Щастя в етичній концепції ‘Конкордизму’ Володимира Винниченка: Автореф. дис… канд. філос. наук / Н.І. Гусак, Київ. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. — К., 1999.

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

AONAE Iaae?y ?aai?aia

OAeE 17. 03 (477)

UANOss A AOE*I?E EIIOeAIOe??

“EIIEI?AeECIO” AIEIAeEIE?A AEIIE*AIEA

niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.07 – aoeea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ia
eaoaae?? aoeee, anoaoeee ? eoeueoo?ieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaeoeueea
Ieaenaiae?a ?aai?aia; Ee?anueeee ?inoeooo oo?ecio, aeiiii?ee ? i?aaa,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?einio?? ? nioe?aeueieo aeenoeeie?i

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iaeaoia A?eoi? A?iiiae/; ?inoeooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?iai?
A.Neiai?iaee, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

– eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio E?aniiaa Iaey Ieo?ioai?aia;
Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee

iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?nenoao ?iai?
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?einio??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “20” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 15.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.28 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252001, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eo/a?the Ae.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe? OO noie?ooy c on??th
aino?ioith ? neeaaei?noth iinoa? i?iaeaia cieeiaiiy ? ?icieooy aaaaoueio
ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae ? eaoaai??e. Ia ceai? a?e?a na?aeii?noue i?ae
ao?a/a? cae?ai?noue i?ioenoaaeyoe ? ?ic??ciyoe oa, ui ?ai?oa ?nioaaei ia
??cieo iiethnao. Aacii?aaei?noue ii?aeueiiai aacaeo?aeaey no/anii?
neooaoe??, ia yeo /ano?oa aeacothoue no/ani? eoeueoo?ieiae e aoeee,
iieyaa? o o?eaeiio ia?aaeienaeueiiio nieao?ii? aaniethoii ianoi?nieo
oaiiiai?a ye na?aeiiino?, oae ? ii?aeueiino?: c iaeiiai aieo,
aeaaaeueaaoe?y aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, iaaeia??a aei a?eiaeo aoiai?noe/ieo
e?eoa???a aoooy, eaae?noue ? niieoneea?noue i?ioean?a ?aeaieia?caoe?? oa
ii?ae?coaaiiy ?, aiaeii/an, c ?ioiai – iano?eia oyae?iiy aei iiaeo
ii?aeueieo ia/ae, iai?oaeai?noue aaeainoaaiiy ia iaae? einiino ? oaino
ii?aeueiiai aeeooy. O oae? ia?aeiii? iiiaioe cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny
?ioa?an aei i?iaeai “aioo??oiuei?” ethaeeie – naino ?nioaaiiy, ??
aa?iii?? ? uanoy.

Iaea?eueo aino?i i?iaeaia aio?ii?? aoe/ieo ia/ae aeooae?coaaea naaa a
e?oa?aoo??, ioaea, caeiiii??ii aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o caa?iaii? aei
e?oa?aoo?iiai i?ioeano OO noie?ooy naia a aniaeo? aeyaeaiiy ? inieneaiiy
o oai?/ino? ??cieo ooaeiaeiee?a nenoaie ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae ?
aio?iiieia?/ieo i?iaeai. O oeueiio a?aeiioaii? iaeiei c iaeoe?eaa?oeo
ia??iae?a a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ? ii/aoie noie?ooy. A?aeiiee
ye “aeiaa oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”, a?i i?aaenoaaey? iaaaeyeee
?ioa?an aeey aaaaoueio aaeocae a?o/eciyii? iaoee.

A aoeei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio eiioaeno? oeae ia??iae iicia/aiee ii?aeueiei
eaoa?nenii, iiaith ii?aeueiith ia?eiao??th, ui iaoiiaeea o?aaaae?th
iniaenoino? ? o?aaaae?th a/eieo. Naia a?aeoai?aiiyi ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi oeo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a Oe?a?i? o 20-eo ?ieao, iicia/eany aoai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, yeee ?icii/aany c iaaoooyi
iacaeaaeiino?. Iiaeeeai /a?ac oea caaaeaia aeiaa i?eaa?ioea aei naaa
oaaao ioae?oeeno?a, ?noi?ee?a, o?einio?a, ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?a, ye?
iaeiinoaeii a?aecia/aee, ui oa iniaeeaa aeooiaia aoiinoa?a ?
iaaecae/aeiee ?ioa?an aei ethaenueei? iniaenoino? noi?ioaaee ia ii/aoeo
noie?ooy iaaia aeooiaii-ii?aeuei?nia yaeua, yea iii?oii aieeaaei ?
i?iaeiaaeo? aieeaaoe ia ??ci? noa?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy. Ia iao
iiaeyae, ianoaa /an aea/aiiy oeueiai oa?o eoeueoo?e, inai?iiy eiai
o?einionueei-aoe/ieo oe?iiinoae.

Iaei??th c yne?aaeo ? oaeaiiaeoeo iinoaoae oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e OO
noie?ooy, ui c iniaeeaith iiaiioith a?aeaeea oa?aeoa? aeiae, ??
ii?aeueii-anoaoe/i? iiooee, iaea?eueo aino?i a?ae/oea nooue o?aaaae?? –
ia?iaeaeaiiy iiaiai ii?aeueiiai eaoa?neno – ? ii?ooeea ieoaiiy i?i
i?e?iaeo oa o?einio?th uanoy, aoea iinoaoue Aieiaeeie?a Aeiie/aiea, yeee
ii?aeiaa o nia? i?eoaiaiio nai?io iieie?iith a??o o aeinyaiaiiy
nioe?aeueii? aa?iii?? c iiooeii i?e/ei iaaeineiiaeino? no/aniiai aeeooy.
Oea i?eaaei ienueiaiieea aei oi?ioaaiiy aeanii? eiioeaioe?? oe?ii?niiai
aei??o ethaeeie ? aoaeoaaiiy uaneeaiai aoooy ia canaaeao aa?iii?eii?
aca?iiae?? iniaenoino? ? noni?euenoaa, aeeaeiii? aioo??oiuei? ei?aeyoe??
ii?aeueiiai ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie c aeoeaii aieeaath/eie ia ia?
i?aena?aeiieie aaaeaiiyie ? ia/aeaie aoooy.

Iinoaoue A.Aeiie/aiea ye a?aeiiiai ae?aiaoo?aa ? noia?a/eeaiai iie?oeea
o ??ci? /ane aeeeeeaea ?ioa?an aeine?aeiee?a, iaeiae eiai
o?einionueei-aoe/i? iiaeyaee ? ooeaiiy eeoaeeny, caeaa?eueoiai, iica
oaaaith: ?o aeeaeiia nooue, ia iao iiaeyae, e aeioaia? ? iaaeinoaoiuei
aena?oeaiith. I?iaeaia aeania ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae ? uanoy, cie?aia, ia
aoea niaoe?aeueiei i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Iaea?eueo ia?aaeienaeueiei ?
oa, ui, ia caaaeath/e ia aaaaoia?aiio iiioey?i?noue Aeiie/aiea ia
ii/aoeo noie?ooy, a ia?oo /a?ao ye “ii?ae?noa”, ienueiaiieea ?
a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a, ia cia/io e?euee?noue ioae?eaoe?e noiniaii oe???
iniaenoino?, a?i oae ? caeeoa?oueny ia aei e?ioey c?icoi?eith ?
aea/aiith iinoaooth.

?iaioe i?i Aeiie/aiea iineee, ia?aaaaeii, ?noi?eei-e?oa?aoo?iee oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee oa?aeoa?, oi/a ? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ia iiaeia o
iiai?e i??? aiai?eoe i?i ia’?eoeai?noue ? i?ioan?ei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue
20-o ?ie?a /a?ac ?nioth/o aaea oiae? “iie?oecaoe?th”
e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo yaeu ? i?ioean?a. E?oa?aoo?ia e?eoeea
iaiaaaeany c’ynoaaoe ia?aaeon?i i?noea ienueiaiieea ia “eeania?e ea?o?”.
O anyeiio ?ac? naia c oeeo i?e/ei “Niiy/ia Iaoeia” Aeiie/aiea noaea
ia’?eoii e?oa?aoo?ii? aeeneon?? 1925 – 1928 ??. C iie?oe/iith
i???ioaoe??th iia’ycoaaeeny ? oai?/ee iaoiae ienueiaiieea, ? eiai
ii?aeueii-aoe/i? ooeaiiy.

