Система контролю в управлінні діяльністю комерційних банків: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / Л.С. Коваль, Київ. держ. торг.-екон. ун-т. — К., 1998.

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Eiaaeue Ea?ena Noai?neaa?aia

OAeE 336.71(477)

NENOAIA EIIO?IETH A OI?AAE?II? Ae?ssEUeI?NOTH

EIIA?Oe?EIEO AAIE?A

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 –i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?

Iaca?ae?
Aiaoie?e Aioiiiae/,

Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-

aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, ?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieiaa/ Aiaoie?e Aa?oieii?eiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e noaoenoeee

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Eooe?e Ieaenaiae? Iaaeiae/,

Oe?a?inueei-o?inueeee ?inoeooo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa a?ciano,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?eaoeiao

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa,

eaoaae?a iaiaaeaeiaioo,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Oa?iii?eue

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «18» ethoiai1999?. i 14:00aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.055.01 a Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aiaaeueii-

aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252156, i. Ee?a, aoe. E?ioi, 19,
EAeOAO.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Ee?a, aoe. E?ioi, 19, EAeOAO

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «15» n?/iy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
Ii?iciaa I.?.

3

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??. Oni?o ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a Oe?a?i?
o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo
no?oeoo?, ye? ? iaea?eueo aio/eeie ? oaeaeoa ?aaaothoue ia ci?ie, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio na?aaeiaeu? noni?euenoaa.
Oe?iei aeciaiei ? oie oaeo, ui aei oaeeo no?oeoo? iaeaaeaoue eiia?oe?ei?
aaiee, ye? oeyoii eiioeaio?aoe?? oa ia?a?iciiae?eo o?iainiaiai eai?oaeo
eii?aeeiothoue i?ioeane a?aeiiaeaiiy ? ni?eythoue ?aae?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o aaeoc? noaa?e?caoe?? aeiiii?ee.

Neeaaei? no/ani? oiiae, a yeeo nueiaiaei? ooieoe?iio? a?o/eciyia
aaie?anueea nenoaia, iaoiiaeai? caaaeueiei noaiii ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, eieeaaiiyi ?eieo iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? ia aaie?anuee?
iineoae, iineeaiiyi eiieo?aioe??, iayai?noth ??ciiiai?oieo ?ecee?a oa
?i.

Ca oeeo oiia iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia?ae?/aieo /eiiee?a aeieea? iio?aaa a
oaeineiiaeaii? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo oa eiai iniiaieo ooieoe?e ?,
ia?aaeon?i, ooieoe?e eiio?ieth, ye caniao iiia?aaeaeaiiy ? i?i?i?caoe??
?ecee?a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo oa caaacia/aiiy eiai
o?iaianiai? noaa?eueiino?.

Aiane?aeie a?aeiinii iaaaeeeiai oa?i?io ?nioaaiiy aaie?anueei? nenoaie
Oe?a?ie a oaeiio aeaeyae?, yeith aiia neeaeany ia nueiaiaeiyoi?e aeaiue,
eiio?ieue ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a noaa ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
ii??aiyii iaaeaaii ? ? oiio iaeiaeine?aeaeaiei. I?ioa iaiao?aeii
a?aei?oeoe, ui ie?ai? ieoaiiy cacia/aii? i?iaeaiaoeee ?icaeyaeathoue
ca?oa?aei? oai?aoeee-aeiiii?noe: A.A?ee, Aeieai A.Aeae., Eaiaae E.Aeae.,
Eaiaae ?.Aeae., ?.Eiooa?, O.Eio, ?ioc I?oa? N., Aeae.O.N?ie? iie.;
?in?enuee? –AEoeia ?.O., Eai?iinueeee N.A., Eaa?ooei I.?., Onine?i A.I.,
Ooe?i ?.A., Oe??inueea ?.O.  oa ?io?.

Na?aae a?o/eciyieo a/aieo, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaee ie?ai? i?iaeaie
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? oa ?? eiio?ieth, ne?ae ia?aaeon?i a?aecia/eoe
A?eooo I.O., Ca?oao I.Ae., Iaca?ae? A.A., Ii?ica A.I., Naaeoea I.?.,
Noaiaiaiea A.?., Iiiiae/a A.I., Ni?oeeia ?.I., Ni?oeeia ss.I.

A ?iaioao oeeo aeiiii?no?a aena?oeththoueny a iniiaiiio ieoaiiy
eiio?ieth oeo /e ?ioeo aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e aai iai?yie?a
ae?yeueiino?, i?iaeaie aaie?anueeiai iaaeyaeo, ?aaoethaaiiy oa
ciai?oiueiai aoaeeoo. Aea/aiiy i?aoeue oeeo aaoi??a iieacaei, ui
nenoaiiiai ? eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue eiio?ieth ye ooieoe??
aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio aniaeo? ia
i?iaiaeeeiny. ?acii c oei, oea ? aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith, yea ia?
nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ? yeino? oi?aae?iiy eiia?oe?eiei
aaieii, ?ica’ycaiiy yei? ia? ni?eyoe iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo aaie?anueei?
ae?yeueiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ? iaaeinoaoiy oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea
cacia/aii? i?iaeaie coiiaeee aea?? oaie ? iniiai? iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c ieaiaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca
oaeeie oaiaie:

1. «Oaeineiiaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy e?aaeeoiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao» (aeiaia?? ?35 c A?iieoeueeith
o?e??th Aeoe?iia?iiai aaieo «Aia?aiaaie» a?ae 23 aa?aniy 1997 ?ieo).

2. «Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue o eeth/iaeo
aaeocyo ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a» (aeiaia?? ?036 c A?iieoeueeith
iaeaniith aee?aeoe??th Oe?nioeaaieo a?ae 10 n?/iy 1998 ?ieo).

E??i oiai, aea?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee ?c caoiaeaie
A?iieoeueei? iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?? c ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue
I?ia?aie ae?yeueiino? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
a?ioiai-e?aaeeoii? oa aaethoii? iie?oeee, yea caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ca ? 1396 a?ae 18.11.1996?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith ?iaioe ? oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa ?ic?iaea eiioeaiooaeueii-iaoiaee/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iiaoaeiae nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

I?e oeueiio iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith, ia ye?e aaco?oueny aeinyaiaiiy
iaoe, ? ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?nioth/eo oyaeaiue
uiaei eiio?ieth ye caaaeueii?, oi?aa?naeueii? ooieoe?? iaoeiaiai
oi?aae?iiy c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? oa
a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo
caaea/:

· ia i?aenoaa? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? iaiaaeaeiaioo aecia/eoe i?noea
? ?ieue eiio?ieth a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth;

· aeine?aeeoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a eiio?ieth
oa ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee aeey oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

· aecia/eoe oi?ie, oeie ? aeaee eiio?ieth oa ?o iniaeeaino? noiniaii
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?;

· i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie;

· aecia/eoe ?ioi?iaoe?ei? aniaeoe eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

· aecia/eoe iniiai? oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoiaeieia??
eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

· ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae nenoaie aioo??oiuei-

aaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth;

