aeieo nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao aeooae?co?oueny iecea niaoeeo?/ieo
aeaea?ae nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, cie?aia e ???aoe?iiaeueieo (aaa?oon,
caaiaiie, nioe?iiao?y), ye? a noaa?eueieo nenoaiao ciaoiaeyoueny o
i?eai?/aiiio noai?; — ?ic?iaeaia i?eioeeiiai iiaa oeiieia?y nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/, yea r?oioo?oueny ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
iine?aeiaia aecia/aiiy aeae?eueeio e?eoa???a. Niaoeeo?ea oeiieia??
iieyaa? o aeai?? oaeeo e?eoa???a, ye? ia’?aeiothoue: ii-ia?oa, iaea?eueo
caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/; ii-ae?oaa,
oa?aeoa?enoeeo noa’?eo?a, ui aca?iiae?thoue, ? noa?e ?o aca?iiae??;
ii-o?ao?, ?ice?eaathoue niin?a aeieeiaiiy i?ioe??//y, eiai ?icaeoeo ?
?ica’ycaiiy. Ia iniia? aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aieiaieie e?eoa??yie
oei?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aenooiathoue: ?o iioiaeaeaiiy, i?noea a
nenoai? ca’yce?a, aieea ia ?icaeoie, ??aaiue ? nooi?iue ni?eueiino?,
noa?a ?icai?oaiiy, aoai ?icaeoeo ? aa?aaaoiee noai. Cai?iiiiiaaia
oeiieia?y ?icaeyiooa ? i?iaiae?ciaaia ia i?eeeaae? no/anieo
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a;

— iar?oioiaaia aeae?eaiiy aieiaieo oi?i ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
ia nooi?niiio ? oaiiiaiaeueiiio ??aiyo, ui aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae eiioeaioe?? i?i aa?aaaoi? noaie nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/. Eiioeaioe?y aa?aaaoieo noai?a i?ioe??/ ? ?o oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue aeiiiaith? ? neioaco? eeane/io oai??th nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ ? eiioeaioe?? eiioe?eoieia?? a aeayeo ocaaaeueiaio oai??th ?ooo
? ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, eiioe?eo?a. Aeae?eai? oa?aeoa?i? iciaee aieiaieo
aa?aaaoieo noai?a i?ioe??/, ?icaeyioo? aeae?eueea oei?a ?oiuei?
oeeee?/iino?, iniaeeaino? i?iyao a o?aiceoieo nioe?oiao;

— ?ice?eoi aioo??oi?e iaoai?ci aaiethoe?? ? no?oeoo?ecaoe?? nioe?aeueieo
nenoai ia aoai? iae?ic?ooaiue. Aeiaaaeaii, ui a iniia? nioe?aeueieo
ci?i eaaeeoue neeaaeia aca?iiae?y aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo ii/aoe?a: aa?iii??
(eiinainono) ye noai?thth/iai, noaa?e?coth/iai ii/aoeo ? eiioe?eoo ye
aeeneiaoeaiiai, ?oei?aiiai ii/aoeo. A oaeiio iaoai?ci? aaiethoe??
aa?iii?y ? eiioe?eo, aoaeo/e e?aei?ie noaiaie nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/,
a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue nai???aeieo aaeaine??a, ye? ni?eythoue aeeiai?/i?e
??aiiaac? ? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa oa eiai i?aenenoai;

— iiaea?oueny aecia/aiiy iinooioae?oa?ii? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ?
?icaeyaeathoueny ?? iaeaaaeeea?o? nooi?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee.
Cacia/a?oueny, ui ia?ao?aeiee aoai ?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?ii? nenoaie —
oea i?inoi?iai-/aniaee ?ioa?aae aeno?aiaeueii-oaioe/iiai ?icaeoeo
nioe?oio, a oiae? yeiai iaeei oei eiai i?aai?caoe?? o?ainoi?io?oueny a
?ioee ca aeiiiiiaith aeano?oeoeaii-eiino?oeoeaieo eiioe?eo?a.
I?aee?aneth?oueny aei?noea caeaaei?noue i?ae ?ioaineai?noth eiioe?eoo
(nenoaie eiioe?eo?a), ui ?icai?oa?oueny a nioe?oi?, ? ?aaeeeaeuei?noth
ci?i, ui ianoathoue i?ae aieeaii eiioe?eoo;

— aia?oa c?iaeaii eiiia?aoeaiee aiae?c aieiaieo oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia?ao?aeieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai, aecia/aiee nooi?iue ?o
canoinoaaiiy aei no/anieo iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a, cie?aia ? a
Oe?a?i?. Aeine?aeaeai? iaeaaaeeea?o? i?aeoe/i? iiaeae? ia?aoiaeo a?ae
oioae?oa?ecio (aaoi?eoa?ecio) aei aeaiie?ao??, aecia/ai? ?oi?
iniaeeaino? ? caaaeuei? ?ene. C?iaeaii aeniiaie uiaei iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aeayeeo e?a?i
aeey Oe?a?ie a ?aieao, iaiaaeaieo noiaeeie oiiaaie, o?aaeeoe?yie,
nooiaiai iiaea?i?ciaaiino? noni?euenoaa;

— oaeineiiaeaia iiiyooy iaoai?ci ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, aecia/ai? ?
i?iaiae?ciaai? aieiai? aeaiaioe oeueiai iaoai?cio (oi?ie, iaoiaee,
i?eeiie ? caniae), eiai iaeaaaeeea?o? ooieoe??, aieiai? oeie ? ??ai?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao;

— iiaeaia i?ea?iaeueia oeiieia?y iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/,
i?iaiae?ciaai? aeaye? oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ c
iaoith aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? ?o canoinoaaiiy aei ??ciiai oeio
eiioe?eo?a a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Iar?oioiaaia ?aeay uiaei
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oaco aeena?oaioa uiaei i?eioeeiiai ??cieo
iaoai?ci?a ? oaoiieia?e ?ica’ycaiiy iaeiioeiieo i?ioe??/ o
i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aoiin?a, oeea?e?caoe?e;

— aia?oa aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao, ye? ia?o ca ana iia’ycothoueny c
o?oaeiiuaie ia?aoai?aiiy aeano?oeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/,
i?eoaiaiieo oioae?oa?ecio, a eiinainoni? iaoai?cie, ye? ia?aaaaeathoue o
aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa?. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaieo
iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?e/ei ?oiuei? aaiethoe?? a
iai?yieo aei aaoi?eoa?ecio aai oaino;

— iar?oioiaai? aieiai? iai?yiee iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo nenoaiao. Ia iniia? aiae?co aeina?aeo ??cieo
e?a?i, ye? aoaeoeaii ae??ooaaee caaaeaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo,
cai?iiiiiaai? eiie?aoi? caoiaee c i?i?i?caoe?? iaieio/eo nioe?aeueieo,
iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo ? ii?aeueieo ao?ao, i?eoaiaiieo
iae?inioe?aeueiei c?ooaiiyi.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia ? oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??. Aecia/ath/e
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe, aeena?oaio aeoiaeea c iaiao?aeiino?
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao. Oea aeicaieeei a
aeine?aeaeaii? nie?aoeny ia o?einionuee?, caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee ?
ia niaoe?aeuei? iaoiaee, ui caaacia/eei ii?aeiaiiy
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai, iie?oieia?/iiai ? nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai
noaiiaeyoue i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo (A.N.Aae??iaa, I.I.Aaiaeo?ee,
A.A.Aa/ei?ia, ?.?.Aeno?eoeueeiai, Ae.?.Aeae??ia, ?.?.Aieiaaoe,
A.A.Ae?ocy, A.O.?oio?aoiaa, I.A.Eiii?ia, ?.I.Iaioeeiaa,
I.?.Ieoaeue/aiei, I.A.Iai?ii?, A.I.Ia?aiaeeoe?, A.Ae.Oeoiaa,
A.A.Oeiaee), ?in?enueeeo o?einio?a (A.I.Aaa?ueyiiaa, I.A.Aeaen??aa,
A.A.Ai?iaee?ia, O.O.Ayeea?aaa, A.?.Ai?aa/a, A.I.Aeo??ia,
TH.A.Cai?oaenueeiai, I.A.Nieieiaa, ?.TH.Noiae??aa, I.I.*oieeiaa,
TH.A.Oa??ia), a oaeiae caei?aeiiieo aeine?aeiee?a (E.Aioeae?iaa,
?.Aea?aiaei?oa, A.C?iiaey, E.Eica?a, E.E??naa?aa, ?.I?eaiaeeia,
I.Niaeca?a, TH.Oaaa?iana, N.Oaioeiaoiia), ye? ?ic?iaeythoue i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, eiioe?eo?a, ??ci? oi?ie ?o i?iyao a nioe?aeueieo
nenoaiao. Aaeeeo oaaao i?eae?eaii no/ani?e o?einionuee?e,
nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e e?oa?aoo??, ioae?eaoe?yi o ia??iaee/i?e i?an?,
aea aeeeaaea?oueny ?icoi?iiy no/anieo eiioe?eoiaaiieo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, ?in??, ?ioeo aea?aeaaao.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny, ia?o ca
ana, iiaeciith ? noeoii?noth iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue iaaio iaoiaeieia?/io aaco aeey
iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie ? aecia/aiiy nooiino?, no?oeoo?e oaeiai
yaeua, ye nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y ?, cie?aia, i?ioe??//y a oiiaao
aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy a ia?ao?aeieo nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao
.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? oi?ioeththoueny iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
ni?eythoue a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith i?e/ei ? oiia aeieeiaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoaao, ?o caaino?aiiy,
a oaeiae iane?aee?a ?o eiino?oeoeaieo ? aeano?oeoeaieo aieea?a ia
nioe?aeueio nenoaio ? ?? noa’?eoe ??ciiai ??aiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noyoue o nia? oai?aoe/ia iar?oiooaaiiy iioei?caoe??
iaoai?ci?a ? eiie?aoieo oaoiieia?e ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ ? o?aaoethaaiiy
eiioe?eo?a o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao.

Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy e ?aea? aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaie, iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie, i?ioni?eeaie, ?ioeie
noa’?eoaie nioe?aeueiiai i?ioeano aeey a?eueo aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
nooiino? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ? eeaniaeo c?oeiaiue
o ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoaao, i?aeo?eiee a ieo iaaiiai ??aiy
noaa?eueiino? ? iiia?aaeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo iaea?eueo ae?aiaoe/iei oeyoii.
Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe canoiniaai? i?e aea/aii? a aocao
aeayeeo oai c o?einio??, iie?oieia??, nioe?ieia??, eiioe?eoieia??,
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei.

Aieiaiee ci?no ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? a iiiia?ao?yo:
«Nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao: iaoiaeieia?y
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy» (1998), «Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey.
Nouiinoue, oeiieiaey, oi?iu i?iyaeaiey» (1997). Ie?ai? aaaeeea? aniaeoe
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a iaoeiaeo noaooyo ? ?ioeo ioae?eaoe?yo.
Iaeaaaeeea?o? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? a aenooiao
aeena?oaioa ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiaeo, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao. Na?aae ieo:
i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y «Iiaia iuoeaiea e aiaiiay iieeoeea»
(Iineaa, 1989), i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Eiioe?eoe a
noni?euenoa?: ae?aaiinoeea ? i?io?eaeoeea» (Ee?a, 1995), i?aeia?iaeia
oeiea-nai?ia? «Ia?niaeoeau nenoai oi?aaeaiey» (Aeoooa, 1995),
i?aeia?iaei? Neiai?iaeei?anuee? /eoaiiy «Eoeueoo?a o o?einio?? OO
noie?ooy» (Oa?e?a, 1998), ?anioae?eainueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia
eiioa?aioe?y «Iaoeia? canaaee ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeui? ina?oe Oe?a?ie» (Ee?a,
1993), a oaeiae ?aa?iiaeuei? iaoeia? eiioa?aioe??. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueiiio oai?aoe/iiio
nai?ia?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaeaaaeeea?o? iieiaeaiiy ? aiioaoe?? aeena?oaoe?? oe?a?inueeith,
?in?enueeith oa aiae?enueeith iiaaie iioae?eiaai? ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aae?
?ioa?iao o oaeaeiioa?aioe?yo (alt. philosophy. debate). ?aea?
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a oiae? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a
Oa?e?anueeiio a?enueeiaiio oi?aa?neoao?, Oa?e?anueeiio AAAO?A.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo, io?eiaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
aeey caoenoo o niaoe?ae?ciaai?e ?aae?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c eiioeaioe??th
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ea nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeieo nenoaiao
cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny ia’?eoii i?ioe??/, eiioe?eo?a, oiaoi
naiith nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith, a ye?e aiie ?icai?oathoueny. Ca?aene
aeieea? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy aaciaeo oa?aeoa?enoee iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoai. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao ii/eia?oueny c aea/aiiy na?aaeiaeua, iniiae, a ye?e aiie
aeieeathoue, ooieoe?iiothoue ? ?ica’ycothoueny. Oey ?aeay ? aecia/a?
no?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoiaeieia?/iei
iniiaai aeine?aeaeaiiy iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai. Ae?oaee ?icae?e
aena?oeth? iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aiae?co nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o oeeo
nenoaiao. O?ao?e ?icae?e ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue, no?oeoo?o, oeiieia?th
iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa.

Oaeno aeena?oaoe??, i?aaenoaaeaiee ia 370 noi??ieao, neeaaea?oueny
c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a (10 i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (325 iaeiaioaaiue).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iar?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue ?
nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino?, oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiaa iiaecia ? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
a oaeiae aecia/a?oueny iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai» ?icaeyaea?oueny nooi?noue ? iniaeeaino?
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a, aeeiai?ea oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ieo nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a, oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iiaeae? ?o o?ainoi?iaoe??.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Iiiyooy «iinooioae?oa?ia nenoaia» c iiceoe??
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co» aeyaeythoueny ? aiae?cothoueny
nooi?ni? iciaee iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai. Aeo?aeieie
iiiyooyie aeey aecia/aiiy nooiino? iinooioae?oa?ii? nenoaie ?
oioae?oa?ia ? aeaiie?aoe/ia nenoaie ye ii/aoeiaee ? e?ioeaaee
(?iia??iee) ioieoe o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?iiai nioe?oio,
i?iaiaeeoueny ?oiy aeaoaeueia ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea: ca niiniaii
aeieeiaiiy, oa?aeoa?ii nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae??, i?eioeeiii i?aai?caoe??,
oa?aeoa?ii aca?iica’yce?a ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai ? iii?ae aioo??oi?ie
aeaiaioaie, aieiaieie iaoiaeaie ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ?
eiioe?eo?a, aieeaii nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a ia nioe?oi ? iecee ?ioeo.
I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea oioae?oa?ii? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
nioe?aeueieo nenoai iieacaea, ui iaeaaaeeea?oith, eeth/iaith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith iinooioae?oa?iiai nioe?oio aenooia? ia?ao?aei?noue.
I?e/iio iiiyooy ia?ao?aeiino? ?icoi??oueny ia ye i?inoa iii?iaoe?y aoaio
o?ainoi?iaoe?? nioe?oio, a ye iniaeeaee noai nenoaie, ui ia?
naiiaeinoaoi? cia/aiiy.

Nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c iiiyooy ia?ao?aeiino? aeicaieea c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ia?ao?aeiei iiaeia iacaaoe oaeee noai nioe?aeueii? nenoaie,
i?e yeiio a ?acoeueoao? ??ceeo ci?i ia iae?inioe?aeueiiio ??ai? i?e
aeineoue iaeeo ci?iao ia i?e?inioe?aeueiiio ??ai? i?ioiaeeoue ii?ooaiiy
?? ??aiiaaaeiiai noaio, ui aeeeeea? iio?aao ia?aoai?aiiy aieiaieo noa?
nioe?oio aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiaiai i?inoi?iai-/aniaiai oii?yaeeoaaiiy. Aei
/enea iaeaaaeeea?oeo eiinoeoooe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui caaacia/othoue
a?aeiiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, iaeaaeaoue ci?ie a noa??
iie?oeee, aeiiii?ee, aeooiai?e noa??, ye? a caeaoieo aei
naiii?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao a?aeaoaathoueny oaeei /eiii, uia
caaacia/eoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo eaiie oeeo
i?aenenoai ? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie a oe?eiio.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ia?ao?aei?noue iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a, ?o a?aie/ia
aeeiai?/i?noue ? aaaaoiaa??aioi?noue ?icaeoeo ia?aaeaa/athoue ?
ia?ao?aei?noue, iaaecia/ai?noue, aeeiai?/i?noue ?o ye?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee. On? aieiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeeo nenoai yaeythoue niaith
eiia?iaoe?th nooi?nieo ?en oioae?oa?ecio ? aeaiie?ao??. I?e/iio
aeaiaioe, no?oeoo?e, i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae oioae?oa?ii? ? iiai?,
aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie, ui anoaiiaeth?oueny, ia i?inoi ni?a?niothoue, a
ciaoiaeyoueny a noai? aei?noeiai c?oeiaiiy, eiioe?eoo.

Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ii? nenoaie a ??
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia?aaaaeathoue ?ene oioae?oa?ecio; ia iaaiiio aoai?, a
«na?aaeei? oeyoo», ?ene oioae?oa?ecio ? aeaiie?ao?? a??aiiaaaeothoue
iaeia iaeio (aea c?oeiaiiy i?ioeeaaeieo oaiaeaioe?e ooo ia neaaoa?, a
iaaiaee, aeinyaa? i?eo). sseui aeaiie?aoe/i? oaiaeaioe?? cia/ii
ia?aaaaeathoue, oi ia?ao?ae iaaoaa? iacai?ioiiai oa?aeoa?o. sseui aiie
caciathoue ii?acee, oi o?ainoi?iaoe?y iaaoaa? ?en ?aaa?no.

Noai iaaecia/aiino?, ianoaa?eueiino? i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo a?ae ?ioaa?aoe??
? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? oioae?oa?iiai oeio aei ?ioaa?aoe?? ?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aeaiie?aoe/iiai oeio a ?iaio? aecia/a?oueny ye noai
a?oo?eaoe?eiiai oaino. A oeueiio oaioe/iiio ?iciaae? iinooioae?oa?i?
nioe?oie ao?a/athoue o?aaeeoe?ei? ?inoeoooe noaoonii-?ieueiai?
nioe?aeueii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??, ?iciaaeathoueny ia /eneaii? aaoiiiiii
?nioth/? na?oe, ui aca?iii ia ia?aoeiathoueny. A oeeo aeaci?aai?ciaaieo
iinooioae?oa?ieo «na?oao» nioe?aeuei? oe?iiino?, ii?ie, c?acee
iiaaae?iee ii/eiathoue i???iooaaoeny ia i?eioeeiiai ?ioo nenoaio
a?aee?eo, ai?ae o o?aaeeoe?eiiio noni?euenoa?. Ca oaeeo oiia /anoeia
noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa aeyaey?oueny caeaoiith i?enoinoaaoeny aei iiaeo
nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae ? ii?i, iaea?aeaoe iiaee nioe?aeueiee noaoon ?
i?noea a aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo??, ui oi?io?oueny. Ae?oaa, ye i?aaeei,
a?eueoa /anoeia ia a ciic? aai ia aaaea? ni?eeiaoe iia? nioe?aeuei?
oe?iiino? ? iiiiaith? aa?noae ia?a?iae?a, ui a naith /a?ao noai?th?
oiiae aeey aeieeiaiiy aino?eo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «Aeeiai?ea nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae: nooi?noue, iniaeeaino? e aeueoa?iaoeae» aeine?aeaeo?oueny
niaoeeo?ea ia?aa?ao nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeieo noni?euenoaao.

Nii/aoeo iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea eeane/iiai ? no/aniiai i?aeoiae?a
aei i?iaeaie aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aei? ia??iaee
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, iieacothoueny ?o neeuei? noi?iie ? iaaeie?ee.
Aiae?cothoueny iiiyooy : e?eca, aeeneiaoeaia no?oeoo?a, oain,
iano?ee?noue, ao?aeoi?e, a?oo?eaoe?y oa ?oi? i?noea a ?ice?eoo? nooiino?
aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae. I?iaaaeaiee
e?eoe/iee aiae?c aea? iiaeeea?noue cai?iiiioaaoe iiaee i?aeo?ae aei
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a. I?aeo?ae
aaco?oueny ia ?aea? i?i oa, ui aeey iiaiioe?iiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaei?
neeaaeii?, aaaaoiieaiiai? i?iaeaie iaei??? oai??? iaaeinoaoiuei —
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaoe an? iaea?eueo oe?ii?, eiino?oeoeai? ? aoaeoeaii
ae?th/? iieiaeaiiy ??cieo oai??e.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui naiii?aai?caoe?eiee i?aeo?ae aei i?iaeaie aeeiai?ee
neeaaeieo iae?i?eieo nenoai ?c cai?ioiei ca’yceii, a nioe?aeuei?
nenoaie iaeaaeaoue naia aei oaeeo ooai?aiue, aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe ?o ye
aeeiai?/ii no?ee?, aiiainoaoe/i? ooai?aiiy. A nioe?aeueiiio aiiainoac?
aioo??oi?i iaoai?ciii oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? ? aaiethoe?? aenooia? neeaaeia
aca?iiae?y aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo ii/aoe?a: oai?/iai, noaa?e?coth/iai
ii/aoea ? aeeneiaoeaiiai, ?oei?aiiai ii/aoea. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui noiniaii
nioe?aeueieo nenoai iaeaaaeeea?oei ?icn?thth/ei oaeoi?ii ? nioe?aeuei?
eiioe?eoe, a noaa?e?coth/ei oaeoi?ii ?icaeoeo nioe?oi?a — nioe?aeueia
aa?iii?y. A oeueiio iaoai?ci? aaiethoe?? aa?iii?y ? eiioe?eo, ye? ?
e?aei?ie noaiaie nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue nai???aeieo
aaeaine??a, ni?eythoue aeeiai?/i?e ??aiiaac? ? ?icaeoeo nioe?oio oa eiai
i?aenenoai. ?icaeoie nioe?aeueieo nenoai iiaeeeaee, ia?o ca ana, /a?ac
eiioe?eoe (ye? c iiceoe?? neia?aaoeee aeieeathoue ca ?aooiie iioieo
aia?a??, ?a/iaeie ?c ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, a c iiceoe?? ae?aeaeoeee
— ca ?aooiie aca?iiae?? aioo??oi?o, aca?iiaeeeth/ath/eo noi??i,
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo), aea nai? ii nia? eiioe?eoe iiaeeea? eeoa i?e
iayaiino? aa?iii??, aaeaine?o, ui a??aiiaaaeo? ae?th eiioe?eo?a. O
i?ioeeaaeiiio aeiaaeeo noi?iie, ui i?ioeae?thoue, aca?iii cieueee a
iaeia iaeio. C ?ioiai aieo, iiaia aa?iii?y aac eiioe?eo?a, c?oeiaiue
i?ecaaea a a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo aei canoith a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, ui
a naith /a?ao icia/aei a e?iaoeue aoaeue-yeiai ye?niiai ?icaeoeo.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui ii?aeiaiiy naiii?aai?caoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo c oai???th
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aeicaiey? aeeiai?eo nioe?aeueieo nenoai o
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ?icoi?oe ye i?ioean, ui ia??aiii??ii ?icaeaa?oueny,
a ?aaeei? c caaino?aiiyi, yeee, o naith /a?ao, ?icaeyaea?oueny o
aeaeyae? o?ueio aca?iiiia’ycaieo aoai?a: aeia?oo?eaoe?eiiai,
a?oo?eaoe?eiiai ? i?neya?oo?eaoe?eiiai. Aieiaiei iiiyooyi, ui aeicaiey?
aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe aoaie, aenooia? ??aaiue ?oiuei? nioe?aeueii?
aio?ii??, i?ae yeith ?icoi??oueny i??a iaaii?yaeeiaaiino?, eiioe?eoiino?
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie. ??aaiue nioe?aeueii? aio?ii?? i?yii i?iii?oe?eiee
?? eiioe?eoiiio (ui ?icn?th?) iioaioe?aeo ? cai?ioii i?iii?oe?eiee
aa?iii?/iiio (ui noaa?e?co?) iioaioe?aeo, oiaoi caeaaei?noue iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae? a?aeiioaiiy: A = f (Ei/Ai), aea A — ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii? aio?ii??; Ei — eiioe?eoiee iioaioe?ae nenoaie; Ai —
aa?iii?eiee iioaioe?ae nenoaie.

?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o eiaeiiio c
aeae?eaieo aoai?a. I?e oeueiio aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui eiee a
aeia?oo?eaoe?eiee ia??iae nioe?aeueia aio?ii?y, a ca’yceo c ia?aaaaith
aa?iii?eieo oaiaeaioe?e a nenoai?, i?enooiy ia aacia/iiio aeey ?nioth/i?
no?oeoo?e ??ai?, oi a a?oo?eaoe?eiee ia??iae aiia aeinyaa? ii?iaiaiai
??aiy ? ca iina?aaeieoeoaii aeano?oeoeaieo eiioe?eo?a ?oeio? canoa??e?
no?oeoo?e, a ca aeiiiiiaith eiino?oeoeaieo eiioe?eo?a noai?th?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ianooiii? no?oeoo?iaaiace. Ca?aene ?iaeoueny aeniiaie,
ui ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?inoi?iai-/aniaee ?ioa?aae
aeno?aiaeueii-oaioe/iiai ?icaeoeo nioe?oio, a oiae? yeiai iaeei eiai oei
i?aai?caoe?? o?ainoi?io?oueny a ?ioee ca iina?aaeieoeoaii
aeano?oeoeaii-eiino?oeoeaieo eiioe?eo?a.

Iaeiae oaeee noeaia??e ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo nenoai ia caaaeaee ?
oaoaeueiei. Nioe?aeuei? noa’?eoe, ye i?aaeei, iathoue iiaeeea?noue
i?aeo?eioaaoe noaa?euei?noue nenoaie oeyoii aacia?a?aii? iiaea?i?caoe??
iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa ?ioeo no?oeoo? noni?euenoaa, ia aeiioneath/e
?icaaeainoaaiiy oaii?a ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo ? aeieeiaiiy i?ae ieie aeeaieeo
i?ioe??/, ui aeicaiey? i?aeo?eioaaoe ??aaiue aio?ii?? (eiioe?eoiino?) o
aeiionoeieo iaaeao ? oieeaoe a?oo?eaoe?eiiai aeaooo. Oaea oaoiieia?y
iiia?aaeaeoth/eo ?aoi?i ? noai?aiiy ae?eiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, ui aa?iii?cothoue nioe?aeuei? noinoiee ca
aeiiiiiaith eiinainon?a o na?oe? cai?iiiiiaaiiai oai?aoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo,
noaiiaeoue iioeiaeueiee aa??aio ?icaeoeo aeey aoaeue-yei? nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie, oiio ui i?yia c?oeiaiiy eean?a, aoiin?a ? o.?i. o nioe?oi?
iaieio/a aoyao? eiai a ?aaeei iaaeoaeaeeiai (?aaiethoe?eiiai) ?icaeoeo,
ui cae?i/o?oueny oi/eith a?oo?eaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny oaca i?i aei?noeo caeaaei?noue i?ae
?ioaineai?noth eiioe?eoo (nenoaie eiioe?eo?a), ui ?icai?oathoueny a
nioe?aeuei?e nenoai?, ? ?aaeeeaeuei?noth nioe?aeueieo ci?i, ui
ianooiathoue i?ae aieeaii eiioe?eoo. ?iaeoueny aaaeeeaee aeniiaie, ui
ie??i eiioe?eo?a ye nioe?aeueii? oi?ie i?iyao aio?ii??, ye? aeaiaeyoue
nioe?oi ?c ??aiiaaaeiiai noaio ? aecia/athoue ca aaaaoueia ia?aiao?aie
ii/aoie ? oa?aeoa? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, aeeiai?ea nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a o o?aiceoieo nenoaiao cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny ia’?eoii
eiioe?eoo, oiaoi naiith nioe?aeueiith nenoaiith (na?aaeiaeuai), a ye?e
a?i ?icai?oa?oueny. Ci?noii aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueieo ci?i o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae ?icaeoeo nioe?oio ? neeaaeia ia?aieao?iiy aeaio aca?iiiia’ycaieo
i?ioean?a: aeano?oeoe?? (onoiaiiy) noa?i? yeino? (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nee,
iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a, nenoai oe?iiinoae) ? eiino?oeoe?? (anoaiiaeaiiy)
iiai? yeino?, a oaeiae eiinoeoothaaiiy, ?inoaethaaiiy iiaiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, ii?aeiaiiy ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie a oaeeo iaaeao, ye? aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i noaiiaeaiiy ye?nii iiai? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie.

Na?aae iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae ?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai iacaai? e aiae?cothoueny:
ia?aa?a nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao; aeniea
aeeiai?/i?noue ? ia??aiii??i?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy a nioe?aeueiiio
i?inoi??; ae?ae neeaaeia i?iaiicoaaiiy ?oiueiai oa?aeoa?o ?
?acoeueoao?a; neeaaei?noue oi?aae?iiy ieie, ui, a naith /a?ao,
caeaaeeoue a?ae eiia?iaoe?? cai?ioieo ca’yce?a o nenoai?;
aeueoa?iaoeai?noue nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a. Oae, eiaeia i?inoi?iai-/aniaa
oi/ea ?icai?oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae
?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? ye nai???aeia oi/ea a?oo?eaoe??, ui naii
ii nia? i?eionea? ae?ae neeaaeia i?iaiicoaaiiy ?oiueiai oa?aeoa?o ?
?acoeueoao?a. O oie aea /an a?oo?eaoe?eiee oain o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae
?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?iiai nioe?oio ia o?eueee noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae ?
iiaeeeaino? aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiai? yeino? nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa
(nioe?oio, a?oie, iniae), aea e o i?ioean? a?oo?eaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny
naiii?aai?caoe?y iiai? nenoaie.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui o iinooioae?oa?iee ia??iae ?icaeoeo nioe?oio, eiee a
iueiio ae?thoue ??ciiiai?oi? aeno?aiaeuei? oaeoi?e, ??cei c?inoa?
iaiao?aei?noue iaae?eiiai e aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieie
i?ioeanaie. Iaeiae o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ?nioaaiiy nioe?aeueieo nenoai
a?oo?eaoe?eiee oain ii?ooo? noae? aaeaioiaai? eaiaee oi?aae?iiy
nioe?oiii. Oiio iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo caaaeaiue ea??aieo eaiie
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ? noai?aiiy ae?eiai? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae — oea oei/aniaee
?ioa?aae, o oiae? yeiai iaeei oei i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie
o?ainoi?io?oueny a ?ioee. Aea yeui iai a?aeiiee aeo?aeiee aoai
o?ainoi?iaoe?? — oioae?oa?eci, oi ioieo i?ecia/aiiy aeinoaoiuei
iaaecia/aiee. Iiaeia eeoa aiai?eoe i?i ni?iae ia?aoai?aiiy oioae?oa?ecio
ia aeaiie?ao?th. Iaeiae ni?iae ia?aoai?aiue (iai??e o?yaeo, aanea
ia?o?e) ? ?aaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe — oea aeaeaei ia iaeia ? oa naia. ?noi??y
a/eoue, ui (ia?ao?acoth/e a?aeiiee aoi?eci) ni?iaaie aoae?aieoeoaa
aeaiie?ao?? aeiiuaii aei?iao aei oioae?oa?ecio. Aeueoa?iaoeae ?icaeoeo
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai: aeaiie?ao?y, iaioioae?oa?eci, aaoi?eoa?eci,
?icaae — caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o ?ica’ycaiiy iniiaiiai i?ioe??//y
iinooioae?oa?ecio i?ae eiai noa?eie (oioae?oa?ieie) ?inoeoooaie,
i?eioeeiaie i?aai?caoe??, caniaaie aca?iiae?? ? iiaeie.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — «Aieiai? eiioeaioe?? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai ye oai?aoe/i? iiaeae? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo» —
iiaea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea iaeaaaeeea?oeo eiioeaioe?e o?ainoi?iaoe??
nioe?aeueieo nenoai a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei iiai? nenoaie
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aoooy.