Uiaei inoaii?o, ?o, caeaa?eueoiai, iiynithaaee “?aeaieia?/ieie
aeoeaiiyie” (A.Ia/a?ia) ? “ii?aaiethoe?eiei oiaaeieoeoaii”, aeanoeaei
ienueiaiieeai ao?aeoacii-?aaiethoe?eii? ?ioae??aioe?? (A.??/eoeueeee).
Aeania o?einionueei-aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ?nioaaei, oi/a i?iaeaie
ii?aeueii? o?einio?? o oai?/ino? Aeiie/aiea, ye a?aeiii, oe?eaaeee eiai
no/aniee?a, na?aae yeeo E.A?aaaaeei, A.Yi?/aeia, I.Ai?ueeee, N.?o?aiia,
I.Ca?ia, A.Eai?i, A.Eueaia-?iaa/aanueeee, ?.Naaioe?oeueeee,
I.N??aeyinueeee, ?.O?aiei, I.O?enothe oa ?i. ?o ?iaioe, c?icoi?ei, ia
aoee iaeiicia/ieie o nai?o oa?aeoa?enoeeao iioeaaoe?? Aeiie/aieiaeo
ooeaiue, iaeaea an? aiie a?aecia/athoueny noia?a/eea?noth,
iaiine?aeiai?noth ?, iiaeaeoaee, aee?eaeaiiyi na?oiaeyaeo ooaeiaeieea.
Iaeiae, iaa?oue oae? ni?iae ocaaaeueithth/eo aeine?aeaeaiue ia iaee
i?iaeiaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?, iicaye c ii/aoeo 30-o ? aei e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a
nooi?iue aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iiai i?aai?cio ia
aeicaieya ii?ooeoe oe? i?iaeaie.

Aeiie/aieiciaanoai, ia?aaeon?i ye aaeocue e?oa?aoo?iciaa/i? iaoee,
?nioaaei eeoa ca ei?aeiiii ? ?icaeaaeiny ca iaaiith o?aaeeoe??th –
aeeneon?eia oi?ia aeii?ioaaea o aeine?aeaeaiiyo oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea.
Iiaee aniaeo iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy eiai oai?/i? niaaeueie –
o?einionueei-aoe/iee, iniiaiiieiaeieeii yeiai ? A.Einothe, – ?icii/aany
c e?ioey 40-o ?ie?a, eiee Aeiie/aieii aoei cae?eniaii “nainaoe?eiee
aeeeaae” aeanii? eiioeaioe?? aoaeoaaiiy uanoy (I?aaa, 1937?.) ? aeaeaii
ia?oee ?? ienoaoeueeee aa??aio – iie?oe/ii-o?einionueeee ?iiai “Iiaa
Caiia?aeue” (Ia?eae, 1949?.). ?icii/aeany iieai?ea, o ye?e acyee o/anoue
? ?a?iiaenueea e?oa?aoo?ia e?eoeea, ? oe?iea eiei oe?a?inueei?
ai???aoe??. I.Aa?anaae/, O.Aoi/ae, Ae.Aona?-No?oe, O.Eiacae, A.Einothe,
?.Eauee, ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee, I.Iieueia?, N.Iaoiiae/, E.Iieoeaae/,
N.Iiai??eee, A.?aaooeueeee, I.Oa?iaanueea, I.Oeaieaae/ – iaiiaiee
ia?ae?e oeo, eiai oe?eaaeei o?einionueei-aoe/ia iaaeaaiiy Aeiie/aiea ?
oaeethaaea eiai iiaeaeueoa aeiey. Iaeiae niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oae ? ia c’yaeeiny: na?aae aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?iaeai (iie?oii?ci
e?eoeee, aecia/aiiy Aeiie/aiea ye “noia?a/eeai?” iaoo?e noaaeee i?ae
noii?a aeioe?euei?noue aiai?eoe i?i aoaeue-yeo eia?/io nenoaio oa
???a?o?th oe?iiinoae a oe?eiio) iaeaieiai?oith neeaaei?noth o aea/aii?
ii?aeueii? o?einio?? ienueiaiieea aoei oa, ui o?einionueeee aei?iaie
eiai (aeeth/ath/e inoaii? ?iiaie) oae ? ia aoa aeaeaiee.

“?aaa?e?oaoe?y” ienueiaiieea a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aeany iai?ee?ioe? 80-o
?ie?a c iiyaith ia?en?a ? aeine?aeaeaiue caaaeueiii?ciaaaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? caiiai “a?aee?eaaee” Aeiie/aiea aeey iaoi? eoeueoo?e
(?.Aecaaa??i I.AEoeeinueeee, I.Oaae/aiei). Inoaii?i /anii c’yaeythoueny
e?oa?aoo?iciaa/? ?iaioe, aea oai?/?noue ienueiaiieea (oa /e ?ioa ??
i?iaeaiaoeea) ?icaeyaea?oueny o caaaeueiiio ?one? aeii?ioth/eo
o?einionueeeo ?aeae no/anii? eiio aeiae (O.Aoiaei?iaa, N.Ieoeaea,
E.Ii?ic, A.Iai/aiei, A.Neaa/aiei). Iaeiae an? aiie eieae?cothoueny
iaoa??aeii, ui ia aeeth/a? ai???aoe?eiee ia??iae (1925–1951??.). Ia iao
iiaeyae, oeae ia??iae ia? iaai? iniaeeaino? ? a?aecia/a?oueny ye ie?aiee
aoai oai?/i? aaiethoe?? ienueiaiieea.

Ia’?eoii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeania o?einionueei-aoe/iee aei?iaie
ienueiaiieea ia??iaeo inoaiiuei? ai???aoe??, yeee, i?ioa,
?icaeyaea?oueny o caaaeueiiio ?one? on??? aaeeei?
e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeueei? niaaeueie Aeiie/aiea, a i?aaeiaoii – eaoaai??y
uanoy a eiai ii?aeueii-aoe/i?e nenoai? “Eiiei?aeecio”.

Ana aeuacacia/aia ? iaoiiaeei ia?aiiy oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, uia, inieneeaoe oe?ii?nio cia/ou?noue
aoe/ieo eaoaai??e ii?aeueii-o?einionueei? nenoaie Aeiie/aiea,
i?iaiae?coaaoe ? aecia/eoe no?oeoo?o aeanii? eiioeaioe?? uanoy
oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieea.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? ?c iinoaaeaiith iaoith ia?aaeaa/a?oueny ?ica’ycaoe
oae? caaaeaiiy:

– ae/eaieoe niaoeeo?eo, aeii?iaioe oa o?aaeeoe?? ?icaeoeo i?iaeaie uanoy
a ?noi??? aoe/ii? aeoiee, ui noaei i?aea?oioyi aeey oi?ioaaiiy
Aeiie/aieiai? eiioeaioe?? uanoy;

– c’ynoaaoe eeth/ia? i?iaeaie, ye? iaoiiaeee ci?no ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo
ooeaiue o aeeoo? ? oai?/ino? ieooey;

– aecia/eoe i??o aieeao i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeai?o ia na?oiaeyaeio
i???ioaoe?th A.Aeiie/aiea, iieacaoe oa?aeoa? oa i?eioeeie aca?iica’yceo
ii?aeueii-o?einionueei? i?iaeaiaoeee oai??a oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieea c
eiai a/eieaie ye iie?oe/iiai ae?y/a ? a?iiaaeyieia;

– ?ice?eoe nooi?noue neeaaeiaeo /eiiee?a aoe/ii? eiioeaioe??
ienueiaiieea o nenoai? ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, cie?aia eaoaai??? uanoy,
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiai oai?/ee aianie o iaoe?iiaeueio o?einionueeo
eoeueoo?o.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaoaeiaaia ia
?iaioao caaaeueii-oai?aoe/iiai ? eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ye?
noinothoueny noa?e o?einio??, aoeee ? e?oa?aoo?iciaanoaa. Aeey
?ica’ycaiiy ie?aneaieo aeua caaaeaiue ? aeinyaiaiiy caaaeueii? iaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioea nie?aeany ia ooaeiaeith, ioae?oeenoe/io oa
ai?noiey?io niaaeueio A.Aeiie/aiea, a?o?ai? iaoa??aee oa uiaeaiieeia?
caiene, ui caa??aathoueny o Aaoiaoue?anueeiio A?o?a? Eieoia?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo NOA, ia e?oa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/i? oa o?einionuee? ?iaioe
oe?a?inueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo.