· aecia/eoe i?eioeeie noai?aiiy aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iinoaaeaia oe?eue ?
?ica’ycaiiy ia?ae?/aieo caaea/ aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe ?acoeueoaoe,
iaoeiaa iiaecia yeeo iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

· ?icoe?ai? oai?aoe/i? oyaeaiiy uiaei iaiao?aeiino?, ci?noo ? i?noey
eiio?ieth ye ooieoe?? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo;

· aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a
eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

· nenoaiaoeciaai? ?nioth/? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei oi?i, oei?a ?
aeae?a eiio?ieth oa aecia/ai? ?o aca?iica’ycee a oi?aae?ii?
ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a;

· ia a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei eiio?ieth i??i?eoaoieo
iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaiia
iaoiaeeea eiai eiio?ieth ye neeaaeiiai ?, ?acii c oei, nooe?eueiiai
ia’?eoo;

· oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
oe?eae i?eeiyooy aoaeoeaieo ea??aieo ??oaiue i?e oi?aae?ii?
ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo;

· aeoiaey/e c a?o/eciyiiai ? na?oiaiai aeina?aeo canoinoaaiiy nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oi?aae?iiy, aecia/ai? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?eioeeie ? iniiae iiaoaeiae nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth a
eiia?oe?eiiio aaieo;

· ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy oe?a?inueei? ? ca?oa?aeii? i?aeoeee
canoinoaaiiy iia?oi?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ?ic?iaeaia
eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e:

· cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ia’?eo?a
eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ca?aeii
eiioeaioe?? ii?ooaey (aaeaino);

· cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie
aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo;

· cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y caaea/ o?iainiaiai eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii?
ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ca i?aenenoaiaie;

· aaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey
oe?eae oi?aae?iiy oeyoii noai?aiiy oeaio??a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

· ?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? oi?ie eiio?ieueieo ca?o?a aeeiiaaoe?a;

· ?aeiiaiaeiaaia iaoiaeeea iiaoaeiae aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth
ia iniia? A?I iaiaaeaea?a a oiiaao canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
aaie?anueeeo oaoiieia?e.

Iniiai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa i?iiiceoe?? ca ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a o?ueio eiia?oe?eieo aaieao
i.A?iieoe?: A?iieoeuee?e o?e?? Aeoe?iia?iiai Oiaa?enoaa “Oe??iaaie”,
A?iieoeuee?e iaeani?e aee?aeoe?? “Oe?nioeaaieo”, A?iieoeuee?e iaeani?e
aee?aeoe?? Aeoe?iia?iiai iiooiai-iain?eiiai aaieo “Aaaeue”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, ui iioae?eiaai? o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ?
?ica’ycaii? aeooaeueieo i?iaeai aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? ? iaaiai?ai? ia
oaeeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

1. Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee,
aiae?co ? aoaeeoo a oiiaao ?eieo ? ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy aeaniino?”, Ee?a,
1992?.

2. Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “I?aeoeea ? ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo iae?eo, eiio?ieth oa eiii’thoa?ieo nenoai ia i?aei?e?inoaao ? a
aaieao a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei”, Ee?a, 1995?.

3 ?aa?iiaeueia i?aeaoc?anueea iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie
oaeineiiaeaiiy o?iainiaiai iaoai?cio i?aei?e?inoaa a oiiaao ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei”, A?iieoey, 1996?.

4. Ae?oaa i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii?
?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a ?a?iiaenueeee nithc: i?e?iaeiiii?/iee aniaeo”,
sseoa – Oi?in, 1997?.

5. O?aoy i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii?
?ioaa?aoe?? Oe?a?ie a ?a?iiaenueeee nithc: ?aa?iiaeuei? ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe”, sseoa – Oi?in, 1998?.

E??i oiai, ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoai? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, cie?aia o iaoiaee/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo aei aeeiiaiiy eiio?ieueieo ?ia?o c eo?no “Iniiae
iaiaaeaeiaioo” nooaeaioaie aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae cai/ii? oi?ie
iaa/aiiy oa o A?iieoeueeiio oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?inoeooo?
Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaa-iiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?e
i?iaaaeaii? eaeoe?e, i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue oa aeeiiaii? eo?niaeo ?
aeeieiiieo ?ia?o nooaeaioaie niaoe?aeueiino? “O?iaine ? e?aaeeo”
niaoe?ae?caoe?e “Aaie?anueea ni?aaa” oa “O?iaine”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 12 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o
oiio /ene?: iiiia?ao?y, iaoeiaa a?ioth?a oa 10 noaoae o iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiiyo (c ieo 4 noaoo? – iaeiiiniaia?). Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e
neeaaea? 3,8 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 185 noi?., o oiio /ene? iniiaiiai
oaenoo 128 noi?. A aeena?oaoe?? i?noeoueny 19
?enoie?a, 17 oaaeeoeue, 10 aeiaeaoe?a (?acii 47noi?.) Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia?aoiao? 123 iaeiaioaaiiy (10 noi?.)

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? ca‘ycie c
iaoeiaeie oaiaie Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Aecia/ai? iaoa, caaea/? oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy,
noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?oi? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue eiio?ieth a
oi?aae?ii? aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth” ie?aneaiee ?icaeoie iaoeiai?
aeoiee uiaei eiio?ieth ye ooieoe?? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo,
aecia/ai? ieoaiiy, ui ? iieai?/ieie aai caeeoeeenue ia c‘yniaaieie a
?iaioao a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a.

I/aaeaeiei ? oa, ui ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? iaoeiai? aeoiee uiaei eiio?ieth
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aa?a na?e ii/aoie c /an?a ?o aeieeiaiiy
a Oe?a?i?, eiee aoea noai?aia ? ae?? nueiaiaei? aeai??aiaaa aaie?anueea
nenoaia.

