Системні та функціональні характеристики іменників на позначення часу в сучасній англійській мові: Автореф. дис… канд. філол. наук / Л.К. Малімон, К

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao

IAE?III Eany Einoyioei?aia

OAeE 412.2 = 20

NENOAII? OA OOIEOe?IIAEUeI? OA?AEOA?ENOEEE

?IAIIEE?A IA IICIA*AIIss *ANO

A NO*ANI?E AIAE?ENUeE?E IIA?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?aeoeee aiae?enueei? iiae Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?oe?ia Aiia Iao??aia

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaanaeaae/ Aeieo?i ?aaiiae/

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

AEeoiie?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

?inoeoooo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iecei Oaoyia Ieaen??aia

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

E??iaia?aaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueia ioce/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie ?iai? I. ?.
*aeeianueeiai, eaoaae?a iia

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “8” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e
Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (252650 INI,
Ee?a-5, aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 73).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (aoe. Aaeeea
Aaneeuee?anueea, 73).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “8” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A. A. Eaeeoa

?aoa?iaaia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith nenoaiieo oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee aiae?enueeeo ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
/ano.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy eaene/ieo a?oi ? i?aenenoai eaeneee ?c ni?eueiith
i?aaeiaoii-iiiyo?eiith a?aeianai?noth iathoue o iiaiciaanoa? aeaaith
o?aaeeoe?th. Iaoeiaoeyie iaea?aeai? /eneaii? aeieace nenoaiii?
i?aai?caoe?? oaeeo a?oi ye o ieai? ci?noo, oae ? a ieai? ae?aaeaiiy.
I?eioeei eeaneo?eaoe?? ne?a ca oaiaoe/ieie ?aeayie aeia?a naith
ie?aei?noue o oai??? iiaiciaanoaa, a eaeneeieia??, a i?aeoeoe?
eaeneeia?ao??, a oaeiae o iaoiaeeoe? aeeeaaeaiiy ??aeii? oa ?iicaiii?
iia. Iaei??th c oaeeo noa? a?aeianaiino? ? oaiii?aeuei?noue.

*an ye oi?ia aoooy ?aaeueiiai na?oo, ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia eaoaai??y
ethaenueei? na?aeiiino? i?iaeiaaeo? i?eaa?oaoe oaaao iaoeiaoe?a, o oiio
/ene? e e?iaa?no?a. Iaienaii aaaaoi ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue, i?iaeaia
aeinoaoiuei aea/aia, i?ioa aei e?ioey oae ? ia ae??oaia. Eiei ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo ?c i?iaeaiith oaiii?aeueiino?, — iaae/a?iia. I?iaeaiith
oaiii?aeueiino? a ??ciee /an caeiaeeny aaaaoi e?iaa?no?a: I.I.
Iie?ianueeee, I.A. Aiiaea?ei, TH.I. Ea?aoeia, A.I. Eeeiaiei, I.A.
Anaaieiaeiaa, A.A. Ii?eiae?i, I.A. Oa?aniaa, E.N. sseiae?aa, ?.A.
Aieyinueea, E.A. Aa?nueea, I.E. AEaaeoeueea, B.C. Bruce, G. Jakobson,
G.E. Clifford, R. Ku?era. ?iaioe ??ciyoueny ianyaii — a?ae aiae?co
ie?aii? eaenaie /e i?i?iaeueii? eaene/ii? ia?aaeeaie aei aeine?aeaeaiiy
eaene/ii? /e eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ii? oaiii?aeueii? nenoaie a oe?eiio.

Iaeyae iiaeyae?a ia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo /aniaeo iiiyoue ?
cania?a ?o iiaii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? iieacaa, ui iniiaieie aniaeoaie
aea/aiiy i?iaeaie oaiii?aeueiino? ? iiiian?ieia?/iee/ naian?ieia?/iee,
neio?ii?/iee/ae?ao?ii?/iee, ia?aaeeaiaoe/iee/ neioaaiaoe/iee oa
ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iee, caaea/ath yeiai ? aea/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaeeieoeue iiae a iiaeaii?, cie?aia ?o /anoioiino? oa niieo/oaaiino?.
On? oe? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oaiii?aeueiino? ?, aacoiiaii,
iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaeie, i?ioa, ia iaoo aeoieo, iniaeeai aeooaeueiei ?
inoaii?e, ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/iee i?aeo?ae, ine?eueee, ye a?aeiii,
iiaia yaeua iiaea aaaaeaoeny aeinoaoiuei aea/aiei eeoa oiae?, eiee
aeine?aeaeaii eiai i?noea a nenoai? iiae e iniaeeaino? eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a iiaeaii?.

Ioaea, i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? naiaioe/i? oa eiia?iaoi?i?
aeanoeaino? ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano. Aiae?c ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo
iniaeeainoae eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, aeiiiaiaiee ia ??ai? neioaaiaoeee,
aea? iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe iaai? aeanoeaino? iiaieo aeaiaio?a ii
a?aeiioaiith iaeei aei iaeiiai, aeyaeoe caeaaeiino? i?ae nenoaiith
iaeeieoeue iiae oa ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiyi o oaeno?.

O ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny 7 aiae?enueeeo ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano:
minute, hour, day, week, month, year, time. A?aea?? eaenai, ye? noaee
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiiaeaiee aeaiia e?eoa??yie: /anoioith (ca
aeaieie “*anoioiiai neiaieea niieo/oaaiino? no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae”,
I., 1971, oe? ?iaiieee iaeaaeaoue aei ia?oi? oeny/? iae/anoioi?oeo ne?a
o oe?e iia?) oa aeieath naie oaiii?aeueiino? (ca aeaieie iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaiieee day, week, month, year oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iaeneiaeueiei, a ?iaiieee minute, hour, time — aenieei nooiaiai
onoaeaiino? aeie? naie oaiii?aeueiino?).

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny aeae?eueeiia
oaeoi?aie:

1) cia/ou?noth aeaiioaoa, c?inoath/ei ?ioa?anii aei i?iaeaie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ii? ?aaeueiino? e a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?? o
iia?;

2) iiaeeaeaiei aea/aiiyi nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe?? eaeneee, no?aoeo?eaoe??
neiaieeiaiai neeaaeo iiae;

3) ?ioaineai?noth ?icaeoeo e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai
i?aai?caoe?? e ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaenoo;

4) iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiei a?aeai?ii eaene/iiai e a?aiaoe/iiai i?i?ioio a
i?ioean? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae, yeee a?aoiaoaaa ae aaeeaai?noue neiaa
oa eiai iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino? a iiaeaii?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeaoueny ca oaeeie ia?aiao?aie: /anoioa, iioe?ai?noue,
niieo/oaai?noue, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aea/eoe iiaaae?ieo aeaiaio?a
iiae a iiaeaii?, aeyaeoe oaeoi?e, ye? aieeaathoue ia caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o oaeno?.

Iaoa ?iaioe — anoaiiaeoe naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
/ano (a ieai? iiae) oa iniaeeaino? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oaenoao
ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy iecee
eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

1) aeyaeoe i?noea aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaenai ia iicia/aiiy /ano a
no?oeoo?? eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai i?e?iiiey oaiii?aeueieo ?iaiiee?a;

2) iienaoe naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a oa
eiiiiiaioiee neeaae ?o eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a;

3) aea/eoe /anoioo e iioe?ai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a o oaenoao
ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice;

4) i?iaiae?coaaoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a ?c
neoaeaiaeie neiaaie (aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie, eaaioeo?eaoi?aie oa
i?eeiaiieeaie);

5) anoaiiaeoe iaai?e iiaeaeae a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? ?iaiiee?a,
aea/eoe ?o iioe?ai?noue ? /anoioo;

6) aeine?aeeoe eaene/io niieo/oaai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a o
?aieao iaeoaeeaai?oeo iiaeaeae, oa?aeoa?ieo aeey an?o aiae?ciaaieo ne?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii a iaaeao
eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? oaie “Nenoaii? e ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iiaieo iaeeieoeue oiiaoe/ii?, a?aiaoe/ii? oa eaene/ii? nenoai no/anii?
aiae?enueei? iiae”, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith i?aeoeee aiae?enueei?
iiae AAeO ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee (oaia caoaa?aeaeaia a/aiith ?aaeith AAeO,
i?ioieie ? 9 a?ae 21 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo).

sse iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ia?aaeeaiaoe/iiio ??ai? a ?iaio?
aeei?enoiaothoueny /ioe?e oeoia/i? neiaieee (Collins Cobuild Dictionary,
1997; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, 1992; Oxford Advanced
Learner’s Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1996; Webster’s II New College
Dictionary, 1995 ) oa neiaiee-oacao?on ?iaea, a ia neioaaiaoe/iiio ??ai?
— aea??ea oaenoiaiai iaoa??aeo c 60 ooaeiaei?o oai??a aiae?enueeeo oa
aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a caaaeueiei ianyaii 6533201 neiaiaaeeaaiiy (aeai?
ea?oioaee “*anoioiiai neiaieea niieo/oaaiino? no/anii? aiae?enueei?
iiae” iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? eaai?aoi??? noaoenoe/ii? eaeneeia?ao??
AAeO).