Aiae?c aieiaieo niinia?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a o
aeaiie?aoe/i?: 1) /a?ac a?enueeiao ii?aceo ?aaeeio (ciai?oi?e
nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo); 2) iiaaeaiiy oioae?oa?ecio oeyoii ?aaiethoe??
(aioo??oi?e nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo); 3) aaiethoe?eio ca oa?aeoa?ii
?aoi?io caa?oo (?aaeoeoaaiiy nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a a ?io? aa?aaaoi?
noaie) — aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia?o? aeaa niiniae o?ainoi?iaoe??
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio i?ecaiaeyoue eeoa aei cai?ie noa?iai onoaeaiiai
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ia iiaee oei aaoi?eoa?ecio (ieoiaoe?y, aeeeoaoo?a,
ooioa oiui), yeee iiaea a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai, ye
iiaeeea?noue, i?aaiaiiyi aei anoaiiaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? oi?ie
i?aae?iiy. Ca?aene ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a, ui aeieeee a ?acoeueoao? ia?oeo aeaio
aa??aio?a ia?aoiaeo, a inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo yaey? niaith aaiethoe?eia
?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii? nenoaie caa?oo, oiaoi o?ao?e oeyo
o?ainoi?iaoe??.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaei??th c iaea?eueo ?ic?iaeaieo ? aeciaieo
aaiethoe?eieo eiioeaioe?e, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane a
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oiao, ? eiioeaioe?y iiaea?i?caoe??. Aiae?c
no/anieo i?aeoiae?a aei iiiyooy iiaea?i?caoe?y aeicaieea aeena?oaioo
aecia/eoe aeaio ia?aaeeaio ye neeaaeiee eiiieaeniee i?ioean ci?i o an?o
aieiaieo noa?ao aeeooy nioe?oio, na?oeaaeiith yeeo ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ?
oaoiieia?/iee i?ioeane, ui aecia/athoue iine?aeiai?noue ? aeeaeio
a?aeiia?aeieo ci?i a ?ioeo noa?ao aeeooy noni?euenoaa. A aeena?oaoe??
iar?oioiao?oueny i?eaeaoi?noue eiioeaioe?? iiaea?i?caoe?? aeey
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a ? aecia/athoueny
nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oiiae, ye? iiaee a ni?eyoe i?iaaaeaiith
«iacaeiaaiyth/i?» iiaea?i?caoe?? a Oe?a?i?, ?ioeo iinoeiioi?noe/ieo
e?a?iao.

A oie aea /an i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy i?eaeaoiino? eiioeaioe??
iiaea?i?caoe?? aeey o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai ia icia/a?
aaci?iaeaiiino? aeaiiai i?ioeano. ?noi?e/i? ? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oiiae,
noiooi? «eeane/i?e» iiaea?i?caoe?? (e?a?ie Caoiaeo) ?noioii
a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oeo, ui iathoue i?noea a e?a?iao «iacaeiaiiyth/i?»
iiaea?i?caoe??. Oiio iiaea?i?caoe?y a Oe?a?i?, ?in??, ?ioeo
iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?iao aoaea cae?enithaaoeny i?ioyaii aeae?eueeio
aeanyoe??/ue ? c?oeiaoueny c aaaaoueia o?oaeiiuaie. Na?aae ieo: 1)
a?aenooi?noue oe?ieeo aa?noa noni?euenoaa, caoe?eaaeaieo a i?iaaaeaii?
iiaea?i?caoe??; 2) iino?iaeono??aeueia iiaea?i?caoe?y a oeeo e?a?iao ia
iiaea ii/aoeny iianthaeii, a ia?aaeaa/a?, ye i?aaeei, ina?aaeeiaee
oa?aeoa?; 3) a?aenooi?noue a a?eueoino? iino?aaeyinueeeo e?a?i
aaoi?eoaoieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, noni?eueieo ?oo?a, oa?eciaoe/ieo
e?aea??a, caeaoieo ia’?aeiaoe ia?iae aeey iiaea?i?caoe?? noni?euenoaa;
4) iio?aaa a eieinaeueieo ciai?oi?o ?iaanoeoe?yo aeey iiaea?i?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, ui a oiiaao na?oiai? aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ia ?aaeueii; 5)
iaaeia??a ianaeaiiy aei aoaeue-yeeo ?aoi?i, ui ni?eeiathoueny ?i ye
eaoano?ioe ? ni?iae i?aaey/iai eeano a /a?aiaee ?ac iia?aaoaaoe ia?iae;
6) a?aenooi?noue a oeeo e?a?iao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino?, aac yeeo ia/aei iiaea?i?caoe?? iaiiaeeeaa.

E?eoe/iee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao??
C.Aaeac?inueeiai, Ae.A.?anoio, A.I’Aeiiiaea ? O.Oi?ooa?a, ?.Eaoa?aei,
A.Ioaai?nueeiai, Ae.A.Oaae??aa, I.A.Oa?eoiiiai? aeicaieea aeena?oaioo
aeyaeoe ?o neeuei? noi?iie ? iaaeie?ee oa iiaeeea?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy
ye oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao?? a
no/anieo iinooioae?oa?ieo aea?aeaaao.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?aeoe/i? iiaeae? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai: iniaeeaino? ? caaaeuei? ?ene» ?icaeyaeathoueny
aieiai? aa??aioe ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ieo, aeeeoaoi?nueeeo ?aaeei?a
aei aeaiie?aoe/ieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai.

A ?noi?e/iiio ieai? a ?iaio? aeae?eythoueny ? aiae?cothoueny o?e aieiai?
oaee? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai. «Ia?oa oaeey» iinooioae?oa?ecio — oea
e?a?ie, ye? i?ieoee oeyo a?ae oioae?oa?ieo ?aaeei?a aei aeaiie?ao??
i?ney ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie (I?ia//eia, ?oae?y oa ?i.). «Ae?oaa oaeey»
— oea e?a?ie, ye? ae??ooaaee iiae?ai? i?iaeaie ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aeeeoaoi?nueeeo, aaoi?eoa?ieo ?aaeei?a o 70-80-o? ?iee aai ciaoiaeyoueny
ia caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? ?o ?ica’ycaiiy (?niai?y, Ii?ooaae?y, *ee?,
I?aaeaiia Ei?ay oiui). Aei «o?aouei? oaee?» o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaeaaeaoue
no/ani? iinooioae?oa?i? nenoaie, ye? oaeiae /anoi iaceaathoue
iinoeiioi?noe/ieie, aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia ?aeaieia?/ieo iniaeeainoyo
?aaeei?a, ui iaioaaee.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny iniaeeaino?, ui a?ae??ciythoue
i?aeoe/i? iiaeae? o?ainoi?iaoe?? ??cieo e?a?i ? ia??iae?a,
aeae?eythoueny aieiai? aeaiaioe o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo iiaeaeae e?a?i
«ia?oi?» oa «ae?oai?» oaeeue iinooioae?oa?ecio, ui aeicaieeee ?i c
oni?oii ae??oeoe caaaeaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao??. I?aee?aneth?oueny,
ui oaeee aiae?c ia? ia eeoa oai?aoe/io, aea e i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue,
cie?aia aeey Oe?a?ie, ?in??, ?ioeo iinoeiioi?noe/ieo e?a?i, ui iieieeeny
ia?aae aace?//th aino?eo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, eiioe?eo?a. Uia
iiia?aaeeoe a oeeo e?a?iao iani?eyoeeaee ?icaeoie iiae?e, iaiao?aeii
iai’yoaoe, ui ia oeyoo ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao?? oe?
e?a?ie ia ? ia?oii?ioiaeoeyie. Oiio aeina?ae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo
??cieo e?a?i o?aaa ia eeoa aea/aoe e aiae?coaaoe, aea e o ?icoiieo
?aieao, iaiaaeaieo noiaeeie oiiaaie, o?aaeeoe?yie, iaioae?oaoii
ianaeaiiy, nooiaiai iiaea?i?ciaaiino? noni?euenoaa, aeei?enoiaoaaoe.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c on?o aieiaieo iiaeaeae o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui, ia caaaeath/e ia
niaoeeo?/i?noue i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo ??cieo e?a?i ? a ??ci? ia??iaee,
iiaeia aeie?aieoe caaaeuei? ?ene, ye? ??ciith i??ith i?eoaiaii? an?i
o?ueii «oaeeyi» iinooioae?oa?ecio. Na?aae ieo: ianoaa?euei?noue,
ia?iaiaioia e?eca ia?ao?aeieo nioe?aeueieo nenoai; «o?i?caoe?y»
aeiiii?ee ? e?ei?iae?caoe?y noni?euenoaa, ??aaiue yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeeaeie ia?aoai?aiue ? nooiaiy ?ai?aai?caoe?? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee;
iniaeeaa ?ieue aea?aeaae o cae?eniaii? ia?ao?aeieo ?aoi?i (nooi?iue
aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy aecia/a?oueny: ??aiai ?icaeoeo ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, c??e?noth a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, oei??iaiiyi
aeaiie?ao?? a nioe?aeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?); cieaeaiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy
aieiaii? iane ianaeaiiy, eiai ia?a?iae?caoe?y; aeieeiaiiy a noni?euenoa?
nioe?aeueieo iaoieia?e, i?iyae aeaa?aioii? iiaaae?iee; ia?aoo?,
eiioe?eoi?noue ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, iniaeeaa ?ieue ? i?noea
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o oa?aeoa?? e iniaeeainoyo cae?eniaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia?ao?aeieo nioe?oi?a. Oea aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae yaey? niaith a?aaionueeee, oaeoii?/iee
eiioe?eo (nenoaio eiioe?eo?a) i?ae oioae?oa?iith, ui ?oeio?oueny, ?
aeaiie?aoe/iith, ui ia?iaeaeo?oueny, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie nenoaiaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aiae?co nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao» ?icaeyaea?oueny oaiiiai
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo nioe?oiao. Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui
nenoaiiee aiae?c o aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioean?a ? yaeu ae?eniino?
ia?aaeaa/a? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae, ?icaeyaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
cae?enith?oueny a aeae?eueeio aniaeoao.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «I?e?iaea nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, ?oiy nooi?noue ?
no?oeoo?a» iiaea?oueny aiae?c no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy nooiino? ? no?oeoo?e
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, aeyaeythoueny aeeneon?ei? ieoaiiy, ?iaeoueny
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?ioe??//y a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao, cie?aia ?
ia?ao?aeiiai oeio, ? /anoeith i?ioe??/, ui i?iiecothoue on? noa?e
iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai aoooy. Aiie a?aeaeaathoue ?o aieiai? ?ene,
aea ?acii c oei iathoue ? niaoeeo?/i? iciaee.

I?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui aeieeiaiiy, ?icai?oaiiy ?
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ye
aeieeiaiiy, ?oo ? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa, ye
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue, iani?aiaae?iiy iniaenoeo iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a
?iaeea?ae?a, a?oi, noni?euenoaa. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeaea?aei
noia?a/eeaeo iaiaaaiue noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa i?noeoueny a ??cieoe? ?o
noaiiaeua, oiiaao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, a ??ciiiai?oiino? niaoeeo?/ieo
?en, ui ?i i?eoaiaii?. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui ??ciiiai?oi?noue
iio?aa, yeinoae, oe?eae noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ia icia/a?, ui ?o
c?oeiaiiy iaieio/a i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?ioeai?noaa, a, iaaiaee, oey
??ciiiai?oi?noue /anoi noa? aeaea?aeii ?icaeoeo nioe?oio, noa’?eo?a, ui
eiai neeaaeathoue. O oie aea /an aecia/aiiy i?ioe??/ ye ?oo?eii?
/eiiino? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo nenoai ia icia/a? iae?eoe/iiai noaaeaiiy
aei ieo. Ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui /ei a?eueoa i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeuei?e
nenoai?, oei aeua oaiie ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy, aaeaea ?icaeoie iiaea iaoe
??ciiiai?oiee oa?aeoa?: ? i?ia?aneaiee, ? ?aa?aneaiee, ? eaoano?io?/iee.
E??i oiai, iaiao?aeii iai’yoaoe i?i oa, ui i?ioe??//y ye ?oo?eio
/eii?noue aaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo nenoai noino?oueny i?ioe??/,
?iaiaioii ?i i?eoaiaiiei. Oiio ?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa, /e ? oea
i?ioe??//y aeaea?aeii, ?oo?eiith /eii?noth ?icaeoeo, aaeineiiaeaiiy
noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueii? a?oie aai aiii oaei? ooieoe?? ia ia?, ia
iiaeia a?ae??aaii a?ae aiae?co caeiiii??iinoae aeieeiaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiie?aoiiai nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio.

Nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c i?iaeaie na?ae/eoue, ui nooi?noue
i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao, cie?aia ? iinooioae?oa?iiai oeio,
yaey? niaith ona?aeiieai? a?aeiineie noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa
(?iaeea?ae?a, aoiin?a, nioe?aeueieo a?oii), o oiae? yeeo aiie
anooiathoue o aca?iiae?th c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy nai?o ?ioa?an?a, oe?eae,
iio?aa o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao aeeooy noni?euenoaa. Aieiai? nooi?ni? ?ene
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/: 1) ia?ic?eaiee ca’ycie i?ioe??/ c noa’?eoaie
noni?euenoaa ? a?aeiineiaie i?ae ieie. I?ioe??//y — ae?ac oeeo
a?aeiinei, ?ice?eaathoue ?o nooi?noue, ?oo?ei? neee, oaeoi?e
naii?icaeoeo; 2) i?ioe??//y ae?aaeathoue noinoiee i?ae noa’?eoaie, ui
aca?iiae?thoue, ? noaaeaiiy eiaeiiai c ieo aei i?ioe??//y a eiai
oe?e?niino?, yea noa’?eo, aeoiaey/e c? nai?o ?ioa?an?a, iaiaaa?oueny aai
?ica’ycaoe (a?aaoethaaoe), aai caaaeueioaaoe eiai ?ica’ycaiiy;
3)i?ioe??//y aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c? na?aeiiith ae?yeuei?noth
ethaeae (i?ioenoaaeaiith a aeena?oaoe?? aoaeoeai?e ? o?aaeeoe?ei?e),
yea ia caaaeaee ? ia iaia’yceiai aoaa? ?icoiiith, i?e/iio ona?aeiieaiiy
noa’?eoii nai?o iio?aa ia icia/a?, ui a?i ona?aeiiea i?ioe??//y, ui
eaaeaoue a ?o iniia?; 4)aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
oa?aeoa?ii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ? ?ioeo a?aeiinei, a ye?
aaciina?aaeiuei aeeth/ai? ?o noa’?eoe, oiaoi nooi?noue i?ioe??/ o
nioe?aeuei?e ni?eueiino? aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa oa?aeoa?ii noinoie?a ??
noa’?eo?a, aea e niaoeeo?eith nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a ye?e ooieoe?iio?
ni?euei?noue oa ?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aeicaieeei c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui aei aieiaieo ?? aeaiaio?a iaeaaeaoue: 1) noi?iie
i?ioe??//y, oiaoi i?ioeeaaeiino? (?iaeea?aee, nioe?aeuei? a?oie,
ni?eueiino?, ?o aeanoeaino?, yeino?, oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oiui); 2)
iaai? oeie aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae ieie; 3) oi?ie ?icaeoeo i?ioe??//y oa ?o
i?iyao (??ai?, aoaie, noaie); 4) i?aaeiao aca?iiae??, oiaoi, c yeiai
i?eaiaeo cae?enith?oueny aca?iica’ycie; 5) iaoai?ci ?ica’ycaiiy
(a?aaoethaaiiy) aeaiiai i?ioe??//y.

Aiae?c i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie iaoiiaeaiino? i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo
nenoaiao, cie?aia ? ia?ao?aeiiai oeio (E.Eica?, ?.Aea?aiaei?o,
TH.Oaaa?ian oiui), iieaco? ?oith ??ciiiai?oi?noue ? o?niee ca’ycie c
iaoiaeieia?/iei i?aeoiaeii aaoi??a. O naith /a?ao aeena?oaio onth
noeoii?noue aeaea?ae, ui iaoiiaeththoue i?ioe??//y a nioe?aeueieo
nenoaiao, iiae?ey? ia nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i?, nioe?aeueii-no?oeoo?i?,
i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee? ? oa?aeoa?ieia?/i?, ui ni?ey? a?eueo
/?oeiio ?icoi?iith iniaeeainoae i?ioe??/, ye? aeieeathoue, ia?aoiaeo ?o
a?ae iaeiiai aa?aaaoiiai noaio a ?ioee, i?aaeeueiiai aecia/aiiy
iai?yie?a ?o ?aaoethaaiiy. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a ia?ao?aeieo
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao aeooae?co?ony iecea niaoeeo?/ieo aeaea?ae, cie?aia
e ???aoe?iiaeueieo, ye? a noaa?eueieo nioe?oiao ciaoiaeyoueny a
i?eai?/aiiio noai?. Oae, nie?ath/enue ia aeine?aeaeaiiy Ae.?.Aeae??ia,
aeena?oaio ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i oa, ui a a?oo?eaoe?eiiio oain?
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aeaea?aeii nioe?aeueii? aia?a?? ian, aeieeiaiiy
aino?eo eiioe?eo?a iiaeooue aenooiaoe ia iio?aae ? ?ioa?ane noa’?eo?a
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a ?oi? caaiaiie. I?e/iio aaaaoi noa’?eo?a
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee (ie?ai? iniae e oe?e? i?aai?caoe??), aeieeioaoe ia
a?aai? caaiaii?a, oe?eani?yiiaaii aeei?enoiaothoue aeey caa?aaeaiiy
naiai noaiiaeua ? aeaaee naia oeae ??ciiaeae nioe?aeueii? aia?a??,
?iciaethth/e eeania? ? iaoe?iiaeuei? eiioe?eoe (oaooa?nuee? no?aeee,
aoi?/i? c?oeiaiiy oiui).