A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? /an?a ia?aaoaeiae ieoaiiy eiio?ieth
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? iaeaea ia ?icaeyaeaeeny, iine?eueee aeeiiaiiy
aee?aeoeaieo caaaeaiue i?e a?aenooiino? ?eceeo ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
iane?aeee oeaio?ae?ciaaieo ??oaiue ia aeeeeeaei iaiao?aeiino? o aeaniiio
naiioi?aae?ii?. ?acii c oei, eiio?ieue caaaeaee aaaaeaany aaaeeeaith
ooieoe??th oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?, ui
i?aee?anethaaeiny oai?aoeeaie a iaoeiaeo ?iaioao oiai ia??iaeo.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a aea?aeaa?, ui aecia/eee iio?aao a
noai?aii? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, a yeeo iai?oeeeny an? iciaee
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? ye? ia?anoaee aooe aeeiiaaoeyie aee?aeoea aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a aeaaee, coiiaeee iiooe ieie naiai i?noey ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo oa
i?aaiaiiy aei i?eaooeiaino?. A naith /a?ao, ia‘?eoeaiee ?icaeoie
aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? caeiiii??ii i?ea?a aei iaiao?aeiino?
?ica’ycaiiy i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai, iia‘ycaieo c i?aai?caoe??th oa
oi?aae?iiyi aaie?anueeeie iia?aoe?yie oa iineoaaie, ye? ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo oai?aoee?a oa
niaoe?ae?no?a-i?aeoee?a.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?nioth/? a?o/eciyi? oa
ca?oa?aei? ?iaioe c aaie?anueei? i?iaeaiaoeee i???ioiaai?, a iniiaiiio,
ia c‘ynoaaiiy ieoaiue e?aaeeooaaiiy, ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
i?aai?caoe?? aaie?anueei? ni?aae. I?e oeueiio naiino?ei? ?iaioe c
eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a?aenooi?.
E?eoe/iee iaeyae iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iieacaa, ui iaeaea an? aaoi?e,
i?aee?anethth/e iniaeea?noue aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino?, ?, a?aeiia?aeii,
oi?aae?iiy iath, o?aaeeoe?eii ?iciiae?eythoue eiio?ieue ia ciai?oi?e ?
aioo??oi?e. C oe??? iiceoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny, ye i?aaeei, i?iaeaie
ciai?oiueiai eiio?ieth. Ui noino?oueny aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth, oi
a?aecia/a?oueny eeoa eiai aaaeeea?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue. Oae? eiai
nooo?a? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy ye nooi?noue, ci?no ? i?noea a
nenoai? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c aioo??oi?i
aoaeeoii ? ieoaiiyie iieai?/ieie ? aei e?ioey ia c‘yniaaieie.

Iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai oaie aeena?oaoe?? iieacaa, ui aeeeaaeaiiy
oeo /e ?ioeo aniaeo?a eiio?ieth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a caniiao?oueny ia
caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiiyo iaiaaeaeiaioo oa na?oiaiio aeina?ae?
aaie?anueeiai oi?aae?iiy, ui aoei a?aoiaaii ? i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

?acoeueoaoe iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeena?oaoe?? aeicaieeee c?iaeoe
a ?iaio? aeniiaie, ui i?iaeaia eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a i?aoeyo iiia?aaeiee?a ? iaeiaeine?aeaeaiith ?
aeiaaa? iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?yaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo ieoaiue
oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae
eiio?ieth ye ooieoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a” iaa?oioiaaia
iaiao?aei?noue, nooi?noue oa i?noea eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?icaeyaeathoueny iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aecia/aiiy ia‘?eo?a eiio?ieueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea
oi?i, oei?a ? aeae?a eiio?ieth.

Ia‘?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo aecia/a?oueny oe?eei ?yaeii oaeoi??a, ?, ia?aae
on?i, ci?noii iniiaieo eiai ooieoe?e ? i?eioeei?a ?iaioe. Na?aae
aaaaoi/enaeueieo aaie?anueeeo ooieoe?e, ui neeaaeathoue nooi?noue
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ?niothoue o?e iniiai? — caaacia/aiiy
a?ioiaeo ?ic?aooie?a ? cae?eniaiiy ieaoaae?a, aeaea/a e?aaeeo?a oa
i?eeiaiiy aeaiiceo?a.

Ia?oa c ia?ae?/aieo ooieoe?e coiiaeth? i?ia?aeio ?ieue eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a o cae?eniaii? ?ic?aooie?a o ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? oa
?aae?caoe?? ieao?aeiiai iaoai?cio, ui aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue eiio?ieth
ca iia?aoe?yie ?ooo eioo?a i?e ianeoaiaoaaii? ee??io?a, iiaiei ?
nai?/aniei aeeiiaiiyi ?o aei?o/aiue uiaei ?ooo ieao?aeieo cania?a.

Ae?oaith iniiaiith ooieoe??th ? iaaeaiiy e?aaeeo?a oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo
eioo?a, ui oei/aniai aea?eueiai? a i?ioean? e?oaiia?ao oiiae?a
i?aei?e?inoa oa aeioiae?a i?eaaoieo in?a. Aeoiaey/e ia ?eiee iice/eiaiai
eai?oaeo, aaiee naiino?eii oi?iothoue e?aaeeoi? ?ano?ne, ui aeiaaa?
iino?eiiai eiio?ieth c aieo ea??aieoeoaa ca ?o ianyaii, no?ieaie ?
?ici?uaiiyi. ?ici?uaiiy caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a iia‘ycaia oaeiae c
iina?aaeieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth aaie?a ia oiiaeiaiio ?eieo.
?iaanoeoe?ei? oa iice/eia? iia?aoe?? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aaaaeathoueny
naia i?eaooeiaeie ?, ?acii c oei, neeaaeathoue iaea?eueoee ?ecee
ae?yeueiino?, ui coiiaeth? ia‘?eoeaio iaiao?aei?noue eiio?ieth.

Eiia?oe?ei? aaiee a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue a caaacia/aii? ooieoe??
noeioethaaiiy iaeiie/aiue a aeiiii?oe? ? caa?aaeaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia
i?aenoaa? aeaiiceoii? iie?oeee. Aeaiiceoi? iia?aoe??, ye? neeaaeathoue
iniiao aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? ? ni?eythoue io?eiaiith i?eaooeo,
oaeiae aeiaaathoue eiio?ieth i?e ?aae?caoe?? aeaiiceoii? iie?oeee oa
oi?aae?iiy iath.

Ia?a?aoiaai? iniiai? ooieoe?? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a iia’ycai? c
i?eioeeiaie ?o ae?yeueiino? (aeiiii?/ia naiino?ei?noue, ?iaioa a iaaeao
?aaeueii caeo/aieo ?ano?n?a, i?eaooeia?noue oiui), ?aae?caoe?y ?
aeio?eiaiiy yeeo oaeiae aeiaaa? eiio?ieth.

Ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, eiai ci?no oa i?noea, ui a?i iin?aea? o noeoiiino?
iniiaieo ooieoe?e aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo aeiaaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?ieiai eiea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?iaeai.

I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaith c i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? i?iaeaia aecia/aiiy
ia’?eo?a eiio?ieth. A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi aeae?eueea i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a eiio?ieth: a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eioeeio iaenei?caoe??
aeaniiai eai?oaeo aaieo (iaenei?caoe?? oe?iiinoae), a?aeiia?aeii aei
oi?aae?iiy ca ?acoeueoaoaie, ca aeiiiiiaith “ioe?iee eeth/iaeo aaeocae”,
ia i?aenoaa? oi?aae?iiy aaie?anueeei ii?ooaeai (aaeainii).