O ?iaio? eiiieaenii canoiniaothoueny ??ci? ca oa?aeoa?ii iaoiaee e
i?eeiie e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co: 1) iaoiae eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co,
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy yeiai aeeeeeaia ?icaeyaeii ?iaiiee?a, o?nii
iia’ycaieo naiaioe/ii, e aeyaeaiiyi o no?oeoo?? naiaioe/iiai i?e?iiiey
i?noey aeine?aeaeoaaieo eaenai, a oaeiae aiae?cii naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e
inoaii?o; 2) iaoiae aeeno?eaooeaiiai aiae?co, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai
aeine?aeaeo?oueny iaa?? on?o iiaeeeaeo iiceoe?e aeaiaioa a?aeiinii ?ioeo
aeaiaio?a oiai ae naiiai ??aiy, oiaoi eiai niieo/oaai?noue; 3) aeaiaioe
noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a, oaeeo, ye e?eoa??e Nouethaeaioa (t), ?aiaiaa
ei?aeyoe?y (?), a?aenoaiue i?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieie ianeaaie (l),
eiao?oe??io aeecueeino? (R), iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy yeeo a
e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo coiiaeth?oueny naiith ia’?eoeaiith
i?eoaiaii?noth iia? e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aioo??oiueith
aca?iicaeaaei?noth, yea ?nio? i?ae ye?nieie oa e?euee?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaii? no?oeoo?e, /anoioi?noth aeaiaio?a iiae a
iiaeaii?, yea i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny iaaiei caeiiii??iinoyi.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy i?i iiao ye
can?a a?aeia?aaeaiiy ia’?eoeaii? ae?eniino?, i?i aca?iica’ycie iiae e
iiaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaiaeeoueny
ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iiiey oaiii?aeueieo ?iaiiee?a o ieai?
iiae e o ieai? iiaeaiiy, oiaoi ii?aeio?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaiiee?a ia
iicia/aiiy /ano a neiaieeo e o oaeno?. Aeyaeaii, ui ooieoe?iioaaiiy
?iaiiee?a ia caaaeaee caeaaeeoue a?ae ?o i?noey a no?oeoo?? naiaioe/iiai
i?e?iiiey.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Ca aeieath naie oaiii?aeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaeneiaeueiei nooiaiai onoaeaiino? (day, week, month,
year) oa aenieei nooiaiai onoaeaiino? (minute, hour, time).

2. Naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano neeaaea?oueny c
iino?eiiai eiiiiiaioa “o?eaae?noue” (O) ? o?ueio ia?ai?iieo eiiiiiaio?a
— “e?euee?noue” (E), “iaiaaeai?noue” (I), “anioe?aoeai?noue” (A) oa ?o
aioeiiae?a — “iae?euee?noue” (E), “iaiaiaaeai?noue” (I),
“iaanioe?aoeai?noue” (A). ?c 8 oai?aoe/ii iiaeeeaeo niieo/aiue oeeo
eiiiiiaio?a ia aeine?aeaeoaaiiio iaoa??ae? cao?eniaaii 5: OEIA, OEIA,
OEIA, OEIA, OEIA.

3. *anoioa — aaaeeeaee ia?aiao? ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee ne?a, ui iaeaaeaoue aei iaei??? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie.
*anoioa ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano caeaaeeoue a?ae naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e inoaii?o: /ei oe?oa naiaioeea eaene/ii? iaeeieoe?, oei aeua ??
/anoioa. Ca ia?aiao?ii “/anoioa” aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee iiae?eythoueny
ia aea? noeoiiino?, na?aaei? /anoioe yeeo ia ia?aoeiathoueny: 1) minute,
hour, week, month, year; 2) day, time.

4. Ia ??ai? a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? ae?? caeii ia?aaaae: iaaaeeea
e?euee?noue iiaeaeae a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? iana iaeneioi
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ooai?thth/e yae?i a?aiaoe/ii?
niieo/oaaiino? (75%), a oie /an ye cia/ia e?euee?noue iecueei/anoioieo
ia?eoa??eieo iiaeaeae iieno? iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue (?10%)
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ianeao.

5. Ia ??ai? eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? aea??eia?noue eiioaenooaeueieo
ia?oia??a aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie naiaioeee ye aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?iaiiee?a (/ei oe?oa naiaioeea ?iaiieea, oei aaaaooa eiai
niieo/oaai?noue), oae ? ne?a, c yeeie aiie niieo/athoueny (iayai?noue o
?o naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? nai “oaiii?aeuei?noue”, “e?euee?noue”,
“o?eaae?noue”), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? caaaeueiia?aeiia iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
ia ??ai? eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? ae?? i?eioeei naiaioe/ii?
ocaiaeaeaiino?, nooue yeiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui neiaa, ye?
niieo/athoueny, iiaeii? iaoe oi/a a iaeio ni?eueio naio. E??i oiai, oea
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui /an ye ia’?eoeaia ?aaeuei?noue iaeeaaea? a?aeaeoie
ia iiaio ?aaeuei?noue, ine?eueee iniiaieie iciaeaie /ano ye
eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiiyooy ? “oaiii?aeuei?noue”, “e?euee?noue” oa
“o?eaae?noue”.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui ??
?acoeueoaoe ?icoe?youe ? iiaeeaeyoue ciaiiy i?i no?oeoo?io i?aai?caoe?th
nenoaie eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, caaaaoyoue ciaiiy i?i ?iaiiee ye /anoeio
iiae, aeyaeyoue caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iaiiee?a o oaenoao
ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice, eiie?aoecothoue aeai? i?i iioaioe?ei? e ?aae?ciaai?
a iiaeaii? eiia?iaoi?i? caeaoiino? ?iaiiee?a, ni?eyoeiooue a?eueo
aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith aca?iica’yceo eaeneee e ii?oieia??.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aaa/a?oueny a iiaeeeaino?
?o aeei?enoaiiy: o eaeoe?yo c oai?aoe/ii? a?aiaoeee e eaeneeieia??
aiae?enueei? iiae oa ia i?aeoe/ieo ? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyooyo i?e
i?ioiaeaeaii? oai “?iaiiee”, “Naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a neiaa”,
“Niieo/oaai?noue eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue”; i?e /eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a ?c
ooieoe?iiaeueii? a?aiaoeee; o eaeneeia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe?; o iaoiaeeoe?
aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia i?e a?aeai?? iaia’yceiaiai a?aiaoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo; o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? nooaeaio?a i?e iaienaii?
eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo ?ia?o; i?e iaienaii? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c
aiae?enueei? iiae.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a c aeniiaeaie, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao??, nieneo
aeaea?ae ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo, 7 aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya oaenoo
aeena?oaoe?? — 177 noi??iie, caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe — 343 noi??iee.