Iaoiaeieia?/iei no?eaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaea na?oiaa o?einionueea
niaaeueia, aea i?iaeaia uanoy ni?aa?aeiineoueny c iiooeii aa?iii?? oa
??aiiaaae. Aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey aeena?oaoe?? iaee
o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? oai?aie
I.Aa?aey?aa, N.Aiaoa?, O.I?oeoa, C.O?aeaea, AE.-I.Na?o?a oa ?i.
Iia?oi?ie i???ioe?aie neoaoaaee i?aoe? no/anieo o?einio?a –
A.Aaeooaiianueeiai, ?.Ae/ea, A.A?aea?a, A.Ai?nueeiai, A.Aonaeiiaa,
?.Eiia, ?.Eaueea, I.Eaaeoeueei?, I.Eoea, A.Iaeaoiaa. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith o?einionueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo aenooiathoue
?iaioe I.Aaoo?ia, I.Ca?iaa, E.Eaa/oe, O.Aoiaei?iai?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeaii? ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui o i?e aia?oa
i?aeaea?oueny aiae?co o?einionueei-aoe/iee aei?iaie A.Aeiie/aiea, o oiio
/ene? iaaeaeai? o?einionuee? o?aeoaoe “Uanoy: Eenoe aei thiaea” (1930) ?
“Eiiei?aeeci – nenoaia aoaeoaaiiy uanoy” (1938 – 1948), ?iaeoueny ni?iaa
cae?enieoe nenoaiia aeine?aeaeaiiy eeth/iai? i?iaeaie ii?aeueii-aoe/ii?
na?oiaeyaeii? ia?aaeeaie – i?iaeaie uanoy – o oai?/ino? oe?a?inueeiai
ienueiaiieea, a oi?ioaaiiy aoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? ieooey inieneth?oueny,
ii-ia?oa, o na?oe? eiiieaenii? i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeai?o ?, ii-ae?oaa,
o eiioaeno? iiaea?i?noe/ii? o?einio?? a oe?eiio; ia i?eeeaae? inoaii?o
?iiai?a ienueiaiieea iieacaii i?ioean ooaeiaeiueiai a?aeoai?aiiy eiai
aoe/ii? eiioeaioe??.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe eiie?aoecothoueny o oaeeo iieiaeaiiyo
? aeniiaeao:

– aecia/a?oueny ieiueia, a ye?e iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i “o?einio?th aeeooy”
I?oeoa o eiioaeno? na?oiaeyaeii? i???ioaoe?? Aeiie/aiea. Na?aae
aaaaoueio aniaeo?a, ui aeicaieythoue i?iaanoe ia?aeaeue i?ae oeeie
aeaiia iinoaoyie (e?eoeea o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?, aenia?eiaioaeueiee
oa?aeoa? oai?/ino?, ?aeay aaniethoii? /aniino?, ooaa ca ?aeaaeueiei
noni?euenoaii) oeaio?aeueia i?noea iin?aea? “ia?aioe?iea oe?iiinoae”,
yea, iaeiae, o Aeiie/aiea iaaoea nai?? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, /a?ac ui ?
?ica?i/aiiy iei o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? iaei ?ioo i?e?iaeo, ia iia’ycaio
i? c ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/iith o?einio??th I?oeoa, i? c i?e/aoiith aei ia?
?aea?th ii?aeueiiai i?a?e?cio. Eiai ii?aeueiee i?eioeei “/aniino? c
niaith”, oyaeaiiy i?i “aeueo ethaeae” aeieeee ye iio?aei? cacia/aii?
“oi?ioee” aeooiaiiai ia?aa?ao noie?oue, aea aoee, aiaeii/an, i?iaeoeoii
aeanieo iiooe?a ?noeie oa aa?iii?? ? ??cieeeny a?ae “iaoiaeo” I?oeoa,
eiai Iaaeethaeeie, ia?aaeon?i, nai?ie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie;

– oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo ienueiaiieea, cie?aia oyaeaiiy i?i nain aeeooy
? uanoy, iiaea?oueny o eiioaeno? iiaea?i?noe/ii? o?einio?? ?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye eiiieaenia i?iaeaia ii?aeueiiai aeai?o. Aea??
Aeiie/aiea, aeeoo?aee ? a?iiaaeyinueeee (o oiio /ene? ? ye iie?oe/iiai
ae?y/a), aeaoa?i?iiaaiee eiai ia?enenonueeeie oiiaeiaaiiyie, ye? caiaeii
aea?aoaaeeny o na?aeii?noue ye iaaia aoe/ia i??y, ui ao?ethaaea ?aeaae
naiaiaee – “anaa?/ia aecaieaiiy”. Oea ni?inoiao? iaeiicia/i?noue
oa?aeoa?enoee “i?ieeai?” ? “iaiaaii?” iniaenoino? Aeiie/aiea ?
aei?aaaeiao? ?? aecia/aiiy ye i?aaenoaaieea oeio “aoeee e?ioeaai? iaoe”;
aiaeii/an, o aeani?e iiaeae? aaeineiiaeaiiy ethaenoaa, a?i i?aai?/ii
ii?aeiaa nai? nioe?aeuei? ? iie?oe/i? ?aeaaee c iiaea?iith o?einio??th;

– i?iaeaie naiaiaee, aeai?o, aa?iii??, ye? ii?oooaaa o nai?o oai?ao
ienueiaiiee, ia eeoa i?iaeiaaeothoue o?aaeeoe??
aoiai?noe/ii-aecenoaioe?aeueii? o?einio??, aea ? caaaa/othoue ?o,
iaiiaieaoenue nioe?aeueiei ci?noii. Aeoeaiooth/e ia cia/ouino?
nioe?aeueii? caeaaeiino? ethaeeie – “/ani?noue c niaith iaeii/anii ?
/ani?noth c ?ioeie”, – Aeiie/aiei aeaiaeeoue ?c noa?e aano?aeoe??
eaoaai??aeueio aeeoioii?th “ss – ?ioee” ?, cai?iaaaeeaoe ye
aecenoaioe?aeueio eaoaai??th ocaiaeaeaiiy ethaenueei? ni?eueiioe
(“?inoeieo a?iiaaenueeino?”), aeoiaeeoue ia ??aaiue ?a?iiaenueeiai
aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo, aea iaeaeeae/a aei i?iaeai oaeiai ?iaeo noiyee
o?aioeocuee? aecenoaioe?ae?noe;

– o ?iaio? ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaa?oiooaaiiy aeciaiiy, ui a
oe?a?inuee?e eoeueoo?? ii/aoeo noie?ooy Aeiie/aiei ? ieooeai, iaea?eueoa
iia’ycaiei c ineoiaiae?oe/iei a/aiiyi C.O?aeaea. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ienueiaiieea c aa?iyie eiai aeanieo oai??a, /a?ac yeo
a?aeaoaaany i?ioean “naiiaeoiaoaaiiy” Aeiie/aiea o ii?aeueii-aoe/iiio
ieai?. Iaoiaeii ni?anoaaeaiiy aaoi?a ? e?oa?aoo?ieo aa?i?a (o
ineoiaiae?oe/iiio ?icoi?ii?) aeaoaeiao?oueny ? aiae?co?oueny
aeueoa?iaoeaia eaoaai??y “?inoeieo – iiaee ii?aeueiee i?eioeei” i?ae
eooii ci?o i?iaeaie ethaenueeiai uanoy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
?icoeo?iao?oueny aeii?iaioa ci?noo ii?aeueii? eoeueoo?e a oai?/ino?
Aeiie/aiea, yea aecia/a?oueny ?ooii o iai?yieo aei a?/ieo ?noei;

– aia?oa o eiioaeno? aea/aiiy aaiethoe?? aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a Aeiie/aiea
?icaeyaea?oueny oae caaia “o?aioeocueea aeiaa” – inoaii?e ia??iae aeeooy
? oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea a ai?a?aoe??, ia??iae naiioiino? ? ia?aioe?iie,
eiee eiioeaioe?y “oai?aiiy uanoy” iaaoea oe?e?niino? ? caaa?oaiino? e
ae?inea o oai??th; a?aecia/a?oueny, ui na?oiaeyaeia ia?aaeeaia
Aeiie/aiea i?aai?/ii ni?eeiyea ?iae?enueeo o?einionueeo o?aaeeoe?th ?
caaaa/oaaeany ciaiiyie AEeai? Aoeee, aiae?co?oueny iaiiaiai?noue
i?eioeeio “/aniino? c niaith” /a?ac i?ecio anacaaaeueii? ?aeiino?,
??aiiaaae ? anaioiiethth/iai aoiai?cio aoaeaeenonueei? o?einio??;