sseui ?icaeyaeaoe i?eaooeia?noue, ye iniiaiee /eiiee aoaeoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, oi ?? iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie aeaiaioaie
? aeaa ??ciiieaiiaeo iioiee o?iainiaeo ?ano?na — caeo/ai? ? ?ici?uai?.
Ae?yeuei?noue eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, ui iia’ycaia c aeoioeyoe??th ?
caeo/aiiyi eioo?a neeaaea? nooi?noue oi?aae?iy ianeaaie. Aecia/aiiy
iai?yi?a ? ii?yaeeo ?ici?uaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a yaeythoue niaith
ae?yeuei?noue c oi?aae?iiy aeoeaaie. Oea aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iaea?eueo aeioe?eueiei ? aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a ca?aeii eiioeaioe??
oi?aae?iiy aaie?anueeei ii?ooaeai, i?ae yeei ?icoi?thoue ii?ooaeue
aeoea?a ? ianea?a, ye? iiaeii? aooe caaeainiaai? ca ianyaii ? oa?i?iaie
caeo/aiiy ? ?ici?uaiiy iaaieo a?oi o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Aeioe?euei?noue
oeueiai i?aeoiaeo i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ia o?eueee o?aaeeoe?eiei iiaeyaeii
ia aaie?anueeee ii?ooaeue ye aaaeeeaa, aeinoia??ia ? iia?aoeaia
aeaea?aei ?ioi?iaoe??, yea oi?io?oueny aeey i?eeiyooy ea??aieo ??oaiue.
?aeiiaiaeiaaiee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey? aecia/eoe aca?iica’ycie i?ae
ia’?eoaie eiio?ieth, a oaeiae aea? iiaeeea?noue aeoe?iia?ai
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo o?eiaoe i?ae eiio?ieai aeio?eiaiiy aeanieo
?ioa?an?a a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? iie?oeee, ui i?iaiaeeoueny
ea??aieoeoaii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui no?oeoo?a aeoeao ? ianeao
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo aecia/a? neeaaei? ? ??ciiiai?oi? ia’?eoe eiio?ieth.
C iaoith i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?? eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii?
ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii
?iciiae?eeoe ?o ia o?e a?oie: ?ioaa?aeuei? ia’?eoe, eeth/ia? oa
oe?eueia? (?en.1).

?ioaa?aeuei? ia’?eoe eiio?ieth – i?eaooeia?noue oa e?ea?aei?noue
oi?iothoueny i?ae aieeaii aaaaoueio oaeoi??a ? aecia/athoueny ?yaeii
eeth/iaeo ia’?eo?a, ye? eiie?aoecothoueny ca iia?aoe?yie ? iai?yieaie
ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo. Ie?aio a?oio neeaaeathoue oe?eueia?
ia’?eoe — ca iciaeith oe?e? oeo iia?aoe?e, a i?ioean? yeeo
cae?enith?oueny aieea ia e?ioeaaee o?iainiaee ?acoeueoao aaieo ? ye?
iathoue aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey eiai ?icaeoeo oa aeiaea?aeaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?.

Aecia/eaoe ia’?eoe eiio?ieth, oiaoi ui eiie?aoii iiaeiii i?aeeyaaoe
niinoa?aaeaiith iiaeia ?ic?iaeoe aeiiae aei ia?aiao??a eiaeiiai c ieo,
ui a oai??? iaiaaeaeiaioo o?aeoo?oueny ye ii?iaoea aai noaiaea?o. E??i
oiai, i?aaeeueia anoaiiaeaiiy ia’?eoo eiio?ieth o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
i?ecia/aiiyi ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith eiai ?acoeueoaoeaiino? ? aoaeoeaiino?.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?iaeaia eiio?ieth a i?aeoe/i?e
ae?yeueiino? iaiaaeaea??a eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a ia? aaaaoi aaaeeeaeo
aniaeo?a, iaeiei c yeeo ? aea?? iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? oi?ie eiio?ieth,
canoinoaaiiy iaaiiai eiai oeio ? aeaeo eiio?ieueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy. A
e?oa?aoo?? c ieoaiue aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a?aenooiy ?aei?noue
aeoiie uiaei ia?ae?eo oi?i, oa?aeoa?enoeee oei?a ? aeae?a eiio?ieth,
i?e /iio a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ia? i?noea ii?aeiaiiy oeeo iiiyoue.

A i?ioeann? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?oiooth/enue ia caaaeueieo i?aeoiaeao aei
aecia/aiiy oi?i eiio?ieth, ye? a?aeii? c oai??? iaiaaeaeiaioo,
aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?o c aeae?eaiiyi
i?aai?caoe?eieo ? ci?noiaieo oi?i. Aei i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i
a?aeiinyoueny ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e eiio?ieue. Ci?noiai? oi?ie
eiio?ieth aeeth/athoue o?iainiaee, oi?aae?inueeee, aaei?i?no?aoeaiee,
eiio?ieue yeino? ? ia?eaoeiaiaee. Ca oeiaie eiio?ieue iiae?ey?oueny ia
no?aoaa?/iee, oaeoe/iee ? iia?aoeaiee. Uiaei aeae?a eiio?ieth, oi ?nio?
eeane/iee aa??aio ?o ?iciiae?eo ia iiia?aaei?e, iioi/iee, caeeth/iee
ca /anii cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieueieo i?ioeaaeo?.

Cai?iiiiiaaia a aeena?oaoe?? nenoaiaoecaoe?y oi?i, oei?a ? aeae?a
eiio?ieth aea? iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe caaaeuei? aeiiae aei eiai
i?aai?caoe?eii? ? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace i?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? a i?aeoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue oi?aae?iiy aaieaie.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? “Aiae?c oa ioe?iea noaio eiio?ieth a
oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a” iaaaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea
aaieo ye nooe?eueiiai ia‘?eoo eiio?ieth, aeine?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ia
i?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano eiio?ieth a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao, ?icaeyioo?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? aniaeoe eiio?ieth a nenoai? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Ioe?ithth/e no/aniee noai a?o/eciyii? aaie?anueei? nenoaie, iaiao?aeii
a?aei?oeoe, ui aenoaineaiee ?? ?icaeoie cae?i/eany ? aiia ciaoiaeeoueny
ia ye?nii iiaiio ??ai?, eiee e?euee?niee ??no eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a
i?ecoieieany ? i?inoaaeo?oueny no?eea oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy
ianya?a ?o ae?yeueiino? oa eai?oae?caoe?? aeaniiai eai?oaeo. Oae, ca
ia??iae 1993-1997 ??. noaoooiee oiiae ae?th/eo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a
Oe?a?i? ca?eueoeany a 106,1 ?ace. Noaoooiee oiiae aaaaea?oueny iniiaiei
aeaiaioii aeaniiai eai?oaeo aoaeue-yeiai aaieo ? ia? ia?oi/a?aiaa
cia/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy eiai no?eeino? oa e?ea?aeiino?. ?acii c oei,
ia? i?noea aeayea iia??oaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaie?anueei?
nenoaie a inoaii? ?iee. Cie?aia, o 1997 ?ioe? niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy
i?eaooeiaino? noaoooiiai oiiaeo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie o ii??aiyii?
c 1996 ?ieii ia 4,7%, a i?eaooeiaino? aeoea?a – ia 1,4%. I?e oeueiio
o?iainiaa iieiaeaiiy 30% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aaie?a — /eai?a
Anioe?aoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aaie?a noaiii ia 01.01.98 ?.aaaaeaeiny
iacaaeia?eueiei. Iaei??th c i?e/ei oaeiai noaiiaeua (ii?yae c ?ioeie
ia‘?eoeaieie ? noa‘?eoeaieie) ? iayai?noue ie?aieo iaaeie?e?a nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ? i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth.