O anooi? aea?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy aea?aii? oaie, aecia/athoueny ??
aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia, aeacothoueny ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iaoa e caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, i?iaiicothoueny
oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue oa i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Nenoaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
/ano” — aeeeaaeaii aieiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ia yeeo aaco?oueny
eiioeaiooaeueiee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy: i?aaenoaaeaii
eia?ei-o?einionueeee aniaeo iiiyooy “/an”, ?icaeyaeathoueny e?iaa?noe/i?
iniiae aea/aiiy iiiyooy oaiii?aeueiino?, aeine?aeaeo?oueny naiaioe/ia
no?oeoo?a aiae?ciaaieo ?iaiiee?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano c?
neoaeaiaeie neiaaie” — ?ice?eaa?oueny nooue ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo
aei aea/aiiy iiae, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa ?iciaaeoaaoe oae? neoaeaia? neiaa,
ye aeaoa?i?iaoeae e eaaioeo?eaoi?e, aeine?aeaeo?oueny ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aiae?ciaaieo ?iaiiee?a ?c aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie, eaaioeo?eaoi?aie oa
i?eeiaiieeaie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino?
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano a oaenoao ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice” —
aena?oeth?oueny nooue iiiyoue aaeaioiino?, niieo/oaaiino? oa
aeeno?eaooe??, aeine?aeaeo?oueny a?aiaoe/ia niieo/oaai?noue aiae?ciaaieo
?iaiiee?a c ?ioeie iiaiicia/ieie neiaaie ca ia?aiao?aie “/anoioa” oa
“iioe?ai?noue”, aecia/a?oueny yae?i, iniiaia nenoaia oa ia?eoa??y
iiaeaeae a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “Eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue ?iaiiee?a ia
iicia/aiiy /ano” — aiae?co i?aeeyaa? eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue, yea
iienaia oeiiaeie iiaeaeyie a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino?, aeae?eythoueny
oaiaoe/i? a?oie i?eeiaoiee?a, ae??ne?a oa ?iaiiee?a, c yeeie
niieo/athoueny aiae?ciaai? ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /ano,
aeine?aeaeo?oueny caeaaei?noue eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? a?ae naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e aiae?ciaaieo ?iaiiee?a oa ?o eiioaenooaeueieo ia?oia??a.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee ?iaioe, ie?aneththoueny
ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue c ia?aii? i?iaeaie.

Aeiaeaoee ianyaii 137 noi??iie neeaaeathoueny c 7 /anoei. O ieo
i?aaenoaaeai? oaaeeoe? a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? eiaeiiai
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ?iaiieea c aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie, eaaioeo?eaoi?aie,
i?eeiaiieeaie oa iiaiicia/ieie neiaaie, aeathoueny nienee oaiaoe/ieo
a?oi i?eeiaoiee?a, ae??ne?a oa ?iaiiee?a, c yeeie niieo/a?oueny eiaeai
aiae?ciaaiee ?iaiiee, iaaiaeeoueny /anoioa oa iioe?ai?noue oeeo
niieo/aiue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ieoee ai?iaaoe?th o aeaeyae?
aeiiia?aeae, i?aaenoaaeaieo ia oaeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: 1) XLII
iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a
AAeO ?i. Ean? Oe?a?ie (ea?oaiue 1996 ?.); 2) nooaeaionueea iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “Oeiieia?y iiaieo cia/aiue” (Aeiiaoeuee, 15-17 ea?oiy
1997 ?.); 3) 3-y ?anioae?eainueea eiioa?aioe?y TESOL (A?iieoey, 27-28
n?/iy 1998 ?.); 4) 3-y I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “Eiii’thoa?ia
e?iaa?noeea oa aeeeaaeaiiy /oaeicaiieo iia o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao” (Euea?a, 27-30 ea?oiy 1998 ?.); 5) 5-oa I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y “Iiaa ? eoeueoo?a” (Ee?a, /a?aaiue 1998 ?.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeo? a 8 noaooyo oa 4 oacao.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Iniiaieie aeo?aeieie oai?aoe/ieie iieiaeaiiyie, ia yeeo aaco?oueny
eiioeaiooaeueiee aia?ao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?:

— *an — iaeia ?c oi?i ?nioaaiiy iaoa???, noa’?eoeaii-ia’?eoeaiee oaeo
ethaenueeiai aeeooy, ooiaeaiaioaeueia eaoaai??y ethaenueei? na?aeiiino?.
Eiioeaiooae?caoe?y e iiae?e ia’?eoeaiiai /ano iaa?ae’?ii? a?ae iiae.
Iiai? caniae aeeiiothoue iina?aaeieoeueeo ?ieue i?ae ethaenueeith
na?aeii?noth a ?? i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? oa ia’?eoeaiith
ae?eni?noth, ia yeo iaoe?eaia oey ae?yeuei?noue.

— Eaoaai??y oaiii?aeueiino? iineoue oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa?, ine?eueee
aiia aeanoeaa an?i iiaai ? ioiieth? an? ??ai? eiaeii? eiie?aoii? iiae.
No?oeoo?a oaiii?aeueiino? iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaeyae? iiaiiai
iiey /ano, yea ia’?aeio? ??cii??aiaa? caniae ae?aaeaiiy /aniaeo iiiyoue,
na?aae yeeo aaaeeeaa i?noea caeiathoue eaene/i? caniae, cie?aia,
?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /ano.

— Aeaiioaoeaia cia/aiiy neiaa iiaeia ?ic/eaioaaoe ia iaai? naiaioe/i?
eiiiiiaioe (naie), ye? ? eiino?oeoaie, ui caaacia/othoue c?o/i?noue
iieno. Aoaeo/e ?iie?oeeoieie nooiinoyie, aiie ia’?eoeaii i?enooi? a
naiaioeoe? neiaa. Eaeneei-naiaioe/iee aa??aio neiaa yaey? niaith neiai a
iaeiiio ?c eiai cia/aiue. O iaaeao naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e neiaa
eaeneei-naiaioe/i? aa??aioe ia?aaoaathoue o a?aeiioaii? i?ioenoaaeaiiy.
Ia neioaaiaoe/iiio ??ai? eiia?iaoi?i? iiaeeeaino? eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo
aa??aio?a ?icaeyaeathoueny ye i?iya naiaioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a oeeo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a.

— Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy niieo/oaaiino? ? aoaeue-yea inieneaia,
neioaene/ii i?aai?ciaaia a?oia ne?a, c’?aeiaieo iaeiei ?c o?ueio oei?a
a?aiaoe/iiai ca’yceo — i?ae?yaeiei, no?yaeiei /e i?aaeeeaoeaiei.
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaeaioiino? e niieo/oaaiino? ye iioaioe?? e
aeooae?caoe?? a?aeia?aaea? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiae e iiaeaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c ia?a?aoiaaieo aeo?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
canoinoaaaoe aeuacaaaeai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaaoe
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, ie ae?eoee oaeeo aeniiae?a:

*an — ia’?eoeaii-?aaeueia oi?ia ?nioaaiiy iaoa???. O?e ooiaeaiaioaeuei?
eaoaai??? — i?ino??, /an ? ?oo — ooai?ththoue ?aei?noue, yea ciaoiaeeoue
ae?aaeaiiy ye ia ??ai? iiiyo?eiiai, oae ? ia ??ai? iiaiiai /eaioaaiiy
na?oo.

Ocaaaeueiaia iiiyooy /ano aeeth/a? a naaa iiiyooy ?aaeueiee /an, ye
oi?io aoooy iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo, eiioeaiooaeueiee /an, ye oi?io eiai
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ethaenuee?e na?aeiiino? o aeaeyae? /aniaeo iiiyoue, ?
iiaiee /an, ye oi?io i?acaioaoe?? oeeo iiiyoue o iia?.

Iiaiee /an o?aeoo?oueny a no/aniiio iiaiciaanoa? aeaiyei: 1) ye /an
aoooy iiae, ye ci?ia iiaii? nenoaie a /an?, aea iiaa — oea iniaeeaa
oi?ia iaoa???, yea ciaoiaeeoueny o iino?eiiio ?icaeoeo. Oaea o?aeooaaiiy
iiaiiai /ano aaaea nai? iioiaeaeaiiy a?ae O. aea Ninnth?a;

2) ye niin?a ae?aaeaiiy /aniaeo iiiyoue o iia? (naia oaea ?icoi?iiy
iiaiiai /ano i?eeiyoa a iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii?). Ia eiaeiiio ??ai? iiae
aeae?eythoueny iaeeieoe?, ye? iathoue oaiii?aeueia cia/aiiy. Ia
eaene/iiio ??ai? — oea eaene/i? iaeeieoe? c oaiii?aeueiei cia/aiiyi.
Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?eaia ia aea/aiiy naia eaene/iiai ??aiy, cie?aia
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano minute, hour, day, week, month, year, time.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nooi?iue onoaeaiino? aeie? naie
oaiii?aeueiino? oeeo ?iaiiee?a ciaoiaeeoueny a cii? iaeneiaeueiiai aai
aenieiai nooiaiy. I?ae nooiaiai onoaeaiino? aeie? naie oaiii?aeueiino?
ie ?icoi??ii ??cieoeth i?ae iaeneiaeueiei ? i?i?iaeueiei cia/aiiyie naie
oaiii?aeueiino? (/ei iaioa oey ??cieoey, oei onoaeai?oa oa?aeoa?enoeea
naie oaiii?aeueiino?, aeea. oaaeeoeth 1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Nooi?iue onoaeaiino? aeie? naie oaiii?aeueiino?