– eeth/iaei aeo?aeiei iiiaioii o iai??ao Aeiie/aiea noai?eoe nenoaio
aoaeoaaiiy uanoy aoei “a?aee?eooy” iei oiai, ui ?nio? “aeina?ae uanoy”:
caaaeyee niiaaaeai a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy uaneeaeo
ieoo?ainoae. Eiai eiioeaioe?y oai?aiiy uanoy yaey? niaith i?ioean ?iaioe
iaae aeaniith iniaeno?noth, naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, ? aeinyaa?oueny
a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith iiaaae?iee. O iaaeao aiae?co Aeiie/aieiai?
“eiiei?aeenonueei?” nenoaie oeoia/aoueny oae? iniiaiiieiaei? iiiyooy ye
??aiiaaaa, iiaiioa ? oe?e?ni?noue aoooy, i?iaeaie eioaiiy, oethao,
ae?oiia?iaeaeaiiy aena?oeththoueny /a?ac i?ecio eaoaai??? “?inoeieo –
?icoi”, i?aaeea iiaaae?iee ?icaeyaeathoueny o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aei
aeaniiai noeeth aeeooy ienueiaiieea, a ?aae?caoe?y ?aea? uanoy – ye
o?einionueeee ia?ac eiai oai?/ino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ni?eythoue iiaeeaeaiith inai?iiy oa
aea/aiiy aeooiaii? niaaeueie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e naia a
aoeei-eoeueoo?ieia?/iiio ?? aniaeo?, iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?eueo
iiaii ? ia’?eoeaii oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe oaeo aeaeaoio ?, a oie aea /an,
neeaaeio, iaei aea/aio iinoaoue A.Aeiie/aiea, c?icoi?oe, /ei coiiaeaii
caa?iaiiy aei oaie uanoy, ioe?ieoe ci?no eiai o?einionueei-aoe/iiai
aei?iaeo ?, ia?aoo?, aecia/eoe i?noea oa ?ieue eiai oai??? o caa?aaeaii?
e iiiaeaii? aaaeaiii?noe/ii? o?aaeeoe?? a ?noi??? aoe/ii? aeoiee.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeeeaaea/aie aoc?a ?
oe?e aeey ?ic?iaee eo?n?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a?o/eciyii? o?einio?? oa
eoeueoo?e, eo?no ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e OO noie?ooy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? cae?enithaaeany o aeiiia?aeyo oa
iia?aeiieaiiyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “I?iaeaie
nioe?aeueieo ? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe” (Ieeiea?a, 1996), “Aei? iaoee”
o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, 1996), “Aoeea oa anoaoeea a no?oeoo?? no/aniiai
aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy” (Ee?a, 1997), aeniiaee ?iaioe iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aoeee, anoaoeee oa eoeueoo?ieia?? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, 1998), ia
iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/ieo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?ieia??
Neia’yinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo (Neia’yinuee, 1998)
oa ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? Aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie (Ee?a,
1998), aeei?enoiaoaaeeny i?ae /an /eoaiiy eaeoe?e c ?noi??? eoeueoo?e ia
aeiiii?/iiio oaeoeueoao? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo, a oaeiae aoee
i?aaenoaaeai? a aaoi?nueeeo ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia aioo??oiueith eia?eith ?ice?eooy oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oa?aeoa?ii i?aaeiaoo, ui aea/a?oueny, a oaeiae iaoith oa
caaaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/a?oueny ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe,
?ice?eaa?oueny ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
a?aeia?aaea?oueny ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

IA?OEE ?ICAe?E “Aoeei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ia i?aea?oioy oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeaie
uanoy o A.Aeiie/aiea” ? iaaiei iaoiaeieia?/iei ooiaeaiaioii ? o
eiioaeno? caaaeueiiai aena?oeaiiy oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiio?
aeiiii?aeio ?ieue. O iueiio ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oai??? uanoy ye
iaaia noia?ia oaiaeaioe?y, caaaeueia i???ioaoe?y ?icaeoeo aeaii?
i?iaeaie a ?noi??? aoe/ii? aeoiee. Caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?eei-o?einionueei?
o?aaeeoe?? aeicaiey? noi?ioaaoe oa “o?einionueea i?aeniiiy”, o yeiio
aec??aaea aeania aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y Aeiie/aiea, ? i?iaiae?coaaoe eiai
oai??th ii?ae? ? uanoy – ye o ?? caniiaeao, oae ? aioo??oi?e ?? ci?no.

Iaoa ni?iaa ae?noaoeny noo? oae?oe?oieia?? ye iaei??? c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
noa? inieneaiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
iniiaiith ?? i?iaeaiith ? iiooe ??aiiaaae i?ae iniaeno?nii cia/ouei
oa?aeoa?ii uanoy ? eiai aoe/iith ia’?eoeaiith ia?aaeeaiaoe/iith
oe?ii?noth. ?icaeoie i?i uanoy oae /e ?iaeoa ia?aaeaa/athoue ?aeaae
eiie?aoiiai ia’?eoeaiiai iieiaeaiiy /e noa’?eoeaiiai noaio ethaeeie,
ae?aaeathoue oyaeaiiy i?i oa, yeeie iiaeii? aooe ?? aeeooy ?
ae?yeuei?noue. Oea noai iaaii? caaeiaieaiino?. Iaeiae e?eoa???
ioe?ithaaiiy caaeiaieaiino? aecia/athoueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueii, ? ethaeeia,
oaeei /eiii, iino?eii iieiy?oueny o neooaoe?? aeai?o – a?ae
aeaiaioa?iiai aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a o nenoai? caaeiaieaiue aei
i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy ia a?eueo aenieiio ii?aeueiiio ??ai?. ??cieoey o
aeai?? e?eoa???a, aaaaonoai oeyo?a, yeeie aeinyaa?oueny ??aiiaaaa,
cia/iith i??ith coiiaeee ?icia?ooy aoe/ieo iai?yie?a ? oe?e. Ioaea, naia
aea??, eiai iioeaaoe?y, aa?aoueny ye aecia/aeueiee oaeoi? i?ae /an
aiae?co iniiaieo ?noi?e/ieo eiioeaioe?e uanoy. Nie?ath/enue ia oea,
iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe, ui, ia caaaeath/e ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?nioth/eo
caeaaia aoe/ieo nenoai, iiiyooy uanoy a ieo aeaoa?i?iiaaii, ia?aaaaeii,
o?ueiia e?eoa??yie – “i?eioeeiii ianieiaee-caaeiaieaiiy”, “i?eioeeiii
ei?eniino?”, oa oei “Aeuei”, “Oe?eei”, yea ?nio? o iaoa??aie/iiio aooo?,
ui a?aee?eaa? ua iaeia aa/aiiy i?iaeaie – iaoao?ce/ia. O ?icae?e?
aeyaey?oueny nooi?noue on?o o?ueio iai?yie?a, aecia/a?oueny
nai???aei?noue ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? a ?noi?e/i?e i?aeoeoe?, aiae?cothoueny
aoaie ?o ?icaeoeo oa i?inoaaeo?oueny aca?iica’ycie c no/anieie a/aiiyie.

*a?ac oa, ui aeaye? oai??? uanoy – iniaeeai, ye? iia’ycai? c
nioe?aeueieie ia?aoai?aiiyie, – ianooue iaaia ooii?/ia caaa?aeaiiy, o
?iaio? caa?iaii oaaao ia oaiiiai ooii??. O o?einionueei-aoe/iiio aniaeo?
ooii?y aeyaey? iaeaeeaoo iio?aao ethaeeie aei?aaaeaoe nain naiai aoooy.
Iii?e oa, ui ooii?? ia cae?eniththoueny a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo?, iiyaa ?o
na?ae/eoue i?i iaai? aaaeaiiy ethaenoaa, ye? o?aaa aea/aoe ? iaiaaaoeny
cae?enieoe o aeayeeo ?aaeueii iiaeeeaeo oi?iao.

?ioa?an Aeiie/aiea aei i?iaeaie uanoy, eiai ooii?? ? naia eiioeaioe?y
“oai?aiiy uanoy” iiyniththoueny, ia?aaeon?i, ooeaiiyie ii?aeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ye? aenoioea eiai aeiaa: ia?ao?ae o iiaa OO noie?ooy, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaany na?oiaeie a?eiaie oa nioe?aeueieie eaoano?ioaie,
aeiaaaa iiaiai ?aeaaeo uanoy. Ioaea, ia aeeaii, ui naia oey eaoaai??y
?icaeyaea?oueny o ?iaio? ye eeth/iaa a aoeei-o?einionueeeo iiaeyaeao
ienueiaiieea.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? “Aaiethoe?y iiaeyae?a Aieiaeeie?a Aeiie/aiea o
eiioaeno? iiaea?i?noe/ii? o?einio??” oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo
oe?a?inueeiai ieooey ? iaeiiai c aecia/aeueieo eiai /eiiee?a – oyaeaiiy
i?i uanoy – ?icaeyaea?oueny o eiioaeno? i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeai?o.
Caa?iaiiy aei ieoaiiy i?i uanoy ? nain aeeooy ?, c oi/ee ci?o
ineoieia??, neiioiiii iaaii? iaaaeiaieaiino?. Oa, ui “nioe?aeueia” ?
“iaoe?iiaeueia”, ye? a oyaeaiiyo Aeiie/aiea iathoue aooe
aca?iiiia’ycai?, ia caa?iii?coaaeeny a aeeoo?, oneeaaeithaaei neooaoe?th
ii?aeueiiai aeai?o ? ni?e/eieei iniaeno?nio aeeoo?ao ae?aio
ienueiaiieea.