I?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy aaie?anueeeo iia?aoe?e aeiaaa? eiio?ieth ?yaeo
caieaiiaaieo iieaciee?a, aiie a?aecia/athoueny iayai?noth o?nieo
ca‘yce?a, ui iio?aao? niinoa?aaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo ye
neeaaeiiai ?, ?acii c oei, nooe?eueiiai ia‘?eoo. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o,
aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? i?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano eiio?ieth ? oi?ioaaiiy
eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui a oe?eiio i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a aaieo ?
?iciiae?e neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a aeicaieythoue eiio?iethaaoe ie?ai?
iia?aoe?? ? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. ?acii c oei,
iniiaiei iaaeie?eii ? a?aenooi?noue nenoaiii? i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieueiiai
niinoa?aaeaiiy, ui cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue eiio?ieth.

A i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy no/aniith ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo
iniiaiith oi?iith ? o?iainiaee eiio?ieue. I?e oeueiio iaeaea ia
canoiniaothoueny noaiaea?oe oi?aae?inueeiai eiio?ieth, ye oi?ie, ui
caeaoia aeiiiaieoe o?iainiaee eiio?ieue a?eueo oe?ieei eieii ia’?eo?a
niinoa?aaeaiiy. Aiae?coth/? /ania? ?aiee oi?aae?inueeiai oeeeeo oa aeaee
eiio?ieth a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iayai?noue
?aae?caoe?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a no?aoaa?/iiai ? oaeoe/iiai eiio?ieth oa
a?aenooi?noue oi?iae?ciaaieo i?ioeaaeo? i?iaaaeaiiy iia?aoeaiiai
eiio?ieth, iine?eueee iia?aoeai? noaiaea?oe ae?yeueiino? aaieo, ye
i?aaeei, ia anoaiiaeththoueny aai ?ic?iaeythoueny ianenoaiaoe/ii.

Eiio?ieue a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye ooieoe?y, yea, c iaei??? noi?iie, caniiao?oueny ia
ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e aac?, a c ?ioi?, — naia oi?io?
?ioi?iaoe?eio aaco aeey oe?eae oi?aae?iiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
no?oeoo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy eiio?ieth aecia/a?oueny a
iniiaiiio aioo??oiueith aeiiii?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, i?ioean ia?a?iaee
yei? ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? noai?aiiy aeanieo
iin??a o aeaeyae? oaaeeoeue, aeia?aeie ? ca?o?a, ui aaeaeaaoii
a?aeia?aaeathoue aeieeath/? i?iaeaie ? iaaeie?ee a ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

Aiae?c noaio eiio?ieth a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao iieacaa, ui i?e oi?ioaaii?
eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aenooiy noaiaea?oia eiio?ieueia ca?oi?noue,
yea a aeicaieeea ocaaaeueieoe ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieth oa aecia/eoe aeae
ei?eaoth/iai aieeao c aieo ea??aieoeoaa aaieo.

Oaeei /eiii, iayai?noue iaaiiai eiea i?iaeai a ?aae?caoe?? ooieoe??
eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? aaie?anueeith ae?yeuei?noth aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee
oeyo?a eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nenoaie
eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a” i?noeoue i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
?aae?caoe?? ooieoe?? eiio?ieth ia i?aenoaa? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe??
a i?ioean? o?iainiaiai ? oi?aae?inueeiai eiio?ieth oa a oiiaao
aeei?enoaiiy iia?oi?o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e.

Iiiyooy aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a ? ieoaiiyi aei e?ioey ia c’yniaaiei o oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio
ieai? ? a no/ani?e e?oa?aoo?? c i?iaeai aaie?anueei? ni?aae iaeaea ia
?icaeyaea?oueny.

C iiceoe?e oai??? iaiaaeaeiaioo aoaeoeai?noue eiio?ieth a i?aai?caoe?yo
iiaeiia aecia/aoeny aeae?eueeiia eiai aeanoeainoyie: no?aoaa?/iith
iai?aaeai?noth, i???ioaoe??th ia ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino?,
a?aeiia?aei?noth aeaeo ae?yeueiino?, ui eiio?ieth?oueny, nai?/ani?noth
iaaeaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey oe?eae i?eeiyooy ea??aieo ??oaiue,
aio/e?noth, i?inoioth oa aeiiii?/i?noth.

A oe?eiio a?aooaaiiy ia?ae?/aieo aeanoeainoae aeicaiey? c’ynoaaoe ci?no
aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieth, aea, ye ooieoe?th oi?aae?iiy, ioe?ieoe eiai
aeioe?eueii ca e?eoa???i ?acoeueoaoeaiino? , oiaoi ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi
io?eiaiiai ?acoeueoaoo ? oe?e?, ui cacia/aia eiio?iethth/ei noa’?eoii,
aeinyaiaiiy ?? c iaeiaioeie aeo?aoaie /ano, i?aoe? ? eioo?a.

C oe??? oi/ee ci?o eiio?ieue iiaeia aaaaeaoe aoaeoeaiei, eiee eiai
?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue iiia?aaeeoe ?icaeoie e?eciaeo neooaoe?e a
ae?yeueiino? aaieo oa nai?/anii aecia/eoe iaaaoeai? a?aeoeeaiiy aei
oiai, ye aiie iaoiiaeyoue i?aeaeuaiiy ?eceeo.

Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieth ia oeyoo
aeinyaiaiiy no?eeiai ? i?eaooeiaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo
? noai?aiiy nenoaie aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth. Aeooaeuei?noue
oe??? i?iaeaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ia o?eueee ia’?eoeaiith
iaiao?aei?noth aaeineiiaeaiiy aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, aea e
aeiiaaie ? i?eioeeiaie Aacaeuenueeiai eii?oaoo c ieoaiue aaie?anueeiai
iaaeyaeo ? ?aaoethaaiiy, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? yeiai a?aoiaothoue an? na?oia?
aaiee.

C i?aai?caoe??th aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo iia’ycaii, ia?aaeon?i, ??oaiiy iaei??? c aieiaieo
i?iaeai – yeei /eiii iiaeiii cae?enithaaoeny cae?aiiy, ia?iaea ?
iaaeaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey oe?eae oi?aae?iiy. Oea ? aeineoue
aaaeeeaei, iine?eueee iaoiiaeth? ye?niee ??aaiue eiio?ieth, a oaeiae
aa?o?noue noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiai nenoaie. I?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey oe?a?inueeeo
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a aeaa iiaeeeaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiaee. Ia?oee —
caniiao?oueny ia i?aai?caoe?? ie?aii? neoaeae aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth
(ca aeina?aeii ?in?enueeeo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a), ae?oaee – ca i?eioeeiii
aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ooieoe?? eiio?ieth o no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee.
Iaeaeaa i?aeoiaee iathoue i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy ? inoaoi/iee aea??
caeeoa?oueny ca ea??aieoeoaii aaieo a?aeiia?aeii aei caaea/, ui
noaaeyoueny. ?acii c oei, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
a?aoiaoth/e ?yae ia’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a, a?eueo aeioe?euei?oith aeey
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy i?aaenoaaey?oueny aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia oi?ia
i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth. Aiia ia o?eueee i?aai?/ii
“aieno?oueny” a i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o aaieo, aea e aeicaiey?
iia?aoeaii oi?ioaaoe eiio?ieueio ?ioi?iaoeth a i?noeyo aaciina?aaeiueiai
aeeiiaiiy iia?aoe?e, i?aeaeueoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aeeiiaaoe?a ?
i?i?i?coaaoe aeo?aoe ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nenoaie.