?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano

Nooi?iue onoaeaiino??iaiieeAaee/eia E

Iaeneiaeueieeday

fortnight

jiffy

month

week

while

year0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Aenieee (0 – 15,52)point

hour

space

flash

time

stretch

stage

minute2,40

5,55

6,13

8,41

8,92

11,64

12,86

15,00

Aeua na?aaeiueiai

(15,53 — 31,04)quarter

length

generation

span

century

interval

period15,94

16,66

19,08

23,33

25,00

30,00

30,00

Na?aaei?e

(31,05 — 46,56)

Na?aaei?e

(31,05 — 46,56)

instant

intermission

present

tide

age

second

cycle

future33,33

33,33

33,33

33,33

40,00

40,00

42,85

43,33

Ieae/a na?aaeiueiai

(46,57 — 62,08)

bout

centenary

decade

eon

leisure

lifetime

spell

season

term

moment50,00

50,00

50,00

50,00

50,00

50,00

50,00

55,00

55,00

57,15

Iecueeee

(62,09 — 77,60)duration

epoch

era

eternity

interlude

millennium

tenure66,66

66,66

66,66

66,66

66,66

66,66

66,66

I?i?iaeueieedate

interregnum

past

respite80,00

100

100

100I?ei?oea. Aaee/eia E — eiao?oe??io nooiaiy onoaeaiino? aeie? naie
oaiii?aeueiino?.

Oeyoii iiia?iiai c?noaaeaiiy neiaieeiaeo aeao?i?oe?e aoei aeyaeaii, ui
?iaiiee time ia? 8 eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a (ENA), ?iaiieee day,
hour — ii 6, ?iaiiee year — 5, ?iaiieee minute, week, month — ii 3 ENA.
Iniiaieie eeth/iaeie neiaaie ?: period of time, moment of time, measure
of time, moment, instant, season, lifetime, age.

Aiae?c neiaieeiaeo oeoia/aiue iaoiaeii eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co aeaa
iiaeeea?noue aeyaeoe, ui naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a
iieno?oueny oaeeie naiaioe/ieie iciaeaie: “o?eaae?noue”, “e?euee?noue”,
“iaiaaeai?noue”, “anioe?aoeai?noue” oa aioeiiaeaie “iae?euee?noue”,
“iaiaiaaeai?noue”, “iaanioe?aoeai?noue”. Iia?oth/e iino?eiei eiiiiiaioii
“o?eaae?noue” oa o?ueiia aeuacaaaeaieie ia?ai?iieie eiiiiiaioaie, iiaeia
iienaoe naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o aeae?eaieo ENA.

Iioaioe?eii iiaeeea? a?n?i niieo/aiue: O E I A, O E I A, O E I A, O E I
A, O E I A, O E I A, O E I A, O E I A, i?ioa ia
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio iaoa??ae? cao?eniaaii eeoa i’youe (aeea. oaae. 2)

Oaaeeoey 2

?iciiae?e eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo aa??aio?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a

a caeaaeiino? a?ae iaai?o naiaioe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a

E
E

O E I A

time6

minute3

hour4

hour5

day6

day3

day4

year4

T K O A

time7

time8

week2

week3

month2

yaer2

year3

T K O A

hour3

day2

T K O A

time3

time4

time5

minute1

hour1

day1

week1

month1

year1

T K O A

time1

time2

minute2

hour2

day5

month3

year5

T K O A

T K O A

T K O A T

Eiaeia niieo/aiiy a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioiai iayai?noth/a?aenooi?noth
yei?nue eaoaai???, a ENA, ooai?ai? niieo/aiiyi iaeiaeiaeo naiaioe/ieo
eiiiiiaio?a, a?ae??ciythoueny aniaeoaie oeeo eaoaai??e. Oae, iai?eeeaae,
a?oia ENA, ia’?aeiaieo niieo/aiiyi eiiiiiaio?a OEIA, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
oei, ui oae? neiaa icia/athoue iae?euee?ni?, iaiaaeai? e anioe?aoeai?
a?ae??cee /ano. ENA oe??? a?oie ciaoiaeyoueny a iiiceoe?? ca aniaeoaie
eaoaai??? “anioe?aoeai?noue” (day3 ? day4 i?ioenoaaeai? ca anioe?aoe??th
c ?iaioith oa oni?oii eiainue: day3 — the hours of the daily recurring
period established by usage or law for work; day4 — one’s lifetime of
prosperity, activity, power, etc). E??i oiai, neiaa c oaeeie cia/aiiyie
iiaeooue i?ioenoaaeyoeny ca o?eaae?noth, yea iiaea aooe a?aie/ii
ei?ioeith (minute3 — a particular instant of time), aei??aithaaoe
aeae?eueeii aiaeeiai (day3) aai aeae?eueeii ?ieai (year4 — (pl) age,
time of life).

?ice?eoe caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o oaeno?
aeiiiiaaa? aiae?c niieo/oaaiino? ?iaiiee?a c? neoaeaiaeie neiaaie.
I?enoanoaioeai? aae’thieoi? ooieoe?iiaeuei? neiaa iiae?eythoueny iaie ia
aeaoa?i?iaoeae (neiaa, iniiaia ooieoe?y yeeo — aeacoaaoe ia aeae
?aoa?aioe?? ?iaiieea oa naiaioeei-neioaene/iee noaoon o no?oeoo??
aeneiaethaaiiy) oa eaaioeo?eaoi?e (eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iee ?ic?yae ne?a aeey
ae?aaeaiiy e?euee?nieo a?aeiioaiue). Aei aeaoa?i?iaoea?a a?aeiineii
a?oeee?, aeac?ai? oa i?ena?ei? caeiaiieee, iaicia/ai? caeiaiieee some,
any o cia/aii? ye?nii? iaaecia/aiino?, icia/aeuei? caeiaiieee each,
every, all, either, caia?a/i? caeiaiieee no, neither. Aei
eaaioeo?eaoi??a a?aeiinyoueny e?euee?ni? oa ii?yaeeia? /ene?aieee,
caeiaiieee some, any o e?euee?niiio cia/aii? oa other, another,
(n)either, all, every, each, both, many, much, more, most, how many,
little, less, few, enough, several, a little, a few, a great/good many,
many a, half, couple, dozen, score, myriad.

I?e aecia/aii? noaoono ni??ieo iaeeieoeue ea?o?iiny oaeeie e?eoa??yie:
1) e?euee?noue aae’thieoieo ne?a a ?iaii?e a?oi? (?iaiiee iiaea iaoe i?e
nia? aeae?eueea eaaioeo?eaoi??a, aea eeoa iaeei aeaoa?i?iaoea — a?oeeeue
aai neiai, ui eiai cai?iy?); 2) naiaioeea aae’thieoa (yeui neiai ia?
ye?nia cia/aiiy — oea aeaoa?i?iaoea, a yeui e?euee?nia — oea
eaaioeo?eaoi?); 3) i?noea aae’thieoa a ?iaii?e a?oi? (eaaioeo?eaoi?
ne?aeo?, ye i?aaeei, ca aeaoa?i?iaoeaii); 4) neioaene/ia ooieoe?y
?iaiii? a?oie a ?a/aii? (yeui ?iaiia a?oia a?ae?a?a? a ?a/aii? ooieoe?th
ianoaaeie /ano — oea eaaioeo?eaoi?, yeui ae ?iaiia a?oia aaeeoa a
ooieoe?? i?aeiaoa /e aeiaeaoea — oea aeaoa?i?iaoea, yeee aenooia? a ?ie?
icia/aiiy aei oeueiai ?iaiieea).

Aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee niieo/athoueny c 22 aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie,
iaeneiaeueii iioe?aieie (oiaoi oaeeie, ui niieo/athoueny c on?ia
?iaiieeaie) aeyaeeeny a, the, these, this, that, those, his, some, any.
Ca /anoioith ia?o? o?e iiceoe?? caeiathoue the, a, this. C on?ia
aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie niieo/a?oueny eeoa ?iaiiee time.