?acii c oei, yeui aanoe iiao i?i na?oiaeyae Aeiie/aiea, i?aaeeueii aoaea
aiai?eoe i?i iaaio aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a. Caoiieaiiy iiaeie
o?einionueeeie oai??yie iaoiiaeaii, ii noo?, oeie ae i?e/eiaie
iaaaeiaieaiino?: a iiaeo o?einionueeeo nenoaiao a?i iaiaaaany a?aeooeaoe
??oaiiy nai?o i?iaeai. Ia?en, I?oeoa, O?aeae, Na?o? – inue /e? oai???
neoaoaaee i???ioe?aie aeey ethaeeie Aeiie/aieiai? aeiae ? oi?ioaaee oae
caaiee “ai?eciio” iniaenoino?. O na?oe? inoaii?o aeine?aeaeaiue an?
a/aiiy oeio “??aiae-ia?aoe?e” i?i na?o, ethaeeio, eoeueoo?o, nioe?aeueia
aeeooy, c i?eoaiaiiith ?i oi?iith “o?einio?? ye oai???”, iiaeooue aooe
ia’?aeiai? iii?iaoe??th Iiaea?i (?.Aaa?ae?i?, A.Eoe’yiaoeue, I.Niaieue).
Oaea iiceoe?y aeicaiey? iiaeaoe aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a Aeiie/aiea o
eiioaeno? iiaea?i?nonueei? o?einio??.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny ?ieue oa i?noea ia?enecio o
na?oiaeyaei?e i???ioaoe?? ii?aeueiiai aeai?o ienueiaiieea. Aea/ath/e
eiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee, aeine?aeieee aeacoaaee ia
“niaoeeo?/i?noue” Aeiie/aieiaiai ia?enecio, aaaaeath/e, ui ienueiaiiee
ni?eeiya o?eueee anoaoieia?/ii-ooii?eio eiai /anoeio
(?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee). Caeaa?eueoiai oea ni?aaaaeeeai. Eiioi?ci aeey
Aeiie/aiea aoa, ia?o ca ana, caniaii aeey ?aae?caoe?? eiai aoe/ii? ?
iie?oe/ii? i??? – “anaa?/iiai aecaieaiiy”, ao?eaiiyi aa?iii??, ui
ia?aaeaa/aea oe?ie? iiaeeeaino? ?icaeoeo ethaeeie a ?? ni?yioaaii? aei
uanoy. Naia /a?ac oea a?i i?eiee ia a?aeiiaeany a?ae nai?o eiioi?noe/ieo
iiceoe?e. Ooii?? c “eieaeoie?ao??th” oa “eiiei?aeeciii” – iayaiee oiio
aeieac. Iaeiae, cacia/aia “iaiaoeia?noue” ? “niaoeeo?/i?noue” eiai
ia?enecio ia caaaaea? aeciaoe, ui oai?/a e aoe/ia iaaeaaiiy Aeiie/aiea
iaeaaeeoue, aacoiiaii, ia?enenonuee?e aeooiai?e o?aaeeoe??. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ia o?eueee ?aeaeia iai?oanoaoe?y naiiai ienueiaiieea, a e
oa, ui a?i, iaaiith i??ith, caaa?oo? ia?enenonueeo oai??th ii?ae? –
i?aaenoaaey? “?ic?iaeo” ?? nioe?aeueii-i?aeoe/ii? /anoeie,
o?ainoi?ioaaaoe ia?eneci o noa?o ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo i?iaeai.

Ia aeoieo Aeiie/aiea, ethaenueea na?aeii?noue ? iiaaae?iea iiaeooue aooe
c?icoi?eeie o?eueee ye eeaniai iaoiiaeai?, ioaea, ye iie?oee ?
a?iiaaeyiei, a?i ia caia?a/o?, ui ?aeaieia?y oi?io? nai???aeia iiea
ii?aeueiino?, aea, caieneeaoenue iaae ieoaiiyi “ui ia? iaaeaoe
noni?eueiiio aoooth ii?aeueii? yeino??”, c?oeioany c i?iaeaiith, yea
aeiaaaea i?eeiyooy, ia?aaeon?i, iniaenoiai ii?aeueiiai ??oaiiy, a naia –
ui ia?aoe ca i?ae??oioy aeanii? ii?aeueiino?? sse noa’?eo ii?aeueiiai
aeai?o, Aeiie/aiei iioeao?oueny caa?aaeaiiyi aeanii? a?aeiino? a oiiaao
nioe?aeueiiai ? ii?aeueiiai a?ae/oaeaiiy. Ia a ciic? ci?ieoe ianoaaeie,
a?i nai?i aeai?ii, ui ?ai?acaioo?oueny i?eioeeiii “/aniino? c niaith”
iaiaaa?oueny ia aeaoe oeei ianoaaeiai iiiaaieeoe naaa.

I?ae eooii ci?o oaeiai ?icoi?iiy ii?aeueiino? aeena?oaio aiae?co?
ia?aeiiaiiy ? a/eiee ienueiaiieea, ui aeaee i?aenoaae oeoia/eoe ?o ye
“c?aaeieoeuee?” oa “i?ieea?”.

Oae caai? “ci?ie iiceoe?e” iaoiiaeai? Aeiie/aieiaei ?icoi?iiyi
“iaoe?iiaeueiiai /oooy”, yea ca?eueooaaei ianooaae neooaoe?? ii?aeueiiai
aeai?o. Ethaia aei nai?? iaoe??, “yea ia cia? i? eean?a, i? ia?o?e” ia
aeicaieeea eiio i?eeiyoe eiioeaioe?th i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei o
?aaeyinuee?e aea?aeaa? e i?oe ia eiii?ii?ne.

Iaieio/?noue ianeeuenoaa – oaia, yea ni?aaae? aaioaaeeea Aeiie/aiea ?
noaea aeey iueiai “eaiaiai niioeeaiiy” o ia?eneci?. Ia caaaeath/e ia
?aaiethoe?eio aaea/o ? i?aaiaiiy ia?aaoaeoaaoe noni?eueiee eaae, a?i ana
a?eueoa ia?aeiio?oueny, ui ethaeeia naia iiaeiia ciaeoe na?e oeyo aei
uanoy, oieeath/e a?ei ? ?aaiethoe?e, aeey oeueiai ?e iaiao?aeii o?eueee
ia?aaoaeoaaoe naaa cna?aaeeie, ai iaianeeueieoeueeee ii?? – oea oeyo
neeueieo ethaeae. *a?ac oea aea?? Aeiie/aiea oe?eaaee ? c oi/ee ci?o
iie?oe/ii? aoeee.

O iaaiiio ?icoi?ii? “ci?io iiceoe?e” iaoiiaeei ?ic/a?oaaiiy o iie?oeoe?
?in?enueei? eiiia?o??. Eiee ae noae?i?ci caaaeaa nia?oaeueiiai oaea?o
oe?a?inuee?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e ?aea? a oe?eiio, /aoo ?ic/a?oaaiue aoei
ia?aiiaiaii – oiae? iieeaaeaii e?iaoeue eiai iie?oe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ?
“aee?eoaaii” a?ae ?icaeai?iiy. I?ioa, oea ia icia/aei, ui Aeiie/aiei
ii?aaa c eiioi?ciii. Eiai ioae?oeenoeea inoaii?o ?ie?a a?aenoith? o? ae
iiceoe??, ui ? ?aii? i?aoe?. Aei oiai ae, iaeaea /aa?oue noie?ooy
i?iaeeaoe o O?aioe??, aea nioe?ae?noe/i? ?aea? aeoeaii i?iiaaoaaeeny
i?eoeeueieeaie N?N? – Na?o?ii, AEeaeii, ?ieaiii, oe?a?inueeee
ienueiaiiee aanue /an “i?aeaeeaethaaa” nai? ?ethc?? ? a??o o caiia
aiaeanoai a ia?ac? ?aeaaeueiiai noni?euenoaa iaeaooiueiai.

O eiioaeno? Aeiie/aieiaeo ?icaeoi?a iaae i?e?iaeith ii?ae? ? uanoy
cia/ia i?noea iin?aea? iiaea?ia o?einio?y, yea aecia/eea iaai? aniaeoe
eiai na?oiaeyaeii? i???ioaoe??. Ii?aeioth/e aoeeo c aecenoaioe?ae?ciii,
a?oae?ciii, ?iaeea?aeoae?ciii, a?i, ye ? aaaaoi ooaeiaeiee?a eiai aeiae,
iaiaaaany c iiaeo iiceoe?e ?ica’ycaoe ieoaiiy ii?aeueii? o?einio??,
cie?aia, i?iaeaio ethaenueeiai uanoy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aoe/i? iiaeyaee Aeiie/aiea c?noaaeythoueny (o
ii??aiyeueiiio aniaeo?) c iiceoe?yie “o?einio?? aeeooy” I?oeoa c iaoith
aecia/eoe nooi?iue ? cia/aiiy ?? aieeao ia iiaeyaee oe?a?inueeiai
ienueiaiieea ?, oaeei /eiii, ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iiaea?i?noe/iiai na?oiaa/aiiy a oe?eiio.

A/aiiy i?iaoeueeiai o?einioa a?aeaeeiny ia oai?/ino? Aeiie/aiea aeineoue
aeeaiei /eiii: c iaeiiai aieo, a?i ia i?eeiaa oe?eo ieceo ?aeae I?oeoa,
? a ia?oo /a?ao eiai i?ace?eeaa noaaeaiiy aei “iaeaiueeiai ethaenueeiai
uanoy”, a c ?ioiai – aeani? iiceoe?? Aeiie/aiea i?aeoi ia?aaoeothoueny c
iaaieie iieiaeaiiyie o?einio?? I?oeoa, ui, aeania, aeeeeeaei aaeeeee
?aciiain o oiai/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ? cae??ieei ca
Aeiie/aieii neaao “oai?oey iiaeo aa?oinoae”.