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aaaaoi nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao, iniaeeai a i?aeaoi?/i?e noa??, iaiiaeeeai iiynieoe, yeui ia
a?aoe aei oaaae oaea aeaea?aei nioe?aeueii? aia?a??, iaoai?ci
a?aeaeaeaii? ? iiina?aaeeiaaii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? iiaaae?iee, ye aaa?oon.
I?ae aaa?oonii ia?oueny ia oaac? nenoaia iaaooeo noeeueiinoae, no?eeeo
aeaiaio?a nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaioae?oaoo, ye?
ia?aaeathoueny /a?ac nioe?aeueio iai’youe, /a?ac a?oaoeie e ?io? i?iyae
eieaeoeaiiai iana?aeiiiai.

Iaeiei ?c iaaacia/ieo aeaea?ae nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a o ia?ao?aeieo
nenoaiao ? nioe?iiao?y (nioe?aeueia aiaeaa?eey), ui iiaea iaaoaaoe oi?ie
aeno?ai?cio, ianiaeo caai?ooaiue aai iaa?oue ?aaiethoe?e. Aeiaiaeeoueny,
ui nioe?iiao?y caeiiii??ii aeieea? a aoaeue-yeeo nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao,
ye? caciathoue ea?aeeiaeueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ci?ie
oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaieo i???ioe??a. Oeiiaeie iciaeaie nioe?iiao??
iinooioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoa ? i?aeneeaiiy ianei?noe/ieo iano?i?a,
aeaii?ae?ciaai?noue a?eueoino? aa?noa ianaeaiiy, aiieae?ioe/i?
i/?eoaaiiy ? ?i.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — «Oeiieia?y nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ? ?? aiae?c
ia i?eeeaae? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai» — iiaea?oueny iar?oiooaaiiy
oei?caoe?? ? eeaneo?eaoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ? i?iiiio?oueny
aaoi?nueeee aa??aio oeiieia?? i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao.

Aiae?cothoueny aeaye? no/ani? i?aeoiaee aei oei?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ ? eiioe?eo?a, a?aei?/athoueny ?oi? aeinoi?inoaa ? iaaeie?ee.
I?iiiio?oueny na?e iiaeyae noiniaii oei?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/,
yeee aaco?oueny ia nenoaiiiio i?aeoiae?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aaaaoii??io
aeeno?eaooe?th an?o i?ioe??/, ye? i?eoaiaii? nioe?aeuei?e nenoai?.
Iaeaaaeeea?oa ?ena oaeiai i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? o iine?aeiaiiio ?icaeyae? ia
iaeiiai, a aeae?eueeio e?eoa???a oei?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/.
Iioeiaeuei? e?eoa??? aeeno?eaooe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ iiaeooue aooe
cai?iiiiiaai? ca oiiae iaiao?aeiiai ?ic??ciaiiy ?oi?o oei?a, aeae?a ?
oi?i.

Oei nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aeicaiey? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?o c iiceoe??
?oiueiai iioiaeaeaiiy, i?noey a nenoai? ca’yce?a, aieeao ia ?icaeoie,
oa?aeoa?o ?ica’ycaiiy. ??ciiaeae nioe?aeueiiai i?ioe??//y
aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a?oueny eiai iniaeeainoyie, oiaoi noa’?eoaie, ye?
aca?iiae?thoue, ? noa?ith aca?iiae??, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae i?ioe??/
ca aeae?eueeiia iniiaaie. Oae, o caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy ? nooiaiy
ni?eueiino?, i?ioe??//y eeaneo?eothoueny ia i?e?inioe?aeuei?,
iae?inioe?aeuei? ? aeiaaeuei?, a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?noo ? noa?e
aca?iiae?? ia aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i?, i?aeaoi?/i?, i?aeoeea?e?caoe?ei?,
i?aaia?, ii?aeuei?, ?ae?a?ei? oiui. Ui ae noino?oueny oi?ie
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioe??//y, oi aiia iaoiiaeth?oueny, ia?aaeon?i, niiniaii
eiai ?nioaaiiy, ?icaeoeo ? ?ica’ycaiiy. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea aaoi?o
aeae?eeoe aea? iniiae aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ca
oi?iith: ai-ia?oa, caeaaeii a?ae aoaio (oace, nooiaiy) ?icaeoeo;
ii-ae?oaa, caeaaeii a?ae aa?aaaoiiai noaio i?ioe??//y.

I?iiiio?oueny nenoaiiee aiae?c oeiieia?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai.

Aeeno?eaooe?y i?ioe??/ iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai ca oeiaie aeicaieeea
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aieiaiei i?ioe??//yi aoaeue-yeiai ia?ao?aeiiai
noni?euenoaa aenooia? i?ioe??//y i?ae nenoaiith ?inoeooo?a, oe?iiinoae,
?ioa?an?a, ui ?oeio?oueny, ? nenoaiith noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aoooy, ui
ia?iaeaeo?oueny. Naia oea i?ioe??//y, ui iaaoaa? oi?ie oaeoii?/iiai
eiioe?eoo (nenoaie eiioe?eo?a), o naith /a?ao ii?iaeaeo? oe?eee eiiieaen
?ioeo i?ioe??/ o an?o noa?ao aeeooy iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa. Oaea
i?noea ? ?ieue aeaiiai i?ioe??//y a ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao iiynith?oueny
oei, ui oioae?oa?eci ? aeaiie?ao?y ca nai?ie nooi?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
— nenoaie-aioeiiaee. Oiio ia iiaeii? aeeeeeaoe iiaeea o? o?oaeiiu?, ye?
ia?aaeeaathoue o o?aiceoiee ia??iae iinooioae?oa?i? nioe?oie.

I?iaaaeaia aeeno?eaooe?y nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ca aeaeaie caeaaeii a?ae
?oiueiai ??aiy ? nooiaiy ni?eueiino? aeicaieeea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iaa?oue a oiiaao a?oo?eaoe?eiiai oaino ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo
iinooioae?oa?ieo nioe?oi?a caaaeuei?, ei??ii? ?ioa?ane noa’?eo?a
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ye i?aaeei, ia?ae?eaathoue ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae ieie c
iaei??iieo ieoaiue. ?iaeoa, caaaeuei? ?ioa?ane noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa,
ui i?aaiooue aei naiicaa?aaeaiiy, ? neeaaeathoue oie neia?aaoe/iee
ia/aoie, yea ciooo? ?o aeieaoe aeeneiaoeai? oaiaeaioe??, yaeua
aeano?oeoo?ecaoe??. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui /ei aeua ??aaiue ca?aeiino?
?ioa?an?a, oe?eae o noa’?eo?a a?oie, ni?eueiino?, oei i?oei?oa ??
?aei?noue, aeua no?ee?noue a?aeiinii aeciaaiieo aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a.
A?aecia/a?oueny ? cai?ioia caeaaei?noue: /ei neeuei?oee aieea aeciaaiieo
aeno?aiaeueieo oaeoi??a, aeua caa?ica ?c ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oei
?ioaineai?oa i?ioiaeeoue no?oeoo?ecaoe?y aeaii? nioe?aeueii?
ni?eueiino?. A oie aea /an o aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
aoaeue-yeee, iaeaeuee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? nenoaie caeaoiee
caaacia/eoe aa?iii?eia ii?aeiaiiy ei??iieo ?ioa?an?a ?? noa’?eo?a, aea
ia iiaiee ?oi?e ca?a. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iniaenoinoae o noni?euenoa?,
ui o?ainoi?io?oueny a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao??, ia?aaeaa/a? ia
onoiaiiy a?aei?iiinoae a ?oi?o ?ioa?anao, iiaeyaeao, oe?eyo, a iaaiaee,
c?inoaiiy ?oiuei? ??ciiiai?oiino?, ui ia eeoa ia iicia/a?oueny ia iueiio
iaaaoeaii, a iaaiaee, noa? aeaea?aeii eiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeae?eaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ caeaaeii a?ae ?oiueiai ci?noo
(aeiiii?/i?, iie?oe/i?, ?aeaieia?/i?, i?aeaoi?/i?, eoeueoo?i?,
i?aeoeea?e?caoe?ei?, i?aaia?, ii?aeuei?, ?ae?a?ei? oiui)
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth i?ae noa’?eoaie nioe?oio neeaaeii?
nenoaie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ye? ? i?aaenoaaeythoue o iaaiiio nain?
noni?euenoai acaaae?. A?aeiineiai o aoaeue-ye?e noa?? aeeooy
noni?euenoaa a?aeiia?aea? naiy aeania no?oeoo?a. O a?aeiia?aeiino? ae c
eiioeaioe??th aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeue-ye?e nenoai? a?aeiinei o
noni?euenoa? a?aeiia?aea? nenoaia i?ioe??/, yea oa?aeoa?eco? niaoeeo?eo
aca?iica’yceo noa’?eo?a o eiie?aoi?e noa?? aeeooy nioe?oio, ?ice?eaa?
aeaea?aea ? ni?yiiaai?noue eiai ?icaeoeo. Oaeei /eiii, nenoaia
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ noni?euenoaa, a naith /a?ao, aeeth/a? a naaa
nenoaio (i?aenenoaio) aeiiii?/ieo i?ioe??/, nenoaio iie?oe/ieo i?ioe??/
oiui. Aoaeo/e o?nii aca?iiiia’ycaieie, an? ??ciiaeaee nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/, ui eeaneo?eiaai? ca ci?noii, iathoue a?aeiinio naiino?ei?noue
? ia?aaeaa/athoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iino?eiee iii?oi?eia .

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Oi?ie ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ?
iniaeeaino? ?o i?iyao a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae» a?aecia/a?oueny, ui
noiniaii nioe?aeueieo nenoai, cie?aia ? iinooioae?oa?iiai oeio, iiiyooy
oi?ie ?icaeoeo i?ioe??/ icia/a?, ia?aaeon?i, aoaie (oace, nooiai?)
?icaeoeo i?ioe??/ ? ?o noai. Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aeey
aioo??oiueiai, nooi?niiai ??aiy i?ioe??/ (ia yeiio i?ioeeaaeiinoyi
i?eoaiaiia aca?iii?iieeiaiiy) oa?aeoa?i? oae? oi?ie ?icaeoeo, ye aoaie,
a aeey ciai?oiueiai, oaiiiaiaeueiiai ??aiy (ia yeiio eiai i?ioeeaaeiino?
a?eueoa /e iaioa iiae?eai? ye iiethne a?aeiinei) iaea?eueoa
a?aeiia?aeathoue oae? oi?ie, ye aa?aaaoi? noaie.

Aiae?c iayaieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie aoai?a ?icaeoeo i?ioe??/
na?ae/eoue, ui oey i?iaeaia iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaia. Iniaeeai oea
oaa?aeaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaa aeey nioe?aeueieo nenoai, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia
aoai? no?oeoo?iiai iae?ic?ooaiiy. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui iaea?eueo /?oei
?ice?eaa? aieiai? aoaie «aec??aaiiy» i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aei? aoaie
?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa eiioeaioe?y, a ye?e aeae?eythoueny o?e aoaie:
aeieeiaiiy, ?icai?oaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/. Aeciath/e oeth noaio
i?eioeeiiai i?aaeeueiith, aeena?oaio a?aei?/a?, ui oey noaia a?aeaeaa?
«aec??aaiiy» ianaiia?aae i?ioe??/ ?icaeoeo. Aeaye? ?io? oeie i?ioe??/,
iai?eeeaae, i?ioe??//y ooieoe?iioaaiiy, iiaeooue iaoe ?io? aeai?eoie
?nioaaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy aai ia ae??ooaaoeny acaaae?, oiaoi ?nioaaoe
no?eueee, ne?eueee ?nio? oey nenoaia.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniaeea?noue ?icaeoeo
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai (ia?ao?aeieo nioe?oi?a a oe?eiio) — iaeii/ania
?nioaaiiy a ieo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ aeae?eueeio ?noi?e/ieo ??ai?a. Oea
iia’ycaii c oei, ui a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae o noni?euenoa? ?niothoue ?
i?ioeae?thoue nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, no?oeoo?e, a?oie, nioe?aeuei?
?aeaaee, oe?e?, ?ioa?ane yeeo i?ioeeaaei?. *anoeia noni?euenoaa
iaiaaa?oueny iiaa?iooeny aei iiia?aaei?o oioae?oa?ieo oe?iiinoae ?
ii?yaee?a. Ae?oaa — c oni?oii ae??oo? nai? caaaeaiiy a oiiaao
iinooioae?oa?iiai oaino ? a iueiio caoe?eaaeaia, ine?eueee aoaeue-yea
i?aaiaa nenoaia (ye aeaiie?aoe/ia, oae ? oioae?oa?ia) aeey ia?
nia?oaeueii iaaacia/ia. O?aoy — aaa/a? iiaeeea?noue aeaeeoe ? ii?iaeueii
?icaeaaoeny eeoa a oiiaao aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa. I?e/iio,
i?ioe??//y oioae?oa?ecio ciaoiaeyoueny, ye i?aaeei, ia aoai?
?ica’ycaiiy; i?ioe??//y aeania iinooioae?oa?ecio — a oac? ?icai?oaiiy; a
i?ioe??//y aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie — ia aoai? aeieeiaiiy. Aeiaiaeeoueny,
ui iai?yiee ? oaiie ?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?ii? nenoaie aecia/athoueny
oa?aeoa?ii ? ?acoeueoaoii neeaaeii? aca?iiae?? ?nioth/eo o i?e i?ioe??/
??cieo ?noi?e/ieo ??ai?a. sseui i?ioe??//y oioae?oa?iiai ono?ith
ia?aaaaeathoue (oea oa?aeoa?ii i?e caa?aaeaii? nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo?,
?inoeooo?a, aa?noa noni?euenoaa, naaiaio?a iie?oe/ii? ae?oe oiui, ye?
caoe?eaaeai? o ?anoaa?aoe?? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie ?, aieiaia, ye? oeueiai
aeiaeaathoueny), oi ?icaeoie iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa iiaea iaaooe
?en ?aaa?no (Aeaai?y, Na?a?y, Oaaeaeeeenoai oa ?i.)

I?e aeii?ioaaii? i?ioe??/ aeania iinooioae?oa?ecio
nenoaia ii/eia? a?aeoai?thaaoe nai? aeani? ?ene ? ciaoiaeeoueny o noai?
iia?eueii? aeaa?aaeaoe?? c ianooiiei ia?aoiaeii aei aaoi?eoa?iiai
?aaeeio aai aei iiaiiai caiaiaaeo. Oaeee noeaia??e ?icaeoeo ia iiaeia
aeeeth/eoe aeey Oe?a?ie, ?in??, ?ioeo e?a?i iino?aaeyinueeiai i?inoi?o.

sseui a iinooioae?oa?i?e nenoai? aeineoue oaeaeei
?ica’ycai? (ae?i?iiaai?) i?ioe??//y oioae?oa?ecio, i?ioe??//y aeania
iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa nai?/anii ?aaoeththoueny, ia i?eioneath/e
?o caaino?aiiy aei noaio aino?i? aeiiii?/ii? ? iie?oe/ii? e?ece, a
i?ioe??//y aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie aeineoue oaeaeei ?icai?oathoueny (ui
iia’ycaia c iiyaith iiaeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo nenoai aeaaee, ?inoeooo?a,
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e), oi a oaeiio aeiaaeeo aaeeea eiia??i?noue oni?oiiai
oei??iaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie (*ao?y, Iieueua, Oai?ueia oa ?i.).