?c 31 eaaioeo?eaoi?a aei yae?a iaeaaeaoue 5: Numc, all, Numo, a few,
every. C on?ia ?iaiieeaie niieo/athoueny Numc, all, Numo, a few, every,
some, many, several, another, each. C on?ia eaaioeo?eaoi?aie ia
niieo/a?oueny aeiaeai aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?iaiiee.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iaiiee?a ?
niieo/oaai?noue inoaii?o c i?eeiaiieeaie. Aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
niieo/athoueny ?c 40 i?eeiaiieeaie, c yeeo eeoa 7 (after, by, during,
for, in, till, until) niieo/athoueny c on?ia ?iaiieeaie. Aei yae?a
iaeaaeaoue 3 i?eeiaiieee: for, in, at.

A?aiaoe/ia niieo/oaai?noue ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano iieno?oueny 99
iiaeaeyie, c yeeo 33 iiaeae? — yaea?i?, 38 — aae’thieoi?, 20 —
i?aaeeeaoeai?, 8 — no?yaei?: A N, N’ prp N, N D, N S, N V=, N cnj S, N
prp N’, D N, Ving N, N prp Ving, Ven N, N prp S, N N’, N prp Numc,
N, Ving, N, Ven, N’s N’, N’ N, D prp N, N, A, N’ like N, N prp A,
N’ prp NV=, N’ as N, N’ prp NumcN, N Numc, O N, N’ prp N and
N, N prp D, N as A, N as D, NN N’, N prp N; V N, N prp N’, N
D, N’’s N, V prp N, Ving N, N’ N, Ving prp N, Numc prp N, D than N, N
N’, D prp N, N A, Numc d N, A prp N, D N, Ven prp N, V like N, N’’s
Ving, N like N’, N as N’, Numc prp N, V NVing, A than N, as A as N, A
as prp N, as D as N, Ven N and N, D like N, A as N, V as N, D as
N, so A as N, A than prp N, A prp N’ prp N, V NA, V NVen,
Ving NA, N V, it VN’, N VN’, there NV, N VA, N’ VN, N VD, N VNumc,
N VV=, S VN, it V like N’, N V like N’, N’ V like N, N’ VS,
N V Numc prp Numc, N V prp Numc prp Numc, N’ VN prp Numc, N
VVen, N’ V prp N, N’ VNumcN, N and N, N or N, N or D, N
and D, N or Numc, neither N’ nor N, N, N, N and N.

Cao?eniaai? iiaeae? niieo/oaaiino? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ??ciith
iioe?ai?noth, yea aei??th?oueny e?euee?noth ?iaiiee?a, yeei i?eoaiaiia
oey iiaeaeue. Iaea?eueo iaiiaiaiith ciiith aeyaeeany ciia aeoaea aeniei?
iioe?aiino? (30 iiaeaeae). ?c ciaioaiiyi e?eueeino? ?iaiiee?a, aeey yeeo
i?eoaiaiia oa /e ?ioa iiaeaeue niieo/oaaiino?, e?euee?noue iiaeaeae
ciaioo?oueny, a ii/eiath/e ?c ciie ieae/a na?aaeiuei? iioe?aiino?, oey
e?euee?noue ciiao c?inoa?, aeinyaath/e a inoaii?e cii? — cii? aeoaea
iecueei? iioe?aiino? — e?eueeino? 25.

Ia ??ai? a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? aeine?aeaeoaaii? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii?
a?oie ae?? caeii ia?aaaae: iiaa a?aeaea? ia?aaaao iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?
iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino?, ye? ianooue iaeneioi ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy o iiaeaii?. Oaeeie iiaeaeyie niieo/oaaiino? ?: A N, V N, N
D, N’ prp N, N prp N’, N S, N V, it VN, N V=, N D, N cnj S, N N’. Naia
oe? 12 iiaeaeae ianooue iaeneiaeueia ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e
ooai?aii? ?iaiieo a?oi a aiae?enuee?e iia?. Aiie iienothoue 17109 (aai
74,86%) neiaiaaeeaaiue. Na?aae oeeo aeniei/anoioieo iiaeaeae
ia?aaaaeathoue yaea?i? (?o 9), e??i oiai, 2
i?aaeeeaoeai? iiaeae?, 1 aae’thieoia. AEiaeia no?yaeia iiaeaeue ia
iiiaea a /enei aeniei/anoioieo. Ia ia?eoa??? (ca iaaeath 90%)
ciaoiaeyoueny 73 iiaeae?, ye? iienothoue iacia/io e?euee?noue (2200,
9,69%) neiaiaaeeaaiue.

Ca ia?aiao?ii “/anoioa iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino?” aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
iiae?eythoueny ia o?e noeoiiino?, na?aaei? /anoioe iiaeaeae a?aiaoe/ii?
niieo/oaaiino? yeeo ia ia?aoeiathoueny: a) time; a) day; a)
minute, hour, week, month, year.

Ii??aiyiiy noeoiiino? iiaeaeae, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeoaea aenieith
iioe?ai?noth, ?c noeoii?noth iiaeaeae, ioiieaieo yae?ii ca ia?aiao?ii
“/anoioa”, iaoiaeii ?aiaiai? ei?aeyoe?? iieacaei, ui ?nio? i?yia
caeaaei?noue i?ae iioe?ai?noth e /anoioith: /ei aeua iioe?ai?noue
iiaeaeae, oei aeua ?o /anoioa.

Aaeaioi?noue eiaeiiai ie?aiiai ?iaiieea — oea i?e?inenoaia, yea
aoiaeeoue o aaeaioi?noue eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie e a?aeia?aaea? ??
aieiai? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene. ?iaaioa?i? nienee iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino?
eiie?aoieo ?iaiiee?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? eaeneei-naiaioe/ii? a?oie
a?ae??ciythoueny iaei. A?eueo?noue ianea?a ciaoiaeeoueny a cii? aenieiai
nooiaiy aeecueeino?. Eeoa ia?e ianea?a minute-hour, minute-time oa
week-time oa?aeoa?ecothoueny na?aaei?i nooiaiai aeecueeino?. Ioaea,
?iaaioa?i? nienee iiaeaeae a?aiaoe/ii? niieo/oaaiino? — neaaeee ia?aiao?
?iciaaeoaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo ianea?a.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c noeoiiinoae iiaeaeae, aeae?eaieo o eiaeiiio ianea?,
ye? aeyaeeeny ioiieai? yae?ii, iieacaa, ui a on?o ianeaao aei ?ic?yaeo
aeniei/anoioieo iiiaei 5 iiaeaeae: A N, V N, N V, N’ prp N, N prp N,
ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny iaie ye oeiia?. A?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?iaiiee?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth a yae?? ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eo
iiaeaeae, ye? oi/a e cao?eniaai? a ?ioeo ianeaao, i?ioa aei
aeniei/anoioieo iaeaaeaoue eeoa a yeiionue iaeiiio ianea?. Oaeeie
?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eie iiaeaeyie ?: o ianea? ?iaiieea minute – iiaeaeue N
prp Numc (five minutes past six), o ianea? ?iaiieea day — iiaeae? N N’,
N cnj S (winter days; the day when he …); o ianea? ?iaiieea week —
iiaeaeue D N (once a week), o ianea? ?iaiieea year — iiaeaeue V NA (be …
years old), o ianea? ?iaiieea time — iiaeaeue N V= (time to go).
Aeineoue oa?aeoa?iith aeey ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano ? niieo/aiiy c
i?ene?aieeaie, ye? iiaeooue caeiaoe ye i?a-, oae ? iinoiiceoe?th
a?aeiinii ?iaiieea: iiaeaeue N D cao?eniaaia na?aae aeniei/anoioieo a
on?o ianeaao, e??i ?iaiieea time; iiaeaeue N D ia iaeaaeeoue aei
aeniei/anoioieo eeoa o ianeaao ?iaiiee?a time, day; iiaeaeue D N
iaeaaeeoue aei aeniei/anoioieo o o?ueio ianeaao (minute, month, year).

Ii??aiyiiy nieneo iiaeaeae, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia ia?eoa???, iieacaei, ui
aeine?aeaeoaai? ianeae cia/ii ?iciaaeiaothoueny ca oeei ia?aiao?ii:
a?eueo?noue ia? ianea?a ciaoiaeyoueny a cii? ieae/a na?aaeiuei?
aeecueeino?, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? caaaeueiia?aeiia oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
ii??aithaai? ianeae iiae?ai? ca ?aooiie aeniei/anoioieo iaeeieoeue ?
?iciaaeiaothoueny iecueei/anoioieie.