Iaioaaiiy I?oeoa a ienoaoeoa?, ianaiia?aae a e?oa?aoo??, iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ooai?eee ni?eyoeeaee ??oio
aeey ni?eeiaiiy o?einionueei-aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a i?iaoeueeiai o?einioa
oe?a?inueeith ?ioae??aioe??th. *a?ac oa, ui Aeiie/aiei aoa aea?aeaaiei
ae?y/ai, iiaeyaee yeiai oi?ioaaeeny ca?aeii c eiai a?iiaaenueeith ?
iie?oe/iith ae?yeuei?noth, a?i ia i?a iiae?eyoe aioenioe?ae?noe/ieo,
aioeaea?aeaaieo oa ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/ieo iiaeyae?a I?oeoa. ?icaeoie
ienueiaiieea i?i no/anio ii?aeue, aea ca aano?aeoieie ii?aeueieie
ii?iaie i?eoiaaia aenieoaoaoi?nueea nooi?noue, i?aeooiaoioee eiai aei
aiae?co i?aenoaa ii?aeueiino? ye oe?iiino?. E?eoeea ii?ae? – a?nue,
iaaeiei yei? iiaeia ?icai?oaoe c?noaaeaiiy oeeo aeaio iinoaoae, ?, oi/a
oaea e?eoeea aoea iaoiiaeaia ??cieie i?e/eiaie, iaoin ?o aoe/ieo
?icaeoi?a iaeiaeiaee: ?ica?i/aiiy o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae? – ? naia ii?ae?,
a ia o?enoeyinoaa ye ?ae?a??.

“O?einio?y aeeooy” ?iiiioaaea oe?a?inueeiio ienueiaiieeo, ine?eueee
nai?th aeiiaith “iiaa?iooeny aei naiiai naaa” aoea noaieinia eiai
i?eioeeio “/aniino? c niaith”, oi/a, “iaoiae” Aeiie/aiea, ia iao
iiaeyae, aeyaeya a?eueoo aoe/io oe?ii?noue – ?icaeyaeaany ia ye aeania
i?eioeei, a aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaa a?ae ii?aeueiino? ethaeeie ?,
ioaea, i?a aooe aai naiei ii?aeueiei, aai iaeaii?aeuei?oei. Oiio
oe?a?inueeee ienueiaiiee oae ? ia iaaaaeeany iiaeaoe nai? ac??oe? “aeueo
ethaeae”, eiia??ii, ?ioo?oeaii a?ae/oaoe, ui “oi?iaeueia”
caaaeueiiethaenueea ii?aeue iani?aaae? ? o??th “iaieiieith”, ui
i?eaa?oa? on?o aei ?aeeii? ethaenueei? iniiae.

?icoaooaaoe oe? aea? iinoao? a iaei?e ieiuei? aeicaieythoue ? oae?
oaeoe: iaeaeaa –e?oa?aoi?e, ui i?eeoee o o?einio?th, ?aea? yeeo
ooai?ththoue ia oe?e?nio o?einionueeo nenoaio, a oaeaeoa – o?einionuee?
ia?ace, ia?nii?o?eiaai? ? aeaia?nii?o?eiaai? (i?aaeea aeeooy). Iiaeia
i?eionoeoe, ui caaaeyee I?oeoa Aeiie/aiei ? ciaeoia aeueoa?iaoeaia
?icoi?iiy ii?aeueiino?, yea ni?aa?aeiineoueny c i?e?iaeith ethaeeie,
iaeiae, ia iiaeia ioioiaeithaaoe ?o nooi iniaeno?nio ii?aeueio
?aoeaen?th ia iiae?? /ano.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaio iaiaaa?oueny iiaeaoe
aecenoaioe?aeueii-aoiai?noe/i? o?aaeeoe?? a oai?/ino? Aeiie/aiea a ?o
iiaea?i?noe/i?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. Iaa?oue iiaa?oiaee iiaeyae ia
aecenoaioe?ae?ci – ye ia eiiieaen o?einionueei-aio?iiieia?/ieo i?iaeai,
ui ae??oothoueny iaoiaeaie, aeanoeaeie aaaaoueii ??ciiiai?oiei
o?einionueeei nenoaiai – aea? i?aenoaae aecia/eoe Aeiie/aiea ye
ieneeoaey aecenoaioe?aeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy. Ia ia?a?eaath/e o?aaeeoe??
oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? eoeueoo?e, aea iaeiei c iaeaieiai?oeo ieoaiue
aoei “ye aeinyaoe uanoy?”, a?i, a oie aea /an, ii?ooea i?iaeaie, ye?
aeicaieythoue iii?noeoe eiai ienoaoeoai a iaeei ?yae c oai?/?noth
o?aioeocueeeo aecenoaioe?ae?no?a. I?iaeaia uanoy ? aa?iii?? iaeii/anii
aeiaaaea ?ica’ycaiiy oe?eiai eiiieaeno i?iaeai ii?aeueii? o?einio??, ui
iio?aaoaaee aecenoaioe?aeueiiai inieneaiiy ? noinoaaeeny naiaiaee
iniaenoino?, ?? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, aeai?o oiui. “*ani?noue c niaith”
Aeiie/aiea ? ?, aeania, iaei??th c iniiaiiieiaeieo ?aeae
aecenoaioe?ae?cio: aooe /aniei, ca Na?o?ii, icia/a? aooe naiaiaeiei,
/eieoe na?e aea?? a?eueii, o iiai?e a?aeiia?aeiino? aei aioo??oiuei?
nooiino? ?iaeea?aea.

I?iaeaia naiaiaee, cie?aia, naiaiaee ae?iee, noaea aieiaiei /eiieeii, ia
yeiio aacoaaeany Aeiie/aieiaa eiioeaioe?y oe?e?nii? ethaeeie ? yea noaea
iacaaa?ii i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy N?iiie aea Aiaoa?. C aecaieaiiyi
ae?iee iia’ycoaaeiny ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie n?i’? ? i?inoeoooe??.
Ia?aa??yth/e iiaeeeaino? naiaiaee ye oaei? o nai?e “ii?aeuei?e
eaai?aoi???”, iaeaeaa aaoi?e “aaiaeeee” ae?ieo o ??ci? noa?e aeeooy, aea
?o aa?i?i? i?aaiooue ?aaeueii ooaa?aeeoe naiaiaeo nai?? iniaenoino?,
iaiaaathoueny ci?ieoe uinue o caaaeaiiio iacaeaaeii a?ae ?oiuei? aie?
noai? ?a/ae.

O ooaeiaei?e oai?/ino? ? a oai?aoe/ieo ?iaioao Aeiie/aiei iaiaaaany
aeaanoe ?c noa?e aano?aeoe?? oa ia??oiooaaoe eaoaai??th, aac yei?
aeyaey?oueny iaiiaiith caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ethaenueeiai aoooy – “ss
– ?ioee”, oiaoi oa, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny noni?eueieie noinoieaie ?
aecia/a?oueny aecenoaioe?ae?noaie ye nioe?aeueia caeaaei?noue ethaeeie.
Na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a o?aioeocueeiai aecenoaioe?ae?cio iaea?eueo
aeecueei c oe??th i?iaeaiith aoea iia’ycaia oai?/?noue aaeeeiai
aoiai?noa aiioe Naio-Aecthia??. Eiai “?aeay ni?eueiioe” noaieinia
“?inoeieoo a?iiaaenueeino?” Aeiie/aiea, ? oea niiioea? aeciaoe
aaeaeaaoi?noue oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieea eoeueoo?? OO noie?ooy a
oe?eiio.

Ii?ooeaoe aecenoaioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie i?ae eooii ci?o eaoaai??? uanoy,
Aeiie/aiei ia i?a ia?eoe oaaaith ineoiaiae?c, iath/e ia oaac?, eiia??ii,
oa, ui aeineiiaea aea/aiiy aeanii? iniaenoino? aeiiiiiaea aeinyaoe
aioo??oiuei? ??aiiaaae ? ni?eyoeia uaneeaiio ?nioaaiith. O /aoaa?oiio
i?ae?icae?e? eiai “iiaa ii?aeue” ?icaeyaea?oueny o eiioaeno?
ineoiaiae?oe/iiai a/aiiy C.O?aeaea.

A??e? ianoaaeie ai?a?aionueeiai aeeooy, ia?aae?ciaai? iie?oe/i?
aia?oe??, aac?acoeueoaoia “iiaea?ia iia?aoe?y”, iia’ycaia c ?ioeiiith
noa?ith iiae?oaeaey Aeiie/aie?a, i?i yeo caaaeo?oueny o uiaeaiieeo, ?
acaaae? any neeaaei?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue iaoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
ienueiaiieea na?eicii aieeioea ? ia oi?ioaaiiy eiai ii?aeueii-anoaoe/ii?
iiceoe??, ? ia aiioe?eia caaa?aeaiiy eiai oai??a. Oea ?iaeoue
aeioe?eueiei canoinoaaoe aei oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea can?a
?aeaioeo?eaoe??.