I?ae aa?aaaoiei noaiii i?ioe??//y (oiaoi eiai ciai?oi?i
??aiai) o aeena?oaoe?? ?icoi??oueny niin?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy, niaoeeo?ea
i?iyao «?aeiino? ? ai?ioueae» eiai noi??i, ui aca?iiae?thoue, ye?
aecia/athoue iniaeea?noue ? ?ioaineai?noue ?oiueiai ?icaeoeo, oa?aeoa?
?ica’ycaiiy aeaiiai i?ioe??//y. Aiae?c iaea?eueo oeiiaeo noai?a i?ioe??/
o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao aeicaieea aeae?eeoe ?o ??ciiaeaee: aa?iii?th,
aeenaa?iii?th ? eiioe?eo. I?e oeueiio i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aa?aaaoi?
noaie i?ioe??//y iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ia ye nooiai? ?icai?oaiiy, a ye
oi?ie i?iyao i?ioe??//y ia aoai? iiey?ecaoe?? eiai i?ioeeaaeieo noi??i.
Ine?eueee oi?i? i?eoaiaiia aeayea naiino?ei?noue a?aeiinii aei ci?noo,
oi ca’ycie aa?aaaoiiai noaio i?ioe??//y (ye oi?ie) c? nai?i ci?noii
(iiey?ecaoe?y i?ioeeaaeiinoae) iineoue ia aei?noeee, a ?ooeeaee oa?aeoa?
? iaeia ? oa ae «c??ea» i?ioe??//y iiaea ciaoiaeeoeny a ??ciiiai?oieo
aa?aaaoieo noaiao. ?aaeueiee noai i?ioe??//y aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii
aca?iiae?? eiai i?ioeeaaeieo noi??i (noa’?eo?a), niieo/aiiyi «aaeoi??a
ni?yiiaaiino?» ?oi?o ?ioa?an?a, oe?eae, ae?e oiui.

O aeena?oaoe?? iar?oioiao?oueny ?aeay, ui nenoaie aca?iiae?thoue ia nai?
ii nia?: aoaeue-yea aca?iiae?y i?ae ieie cae?nith?oueny ca
iina?aaeieoeoaii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?o aeanoeainoae, ooieoe?e, noi??i,
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo. I?e/iio, iaeia ? oa ae nenoaia iiaea ciaoiaeeoenue
o i?yii i?ioeeaaeieo a?aeiineiao ye c ?ioith iaeeie/iith nenoaiith, oae
? c aaaaoueia ?ioeie nenoaiaie. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aa?aaaoiiai
noaio aca?iiae?? i?ae nenoaiaie aecia/a?oueny ?ioaa?aoeaiith noiith
aaeoi??a aieiaieo ia aeaiee iiiaio aeanoeainoae, ooieoe?e oiui. Oiio
noai i?ioe??//y a nenoai? (iaoanenoai?) aai i?ae nenoaiaie ia ?
noaoe/iei. Ia iaaiiio aoai? ?icaeoeo a?aeiinei i?ae nenoaiaie i?ioe??//y
cacia? oaciaa ia?aoai?aiiy, ? aa?iii?y iiaea o?ainoi?ioaaoeny a
aeenaa?iii?th aai aeinyaoe noaio eiioe?eoo ? iaaiaee.

Oeeee?/i?noue oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao
aaaaoiaa??aioia. Aeae?eythoueny aeae?eueea oei?a oeeee?/iino? noai?a
i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao: iayoieeiaee, e?oaiaee,
ni??aeaiiae?aiee, oaeeueiaee. Oei oeeee?/iino? aa?aaaoieo noai?a
i?ioe??/ caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio oaeoi??a: oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae??
noa’?eo?a, oaiaeaioe?e ?o ?icaeoeo, iniaeeainoae iaoanenoaie, a ye?e
?icai?oa?oueny i?ioe??//y oiui.

?icaeyaeathoueny oa?aeoa?i? iciaee aa?aaaoieo noai?a i?ioe??/ o
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao ? ?o i?iyae o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao. A?aoiaoth/e
?ieue nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a o i?ioean? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoai, oeueiio noaio i?ioe??/ i?eae?ey?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa.

Nioe?aeueiee eiioe?eo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye noai e?aeiueiai caaino?aiiy
i?ioe??//y, ye niaoeeo?/iee eaoa?nen no?oeoo?e nioe?aeueii? nenoaie,
nenoaie eiioi?eaoe?? noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa a?ae aeenaa?iii?/ieo
oaiaeaioe?e, no?eioth/eo oaeoi??a, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?? iiaeaeueoiio
?icaeoeo ?, ye i?aaeei, ia iiaeooue aooe onoiai? ?c noai?a aa?iii??,
aeenaa?iii?? aaciina?aaeiuei. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui /ei e?oo?oa ni??aeue
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, /ei cia/i?o? noni?euei? ci?ie, oei a?eueoa
nioe?aeueieo eiioe?eo?a noi?iaiaeaeothoue oe? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Ua a?eueo
ni?aaaaeeeaa oey oaca aeey ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo
iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, nooi?noue yeiai iieyaa? a caaeaae?
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio ? noaiiaeaii? ia eiai i?noe? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa. Oaea ??cea, oaeoii?/ia nioe?aeueia c?ooaiiy caeiiii??ii
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oe?eei eiiieaenii, io/eii ianooaaieo ? aeeaieeo
eiioe?eo?a, ye? iaieio/a aoyaothoue o ai?ioueao ca i?noea a iia?e
nioe?aeuei?e nenoai? i?eueeiie ethaeae, ye? aei oeueiai ? ia oyaeyee
iiaeeeaino? i?ioeai?noaa.

?icaeyaeath/e aieea eiioe?eo?a ia iinooioae?oa?i? noni?euenoaa, aaoi?
?iaeoue oae? aeniiaee.

Ii-ia?oa, ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue eiioe?eoo a?aeiinii nioe?aeueii?
nenoaie, ui ii?iaeeea eiai, ia iiaea aooe o?eueee iiceoeaiith aai
o?eueee iaaaoeaiith. Iaeaeeae/? ? a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee aieeao iaaiiai
eiioe?eoo ia nioe?aeueia oe?ea – oea neeaaeia eiia?iaoe?y
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a, ci?i, aca?iiae??, ?ioaa?iaaiee aieea
yeeo ia ?icaeoie ie?aieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie ? an??? nenoaie a oe?eiio
i?ioyaii /ano iiaea cia/ii ci?ithaaoeny. Uia caiia?aoe iiieeie a
ioe?ioe? ooieoe?iiaeueiino? eiioe?eo?a, aeioe?eueii aeei?enoaoe
iaoiaeieia?th ?.Ia?oiia, ui ?aeiiaiaeo? anoaiiaethaaoe «/enoee aaeain
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iane?aee?a» aieeao nioe?aeueieo yaeu ia nenoaio, ui
a?aoiao? ia o?eueee ni?eyoeea?, aea oaeiae ? iaeo?aeuei?, ? iani?eyoeea?
iane?aeee.

Ii-ae?oaa, ioe?iea eiioe?eoo aaaaoi a /iio caeaaeeoue a?ae i?noey
ioe?iee (ciai?, ana?aaeei?) ? iaeeieoe? nioe?aeueiiai aei??thaaiiy (c
iiceoe?? ?iaeea?aeooia, a?oie, nioe?aeueiiai oe?eiai). Iaai? eiioe?eoe,
ui ae?i?iothoue aeaa?aaeoth/?, eiina?aaoeai?, ia?aceooth/? a no?oeoo??
nioe?aeueiiai oe?eiai aeaiaioe, aoaeooue a?aoe aeey oeeo aeaiaio?a ?ieue
aeano?oeoeaieo, aea aeey an??? nenoaie a oe?eiio — ?ieue eiino?oeoeaieo,
ui i?aeaeuothoue ?? o?eaae?noue ? aeaeeaaiiy.

Ii-o?ao?, aeey a??ii? ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiino? eiie?aoiiai eiioe?eoo
(aai nenoaie eiioe?eo?a) a?aeiinii eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie
iaiao?aeiee iaaiee nooi?iue ia’?eoeaiino?, ui naii ii nia? iiaea?
aeinoaoiuei iai?inoa caaaeaiiy. sse i?aaeei, ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue
eiioe?eoo ioe?iththoue aai eiai aaciina?aaei? o/anieee (ui a a?eueoino?
aeiaaee?a aeeeth/a? ia’?eoeai?noue, caaaeath/e ia ?o iaaenoeae? aiioe??
? i?aaiaiiy ioe?ieoe eiioe?eo e??cue i?ecio naiai noa’?eoeaiiai
iiaeaiiy i?i naith ?ieue o aeaiiio eiioe?eo? ? eiai ?acoeueoaoao), aai
caoe?eaaeai? niinoa??aa/?, ui ioe?iththoue eiai c iiceoe?? nai?o
iniaenoeo aai a?oiiaeo ?ioa?an?a. Iaaiiai nooiaiy ia’?eoeaiino?
aeicaiey? aeiiiaoeny aeayeee oei/aniaee ?ioa?aae, ui iii’yeoo? aiioe??
o/aniee?a aai onoia ?o c ?yae?a a?a?o??a ? ui aeicaieeoue aeyaeoe ?
ioe?ieoe eiai a?aeaeaeai? iane?aeee. Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui aaee/eia
oeueiai ?ioa?aaeo caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o eiioe?eoo, eiai ianyao,
neeaaeiiu? nioe?aeueieo nenoai, ui a?aee a iueiio o/anoue.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue eiioe?eoo aei?noei iia’ycaia c ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, a ye?e a?i ?icai?oa?oueny.
A?aeiii, /ei neeaaei?oa nioe?aeueia nenoaia, oei aacaie?ni?oa aiia
ia?aiineoue iiiaeeii?noue aioo??oi?o eiioe?eo?a, ui, iath/e
??ciini?yiiaai?noue, aca?iii eiiiainothoue iaeei iaeiiai. O a?aee?eoeo,
aio/eeo nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao eiioe?eoe aeeiiothoue eiino?oeoeaio
(noaa?e?coth/o) ?ieue, a a cae?eoeo, ?eaeaeieo nenoaiao — aeano?oeoeaio
(aeanoaa?e?coth/o) ?ieue. Oaeei /eiii, c iiceoe?? oai??? nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y
cae?eoi?, iii?noe/iie nenoaie oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa o a?aee?eoo,
ieth?ae?noe/io nenoaio aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa c iaoith ?aaeoeoe??
aeano?oeoeaii? ooieoe?? eiioe?eo?a o eiino?oeoeaio ooieoe?th.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «Iaoai?ci ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa» neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Nooi?noue iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ ? eiai ooieoe??» ?icaeyaeathoueny no/ani? o?aeooaaiiy iiiyooy
«?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/», ?o aeinoi?inoaa ? iaaeie?ee, iar?oioiao?oueny
eiioeaioe?y ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao. Ooi/ith?oueny
iiiyooy «iaoai?ci ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y», iieaco?oueny eiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c iiiyooyie «oaoiieia?y», «no?oeoo?a», «i?aai?caoe?y», a
oaeiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eaoaai??e «?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y» ?
«a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eoo».

Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea eaoaai??y
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y ia oioiaeia nioe?ieia?/iiio iiiyooth ?ica’ycaiiy
eiioe?eoo (?.Aea?aiaei?o) o cia/aii? eiai inoaoi/iiai onoiaiiy. C
iiceoe?? nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai i?aeoiaeo, ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y —
oea iiiaio aca?iiae?? eiai i?ioeeaaeiinoae, i?ioean eiioi?eaoe??
noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, yeee eiie?aoii ?icaeaa?oueny. ?
aoaeue-ye? ye?ni? ci?ie a oeueiio ianoaoe?iia?iiio i?ioean? — oea aaea
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y. ?ioeie neiaaie, i?ioean ?icai?oaiiy eiie?aoiiai
nioe?aeueiiai i?ioe??//y aiaeii/an ? ? eiai ?ica’ycaiiyi.

Nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y ?iaiaioi? nooiino? nenoaie, yea ?o
ii?iaeaeo?. Aiie iaa?aeae?euei? a?ae ia?, ye iaa?aeae?eueia oi?ia a?ae
ci?noo. Oiio nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea ?icoi?iiy eaoaai??? ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ ia ia?aaeaa/a? ?o oioaeueiiai ciyooy, iiaii? aeano?oeoe??. Eiee
eaeaoueny i?i iiaeeea?noue iiaiiai ciyooy, oi ia?oueny ia oaac?
i?ioe??//y ciai?oi?, noa’?eoeaia aai oaea, ui ae?aaea? aeaci?aai?caoe?th
nenoaie.

I?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?aeay, ui ?icai?oaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao iaiao?aeii aeeth/a? a?aeiia?aei? ae?? noa’?eo?a.
?aae?caoe?y ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa aeiaaa? a?ae eiaeiiai noa’?eoa aecia/aiiy
e?ioeaaeo ? iaeaeeae/eo oe?eae ae?yeueiino?, ae?iaeaiiy iaaii?
i?ia?aie, aeai?o cania?a aeey ?? cae?eniaiiy e i?aai?caoe?? i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae. Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe icia/a?
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae, ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y, ui iaeii/anii i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iiyae iiaeo iio?aa ? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo i?ioe??/. Ae?y iaoai?cio
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ ?icaeyaea?oueny ia aeaio ??aiyo. sseui ia
aioo??oiueiio ??ai? a?i yaey? niaith iaoai?ci naii?icaeoeo i?ioe??/ o
i?ioean? nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, oi ia ciai?oiueiio ??ai? —
aaciina?aaeith aca?iiae?th ethaeae, ?oith «ai?ioueao» ye oi?io ?nioaaiiy
? ?ica’ycaiiy aioo??oi?o i?ioe??/ nioe?aeueii? a?oie, ni?eueiino?. Naia
ia ??ai? aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a noni?euenoaa i?ioe??//y iiaeia aecia/eoe
ye a?aeiineie i?ae iio?aaaie, ?ioa?anaie, oe?eyie noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueieo
nenoai.

Ae?? noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, ni?yiiaai? ia caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa,
ia iiaeooue aooe aeia?eueieie. ?o no?eio? iaiaaeai?noue oe?iiinoae,
?ano?n?a ? i?ioeae?y ?ioeo noa’?eo?a, ui iathoue iiae?ai? iio?aae. Aeey
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, ui aeieeathoue o ?acoeueoao? c?oeiaiiy iio?aa,
?ioa?an?a oiui nai?o noa’?eo?a, noni?euenoai noai?th? iaai? iaiaaeoaa/?
(ii?aeuei?, ?ae?a?ei?, eoeueoo?i?, i?aaia? oiui), ui aeicaiey? noa’?eoai
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ni?a?nioaaoe, ia aeiaiaeeoe aoaeue-yeee eiioe?eo,
ui aeieea? i?ae ieie, aei aca?iiiai cieuaiiy. Ca?aene iaoai?ci
?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ iiaeia ?icoi?oe ye iaoai?ci
?aoe?iiae?caoe?? ae?? noa’?eo?a nioe?oio a iaai?e noa?? ca
iina?aaeieoeoaii caeii?a, ii?aeueieo, ?ae?a?eieo ? eoeueoo?ieo ii?i,
i?aaee, o?aaeeoe?e, iie?oe/ii? e aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino?.

?icaeyaeath/e aieiai? ooieoe?? iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o
nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao, cie?aia ? ia?ao?aeiiai oeio, aeena?oaio aeoeaioo?
oaaao ia ?aa?eyoe?ei?e, aiinaieia?/i?e, aen?ieia?/i?e, aeania
?ica’ycaiiy, aeiiiaeaoe?ei?e, i?iaiinoe/i?e, i?aaaioeai?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui i?ciaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeuei?e
nenoai? ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaeon?i ?o aeyaeaiiy. Oea aeaeaei ia i?inoa
caaaeaiiy. Aaeaea i?ioe??//y oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?noue nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a ? i?eoiaai? a?ae i/ae niinoa??aa/a. Cae/aeii i?ioe??//y
“yaeythoueny” na?oia? aaea o oi?i? eiioe?eoii? neooaoe?? (no?aeeo,
i?aeaoi?/ieo c?oeiaiue, a?eie ? o.?i.). Aea neeaaei?noue o?enaoe??
nooi?nieo i?ioe??/ ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo nenoai ia iiaeiia icia/aoe
noaaeaiiy aei ieo ye aei oaoaeueii iai?ciaaaiiai yaeua, “?a/? a nia?”.
I?ioe??//y a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao iiaeia ? o?aaa aeyaeyoe ? i?ciaaaoe
aaea ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo ?o ?icaeoeo, aea/ath/e e aiae?coth/e nenoaio
aca?iia?aeiinei o nioe?aeuei?e a?oi?, ni?eueiino?; nenoaio
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iio?aa oa ?ioa?an?a noa’?eo?a oeueiai nioe?aeueiiai
i?aai?cio. Aea aea/aoe aca?iia?aeiineie, ?ioa?ane ? iio?aae noa’?eo?a
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ne?ae ia a noaoeoe?, a a ?o aacia?a?ai?e ci?i? ?
?icaeoeo.