Aiae?c eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? i?iaiaeeany eeoa a ?aieao oeiiaeo
iiaeaeae A N, V N, N V, N prp N’, N’ prp N. Iaoa eaene/iiai aiae?co
— ie?aneeoe eiei i?eeiaoiee?a, ae??ne?a oa ?iaiiee?a, c yeeie
niieo/athoueny aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee, oa eeaneo?eoaaoe ?o ia
oaiaoe/i? a?oie; aeyaeoe, c yeeie oaiaoe/ieie a?oiaie i?eeiaoiee?a,
ae??ne?a oa ?iaiiee?a niieo/a?oueny aeine?aeaeoaaia eaeneei-naiaioe/ia
a?oia a oe?eiio oa eiaeai aeine?aeaeoaaiee ?iaiiee cie?aia; anoaiiaeoe,
yea aaaa eiaeii? oaiaoe/ii? a?oie a ?aae?caoe?? eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino?
a ?aieao aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiaeaeae, yea ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy
cao?eniaaieo niieo/aiue, ye? iniaeeaino? niieo/oaaiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?iaiiee?a ia ??ai? eiie?aoieo eaenai.

Aiae?c oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo iieacaa, ui aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
niieo/athoueny c 380 i?eeiaoieeaie, 198 ae??neiaaie a ?aieao
aae’thieoii? iiaeae? V N oa 138 ae??neiaaie a iaaeao i?aaeeeaoeaii?
iiaeae? N V, 542 ?iaiieeaie i?e ?aae?caoe?? iiaeae? N prp N’ ? 1327
?iaiieeaie a iiaeae? N’ prp N. Cao?eniaai? i?eeiaoieee e ae??neiaa aoee
iiae?eai? ia 16, a ?iaiieee — ia 32 oaiaoe/i? a?oie.

?c 16 oaiaoe/ieo a?oi i?eeiaoiee?a aei yae?a a?ae?eoee 7: i?eeiaoieee ia
iicia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o iciaee, aiioe?eii-ineo?/iiai noaio, iiceoeaii?
ye?nii? ioe?iee, noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, i?inoi?iai-/aniaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee, iaaaoeaii? ye?nii? ioe?iee oa aoiinoa?ieo ? i?e?iaeieo
oa?aeoa?enoee. Oey noeoii?noue oaiaoe/ieo a?oi ia iiai?noth ni?aiaaea?
?c noeoii?noth oaiaoe/ieo a?oi, yeei aeanoeaa aeoaea aeniea
iioe?ai?noue: na?aae inoaii?o ia aeyaeeiny i?eeiaoiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
aiioe?eii-ineo?/iiai noaio oa aoiinoa?ieo ? i?e?iaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee, a
oie /an, ye na?aae ia?oi? noeoiiino? a?aenooi? i?eeiaoieee ia iicia/aiiy
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo oa e?euee?nii-/anoioieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

?c 16 oaiaoe/ieo a?oi ae??ne?a a iaio iiaeaeyo aei yae?a a?ae?eoee
ae??neiaa ia iicia/aiiy ?ooo oa iai?yieo, o?ce/ii? ae??,
nioe?aeueii-noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, aieyoeaii? onoaiiaee,
iinaneaiino?. O iaaeao iiaeae? V N e??i ia?a?aoiaaieo aei yae?a
iaeaaeaoue oaeiae ae??neiaa ia iicia/aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ni?eeiyooy,
aiioe?eii-ineo?/iiai noaio, eaaioeoaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o ae??, a a iaaeao
iiaeae? N V — a?oia ae??ne?a ia iicia/aiiy ci?ie, ?icaeoeo, i?ioeano.
Ii??aiyiiy /anoioiino? e iioe?aiino? oaiaoe/ieo a?oi iieacaei, ui a
iaaeao ia?oi? iiaeae? ni?aiaee oaiaoe/i? a?oie ae??ne?a ia iicia/aiiy
?ooo oa iai?yieo, o?ce/ii? ae??, aieyoeaii? onoaiiaee, eaaioeoaoeaiiai
oa?aeoa?o ae??, iinaneaiino? (na?aae aeoaea iioe?aieo, aea ia
aeniei/anoioieo a?aei?/aia a?oia ae??ne?a ia iicia/aiiy ci?ie, ?icaeoeo,
i?ioeano); a iaaeao ae?oai? iiaeae? ni?aiaee oaiaoe/i? a?oie ae??ne?a ia
iicia/aiiy ?ooo oa iai?yieo, o?ce/ii? ae?? oa iinaneaiino?.

?c 32 oaiaoe/ieo a?oi ?iaiiee?a a iaio iiaeaeyo aei yae?a iaeaaeaoue
?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy i?e?iaee, ?ineeiiiai oa oaa?eiiiai na?oo;
nioe?aeueii-noni?eueiiai aeeooy; iaa/aiiy; oaiii?aeueiino?; a?ae/oooy;
aeanieo iciae; noaio; oa?aeoa?enoeee a?aeiioaiiyi, ae??th; ae??;
aano?aeoiiai iiiyooy. Ie??i cacia/aieo ni?eueieo oaiaoe/ieo a?oi o
ia?o?e iiaeae? aei aeniei/anoioieo oaeiae iaeaaeaoue ?iaiieee ia
iicia/aiiy oaoo, aeeiiaaoey ae??; o?iain?a, o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?;
i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i???ioaoe??; e?eueeino?, ia?oeoeaiino?; ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino?; o ae?oa?e iiaeae? — ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy ?ae?; ?ooo,
ia?anoaaiiy, oeyo?a oa cania?a ia?anoaaiiy; ci?ie, ?icaeoeo, i?ioeano;
aaia?ao?/ieo iaca. Niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? ?ica?aeiino? o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? aeniei/anoioieo ? aeoaea iioe?aieo oaiaoe/ieo a?oi. O
iaaeao ia?oi? iiaeae? ? aeniei/anoioieie, ? aeoaea iioe?aieie aeyaeeeny
?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy nioe?aeueii-noni?eueiiai aeeooy; o?iain?a,
o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino?; oaiii?aeueiino?, e?eueeino?, ia?oeoeaiino?; o
iaaeao ae?oai? iiaeae? — ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy a?ae/oooy; noaio; ae??.
Aeoaea iioe?aieie, aea ia aeniei/anoioieie aeyaeeeny ?iaiieee ia
iicia/aiiy noanoaioe?? oa i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i???ioaoe?? o iaaeao ia?oi?
iiaeae?.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aiae?c eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino?, a?aei?oeii, ui aeae?eai?
oaiaoe/i? a?oie ??ciyoueny iioe?ai?noth e ooieoe?iiaeueiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Aeniea ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy iathoue ia?aaaaeii
oaiaoe/i? a?oie, aeaiaioe yeeo iicia/athoue oaiii?aeuei?noue,
e?euee?noue oa o?eaae?noue. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? caaaeueiia?aeiia
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i naiaioe/ia ocaiaeaeaiiy eiioaenooaeueieo ia?oia??a,
nooue yeiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui neiaa, ye? niieo/athoueny, iiaeii? iaoe
oi/a a iaeio ni?eueio naio. Naia oe? naie ? iaeeaaeathoue a?aeaeoie ia
eaene/io niieo/oaai?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a c ?ioeie eaene/ieie
iaeeieoeyie.

Iniiaieie ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?:

*an, ye aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ia ?aaeuei?noue, ciaoiaeeoue aaeaeaaoia
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iiai?e noa??, cie?aia, ia eaene/iiio ??ai?.
Nenoaiii-no?oeoo?i? a?aeiioaiiy iiae aeyaeythoueny /a?ac ?? ?aaeueia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /ano — aaaeeeaa i?e?inenoaia
oaiii?aeueii? eaeneee a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. Naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano minute, hour, day, week,
month, year, time iieno?oueny eiino?oeoaie “o?eaae?noue”, “e?euee?noue”,
“iaiaaeai?noue”, “anioe?aoeai?noue”, ia?oee c yeeo ? iino?eiei, a o?e
inoaii?o — ia?ai?iieie eiiiiiaioaie, ye? iathoue aioeiiaee:
“iae?euee?noue”, “iaiaiaaeai?noue”, “iaanioe?aoeai?noue”.