Ineoiaiae?oe/iee ?ica?? ooaeiaei?o oai??a aeicaieea, ii-ia?oa,
a?aeoai?eoe i?ioean “naiiaeoiaoaaiiy” o ii?aeueii-aoe/iiio aniaeo?: ye
ieneeoaeue-aoee, Aeiie/aiei aeinya aeuiai nooiaiy ii?aeueiino?, ai
i?ieoia nai on? “a??oe”, iaiaaath/enue noai?eoe aoe/iee iiaeyae ia ?a/?,
i?eaa?ioaoe ii?aeue aei i?e?iaee ethaeeie; ii-ae?oaa, c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui ienueiaiiee, cia/iith i??ith, ni?eeiya ?aea? O?aeaea (aeeneo?n
aaaeaiiy ? ianieiaee, aiaeyoe?y aei a?oae?noe/ii? neee, aeoeaiooaaiiy ia
oe?iiino? oae caaiiai “oaa?eiiiai ?inoeieoo” oiui), iaeiae,
?ioa?i?aooth/e ?o o nai?e oai?/ino?, Aeiie/aiei iiaeaeoaee ia
iiaiaeaeoaaany ?c caniiaieeii ineoiaiae?co a?aeiinii oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i
???aoe?iiaeuei?noue ?inoeieoo, caeioaa/oaaa O?aeaea o oiio, ui oie ia
aa?a aei oaaae nioe?aeueiee aniaeo, eiee ooea? i?e/eie iieae?/aiiai
?inoeieoo, ia iia’yco? noaoaaee iioya oa ii/oooy c on??th nenoaiith
ii?ae?, c on?i nioe?aeueiei eaaeii. C?oeioaoenue c ineoiaiae?cii,
Aeiie/aiei ona?aeiiea, ui o?ce/ia aeineiiae?noue ? iaa?ae’?iiei /eiieeii
uanoy, oiio ?inoeieoe, ii/oooy, i?aena?aeii? aaaeaiiy iiaeii? aa?iii?eii
ni?aa?aeiineoeny a ethaeei? c ?? iio?aaaie, ?icoiiaeie cae?aiinoyie ?,
iaa?oue, c nioe?aeueieie oa iie?oe/ieie oiiaeiaaiiyie.

Ii?aoethaaaoe aaee/acio e?euee?noue o?einionueeeo ?ia?o c iaoith
a?aeooeaoe i?e/eie iauanoy, Aeiie/aiei coieieany ia ?aea? ienaoe aeanio
“Eieao i?i uanoy”. Ii?ooeaoe o?aaeeoe?? aaaeaiii?noe/ii? aoeee, a?i o
?aae?caoe?? naiai caaeoio aeei?enoaa iaaeaaiiy eeane/ii? o?einio?? (ui,
iaaiith i??ith, iiynith? aeeaeoe/iee oa?aeoa? eiai nenoaie), aea iaa
iai?? aeeeanoe naith oai??th ii?ae? ? uanoy /a?ac i?ecio iiaea?i?noe/ii?
aoeee, ia?aeiiaiee, ui “uanoy ? oa?? iaoi? aie?, ?icoio, nee”.

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? “I?iaeaia uanoy o o?einionueei-aoe/i?e nenoai?
“Eiiei?aeeci” A.Aeiie/aiea” i?aeaea?oueny aiae?co aeania aoe/ia
niaaeueia ienueiaiieea ? aiae?co?oueny oai?/a iaaeaaiiy inoaiiueiai
ia??iaeo aeeooy.

Cae?enieoe aeaai?e caaeoi i?aeooiaoioei Aeiie/aiea, c iaeiiai aieo,
aeeaiea iniaenoa ia?aeiiaiiy, ui uanoy – oe?eeii iiaeeeaa ??/ ? ui
o?eueee a oya? “iaeaaoaeuenueeeo ian” aiii iana ia/aoue noeo?eiino? ?
oaoae?noe/iino?, a c ?ioiai – iao?aiiy oei, ui nioe?ae?noe/i? oai???,
aea e?ioeaaith iaoith ? ethaenueea uanoy, ia o?aeooaaee aaeaeaaoii
ieoaiiy uiaei eiai i?e?iaee.

Iicaye aieiaiith i?aeaaeeiith iniaenoiai uanoy, ca Aeiie/aieii, ia? aooe
aioo??oiy ??aiiaaaa, aa?iii?y, eiai nenoaia iaaoea iacae “Eiiei?aeeci” –
c eaoeinueei? “iiaiaeaeaiiy”. Naia iiiyooy aa?iii?? noaei ia/aeii
a?aee?eo a aoe/i?e eiioeaioe?? ienueiaiieea. Ieoaiiy i?i ?aiaco
Aeiie/aieiaiai ni?eeiyooy ? ooaeiaeiueiai ao?eaiiy aoooy ?icaeyiooi o
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?.

Noai uanoy ?ioa?i?aoo?oueny iei ye a?ae/oooy aa?iii?eii?
ni?aa?aeianaiino? c on?i ioi/oth/ei na?oii. Aaea ?aii? oai?e
ienueiaiieea aeathoue i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i iaaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iiiyoue “uanoy”, “aa?iii?y”, “??aiiaaaa”, ui, aeania, ?icoi??oueny ye
aioo??oiy oe?e?ni?noue ethaeeie. O oeueiio a?aeaeaa?oueny oa?aeoa?
eoeueoo?e, yea aeieeea ia ceai? aiio aiane?aeie ii?aeueii? ia?eiao?? ?
i?yioaaea o e?aueo nai?o aeyaeaiiyo aei ona?aeiieaiiy aa?iii?? on?o
/eiiee?a ?aeeii? iaii?aie aoooy. *a?ac oea eiai iiceoe?y uiaei i?iaeaie
uanoy cao/eoue o “Eiiei?aeeci?” aiaaiaii ? ia?aeiieeai: i?aaiaiiy uanoy
? niieiia?/iith aioo??oiueith iio?aaith ethaeeie ? ia?iaeaeo?oueny
cna?aaeeie, c caeeaaeaii? o na?o? iaiao?aeiino? aa?iii??,
aaeineiiaeaiiy.

Aeuacaaaeaia, iaeiae, ia ae/a?io? ieoaiiy i?i aaiethoe?th iiiyooy
aa?iii?? o Aeiie/aiea. A?aenoithth/e o nai?o oai?ao ?aeath naiioe?iiino?
iniaenoiai ethaenueeiai uanoy, a?i, iaeii/anii, iaiiaith? ?? iiaei
ci?noii. Eaoaai??e, yeeie iiaeia ae?aceoe uanoy ie?aii? ethaeeie,
aeyaey?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei, eiee eaeaoueny i?i iiaeaeue nioe?aeueii?
iniaenoino?. C aeiiiiiaith nai?? nenoaie Aeiie/aiei i??? i?eaa?iooe
ethaeeio aei aeanii? iniaenoino? oaeei /eiii, uia aiia i?aaioea
ii?aeiaoe nai? aeani? aaaeaiiy, aeeeeeai? ?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie, c oai?/ith ae??th o iaaeao iaaii? ni?eueiioe ethaeae.
I?aaiaiiy aeinyaoe oaei? aioo??oiuei? ??aiiaaae iiaeiii aooe iaaiith
oi?iith o?ainoeaiaeaioiino? aac o/ano? aiaa.

Ooaeiaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iei oaie aeeoeinoaa (ca??ea “Iaienoi”) oe?eeii
aiaaiaii iiaeia aaaaeaoe aoaiii ia oeyoo iiooeo aa?iii??. sse
ienueiaiiee, Aeiie/aiei a?ae/oaa? ? aaeaei ia?aaea? aeeaeiio ae?aeaeoeeo
i?ioeano aeeoy/iai na?oini?eeiaiiy ? na?oiaa/aiiy ye oe?e?niiai ?
aa?iii?eiiai, oiio aeeoeinoai i?aena?aeiii iia’yco?oueny o iueiai c
ia??iaeii uanoy. Aiaeii/an, ienueiaiiee ?icaeyaea? na?o aeeoeinoaa ye
i?iaeoeo nioe?aeueieo a?aeiioaiue ? iiaea? eiai ye i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
iniaenoino?, ?icaeoie ?? ii?aeueii? na?aeiiino? oa ?aoeaen??.

Caaa?oaiiai eiioeaiooaeueiiai cia/aiiy “aa?iii?y” iaaoea o oae caaiee
Ia?ecueeee ia??iae, eiee Aeiie/aiei i?eeoia aei iiai? na?oiaeyaeii?
ia?aaeeaie, iaa?yiith no?aeiith o?einio??th, yea ooai?eea iiaa
i?aea?oioy aeey eiai “/aniino? c niaith” ? ?yooaaea a?ae ooae, iao?aiiy
? iinoaeuea??. Oi/a oae caai? “aeu? ieo?” ?aeiino? c Einiinii i?eiee ia
aoee aeey Aeiie/aiea naiioe?iieie, ana ae eiai neeaaeia na?oiaeyaeia
aaiethoe?y aoea iicia/aia ?o aieeaaie. Ienueiaiiee ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui
o?eueee aaeeea neea aeooiaiino?, anaioiiethth/a aa?iii?y ? caeii
aaniethoii? ??aiiaaae, ye? aeaiiino?oaaea no?aeia o?einio?y, iiaea
nei?eaoaaoe ethaeeio ia ?? oeyoo aei uanoy: aieeiooe ia aiioe??,
o?ce/iee noai, ineo?eo, a??aiiaaaeoth/e oa aa?iii?coth/e ?o.