Ioe?iea nioe?aeueiiai i?ioe??//y ia?aaeaa/a? eiai ?aoe?iiaeueio
eeaneo?eaoe?th (ca oeiii, ??ciiaeaeii ? oi?iith), aiae?c aeeiai?ee eiai
?icaeoeo, aea?? eiie?aoii? oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy),
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai no?ieo, ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo oiia eiai
ia?aaaaeaiiy c iaeiiai aa?aaaoiiai noaio a ?ioee, i?iaiicoaaiiy
iane?aee?a eiai o?ainoi?iaoe??.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeania ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y o nioe?aeueieo
nenoaiao noaiiaeoue iiiaio aca?iiae?? eiai i?ioeeaaeiinoae, iane?aeie
oe??? aca?iiae??, i?aai?/iee neeaaeiee ?ooo i?ioe??//y. ?oo eiie?aoiiai
i?ioe??//y a?ae eiai aeieeiaiiy aei iiaiiai ?ica`ycaiiy — oea
ae?aeaeoe/ia ?aei?noue ?icai?oaiiy ? cai?oaiiy aca?iiae?? noi??i
i?ioe??//y. A?ae aeieeiaiiy aei “ia?aeiiiiai” iiiaioo o aca?iiae??
noi??i ia?aaaaea? ?icai?oaiiy i?ioe??//y, iaeiei c aa??aio?a yeiai ?
eeane/ia oi?ioea Aaaaey i?i i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?ioe??//y o nai?io ?icaeoeia?
noaae?e oioiaeiino?, a?aei?iiino?, i?ioeeaaeiino? ? aeania i?ioe??//y.

I?ae /an ?icaeyaeo oaeeo neeaaeieo ooai?aiue ye nioe?aeuei? nenoaie, o
oiio /ene? e iinooioae?oa?iiai oeio, aeine?aeieeo iaiao?aeii /?oei
c?icoi?oe, ui aoaie ?icai?oaiiy ? cai?oaiiy (aeania ?ica`ycaiiy)
i?ioe??//y ae?aeaeoe/ii aca?iiiia(ycai?, i?ae ieie iaiiaeeeai i?iaanoe
/?oeo iaaeo. E??i oiai, eiie?aoia i?ioe??//y iiaea e ia i?ioiaeeoe an?
oace ?icai?oaiiy ? ?ica’ycaiiy. O ?aaeuei?e ae?eniino? iiaeeea? oaeiae
neooaoe??, eiee oace ?ica`ycaiiy ni?aiaaeathoue o /an?, “ceeaathoueny”
aai cae?eniththoueny a ?ioiio ii?yaeeo. O aeena?oaoe?? noaa?aeaeo?oueny,
ui iaieio/a i?ioiaeyoue on? oace ?icai?oaiiy ia?aaeon?i aioaaii?noe/i?
i?ioe??//y, ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo, o ca’yceo ?c caiaeeith i?ioeae??th
noa’?eo?a — noi??i i?ioe??//y, i?io?ea? iae/ano?oa o aeaeyae? no?eaea,
yeee iaaoaa? oi?ie eiioe?eoo. Iaaioaaii?noe/i? i?ioe??//y a
oiae? naiai ?icai?oaiiy ia iaia’yceiai iaaoaathoue e?aei?o oi?i
caaino?aiiy, a ?ica’ycaiiy ?o iiaea i?io?eaoe aac ??ceiai no?eaea, ui
cian?i ia caia?a/o? iiaeeeaino? e ?ioeo aeai?eoi?a ?ooo aioaaii?noe/ieo
? iaaioaaii?noe/ieo i?ioe??/.

Ae?oaith aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo
nenoaiao ? iiaeeea?noue ?oiueiai a?aaoethaaiiy (cieaeaiiy aino?ioe) aei
ia?aoiaeo i?ioe??/ o noai eiioe?eoo. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaoi?a, cia/ia /anoeia i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo a?oiao ?ica(yco?oueny o
oi?iao aa?iii?? oa aeenaa?iii?? ? o?eueee aeayea ?o /anoeia ia?aoiaeeoue
oa ?ica(yco?oueny o oi?i? i?aeiniaeno?niiai, i?aea?oiiaiai eiioe?eoo.
Oey iniaeea?noue iiaiith i??ith aeyaey?oueny ? a nioe?aeueieo
ni?eueiinoyo a?eueoiai ianooaao. Iiaeeea?noue o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
oieeiooe ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao o oi?i?
eiioe?eoo iaoiiaeth?oueny canoinoaaiiyi noa’?eoaie nioe?aeueii?
aca?iiae?? oaeeo iaoiae?a ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/, ye na?aeiia ii?aeiaiiy
i?ioeeaaeiinoae, eiii?ii?ne, eiinainone ? o.?i.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao, oaeiae ona?aeiieaii, noa’?eoe
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ia aaeeaathoue i?yeeo iaaieo ae?e aeey ?ica`ycaiiy
i?ioe??//y, ui iac??ei, aai, iaaiaee, ni?eythoue eiai caaino?aiith;
oi?iothoue iia? i?ioe??//y, eiioe?eoe, ae?th/e ca i?eioeeiii: “/ei
a??oa, oei e?aua”, ui o naith /a?ao oaeiae ? iaaiith a?aeiia?aeaeth ia
aeno?aiaeuei? oiiae, ye? aeieeee. Iaeiae ia a?aei?io a?ae oaoi?/ieo
nenoai, nioe?aeuei? nenoaie iiaeooue caa??aaoe naith oe?e?ni?noue,
iaa?oue ciaoiaey/enue o noai? aeeaieiai eiioe?eoo, ai ?o ?iciaae iiaea
i?ecaanoe aei ao?aoe noa’?eoaie oeeo nenoai aeii?iaioieo yeinoae aai aei
?o cieuaiiy. O oaeeo aeiaaeeao o oeeo nenoaiao, ye i?aaeei, ii/eiathoue
ae?yoe aiiainoaoe/i? iaoai?cie ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/, a iniia? yeeo
eaaeaoue a?iineoieia?/i? caeiie naiicaa?aaeaiiy aeeai? iaoa???.
I?eeeaaeaie iiae?aiiai naiicaa?aaeaiiy noni?euenoaa iiaeooue aooe ?
ia?ao?aei? ia??iaee eiai ?icaeoeo, eiee a oain? no?oeoo?ii? ?oeiaoe??,
ia?ai?uaiiy nioe?aeueieo aa?noa, ao?aoe cia/ii? /anoeie aaaeae?a
oi?aae?iiy ? ao?aoe eaa?oeiiino? a?eueo?noth oaoiieia?e ?ica`ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ — ii/eiathoue niiioaiii (a?aeiia?aeii aei caeii?a
naiii?aai?caoe??) oi?ioaaoeny iia? nioe?aeuei? no?oeoo?e, eaiaee
cai?ioiiai ca’yceo, ii/eiathoue ae?yoe o?aaeeoe?ei? (ia iniia? ii?ae?,
?ae?a??), a i?ney oeueiai ? i?aaia? iaoai?cie ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui oey caeiiii??i?noue, yea ia’?eoeaii
aeiiiiaaa? oieeaoe iaeneiaeueiiai caaino?aiiy i?eoaiaiieo nioe?aeueiei
nenoaiai i?ioe??/ ? noai?thaaoe o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aiiainoaoe/i?
iaoai?cie ?o ?ica`ycaiiy, ia icia/a?, ui noa’?eoe noni?euenoaa, iniaeeai
eiai ea??aia eaiea, iiaeooue iineaaeoe oaaao aei oeeo i?ioe??/, aei
?aaeueieo o?oaeiiu?a ? i?iaeai i?aeeeaniaeo, i?aeaoi?/ieo oa ?ioeo
a?aeiinei. Aiae?c aca?iia?aeiinei o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao iieaco?, ui
aoaeue-yea i?eieaeaiiy ae?eniiai cia/aiiy i?eoaiaiieo ?i i?ioe??/,
ni?iaa ?o ?aii?oaaoe caeaoi? oneeaaeieoe ?o nai?/ania aeyaeaiiy ?
a?aaoethaaiiy, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei na?eicieo eie?c?e.

?aaoethaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?ioe??/ ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeena?oaoe?? a aeaio
aniaeoao: ye ciaoiaeaeaiiy iioeiaeueii? oi?ie ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?ioe??//y
? ye iiia?aaeaeaiiy eiai ia?aoiaeo a aeaye? iaaaaeai? noaie, iai?eeeaae,
o eiioe?eoe. Oaeee ?aaoethaaeueiee aieea ia oa?aeoa? aca?iiae??
i?ioeeaaeiinoae iieeeeaiee caaacia/eoe nai?/anio iaeo?ae?caoe?th
iaaacia/ieo aeaa?aoe?e, caeaoieo i?ecaanoe aei iineeaiiy ??aiy
nioe?aeueii? aio?ii??, ? caaaeyee oeueiio caa?aaoe iaiao?aeio ?
aeinoaoith i??o oii?yaeeiaaiino? nenoaie aeey ?? oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaiaeeoue ?aiiio
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie, no?oeoo?e eiioi?eaoe??, i?ecaiaey/e aai
iiaa?oath/e ?? a ii?iaeueiee, aa?iii?eiee noai, oiaoi aei yeiai-iaaoaeue
cia/aiiy ci?iieo, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iioeioio
nenoaie.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ?aaoeyoe?y i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao
?aae?co?oueny a aeaio iniiaieo oi?iao: o oi?i? aiiainoacena ? a oi?i?
oi?aae?iiy. I?eeeaaeii ?aaoethaaiiy aeayeeo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o
oi?i? aiiainoaceno iiaea aooe ??cea ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy ia?iaeaeoaaiino? a
e?a?iao, ui ia?aaeeee e?eaaa? a?eie; ia?aaaaeaiiy na?aae
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo iaiiaeyo in?a /ieia?/i? noao?, iieeeeaia onoiooe
aeao?oeeo /ieia?e?a, yeee aeiee o ?iee a?eie ? o.?i.

Oi?aae?iiy i?ioe??//yie a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao iieyaa?, ianaiia?aae, o
nai?/ani?e ci?i? oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? eiai noi??i. sseui ia aeioneaoe c
oaaae, ui a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao i?ioeeaaeiino?, ye? aca?iiae?thoue
i?ae niaith, aeyaeythoueny ia?aaeon?i ye ?ioa?ane, iio?aae ?iaeea?ae?a,
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, oi noa? c?icoi?eei ? iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy i?ioe??//yie
a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao. Oi?aaeyoe i?ioe??//yie a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao
— oea icia/a? ?aaoethaaoe iio?aae, ?ioa?ane ?oi?o noa’?eo?a oeyoii
aieeao ia ieo ca aeiiiiiaith iaoa??aeueieo ? ii?aeueieo noeioe?a. Naia
noeioee ? oeie aaaeaeyie, caaaeyee yeei iiaeia aieeaaoe ia ?ioa?ane
iniaenoinoae, nioe?aeueieo a?oi c iaoith iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy ?oi?o
?ioa?an?a ? ?ica`ycaiiy oaeei /eiii i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeuei?e nenoai?.

I?iaiicoaaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao — oea ia?aaeon?i i?ciaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?o aeieeiaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
noa’?eoai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueieo nenoai ia?aaeaa/aoe aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo
i?ioe??/ ? i?aeoe/i? caoiaee c ieaiii??iiai oi?aae?iiy ieie ? na?aeiiiai
?aaoethaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «No?oeoo?a iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ ? eiai iiaeeo?eaoe??» aiae?cothoueny aieiai? aeaiaioe
iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ? iniaeeaino? eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao ??ciiai oeio.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo o no/ani?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoiae?a aei aeaii?
i?iaeaie aeicaieea aeena?oaioo a?aei?oeoe ?o iaiaeiicia/i?noue ?
a?aenooi?noue ?aeeii? oa?i?iieia?/ii? aace, ui naii ii nia? /anoi ?
na?eiciith ia?aiiiith ia oeyoo i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/,
a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a. I?ae no?oeoo?ith iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue eiai
aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaiaio?a (oi?i, iaoiae?a, i?eeii?a ? cania?a), ui
caaacia/othoue aeeiiaiiy eiai aieiaieo ooieoe?e. I?ia?aeia i?noea a
no?oeoo?? iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ caeiathoue oi?ia ? iaoiae.
Oi?ia a oeueiio iaoai?ci? iia’ycaia c ia’?eoeaiith noi?iiith ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ ? ae?aaea?, ia?o ca ana, ci?no oeueiai i?ioeano. Aieiai? oi?ie
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao: o?ainoi?iaoe?y, ciyooy ?
aeano?oeoe?y. Iaoiaee aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c noa’?eoeaiith
noi?iiith ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ ? oa?aeoa?ecothoue niin?a cae?eniaiiy
oi?ie ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o eiie?aoieo oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie. Na?aae iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/
aeae?eythoueny ? ?icaeyaeathoueny: aa?iii?caoe?y i?ioeeaaeiinoae,
eiii?ii?n, eiinainon, iina?aaeieoeoai, ianeeey, nioe?ae?caoe?y,
a?a?o?aae oiui. A aeine?aeaeaii? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui oi?ia ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ ia?aeiia a?aeiinii aei iaoiae?a, oiio i?aaeeueia aecia/aiiy
oi?ie — iaiao?aeia oiiaa aeey ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o iaoiae?a
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/. Iniiao iaoiae?a neeaaeathoue i?eeiie ? caniae, ye?
iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ? a i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ canoiniaothoueny
a ?aeiino?. I?eeiie ? caniae ? iniiaith iaoiae?a ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/,
aiie iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ? a i?ioean? ?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ canoiniaothoueny a ?aeiino?. Aea ?o ne?ae a?ae??ciyoe iaeei
a?ae iaeiiai.

I?eeiie ?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ – oea iiiaeeiie? (a?aeiia?aei?
eiie?aoiei oiiaai) niiniae aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/.
Noiniaii aei iaoiaeo i?eeiie ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ iathoue
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa?. Iaoiaee ? i?eeiie iiaeooue
aca?iiia?aoiaeeoe, cai?iyoe iaeei iaeiiai. Oae, nioe?aeueia i?eiooaiiy ?
iaeiei ?c iaoiae?a ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao.
Aiaeii/an nioe?aeueia i?eiooaiiy iiaea aenooiaoe iaeiei ?c i?eeii?a, ui
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?ae /an ii?aeiaiiy i?ioeeaaeiinoae.