Aaaeeeaeie ia?aiao?aie ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee
?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano ? /anoioa, iioe?ai?noue, a?aiaoe/ia e
eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue. Ca /anoioith aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
iiae?eythoueny ia o?e noeoiiino?: 1) minute, hour, week, month; 2) year;
3) day, time. Iae/anoioi?oei ? ?iaiiee time.

Caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iaiiee?a o oaeno? ?ice?eaa? aiae?c
niieo/oaaiino? c? neoaeaiaeie neiaaie, aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie,
eaaioeo?eaoi?aie oa i?eeiaiieeaie cie?aia. Aeine?aeaeoaai? ?iaiieee
niieo/athoueny c 22 aeaoa?i?iaoeaaie, 31 eaaioeo?eaoi?ii ? 40
i?eeiaiieeaie.

A?aiaoe/ia niieo/oaai?noue ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy /ano iieno?oueny 99
iiaeaeyie. Niieo/oaai?noue ia ??ai? eean?a ne?a ? neaaeei ia?aiao?ii
?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
/ano.

Eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie naiaioeee ye
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?iaiiee?a (/ei oe?oa naiaioeea, oei aaaaooa
niieo/oaai?noue), oae ? ne?a, c yeeie aiie niieo/athoueny (iayai?noue o
naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? inoaii?o nai “oaiii?aeuei?noue”, “e?euee?noue”,
“o?eaae?noue”), ui na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui ia’?eoeaia ?aaeuei?noue (o
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo — /an) iaeeaaea? a?aeaeoie ia iiaio ?aaeuei?noue
(aaeaea iniiaieie iciaeaie /ano, ye eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiiyooy, ? naia
oae? iciaee).

O iaaeao iaeiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiiaeeeai ioiieoe ana eiei ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeoaaiith i?iaeaiith. Ia?niaeoeaiei aaa/a?oueny
?icoe?aiiy ?aiie aeine?aeaeaiiy ca ?aooiie iecueei/anoioieo eaenai,
aiae?co oae caaieo ?iaeea?aeoae?coth/eo iiaeaeae niieo/oaaiino?,
i?eoaiaiieo eeoa ie?aiei eaene/iei iaeeieoeyi, a oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy
oaiii?aeueii? eaeneee a neeaae? o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue oa a
oeiieia?/iiio ieai?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?euee?niee aiae?c aeniei/anoioieo ?iaiiee?a-iaca a?ae??ce?a /ano a
no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo: O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1996. — ?1. — N. 14-18. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?.?. Ai?ioue)

2. Ae??ne?aii-?iaii? i?eeiaiieeia? neiainiieo/aiiy oeio V prp N c
oaiii?aeueiei cia/aiiyi o no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo: O?ce/i?, o?i?/i?, iaoaiaoe/i? iaoee,
?ioi?iaoeea. — 1997. — ?4. — N. 64-65.

3. Ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? e neioaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? ?iaiieea week o no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo:
O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1997. — ?5. — N. 29-31.

4. Ae??ne?aii-?iaii? neiainiieo/aiiy c i?eeiaiieeii for a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeia? caienee ani??aio?a: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. —
Aei. 3. – Eooeuee: Aieeinueeee Aeaaeai?/iee Ae?i, 1997. — N. 36-40.

5. Ia?aaeeaiaoe/i? oa neioaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? ?iaiieea month a
no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Oeiieia?y iiaieo cia/aiue: Oace
aeiiia?aeae nooaeaionueei? iaoe. eiio. (Aeiiaoeuee, 15-17 ea?oiy, 1997).
— Aeiiaoeuee: AeiiAeO, 1997. — N.55-57. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c E.N.
Eaiaanueeith)

6. Aaeaa?a?aeueia niieo/oaai?noue aiae?enueeeo ?iaiiee?a ia iicia/aiiy
/ano // O?eieia?/i? nooae??: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 3. – Eooeuee:
Aieeinueeee Aeaaeai?/iee Ae?i, 1998. — N. 99-102.

7. Naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a ?iaiiee?a aeey iicia/aiiy /ano // Iaoeiaee
a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo: O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1998. — ?3.
– N. 27-31.

8. Nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aiae?enueeiai ?iaiieea day //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo: O?eieia?/i? iaoee. —
1998. — ?3. — N. 33-38. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.?oe?iith)

9. Paradygmatic and Syntagmatic Peculiarities of the English Word “Day”
// Multiplicity and Diversity of TESOL Experiences: 3-rd National TESOL
Ukraine Conference (Vinnitsia, January 27-28, 1998). – Vinnitsia:
Vinnitsia Pedagogical Institute, 1998. — P. 41-42.

10. ?iaiieee i??e /ano a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iiaa ? eoeueoo?a.
— E.: Collegium, 1998. — O. 3: Iaoe?iiaeuei? iiae ?
eoeueoo?e a ?o niaoeeo?oe? oa aca?iiae??. — N. 52-54.

11. I?eioeeie oeeaaeaiiy neiaieeiai? noaoo? aaaaoicia/iiai ?iaiieea //
Oace aeii. 3-? I?aeia?. eiio. “Eiii’thoa?ia e?iaa?noeea oa aeeeaaeaiiy
/oaeicaiieo iia o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao” (Euea?a, 27-30 ea?oiy,
1998). – Euea?a: Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”,
1998. — N. 88-89.

12. Aeaoa?i?iaoea vs eaaioeo?eaoi? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo: O?eieia?/i? iaoee. — 1999. — ? 3. — N.
111-113.

AIIOAOe?ss /RESUME/

Iae?iii E.E. Nenoaii? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?iaiiee?a ia
iicia/aiiy /ano a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 — aa?iainuee? iiae. — Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?co aiae?enueeeo oaiii?aeueieo ?iaiiee?a,
?? aeeiiaii a ?one? neioaaiaoe/ieo oa ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue. Anoaiiaeaia naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a ?iaiiee?a minute,
hour, day, week, month, year, time, aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ?o a?aiaoe/ii?
oa eaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino? a oaenoao ooaeiaeiuei? i?ice.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui oe? oaiii?aeuei? ?iaiieee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaiei
nooiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeecueeino?, yeee aecia/a?oueny ia nenoaiieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?iaiiee?a, a iniaeeainoyie ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oaeeie
ye /anoioa, iioe?ai?noue, a?aiaoe/ia e eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue.

Eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue caeaaeeoue ye a?ae naiaioeee aeine?aeaeoaaieo
?iaiiee?a, oae ? a?ae naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e ?o eiioaenooaeueieo
ia?oia??a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iaiieee ia iicia/aiiy /ano, naiaioe/ia no?oeoo?a neiaa,
eaeneei-naiaioe/iee aa??aio, aeaoa?i?iaoea, eaaioeo?eaoi?, a?aiaoe/ia
niieo/oaai?noue, eaene/ia niieo/oaai?noue, iiaeaeue, /anoioa,
iioe?ai?noue, yae?i, ia?eoa??y.

Malimon L.K. System and Functional Characteristics of Temporal Nouns in
Modern English. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree of philology in speciality 10.02.04 —
Germanic languages. — Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1999.

This dissertation is concerned with the analysis of English temporal
nouns on the basis of syntagmatic and paradigmatic principles of
enquiry. The semantic structure of the nouns minute, hour, day, week,
month, year, time is established and the peculiarities of their
grammatical and lexical combinability in fiction texts are determined.

Temporal nouns are proved to be characterized by a certain degree of
functional proximity which is not defined by the system characteristics
of nouns but by the features of their functional regularities, such as
frequency and prevalence, as well as grammatical and lexical
combinability.

The lexical combinability of the analysed nouns depends on both the
semantic structure of these nouns and the peculiarities of the semantic
structure of their contextual partners.

Key words: temporal nouns, semantic structure of the word,
lexico-semantic variant, determiner, quantifier, grammatical
combinability, lexical combinability, model, frequency, prevalence,
kernel, periphery.

Iaeeiii E.E. Nenoaiiua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai
nouanoaeoaeueiuo n oaiii?aeueiui cia/aieai. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 — aa?iaineea ycuee. — Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

?aoa?e?iaaiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth nenoaiiuo e
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo oa?aeoa?enoee aiaeeeneeo eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo n
oaiii?aeueiui cia/aieai: minute, hour, day, week, month, year, time.