I?e oeueiio, oa?aeoa?ecoth/e aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaio oi?io i?aai?caoe??
nenoaie eiio?ieth, iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeaeaaoaaiiy
iiaiiaaaeaiue c eiio?ieth o no?oeoo?i? i?ae?icae?ee a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e
oeaio?ae?ciaai?e eii?aeeiaoe?? caaaeueiiai eiio?ieueiiai i?ioeano. A
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? oea ia?aaeaa/a? iaiao?aei?noue ?iciiae?eo oa
eiiia?aoe?? i?aoe? i?ae ie?aieie aeeiiaaoeyie, no?oeoo?ieie
i?ae?icae?eaie oa ??aiyie oi?aae?iiy.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aith aeiiaith aei i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieueiiai i?ioeano a
iaaeao noi?iiaaii? nenoaie aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ? caaacia/aiiy
cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo i?ae ??aiai i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ?
??aiai aeeiiaiiy caieaiiaaieo caaaeaiue. C o?aooaaiiyi oe??? aeiiae a
aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia iiaeaeue i?aeoe/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieueiiai i?ioeano i?e oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo (?en.2).

sse na?ae/eoue iaaaaeaia iiaeaeue, nenoaia aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai
eiio?ieth iiaeiia caaacia/eoe iiaeeea?noue iaaeaiiy neioaciaaii? ?
nenoaiaoeciaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey oe?eae oi?aae?iiy. A?aoiaoth/e oea,
aeioe?eueiei ? oi?ioaaiiy aeaio oei?a ca?o?a. ’

Oae, ia ??ai? no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a, yeei aeaeaao?oueny
iiaiiaaaeaiiy c eiio?ieth, neeaaea?oueny “Eiio?ieueiee ca?o
aeeiiaaoey”, yeee aea? iiaeeea?noue cacia/aoe aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae anoaiiaeaiiai noaiaea?oo uiaei eiie?aoiiai ia’?eoo
niinoa?aaeaiiy. O ?ac? iayaiino? “e?eoe/iiai” a?aeoeeaiiy, yea iio?aao?
ao?o/aiiy ea??aieoeoaa aaieo aeey ei?aaoaaiiy eiai ae?yeueiino?,
aeeiiaaoeai oi?io?oueny “?ioi?iaoe?eiee eiio?ieueiee ca?o” ?c
cacia/aiiyi i?e/eie, ui niiioeaea iaaaoeai? iane?aeee. ?ic?iaeai? a
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ie ca?o?a ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei canoinoaaiiy a
eiia?oe?eieo aaieao i.A?iieoe?.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
?aoe?iiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy o?iainiaiai ? oi?aae?inueeiai eiio?ieth,
caaaeyee inoaiiueiio ? iiaeeea?noue iiaeeaeoe ?acoeueoaoe o?iainiaiai
eiio?ieth ca a?eueo oe?ieei niaeo?ii ia?aiao??a ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy ia
i?aenoaa? i?aai?caoe?? oeaio??a a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

A?aoiaoth/e niaoe?o?eo ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, o?iainiaee
eiio?ieue aaaaea?oueny i??i?eoaoiith oi?iith ? aeey i?aeoe/iiai eiai
canoinoaaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y caaea/, ca
i?aenenoaiaie eiio?ieth. Aeo?aeiith aacith aeey aecia/aiiy i?aenenoai ?
caaea/ ? iai?yiee ae?yeueiino? aaieo, ye? iaoiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue
oi?aae?iiy ieie ? a?aeiia?aeiiai eiio?ieueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy.

C?inoath/ee ianya ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo, aeeiai?/i?noue oa
oneeaaeiaiiy oi?aae?iiy iei aeiaaa? i?enei?aiiy i?ioeano ia?iaee
aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e ? iaeiei c
?ino?oiaio?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy ? ?icaeoeo eiai
ooieoe?e, a oiio /ene? ? ooieoe?? eiio?ieth. Ia i?aenoaa? canoinoaaiiy
eiioeaioe?? A?I iaiaaeaea?a ?nio? ia’?eoeaia iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy
aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth (ANE) ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai
aaieo, ui aeicaieeoue caaacia/eoe nooe?eueio ?ioi?iaoe?eio i?aeo?eieo
ea??aieo ??oaiue ia iniia? ?ioaa?iaaii? aace aeaieo oa oi?o?eiaaio oi?io
iaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a eiio?ieueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy c oe?ieeie
iiaeeeainoyie ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey iaiaaeaea??a on?o ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy.

Caaaeuei? aeniiaee

1. I?ioeane o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie noi?iaiaeaeothoueny
?icaeoeii oa oaeineiiaeaiiyi ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. Aoaeoeaia
?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy o no/anieo oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, aaaeeeaith
ooieoe??th yeiai ? eiio?ieue. Aaaeeea?noue ? cia/ei?noue eiio?ieth
iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?yaeo eiai iniiaieo
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue, ye? o iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a
caeeoeeenue ia?ic?iaeaieie.

2. A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia ?nioaaei
caaaeueiii?eeiyoiai i?aeoiaeo aei aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a eiio?ieth a
oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaia
aeioe?euei?noue ?aae?caoe?? eiio?ieth a?aeiia?aeii aei eiioeaioe?e
oi?aae?iiy aaie?anueeei ii?ooaeai, ui aeicaieeei ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe o?e
a?oie i?aeoe/ii cia/eieo nenoaiieo ia’?eo?a, ye? aeicaieythoue
cae?enithaaoe nooe?eueia niinoa?aaeaiiy iia?aoe?e oi?ioaaiiy ?
?iciiae?eo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a oa e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?
aaieo.

3. Aaaaoianiaeoi?noue aaie?anueei? ae?yeueiino? aeiaaa? eiio?ieueiiai
niinoa?a-aeaiiy ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy ca aeiiiiiaith canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo oi?i, oei?a ? aeae?a eiio?ieth. O ca’yceo c a?aenooi?noth
iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?o oii?yaeeoaaiiy, ia
i?aenoaa? caaaeueieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue cai?iiiiiaaia ?o
nenoaiaoecaoe?y, ui aeicaiey? aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe caaea/? ? ia’?eoe
eiio?ieth oa iaa?oiooaaoe aeiiae aei eiai i?aai?caoe?? a eiia?oe?eiiio
aaieo.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy no/anii? ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a iieacaee, ui
a oe?eiio i?aai?caoe?y i?ioeano eiio?ieth a ieo aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe
niinoa?aaeaiiy iniiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? c iaoith i?eeiyooy
iaa?oioiaaieo ea??aieo ??oaiue. ?acii c oei, iaiao?aeii a?aei?oeoe, ui
eiio?ieueiee i?ioean a i?aeoeoe? oi?aae?iiy iineoue, ye i?aaeei,
neooaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, ui iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei noai?aiiy ? iiaoaeiae nenoaie aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai
eiio?ieth.

5. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoiaeieia?? oi?ioaaiiy
eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia
eeaneo?eaoe?y caaea/ o?iaianiaiai eiio?ieth, ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo aeicaiey?
aaeaeaaoii i?aaenoaaeoe ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieth ? anoaiiaeoe ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
ca’ycee i?ae eiai ia’?eoaie.

6. Oi?aae?iiy eiia?oe?eiei aaieii iio?aao? a?aooaaiiy ae??
aaaaoi/enaeueieo oaeoi??a, niinoa?aaeaiiy aeinoaoiuei aaeeei? e?eueeino?
ia’?eo?a oa oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe??. C
o?aooaaiiyi ca?oa?aeiiai ? a?o/eciyiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? eiio?ieth
a aaieao, ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoinoaaiiy oi?aae?inueei? oi?ie eiio?ieth ca
oeaio?aie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ui aeicaiey? aeiiiaieoe ?acoeueoaoe
o?iaianiaiai eiioi?ieth a?eueo oe?ieei eieii iieaciee?a.

7. ?icaeoie ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e c i???ioaoe??th ia noai?aiiy
aaoiiaoe-ciaaieo ?iai/eo i?noeue iaiaaeaea??a aeaa iiaeeea?noue
?ic?iaeoe a aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaeue aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth
(ANE). C iaoith i?aeoe/ii? ?? ?aae?caoe?? iaiao?aeiei ? nooo?aei ?
aeiaea?aeaiiy aecia/aii? oaoiieia?? oa ?aoe?iiaeueii? iiaoaeiae
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, oa?aeoa?enoeea yeeo iaaaaeaia a ?iaio?.
Canoinoaaiiy ANE a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a iioe?th?
iiaeeeaino? iia?aoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy eiio?ieueii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?aeaeuo?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? iaiaaeaea??a, yeei aeaeaaiaaia ooieoe?y
eiio?ieth, oa ye?noue i?eeiyooy ea??aieo ??oaiue.

8. Ocaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?aiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo a
aeena?oaoe?? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
eiio?ieth a nenoai? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo ? aoaea ni?eyoe
oaeineiiaeaiith oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a Oe?a?i?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CAeIAOAA*A CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Non?aeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae oa
i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy no/aniith e?aaeeoiith ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a. – E.: EAeOAO, 1997. — 222 n.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – ?icae?e 1.3. “Eiio?ieue a nenoai?
oi?aae?iiy e?aaeeoiith ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a”. (n.65-108).

A?ioth?a

2. Noneaeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. Aaoiiaoecaoeey aaieianeeo ?an/aoia. –
E.: Iauanoai “Ciaiea” Oe?aeiu, 1995. – 23 n.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – aecia/aiiy iaoiaeeee eiio?ieth
?ic?aooieiai-ieao?aeieo aeieoiaio?a a oiiaao ?o aaoiiaoeciaaiii?
ia?iaee a eiia?oe?eiiio aaieo.

Noaoo?

3. Non?aeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. Aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeee eiio?ieue o
nenoai? e?aaeeoiiai ?ecee- iaiaaeaeiaioo // O?iaine Oe?a?ie — 1998. —
? 6. — N.114-118.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei
eiio?ieth e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo.

4. Iaca?ae? A., Eiaaeue E. ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aioo??oiueiai
eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a Oe?a?ie. // A?niee EAeOAO. —
1998. — ?1. — N.12-17.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – ?ic?iaea i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe??
aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth.

5. Eiaaeue E.N. ?icaeoie ooieoe?? eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ye?noth
e?aaeeoiiai ii?ooaey eiia?oe?eiiai aaieo // Aoaeoeai?noue
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E.: EAeOAO, 1998.
– N.130-137.

6. Eiaaeue E.N. Eiio?ieuei? aniaeoe aaie?anueeiai ia?eaoeiao ia ?eieo
e?aaeeoieo iineoa // Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueia
iie?oeea: Oaoiaee ca. iaoe. noaoae E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. – E??iaia?aae: E?NI,1998.
Aei.5.-*.??. – N.143-145

7. Non?aeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. I?iaeaie e?aaeeoii? ae?yeueiino?
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a: no/aniee noai ? i?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. — 1997. —
Niaoe?aeueiee aeione ? 1. — N. 103-104.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue ca e?aaeeoaie
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

8. Non?aeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. Oi?aae?iiy e?aaeeoiei ?eceeii o nenoai?
aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo // Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e:
Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. – E.: EAeOAO, 1998. – N.151-154.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino?
iiia?aaeiueiai eiio?ieth e?aaeeoiiai ?eceeo.

9. Eiaaeue E.N. Aioo??oi?e eiio?ieue o nenoai? aaie?anueeiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo // Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie iaae?iaie/i? noa?e: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. – E.: EAeOAO, 1998. – N.252-255.

10. Non?aeaiei A.O., Eiaaeue E.N. ?aa?iiaeuei? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo
aaie?anueei? nenoaie a ?io?ano?oeoo?? o?iainiaiai ?eieo // A?niee
Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.-1998, —
Niaoe?aeueiee aeione ?6, N.90-92.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – aiae?c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy oi?ioaaiiyi
?ano?n?a ?aa?iiaeueieo eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a.

11. Eiaaeue E.N. I?aeoe/i? aniaeoe e?aaeeoii? ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a // Aoaeoeai?noue i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?: Ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. – E.: EAeOAO, 1998. – N.116-120.

12. Valentin Susidenko, Larisa Koval. Problems of credit activity of
commercial banks: modern condition and international experience –
1997. Special issue ? 2 /Materials of the international conference –
The problems of economic integration of Ukraine into the European
Union: microeconomic aspects. — P. 74-76.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa – ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
eiio?ieueiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aeeiiaiiyi e?aaeeo?a c o?aooaaiiyi
i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo.

Aiioaoe?y

Eiaaeue E.N. Nenoaia eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo
aaie?a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 — i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa
ia?eaoeia. — Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii?
ae?yeuei?noth eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a a oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue a
Oe?a?i?. Ia i?aenoaa? iaeyaeo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a c ieoaiue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/ai? aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
eiio?ieth, ye ooieoe?? aaie?anueeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, ui iio?aaothoue ?o
i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaai? ia’?eoeaia
iaiao?aei?noue, ci?no ? i?noea eiio?ieth a oi?aae?ii? ae?yeuei?noth
eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a, ?icaeyioo? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
ia’?eo?a eiio?ieth ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia ?o aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y a?aeiia?aeii aei
eiioeaioe?? aaie?anueeiai ii?ooaey. Nenoaiaoeciaai? ?nioth/? oi?ie,
oeie ? aeaee eiio?ieth. I?iaaaeai? aiae?c ? ioe?iea noaio eiio?ieth oa
eiai i?aeoe/ia i?aai?caoe?y a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao, c?iaeaiee aeniiaie
i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy eiai aoaeoeaiino?. Aecia/ai? i?eioeeie ?
aoaie noai?aiiy nenoaie aioo??oiueiaaie?anueeiai eiio?ieth, eiai caaea/?
uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, ii?yaeie oa oi?ia
ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea eiio?ieth ca
i?eioeeiii aeaeaaoaaiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue oa iaoiaee ?aae?caoe??
oi?aae?inueei? oi?ie eiio?ieth ca oeaio?aie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.
?ic?iaeaia eiioeaiooaeueia iiaeaeue aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie eiio?ieth ia
iniia? no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aei canoinoaaiiy a eiia?oe?eieo aaieao
i.A?iieoe?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaie?anueeee iaiaaeaeiaio, ooieoe?y eiio?ieth, nenoaia
eiio?ieth, ?ioi?iaoe?eia oaoiieia?y eiio?ieth.