Caniae ?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ – oea ana oa, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei aeei?enoiao?oueny noa’?eoaie noni?euenoaa aeey
?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/, ui aeieeathoue i?ae ieie. Aei cania?a ?ica`ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao iiaeia ca?aooaaoe, c iaeiiai aieo,
i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueieo, ??aieo, i?yieo, oa?iieo, aeaiie?aoe/ieo aeai??a
i?aai?a aeaaee; i?aai?caoe?th ?aoa?aiaeoi?a c iaea?eueo aeooaeueieo
i?iaeai aeeooy noni?euenoaa; noai?aiiy ?aaeueieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ?
noni?eueieo ?oo?a, caeaoieo no?oeoo?oaaoe a?aeiineie a noni?euenoa? ?
«eaiae?coaaoe» nioe?aeueia iacaaeiaieaiiy; ?iciiae?e o?ueio iniiaieo
a?eie aeaaee ? caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei? a?aeiinii? iacaeaaeiino?; iayai?noue
eiino?oeoeaii? iiiceoe?? aeaaee; ?nioaaiiy a?eueii? i?ane ? o.?i. C
?ioiai aieo, aei cania?a ?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ iiaeia
ca?aooaaoe noeoii?noue i?aaeiao?a, i?eeii?a, cia?yaeue, iaoa??aeueieo ?
ii?aeueieo noeioe?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aaciina?aaeiuei aeey
?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/, — neiai, a/eiie, aeieoiaio, ca?ith,
caioi/aiiy, iiea?aiiy ? oiui.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aieiaieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/
aeicaieea a?aeianoe aei ieo oae? nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, ye o?aaeeoe??,
cae/a?, ii?aeue, ?ae?a?th, iie?oeeo, i?aai, ye? a oiae? aeeiiaiiy nai?o
ooieoe?e aca?iiae?thoue, noai?ththoue nai???aeio nenoaio ?aaoeyoi??a, ui
aeicaieythoue i?aeo?eioaaoe nioe?aeueio caiaeo i?ae noa’?eoaie
noni?euenoaa, ii?aeioaaoe ?o ??ciiiai?oi? ?ioa?ane ? iio?aae. Iaoai?ci
?ica`ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ ia? nioe?aeueii-i?aeoe/iee oa?aeoa? ?
coiiaeai?noue. Eiaeiee ?inoeooo oe??? nenoaie coiiaeaiee i?aeoe/ieie
iio?aaaie noa’?eo?a o aeinyaiaii? eiinainono aai eiii?ii?no a oeo /e
?ioeo noa?ao nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?. Oae, i?aeiniaeno?ni? ? i?aea?oiia?
i?ioe??//y aeineoue aoaeoeaii iiaeooue ?aaoethaaoeny ia iniia?
caaaeueiieoeueoo?ieo ii?i ii?ae?, o?aaeeoe?e ? cae/a?a. I?ioe??//y o
noa?? aeiiii?ee ?ica’ycothoueny, ye i?aaeei, ca aeiiiiiaith eiieo?aioii?
?eieiai? nenoaie ?/aai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy. Iae?inioe?aeuei?
i?ioe??//y, oiaoi i?ioe??//y i?ae nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie, eeanaie,
aoiinaie oiui ?ica’ycothoueny ia iniia? oaeeo ?inoeooo?a ye iie?oeea ?
i?aai

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaai? ? /anoi ?noioi? a?aei?ie a
no?oeoo?? iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ ?niothoue ia eeoa a
i?aenenoaiao noni?euenoaa, aea ? a ??cieo noni?euenoaao, ia?iaeao,
oeea?e?caoe?yo. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui noa’?eoe ?noioii
?ic??ciythoueny ca oaeeie iniiaiiieiaeieie i?eioeeiaie, ye ?ae?a?y,
noni?eueia ineoieia?y, iaioae?oao oiui. Oiio iaeia ? oa ae i?ioe??//y o
??cieo ia?iae?a ia?, ye i?aaeei, ??ci? oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy. Ca?aene
?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui i?ioe??//y i?ae ia?iaeaie, aea?aeaaaie, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei iaei??? oeea?e?caoe??, iathoue iiaeeea?noue aooe
o?aaoeueiaaieie oaeaeoa e aoaeoeai?oa, ai?ae iiae?ai? i?ioe??//y i?ae
ia?iaeaie, aea?aeaaaie, ui iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo oeea?e?caoe?e.

?icaeyaeath/e iaeei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o
noni?eueieo nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao — iie?oe/io aeaaeo, aaoi? eiinoaoo?,
ui c iiceoe?? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? iie?oe/ia aeaaea — oea ioae?/iee,
eaa?oei?ciaaiee iaoai?ci ?ica`ycaiiy (?aaoethaaiiy) i?ioe??/ o
nioe?aeueiiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa, ui nie?a?oueny ia niaoeeo?/i?
i?eeiie, caniae e aia?ao aea?aeaaiiai i?eiooaiiy. Aei oeeo niaoeeo?/ieo
i?eeii?a ? cania?a ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o iie?oe/i?e noa?? iiaeia
ca?aooaaoe: caniae ae?iaieoeoaa, ?ioi?iaoe?th, caniae ian-iaae?a, a?io?,
ca?ith. sse ae??oaeueiee can?a canoinoaaiiy aeaaee aenooia? iiiiiie?y
ia o?ce/ia ianeeuenoai, ye aioo??oi? (i?aai iiea?aiiy), oae ? ciai?oi?
(i?aai ia a?eio). I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iaoai?ci ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o
iie?oe/i?e noa?? aei?noei ?inoeoooe?iiae?ciaaiee, oiaoi ?nio? o oi?i?
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaeo caeeaae?a: i?aaa, aea?aeaae, o?yaeo, ia?eaiaioo,
noaeiaeo i?aai?a ? o.?i. Any ae?yeuei?noue oeeo caeeaae?a c
iiia?aaeaeaiiy, ?ica`ycaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy, a oaeiae a?aeoai?aiiy ?yaeo
i?ioe??/ ? eiioe?eo?a noaiiaeoue iaeaaaeeea?oo ooieoe?th iie?oe/ii?
nenoaie noni?euenoaa.

Iar?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui eiaei?e iie?oe/i?e nenoai? a no/aniiio
noni?euenoa? i?eoaiaii? niaoeeo?/i? iaoai?cie ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, ye?
iiina?aaeeiaai? ?aeaieia?/ieie ianoaiiaaie eeano, ui oi?aaey?, iaioth/ei
niiniaii ae?iaieoeoaa, nooiaiai eaa?oeiiino? ?aaeeio oiui.

Ii??aiyiiy aeaio oei?a iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
— oioae?oa?iiai ? aeaiie?aoe/iiai — aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i
?oith ianoi?ni?noue, a oiio iaiiaeeea?noue oaeaeeiai ia?aoiaeo a?ae
iaeiiai oeio aei ?ioiai. Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy
i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo nenoaiao iia’ycothoueny, ia?o ca ana, c
o?oaeiiuaie ia?aoai?aiiy aeano?oeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a, i?eoaiaiieo
oioae?oa?ecio, a eiinainoni? iaoai?cie, ye? ia?aaaaeathoue o
aeaiie?aoe/iiio noni?euenoa?, a oaeiae ?c a?aeii aeina?aeo, eoeueoo?e
?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a, a?aenooi?noth eaa?oeiieo oaoiieia?e ?ica’ycaiiy
aaaaoueio i?ioe??/. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a?aenooi?noue aoaeoeaieo
iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo
nenoaiao ? iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?e/ei ?oiuei? aaiethoe?? a
iai?yieo aei aaoi?eoa?ecio aai oaino.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/ia iar?oiooaaiiy iioei?caoe??
iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao»
eiinoaoo?oueny, ui i?ae iioei?caoe??th iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/
iiaeia ?icoi?oe i?eaaaeaiiy ?o o oaeee noai, yeee aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe
?i aieiai? ooieoe?? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii a?aeiia?aeii aei e?eoa??th
iioeiaeueiino?. E?eoa???i iioeiaeueiino? iiaea neoaeeoe ??aaiue
nioe?aeueii? aio?ii?? a nioe?aeuei?e nenoai?, yeee aecia/a?oueny
noeoii?noth ??cieo aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iioei?caoe?y
eiie?aoiiai iaoai?cio ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ ia?aaeaa/a? ae?iaeaiiy oaeeo
oaoiieia?e nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/, o ?aieao
yeeo ae?yeuei?noue aeaaaea a iaeneiaeueiee ?acoeueoao. Oea iiaeeeai ca
oiiae, eiee oi?ie ? iaoiaee ocaiaeaeaiiy i?ioeeaaeieo ?ioa?an?a (oiaoi
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y) a?aeiia?aeathoue oa?aeoa?o eiioe?eoii?
aca?iiae?? (oiaoi i?ioe??//th).

O aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eythoueny ? aeine?aeaeothoueny iai?yiee
iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao:
?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?y i?ioe??/ ? eiioe?eo?a, ?o eaa?oeiaoeey, aea?aeaaia
?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, no?oeoo?oaaiiy eiioe?eoieo a?oi,
nioe?ae?caoe?y, noai?aiiy oiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oiui.

I?ae ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe??th i?ioe??/ ia?oueny ia oaac? ?o io?oe?eia
aeciaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy ca iina?aaeieoeoaii i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe??.
Iaoa ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?? — a?aeaa?iaiiy eiioe?eoieo c?oeiaiue oeyoii
iaaeaiiy eaaaeueieo eaiae?a a?oeeoeyoe?? eiioe?eoieo ?ioa?an?a,
eiio?ieue ca ia?aa?aii eiioe?eoii? aca?iiae??, a oaeiae caiia?aaiiy
iaea?eueo ?oei?aiei iane?aeeai eiioe?eo?a ? caaacia/aiiy caeiiiino? ?o
a?aaoethaaiiy. ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?y eiioe?eo?a noai?th? oiiae aeey
iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, yeui i?ae iie?oe/iith noaa?euei?noth ?icoi?oe
oaeo neooaoe?th, eiee a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ai?ioueaa ca ?ano?ne ?
iiceoe?? a noni?euei?e ???a?o?? ianoaaeaia i?aaeeaie, ui aeicaiey?
aieiaio oaaao i?eae?eyoe ?ica`ycaiith ia no?eueee ai?eciioaeueieo
eiioe?eo?a, ye? ? neeaaeieeii nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy, ne?eueee
aa?oeeaeueieo eiioe?eo?a, oiaoi ae?e, iai?aaeaieo i?ioe ?aaeeio, ui
?nio?, ye?, aeania, ? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ii?ooaiiy iie?oe/ii?
noaa?eueiino?. Oaeei /eiii, iniiaia ?aeay ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?? eiioe?eo?a
— oieeiooe oaeiai iiiaioo, eiee ethaee aoaeooue ooeaoe caaeiaieaiiy
nai?o aeiia ca iaaeaie nenoaie ? i?aaiooe aei ?? ?oeioaaiiy. sseui ae
aeoe?? noi??i, ui i?ioeae?thoue, aoaeooue iai?aaeai? o a?aeiia?aeia
?onei a nenoai? iie?oe/iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oi eiio?ieue ca ieie a
i?eioeei? iiaeeeaee, a nai? eiioe?eoe aoaeooue ?ica(ycoaaoeny c iaioeie
aeo?aoaie, ? ia aoaeooue ianiiae?aaieie aeey noni?euenoaa. Ooo ?
i?eiaeii? aeae?eueea iiaeeeainoae: ii-ia?oa, caai?iieoe canoiniaoaaoe
aeaye? caniae ai?ioueae (iai?eeeaae, ianeeuenoai); ii-ae?oaa, iaiaaeeoe
e?euee?noue o/aniee?a eiioe?eoo; ii-o?ao?, i?aeeeth/eoe aei «ia?e», ui
eiioe?eoo?, «o?ao?o in?a» (oiaoi iina?aaeiee?a, iaae?eaieo
a?aeiia?aeieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie uiaei a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eoo) ?,
ia?aoo?, iaaeaiiy ia a?a?o?aae eiiiaoaioieo in?a aeiia noi??i, ye?
eiioe?eoothoue, c iaoith ioe?iaiiy ?o c iiceoe?e caaaeueiiai aeia?a,
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a.

Eaa?oeiaoe?y i?ioe??/ o ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeia?ia?eueia
i?eeiyooy o/anieeaie eiioe?eoo iaaieo i?aaee ? i?ioeaaeo?, ye?
eiaeeo?eothoue ?oith iiaaae?ieo ? a/eiee a iai?yieo aeinyaiaiiy iaaiiai
eiii?ii?no. Oae? i?aaeea ? i?ioeaaeo?e iiaeooue iaaoaaoe oi?ie oeiiaeo
oaiae, caeii?a, noaooo?a, oi?iaeueieo i?ioeaaeo? oiui. I?e/iio, oe?
ii?ie ? i?aaeea, ui caaacia/othoue ii?yaeie a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eoo,
iiaeooue aooe aoaeoeaieie eeoa a oiio aeiaaeeo, yeui aiie c naiiai
ii/aoeo ia aeathoue ia?aaaae aeiaei?e ?c noi??i. O ia?ao?aeieo
noni?euenoaao i?iaeaia eaa?oeiaoe?? i?ioeaaeo? ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/
noi?oue iaea?eueo aino?i: noa?? ii?ie ? i?aaeea a?aaoethaaiiy eiioe?eo?a
ao?aoeee eaa?oeii?noue, a iia? ua ia anoaiiaeeeny, ia noaee
noa?aioeiieie, oiio aoaeue-ye? ae?? aeaaee c ?ica’ycaiiy aino?eo
nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ cono??/athoue o noni?euenoa? aino?o e?eoeeo ?
i?ioeae?th.

O aeena?oaoe?? iar?oioiao?oueny oaca i?i oa, ui a i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo
a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao?? iaeiei ?c iaeneeaaei?oeo caaaeaiue
noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ noa?
iiooe iioeiaeueiiai ia eiaeiee eiie?aoiee aoai o?ainoi?iaoe??
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? naii?aaoethaaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy a oiiaao iinooioae?oa?iiai
noni?euenoaa, ii?yae ?c nai?ie eeane/ieie ooieoe?yie i?aeo?eiee
caeiiiino? ? i?aaiii?yaeeo, ia?aaeaa/a? i?aeo?eieo noaa?eueiino?
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie ca iina?aaeieoeoaii ia?a?iciiae?eo i?eaooe?a i?ae
i?aoeath ? eai?oaeii ia ei?enoue nioe?aeueii o?aceeaeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy.
Oaea ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea iaaoaaoe oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai ? aaie?anueeiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, eiio?ieth ca ai?n??th a?ioae, eieaeoeaieo aeiaiai??a,
noai?aiiy niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ?inoeooo?a, ye? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue
iaae?aoi??a o ?ica’ycaii? eiioe?eo?a i?ae nioe?aeueieie aa?noaaie,
eeanaie oiui.

Aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ??cieo e?a?i, ui aoaeoeaii ae??oeee
i?iaeaie ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo c aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo cania?a
?aaoethaaiiy, aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe oe?eo ieceo caaaeaiue, ??oaiiy
yeeo aeicaieeei a Oe?a?i?, ?ioei aea?aeaaai oieeiooe iaaaaeaiiai
aa??aioo ?icaeoeo iiae?e.

Na?aae iai?yi?a iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo nenoaiao a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?
no?oeoo?oaaiiy eiioe?eoieo a?oi. I?ae no?oeoo?oaaiiyi eiioe?eoieo a?oi
aaoi?ii ?icoi??oueny ia’?aeiaiiy iai?aai?ciaaieo ?iaeea?ae?a a ia?o??,
noni?euei? ?oo? e ?io? i?aai?caoe??, ye? iaiaaathoueny ae??ooaaoe
iie?oe/ieie caniaaie i?ioe??//y, ui ia iiaeooue aooe ?ica’ycai? aac
iaaii? oi?ie ianiaino? oa i?aai?ciaaiino?. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui
i?eioeeiiaith oiiaith o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai o
aeeoo?caeaoi? aeaiie?aoe/i? aea?aeaae, ui iathoue aoaeoeaiee iaoai?ci
?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa ?ioeo noa?ao, ?
noai?aiiy a ieo aaaaoiia?o?eieo nenoai, oiaoi no?oeoo?oaaiiy ?ioa?an?a
nioe?aeueieo a?oi.

I?ae nioe?ae?caoe??th o aeena?oaoe?? ?icoi??oueny i?ioean
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ethaeueie aeina?aeo ? nioe?aeueieo onoaiiaeaiue,
?ioaa?aoe?th oe?ii?nieo noaiaea?o?a c? no?oeoo?ith iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a,
oe?iinoae, ui canai?i? iniaeno?noth. Ae?enii, ine?eueee aoaeue-yea
nioe?aeueia nenoaia caoe?eaaeaia a aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo?,
ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean? iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
ianaeaiiy, oi oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanaie nioe?ae?caoe?? noa’?eo?a iaaoaa?
aeey ia? ia o?eueee nioe?aeueiiai, aea e no?aoaa?/iiai caaaeaiiy.
Inoaiiy ianoaaeia iia’ycaia c oei, ui aoaeoeai?noue nioe?ae?caoe??
aecia/a? nioe?aeueio ye?noue ianaeaiiy e?a?ie, a iniiaith aeeiai?ee
nioe?aeueieo nenoai ? ?ioaa?aoe?y oe?ii?nieo noaiaea?o?a c? no?oeoo?ith
canai?ieo iniaeno?noth iio?aa, ianoaiia oa noi?iiaaieo ?ioa?an?a ?
oe?iiinoae. sseui ae ia caaoaaoe, ui i?ioe??//y a nioe?aeueieo nenoaiao
aenooiathoue ia?aaeon?i ye i?ioe??//y i?ae ?ioa?anaie, iio?aaaie,
oe?iiinoyie noa’?eo?a ni?eeoaaiiy, oi noa? c?icoi?ei, /iio
nioe?ae?caoe?y ye i?ioean oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeoiaaiiy ?iaeea?ae?a o
aeon? iai?aieo a noni?euenoa? oe?iiinoae, oi?ioaaiiy caaeaieo iio?aa oa
?ioa?an?a ? iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yi?a iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a
?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao.