Enneaaeiaaiea eaene/aneeo a?oii e iiaenenoai eaeneee n iauae
i?aaeiaoii-iiiyoeeiie ioianaiiinoueth eiatho a ycueiciaiee aeaaithth
o?aaeeoeeth. Aeooaeueiinoue enneaaeoaiie iee?inenoaiu oaiii?aeueiuo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo iaoneaaeeaaaony cia/eiinoueth aeaiioaoa (a?aiy —
ooiaeaiaioaeueiay eaoaai?ey /aeiaa/aneiai niciaiey), iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
aeoaieiai eco/aiey nenoaiiie i?aaiecaoeee eaeneee, eioaineaiinoueth
?acaeoey eeiaaenoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ii i?iaeaia i?aaiecaoeee e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oaenoa.

Enneaaeiaaiea aaaeaony ia o?iaia ia?aaeeaiaoeee (onoaiaaeeaaaony
naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a auoaoiiiyioouo nouanoaeoaeueiuo) e neioaaiaoeee
(aiaeece?oaony ni/aoaaiinoue nouanoaeoaeueiuo ni neoaeaaiuie neiaaie
-aeaoa?ieiaoeaaie, eaaioeoeeaoi?aie e i?aaeeiaaie, a?aiiaoe/aneay
ni/aoaaiinoue n iieiicia/iuie neiaaie, eaene/aneay ni/aoaaiinoue a
?aieao oeiiauo iiaeaeae — A N, V N, N V, N prp N’, N’ prp N). Ia o?iaia
neioaaiaoeee iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie enneaaeiaaiey anoue: /anoioa,
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue, ni/aoaaiinoue.

A ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea enneaaeiaaiey ia ia?aaeeaiaoe/aneii o?iaia a ?aaioa
eniieuecothony neiaa?ue-oacao?on ?iaea e /aou?a oieeiauo neiaa?y
(Collins Cobuild Dictionary, 1997; Longman Dictionary of Contemporary
English, 1992; Oxford Advanced Learner’s Encyclopedic Dictionary, 1996;
Webster’s II New College Dictionary, 1996). Ia neioaaiaoe/aneii o?iaia —
auai?ea oaenoiaiai iaoa?eaea ec 60 ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo i?iecaaaeaiee
aiaeeeneeo e aia?eeaineeo aaoi?ia iauei iauaiii 6533201
neiaioiio?aaeaiea (aeaiiua ea?oioaee *anoioiiai neiaa?y ni/aoaaiinoe
nia?aiaiiiai aiaeeeneiai ycuea iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie eaai?aoi?ee
noaoenoe/aneie eaeneeia?aoee Aieuineiai ainoieaa?neoaoa eiaie Eane
Oe?aeiee).

A ?aaioa eiiieaenii i?eiaiyeenue ?acee/iua ii oa?aeoa?o iaoiaeu e i?eaiu
eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca: iaoiae eiiiiiaioiiai aiaeeca, iaoiae
aeeno?eaooeaiiai aiaeeca, yeaiaiou noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia (e?eoa?ee
Nouethaeaioa, ei??aeyoeey ?aiaia).

Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iinoaaeaiiie oeaee — onoaiiaeoue naiaioe/aneoth
no?oeoo?o oaiii?aeueiuo nouanoaeoaeueiuo (a ieaia ycuea) e auyaeoue
iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoeo nouanoaeoaeueiuo a oaenoao
ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?icu (a ieaia ?a/e) — a ?aaioa ?aoaeenue neaaeothoea
caaea/e: 1) ii?aaeaeeoue ianoi enneaaeoaiuo oaiii?aeueiuo eaenai a
no?oeoo?a eaeneei-naiaioe/aneiai iee?iiiey oaiii?aeueiuo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo; 2) iienaoue naiaioe/aneoth no?oeoo?o aiaeece?oaiuo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo e eiiiiiaioiue ninoaa eo eaeneei-naiaioe/aneeo
aa?eaioia; 3) eco/eoue /anoioo e ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue
nouanoaeoaeueiuo a oaenoao ooaeiaeanoaaiiie i?icu; 4) i?iaiaeece?iaaoue
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea nouanoaeoaeueiuo n aeaoa?ieiaoeaaie, eaaioeoeeaoi?aie
e i?aaeeiaaie; 5) onoaiiaeoue iaai?u iiaeaeae a?aiiaoe/aneie
ni/aoaaiinoe nouanoaeoaeueiuo, eco/eoue eo ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue e
/anoioo; 6) enneaaeiaaoue eaene/aneoth ni/aoaaiinoue nouanoaeoaeueiuo a
?aieao iaeaieaa oiio?aaeoaeueiuo iiaeaeae.

Iniiaiuie ?acoeueoaie enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony:

1. Ii aeiea naiu oaiii?aeueiinoe enneaaeoaiua nouanoaeoaeueiua
oa?aeoa?ecothony iaeneiaeueiie noaiaiueth onoie/eainoe (day, week,
month, year) e aunieie noaiaiueth onoie/eainoe (minute, hour, time).

2. Naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a oaiii?aeueiuo nouanoaeoaeueiuo ninoieo ec
iinoiyiiiai eiiiiiaioa “aeeeoaeueiinoue” (Ae) e o?ao ia?aiaiiuo
eiiiiiaioia “eiee/anoai” (E), “ia?aie/aiiinoue” (I), “annioeeaoeaiinoue”
(A), a oaeaea eo aioeiiaeia — “iaeiee/anoai”, “iaia?aie/aiiinoue”,
“iaannioeeaoeaiinoue”.

3. *anoioa — aaaeiue ia?aiao? ?aca?aie/aiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee neia, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo e iaeiie eaeneei-naiaioe/aneie
a?oiia, iia caaeneo io naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?u nouanoaeoaeueiuo: /ai
oe?a naiaioeea eaene/aneie aaeeieoeu, oai auoa a? /anoioa.

4. Aaeaioiinoue oaiii?aeueiuo nouanoaeoaeueiuo iienuaaaony 102 iiaeaeyie
a?aiiaoe/aneie ni/aoaaiinoe: 3 iiaeaee a?aiiaoe/aneie nayce ni
neoaeaaiuie neiaaie (aeaoa?ieiaoeaaie, eaaioeoeeaoi?aie, i?aaeeiaaie) e
99 iiaeaeyie ni/aoaaiinoe n iieiicia/iuie neiaaie.

5. Ia o?iaia a?aiiaoe/aneie ni/aoaaiinoe aeaenoaoao caeii i?aaeii/oaiey.
Auniei/anoioiuie iiaeaeyie a?aiiaoe/aneie ni/aoaaiinoe oaiii?aeueiuo
nouanoaeoaeueiuo yaeythony: A N, V N, N’ prp N, N D, N prp N’, N
S, N V, it VN, N V=, N D, N cnj S, N N’. Oeie/iuie, oi anoue oaeeie,
eioi?ua i?eiaaeeaaeao e auniei/anoioiui ai anao enneaaeoaiuo ianneaao
yaeythony iiaeaee A N, V N, N V, N prp N’, N’ prp N.
Enneaaeoaiua nouanoaeoaeueiua ooieoeeiie?otho n 22 aeaoa?ieiaoeaaie, 31
eaaioeoeeaoi?ii, 40 i?aaeeiaaie, auniei/anoioiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony
aeaoa?ieiaoeau the, a, this, eaaioeoeeaoi?u Numc, all, Numo, a few,
every, i?aaeeiae for, in, at.

6. Ia o?iaia eaene/aneie ni/aoaaiinoe aeaenoaoao i?eioeei naiaioe/aneiai
niaeaniaaiey, nooue eioi?iai caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi neiaa, eioi?ua
ni/aoathony, aeieaeiu eiaoue oioy au iaeio iauoth naio. E?iia oiai, yoi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi a?aiy eae iauaeoeaiay ?aaeueiinoue
iaeeaaeuaaao ioia/aoie ia ycueiaoth ?aaeueiinoue, iineieueeo iniiaiuie
i?eciaeaie a?aiaie eae eiioeaiooaeueiiai iiiyoey anoue
“oaiii?aeueiinoue”, “eiee/anoai”, “aeeeoaeueiinoue”.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nouanoaeoaeueiua n oaiii?aeueiui cia/aieai,
naiaioe/aneay no?oeoo?a neiaa, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneee aa?eaio,
aeaoa?ieiaoea, eaaioeoeeaoi?, a?aiiaoe/aneay ni/aoaaiinoue, eaene/aneay
ni/aoaaiinoue, iiaeaeue, /anoioa, ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue, yae?i, ia?eoa?ey.

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