Aiiioaoeey

Eiaaeue E.N. Nenoaia eiio?iey a oi?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoueth
eiiia?/aneeo aaieia.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 – i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia.- Eeaaneee ainoaea?noaaiiue oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao,
Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth i?iaeai eiio?iey a oi?aaeaiee
aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiia?/aneeo aaieia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee
a Oe?aeia. Ia iniiaa iaci?a iao/iuo o?oaeia ioa/anoaaiiuo e ca?oaaaeiuo
aaoi?ia ii aii?inai oaiu enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeaiu aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
eiio?iey eae ooieoeee aaieianeiai iaiaaeaeiaioa, eioi?ua o?aaotho eo
i?aeoe/aneiai ?aoaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaiu iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue, niaea?aeaiea e
ianoi eiio?iey a oi?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoueth eiiia?/aneeo aaieia,
?anniio?aiu iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu e ii?aaeaeaieth iauaeoia eiio?iey e
?aeiiaiaeiaaia eo aeeooa?aioeeaoeey a niioaaonoaee n eiioeaioeeae
aaieianeiai ii?ooaey. Nenoaiaoece?iaaiu nouanoaothuea oi?iu, oeiu e
aeaeu eiio?iey. I?iaaaeaiu aiaeec e ioeaiea ninoiyiey eiio?iey e aai
i?aeoe/aneay i?aaiecaoeey a eiia?/aneeo aaieao, naeaeai auaiae i
iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiauoaiey aai yooaeoeaiinoe. Ii?aaeaeaiu i?eioeeiu e
yoaiu nicaeaiey nenoaiu aioo?eaaieianeiai eiio?iey, aai caaea/e,
ii?yaeie e oi?ia iaiauaiey ?acoeueoaoia. I?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea eiio?iey
ii i?eioeeio aeaeaae?iaaiey iieiiii/ee e iaoiaeu ?aaeecaoeee
oi?aaeia/aneie oi?iu eiio?iey ii oeaio?ai ioaaonoaaiiinoe. ?ac?aaioaia
eiioeaiooaeueiay iiaeaeue aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu eiio?iey ia iniiaa
nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou
enneaaeiaaiey ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu e i?eiaiaieth a eiiia?/aneeo aaieao a.
Aeiieoeu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaieianeee iaiaaeaeiaio, ooieoeey eiio?iey, nenoaia
eiio?iey, eioi?iaoeeiiiay oaoiieiaey eiio?iey.

Annotation

Koval L.S.- Control System in Management of Commercial Banks activity. –
Manuscript.

The dissertation for a candidate’s degree of economic sciences in
08.06.02 speciality – enterprise, management, marketing. The Kyiv State
University of Trade and Economics, Kyiv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the problems of control in management of
commercial banks activity in economic transformation conditions in
Ukraine. The actual problems of control as a function of bank management
which require their practical solution are defined in the work on the
basis of practical revision of scientific works in our country and
abroad.

Proceeding from the specific character of a commercial bank in which the
functions of financial intermediary are inherent and as an enterprising
structure the main principles of which is risk and receiving of the
highest possible profit, the objective necessity, content and place of
control of commercial banks activity are substantiated in the
dissertation.

The content and place of control in the banking management system is
defined on the basis of commercial banks functions and principles of
their activity. A number of methodical approaches to the definition of
the objects for control, in particular, in accordance with the principle
of private capital maximizing (values maximizing), in accordance with
the result management, with the help of “evaluation of the key
branches”, on the basis of management with the banking portfolio
(balance) are considered in the dissertation.

Taking into consideration advantages and disadvantages of all the
mentioned above methods the approach based on the conception of banking
portfolio management (balance) is considered the most expedient. Three
groups of control objects-integral, key and for special purpose are
chosen on the basis of this conception. They permit to realize control
over the operations of formation and distribution of resources by means
of profitability and liquidity. The forms, types and kinds of control
in banks management activity are systematized in the work. On the basis
of general management theory differentiation of forms for organizational
and of content is proposed in the work.

External and internal control is an organizational form of control.
Financial, managerial, administrative, quality and marketing control is
a content form. Strategic, tactical and operative control is a type of
control. Preliminary, subsequent and final control is defined as a kind
of control. The conclusion about the necessity of intensifying its role
is reached in the work as a result of investigation of practical control
aspects. It depends on increasing the volume of banks operations and
services, on complication of banks work in national economic
transformation conditions and on necessity of improving the commercial
banks management system. The drawbacks are defined on the basis of
analysis of control process and realization of its three stages with
management of commercial banks activity. The principal drawbacks are the
following: lack of organization control system of supervision,
unregulating of information base and summarizing the receive data as a
result of management decision-making control.

Taking into consideration the mentioned above problems in realization
the control function in management of banking activity the ways of
improving its efficiency are stated in the work. Creation of control
system within the bank is recommended as one of them. It corresponds to
the international standards of banking activity regulation. It is a
problem of to-day for Ukrainian commercial banks in conditions of
intensifying competition on the banking services market, of regulating
restrictions by banking supervision bodies, instability of macroeconomic
situation in the state and of high risks level.

Two possible methodical approaches to organizing the control system are
proposed in the dissertation. The first one is the creation of a
separate internal control service, which could summarize control
information about banking operations and activity results. The second
one is more expedient for ukrainian commercial banks.

It is based on the principle of delegating control powers to the
managers of structural subdivisions. Taking into consideration these two
methodical approaches the report forms of summarizing the control
information for management are worked out and proposed in the work.
Administrative form of control on the basis of organizing responsibility
centers side by side with financial control is proposed in the work for
increasing control efficiency.

It affords to realize control supervision for the purpose of forming
control information according to indices of management objects on a
large scale. According to the results of research we came to the
conclusion that control efficiency is defined not only by completely and
reliably formed control information, but by the effectiveness of its
receiving.

Taking it into consideration the pattern of automatized control system
on the basis of the present informative technologies is proposed in the
dissertation. It gives the possibility to increase the control function
efficiency by operative processing of data and informative support of
administrative decision-making. The principal results of the research
are introduced into administrative activity of commercial banks in
Vinnitsa.

Key words: banking management, control function, control system,
informative technology control.

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