Iniaeeaa ?ieue nioe?ae?caoe?? a i?ioean? ?ica`ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o
iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao iiynith?oueny oaeiae ? oei, ui ia?ao?aeia
noni?euenoai noaiiaeoue nioe?oi ia aoai? ??ceeo ci?i ia
iae?inioe?aeueiiio ??ai? i?e aeineoue iaeeo ci?iao ia i?e?i??ai?. Oae?
?aioia? oaeoii?/i? c?ooaiiy a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e oa
?ioeo noa?ao caeiiii??ii aeeeeeathoue iio?aao o i?enoinoaaii?
aioo??oiueiai na?oo ethaeeie aei ci?i, ui a?aeaoaathoueny. Oea
i?enoinoaaiiy o naith /a?ao iiaeia oyaeoe ye ci?io (o?ainoi?iaoe?th)
nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, c?ace?a iiaaae?iee, ?ioa?an?a a?aeiia?aeii aei
i?eioeeiiai iiai? nenoaie a?aee?eo, oa?aeoa?ii? aeey
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aoooy, ui oi?io?oueny. Cae/aeii, ia oae? ci?ie
caeaoi? aai aioia? ia an? /eaie noni?euenoaa. *anoeia noa’?eo?a
a?aeiiaey?oueny aai ia a ciic? i?eeiyoe iia? nioe?aeuei? oe?iiino?,
ii?ie iiaaae?iee, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy a ia?ao?aeiiio
noni?euenoa? aino?eo nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/, eiai ?iceieo c
iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eioeei?a noni?eueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Neeaaei?noue nioe?ae?caoe?? a ia?ao?aeiiio noni?euenoa? coiiaeth?oueny
oaeiae ? oei, ui a iueiio c?oeiiaai? aai o?eueee oi?iothoueny i?aaie
«nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth», ui iieeeeai? aeoiaoaaoe ?iaeea?ae?a o aeon?
iiai? nenoaie aea?aeaaieo oe?iiinoae (yea naia /anoi ua ? i?aaeiaoii
aino?eo aeeneon?e).

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aaaeeeaei iai?yieii iioei?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a
?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??/ o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ? noai?aiiy oiia aeey
oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?aaiai?, aeaiie?aoe/ii?,
nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? aea?aeaae, aieiaieie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
yei? ?: a?aee?eo?noue, ieth?ae?noe/i?noue, aenieee nooi?iue
i?aai?caoe??, iaaiee nooi?iue iaaei??iino?, iiaeeea?noue aa?oeeaeueii? ?
ai?eciioaeueii? iia?eueiino?, iayai?noue iioeiaeueii? eiiiiceoe??
cai?ioieo ca’yce?a ? aeaye? ?io?. Naia aeinyaiaiiy iaaiiai cia/aiiy oeeo
ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? icia/a? caaa?oaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe??, oiaoi
ia?ao?ae a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei aeaiie?ao??.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
c?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aeniiaee, iaaiaeyoueny oi?ioethaaiiy
ae??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, i?iiiio?oueny iecea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiai ? aaciina?aaeiuei
i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Aei ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aaciina?aaeiuei i?aeoe/iiai
oa?aeoa?o iaeaaeaoue:

— c iaoith caaacia/aiiy i?ici?ino? eaiae?a cai?ioiiai ca’yceo i?ae
i?aaiaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? noni?euenoaii Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie
?icaeyiooe ? i?eeiyoe caeiiii?iaeo i?i aianaiiy ci?i aei Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie (noaooy 81 ?icae?eo 4), ?io? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe uiaei i?ioeaaeo?e
a?aeeeeeaiiy aeaiooao?a on?o ??ai?a ia aeiiao ?o aeai?oe?a;

— c iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy aeieeiaiiy a e?a?i? oiia, ye? ciiaee a ni?eyoe
iiaa?iaiith aei oioae?oa?ecio, Aa?oiai?e ?aae? ?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe
nenoaio aioeiiiiiieueieo aeo?a, ui eiie?aoecothoue iieiaeaiiy noaoo? 5
?icae?eo 1 Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie;

— c iaoith ?inoeoooe?ae?caoe?? ? eaa?oeiaoe?? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/
Aa?oiai?e ?aae? ?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ye? iiaeii?
io?oe?eii aeciaoe ? iinoaaeoe i?ae eiio?ieue noni?euenoaa eiioe?eoe, ui
a iueiio aeieeathoue, ocaeiieoe oaoiieia?? ?o ?ica’ycaiiy;

— c iaoith caiia?aaiiy aino?eo eiioe?eo?a aa?oeeaeueiiai ??aiy, a oaeiae
i?yieo c?oeiaiue i?ae nioe?aeueieie a?oiaie Aa?oiai?e ?aae? Oe?a?ie
?ic?iaeoe ? i?eeiyoe caeiiii?iaeoe i?i noai?aiiy aea?aeaaieo ?
noni?eueieo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ?inoeooo?a ( a?a?o?aaeieo noae?a,
oi?aae?iue c o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, neoaea iina?aaeieoeoaa ? i?eie?aiiy
oiui), a oaeiae iineeaiiy ?nioth/eo;

— c iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy neooaoe?e, ui caa?iaeothoue iie?oe/i?e ?
aeiiii?/i?e iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, i?e Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie
noai?eoe neoaeao, yea iiaeiia caeiaoeny iii?oi?eiaii ? i?iaiicoaaiiyi
eiioe?eoiaaiieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? ? ca ?? iaaeaie;

— c iaoith i?i?i?caoe?? iane?aee?a iaaaoeaieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? ??
aea?aeaaiei i?aaiai on?o ??ai?a iiaiith i??ith aeei?enoiaoaaoe
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae e?a?i, ui aoaeoeaii ae??oeee caaaeaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo, a naia:

a?aeiiaa a?ae iie?oeee «iaao?o/aiiy» a aeiiii?oe? ? nioe?aeuei?e noa??,
aeiiii?/ia ?aaoethaaiiy «i’yeeie» caniaaie;

2) iii?a a oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i ia i?eaaoio
?i?oe?aoeao, o?ainoi?iaoe?y «aeeeiai ?eieo» a «?eieiao aeiiii?eo»;

3) i?iaaaeaiiy neeueii? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae;

4) i?eeiyooy nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yea aeicaieeei a
nei?ioeoe nioe?aeueio ia??ai?noue; i?iaaaeaiiy ni?aaaaeeeai?
i?eaaoecaoe??, a ?acoeueoao? yei? c’yaey?oueny na?aaei?e eean;

5) aeiiiiiaa a noaiiaeaii? aaaaoiia?o?eii? nenoaie, noni?eueieo
i?aai?caoe?e, neeueiiai e i?aai?ciaaiiai i?ioni?eeiaiai ?ooo;

6) caoeno a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieea a?ae o?ainiaoe?iiaeueieo
ei?ii?aoe?e; cieaeaiiy iiaeaoe?a aei iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy;

7) i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenii? ?aeaieia?/ii? ?iaioe c iaoith
eiinie?aeaoe?? noni?euenoaa ia iao??ioe/ieo canaaeao;

ai?ioueaa c ei?oioe??th aeaaee, c e?ei?iae?caoe??th noni?euenoaa.

Ci?no ? aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a
oaeeo i?aoeyo:

Iiiia?ao?? oa a?ioo?e:

Aeai?e’yi I.A. Nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao:
iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy. — Oa?e?a: Iniiaa, 1998.-254
n.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey. Nouiinoue, oeiieiaey, oi?iu
i?iyaeaiey. — Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1997. — 146 n.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Iaoaieci ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee a nioeeaeueiuo
nenoaiao: O/aaiia iiniaea. — Oa?ueeia: Oa?ueeianeee aiaiiue oi-o, 1997.
— 64 n.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. ?acaeoea acaeyaeia ia iauanoai e aai i?ioeai?a/ey a
enoi?ee oeeinioneie iunee: O/aaiia iiniaea. — Oa?ueeia: Oa?ueeianeee
aiaiiue oi-o, 1997.- 54 n.

Aeaieeueyi I.A., Oa?aiaiei A.I. Nioeeaeueiia i?iaiice?iaaiea e
aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe: O/aaiia iiniaea. — Oa?ueeia:
OAAAO?Y, 1992.- 23 n.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey a no?aia e eo aeeyiea ia
aiaaioiaiinoue aii?oaeaiiuo nee: O/aaiia iiniaea. — Oa?ueeia: OAAAO?Y,
1991.- 32 n.

Noaoo? a ca??ieeao ? iiiia?ao?yo:

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Iieeoe/aneea i?ioeai?a/ey a nioeeaeueiuo nenoaiao:
niaoeeoeea e no?oeoo?a // I?o. Iiaa. Eoeueoo?a. A?niee OAeO ? 389. —
Oa?e?a: I?i.ina?oe Oe?a?ie, OAeO. — 1997.- N. 3-9.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. E aii?ino i ninoiyieyo nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee //
Oeeinioneea ia?eiaoee. Aanoiee OAO ? 394. — Oa?ueeia: Iei. ia?aciaaiey
Oe?aeiu, OAO. — 1997. — N. 120-123.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. E i?iaeaia aeeiaieee nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia a
ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae // O?einionueei-aoe/i? i?iaeaie eoeueoo?e. A?niee
OAeO ? 400 (2). — Oa?e?a: I?i. ina?oe Oe?a?ie, OAeO, 1998. — N. 19-23.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. No?oeoo?a iaoaiecia ?ac?aoaiey i?ioeai?a/ee a
iinooioaeeoa?iuo nenoaiao // I?iaeaiu aeaiie?aoee a ?aoi?ie?oaiie
Oe?aeia. — Oa?ueeia: EeIe. — 1997. — N. 27-29.

Aeai?e’yi I.A. Iiiyooy «iinooioae?oa?ia nenoaia» c iiceoe??
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai oi-oo ? 1.- Oa?e?a: Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao. —
1998. — N. 179-183.

Aeai?e’yi I.A. Aeaye? o?iee o?ainoi?iaoe?? e?a?i «ia?oi? oaee?»
iinooioae?oa?ecio // Iaoeia? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai oi-oo ?
1. — Oa?e?a: Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao. — 1998.- N. 33-44.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Ioeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe eiioeeeoia a nioeeaeueiuo
nenoaiao // Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey — 97
«Iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea i?aiiaeaaaiey nioeeieiae/aneeo
aeenoeeieei».- Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa. — 1997. — N.48-52.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Iniiaiua oi?iu ?ac?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee //
Oi?aaeaiea e naycue. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. — Oa?ueeia: IAIO, IAIE,
OAO. — 1997. — N. 52-56.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeai?a/eyie //
Nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey e nayce. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. — Oa?ueeia: IAIO,
IAIE, OAO. — 1997. — N. 32-37.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. I?ioeai?a/ey iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna a aiaiiie
noa?a // Nenoaiu eioi?iaoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey. Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia.- Oa?ueeia: IAIO, IAIE, OAO. -1997.- N. 11-12.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Aa?iiiecaoeey iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee. //
Neiaa?ue iiiyoee iiaiai iieeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey. — Ai?iiaae: AAAAO?Y,
1990. — N. 29-30.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Anaie?iue Niaao Ie?a. // Neiaa?ue iiiyoee iiaiai
iieeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey. — Ai?iiaae: AAAAO?Y, 1990. — N. 29.

Oace iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue:

19. Aeaieeueyi I.A. I?iaeaia eiioeeeoiinoe a ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u //
Iaoa??aee IY Oa?e?anueeeo i?aeia?iaeieo Neiai?iaeei?anueeeo /eoaiue
«Eoeueoo?a o o?einio?? OO noie?ooy».- Oa?e?a: Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o
ni?aa. — 1997.- N. 146-149.

20.Aeaieeueyi I.A. I?eioeei oiea?aioiinoe eae ooiaeaiaio
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai iauanoaa // Iaoa??aee IY Oa?e?anueeeo i?aeia?iaeieo
Neiai?iaeei?anueeeo /eoaiue «Eoeueoo?a o o?einio?? OO noie?ooy».-
Oa?e?a: Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa.-1997.-N.149-151.

21. Aeaieeueyi I.A. Iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey a iieeyoie/aneeo
ainoaea?noaao e iooe eo aa?iiiecaoeee // Iaoa??aee IY I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioe?eoe a noni?euenoa?: ae?aaiinoeea
? i?io?eaeoeea». — Ee?a — *a?i?aoe?.- 1995.- N.131-134.

22. Aeaieeueyi I.A. Oi?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiuie i?ioeai?a/eyie // Iaoa?eaeu
8-e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeieu-naieia?a «Ia?niaeoeaiua nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey».-
Oa?ueeia: Ieienoa?noai o?ainii?oa Oe?aeiu, OAO.- 1995. — N. 24.

23. Aeai?e’yi I.A. Nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y: oi?ie i?iyao ? no?oeoo?a //
Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei? eiioa?aioe?? «O?einio?y aeaeeaaiiy o nenoai?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae». -Oa?e?a: OAO, OIO. — 1996. — N. 37-39.

Aeai?e’yi I.A. Iaoai?ci ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/: nooi?noue oa
iniiai? ooieoe?? //. Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei? eiioa?aioe?? «O?einio?y
aeaeeaaiiy o nenoai? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae». — Oa?e?a: OAO,
OIO.- 1996. — N. 40-42.

Aeai?e’yi I.A. Nioe?aeuei? i?ioe??//y a iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao:
iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?ica’ycaiiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y ? o?einio?y
?noi???. — Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiio aiae?co oaiiiaio
i?ioe??/ o iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoaiao. O aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaia
oe?e?nia eiioeaioe?y aeeiai?ee nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a o ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae ?icaeoeo iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa. Aeine?aeaeai? aieiai?
oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? iiaeae? o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo nenoai.
Aecia/ai? i?noea, ?ieue ? iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/ a
ia?ao?aeieo i?ioeanao, iar?oioiaaia ?o oeiieia?y ? oi?ie i?iyao.
Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoai?cie ? oaoiieia?? ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?ioe??/,
ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ??aith ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a
Oe?a?i?, ?ioeo iino?aaeyinueeeo aea?aeaaao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioe??//y, iinooioae?oa?ia nenoaia, ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae, o?ainoi?iaoe?y, eiioe?eo, ?ica’ycaiiy i?ioe??//y,
a?aaoethaaiiy, iioei?caoe?y.

Aeaieeueyi I.A. Nioeeaeueiua i?ioeai?a/ey a iinooioaeeoa?iuo nenoaiao:
iaoiaeieiaey enneaaeiaaiey e ?ac?aoaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey enoi?ee. —
Oa?ueeianeee aiaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneiio aiaeeco oaiiiaia
i?ioeai?a/ee a iinooioaeeoa?iuo nenoaiao. A ?aaioa eceiaeaia oeaeinoiay
eiioeaioeey aeeiaieee nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia a ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae
?acaeoey iinooioaeeoa?iiai iauanoaa. Enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua
oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea iiaeaee o?ainoi?iaoeee iinooioaeeoa?iuo
nenoai. Ii?aaeaeaiu ianoi, ?ieue e iniaaiiinoe nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeai?a/ee
a ia?aoiaeiuo i?ioeannao, iainiiaaia eo oeiieiaey e oi?iu i?iyaeaiey.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iaoaieciu e oaoiieiaee ?ac?aoaiey nioeeaeueiuo
i?ioeai?a/ee, niioaaonoaothuea o?iaith ?acaeoey a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa
a Oe?aeia, ae?oaeo iinoniaaoneeo ainoaea?noa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioeai?a/ea, iinooioaeeoa?iay nenoaia, ia?aoiaeiue
ia?eiae, o?ainoi?iaoeey, eiioeeeo, ?ac?aoaiea i?ioeai?a/ey,
o?aaoee?iaaiea, iioeiecaoeey.

Danilyan O.G. Social contradictions in post-totalitarian systems:
methodology of research and solution. — Manuscript.

Thesis for the degree of the Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, subject
field 09.00.03 — social philosophy and philosophy of history. The
dissertation is devoted to the social-philosophical analysis of the
phenomenon of contradictions in post-totalitarian systems. The integral
concept of dynamics of social processes in the transitional period of
the post-totalitarian society was presented. The main theoretical and
practical models of the post-totalitarian systems transformation were
investigated. The place, functions and peculiarities of social
contradictions in transitional processes were defined, their typology
and the forms of manifestation were grounded. The methods and
technologies of solution of social contradictions corresponding to the
development level of the civil society in Ukraine and other post-soviet
states were suggested.

Key words: contradiction, post-totalitarian system, the transitional
period, transformation, conflict, the solution of contradiction,
seettlement,optimization.

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