Uaneeaa aeeooy ? aa?iii?eia aeeooy, a aa?iii?ei?noue ? ii?aeuei?noue –
inue ?aeeiee e?eoa??e, yeei, ia aeoieo Aeiie/aiea, ia?aa??ythoueny on?
ii?aeuei? aeieo?eie. C oeeo iiceoe?e a?i ? iaiaaaany iiaoaeoaaoe aeanio
oai??th ii?ae? – “Eiiei?aeeci”.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Eiiei?aeeci” ?icaeyaea?oueny ye neioaoe/ia
nenoaia aoaeoaaiiy uanoy.

Ona?aeiiethth/e iaiao?aei?noue oai?aiiy iiai? oai??? uanoy, Aeiie/aiei,
aiaeii/an, ?icoi??, ui oaea nenoaia iiaeiia anioe?thaaoeny o na?aeiiino?
c /eiinue aeoaea a?aeiiei ? aaea canai?iei (ye iieacaa ?noi?e/iee
aeina?ae, a aoeoe? iaiiaeeea? i?ye? ?aaeeeaeuei? ia?aai?ioe). Ioaea,
aaoi? eiioeaioe?? iaiaaa?oueny, a?aoo?-?aoo, a?yooaaoe oa, ui aaaaeaa
oe?iiei a iaio nenoaiao. ? o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? Aeiie/aiea aaaeei
iacaaoe i?ea?iaeueiei ieneeoaeai, oai?oeai iiai? aoeee. A?i eiaeeo?eo?
onoaeai? oe?iiino?, iaeaaaeeea?oa c iaaooiai aeioaia? ethaenoaii,
i?aeaiaey/e i?ae ieo iia? i?eioeeie.

O i?ioean? iaaeoioaaiiy nai?? oai??? uanoy iniaeeao oaaao ienueiaiiee
i?eae?ey? niiaaaeai – “aeaiaioai uanoy”. sse “a?aeoai?thaai?” ieo?
uanoy, aiie na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioth/ee oae caaiee “aeina?ae uanoy”: yeui
ae?yoe iaaiei /eiii, ciiao iiaeia aeinyaoe oaeiai noaio. Aeey oeueiai
iaiao?aeii i?aoethaaoe iaae niaith. Oea iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy naia nenoaie iiaaae?iee. Cania?a aeinyaiaiiy uanoy aaaaoi,
aaaaeaa Aeiie/aiei, aieiaia, uia aiie ei?eaoaaeeny caeiiaie ??aiiaaae.

Eiioeaioe?y “??aiiaaae”, yeo cai?iiiioaaa Aeiie/aiei, ?, cia/iith
i??ith, oeoia/aiiyi aaeaino o iaaeeei-a?ieia?/iiio ?icoi?ii?, iaeiae ?
ia aeooiaiiio ??ai? aiia aeeeth/a? aeii?ioaaiiy yei?nue iaei??? neee
(?ioa?ano, aaaeaiiy).

A?aenooi?noth ??aiiaaae – aeenaaeainii – aaoi? oe??? oai??? iiynith?
iauanoy oa oai?iae, ye? ? oioiaeieie o ?icoi?ii? Aeiie/aiea. Aeooiaiee
aeenaaeain a?i iaceaa? aeenei?aeeciii ? aaaaea?, ui oey oai?iaa noaea
ii?iith a no/aniiio noni?euenoa?. C’yniaoth/e i?e/eie oaei? neooaoe??,
a?i ?aeiino?oth? eia?eo ?oeioaaiiy caei?iaiai ? uaneeaiai ?nioaaiiy
ethaenoaa oa aiae?co? oeyoe, ye? i?ecaaee eiai aei iauanoy,
ia?aaoeoth/enue o nai?o ?icaeoiao c nioe?aeueieie oai??yie ?onni oa
Ia?ena.

Oyaeaiiy i?i uanoy ni?aa?aeiinyoueny o oai??? Aeiie/aiea c on??th
iiaiioith nooi?niiai aei??o ethaenueeiai aoooy, oiio ? i?aaeea
iiaaae?iee eiai nenoaie naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy noinothoueny ??cieo noa?
aeeooy – ?iaeeiii?, ?ioeiii?, noni?eueii?.

O iaaeao aecia/aii? eiioeaioe?? i?inoaaeothoueny ?icaeoie Aeiie/aiea,
yeee iaiaaa?oueny iia’ycaoe nenoaio oa?/oaaiiy c i?iaeaiith uanoy.
I?e?aeiaaoenue aei i?eoeeueiee?a “aacoa?eii?” ?ae?, a?i i?aaioa
iie?aueoe ?nioth/? o noni?euenoa? cae/a?. Aeaea?aei eiai iiceoe?? iiaeia
oeoia/eoe ye uaaaeue ia o?eueee anoaiiaeaiiy ii?aeueii? aa?iii?? o
noinoieao i?ae ethaeeiith ? iaaeieeoi?i na?oii, a e aeinyaiaiiy
??aiiaaae a aeooiaiiio na?o? eiaeii? ethaeeie.

I/aaeaeiei ? oa, ui o ae??oaii? Aeiie/aieii i?iaeaie uanoy aeyaeythoue
naaa ? aeio?enoeyinuee? aoe/i? oyaeaiiy i?i na?o ? ethaeeio – eaeaoueny
i?i aa?iii?th, yeo aena?oeththoue aaae?enueea a/aiiy, aoaeaeeci,
?iaeo?ci. A?ae/oaaoe naaa /anoeiith i?e?iaee, ni?eeiaoe aeeooy c eiai
a?ieia?/ieie i?ia?aiaie oa ?inoeieoaie – ana oea i?ioenoaaey?oueny
aeiaiaoe/iei ?ae?a?eiei caiia?aeyi o “Eiiei?aeeci?”. Iniiaith ?aeiaiiy
ethaeae aeey Aeiie/aiea aenooia? i?e?iaeia ia/aei a ethaeei?, yea
anioe?th?oueny iei c ii?aeuei?noth. Aeu? caeiie i?e?iaee ? aeey iueiai
oei, ui aa?iii?co? na?o ethaeeie ? ea?o? aeeooyi. Ooo ciaeoei i?noea ?
ooai?eei o?eaea i?aea?oioy ineoiaiae?oe/ia a/aiiy. I?e?iaea ia oa?ieoue
i?yeeo eiii?ii?n?a ? inoeoue ca iaeiaio? ciaoooaaiiy ?? caeiiaie.
Iaea?eueo aeaoaeueii Aeiie/aiei eiie?aoecoaaa oe? i?iaeaie ia “ieoaii?
i?i ae?oae”, oai?iaeeai? aeey iueiai naiiai oai?.

Iaeiae, iaoith eiai “aenia?eiaio?a” aoei ia eeoa i?aaiaiiy aeiaanoe, ui
i?e?iaei? ia/aea a ethaeei? ni?eythoue uanoth – o?aaa ?o o?eueee
caa?iii?coaaoe, a e iieacaoe, ui ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?ic?aooieo caiaei,
iio??ai? ua oae caai? “ii?ooe aeoo?”, ui ?o Aeiie/aiei iioeao? oeie ae
caeiiaie i?e?iaee. Aei ieo a?i a?aeiineoue ? ethaia.

Ethaia ye ii?aeueia oe?ii?noue i?yii iia’ycaia o Aeiie/aiea c a?ae/oooyi
uanoy. C iaeiiai aieo, eiio aeecueea eiioeaioe?y ethaia?, ui
aecia/a?oueny ?aioia?noth ? o?aaaae?ei?noth (“Iiiaio” aeaiiino?o?
iaea?eueo o?aa?/iee aa??aio iii?o ii?iaoeai?e nenoai? noni?euenoaa), c
?ioiai, /a?ac oaea iniaeno?nia a?aeiioaiiy ye eioaiiy a?aeoai?th?oueny o
iueiai iaea?eueo caaaeueia a?aeiioaiiy ethaeeie ? na?oo. Ethaia aeey
Aeiie/aiea ? i?i?eaii ethaeeie aei ethaeeie o an?e ae?eniino? ?
eiie?aoiino?, iiaeieaiiyi a?ae/oaeaiiy, ui ci?iththoue oe?ii?nio
na?aeii?noue ? aeaiaeyoue ?? – ethaia – ca iaae? iaioth/i? ii?ae?. O
nai?io ?ica?i/aii? “ethaia?” ye o?enoeyinueeiai ?aeaaeo, Aeiie/aiei
ia?aeia?oueny ooee?oa?ieie iiaeyaeaie: ethaia iiaea ?nioaaoe o?eueee ia
canaaeao naiaiaee, a cia/eoue ia iiaeia neeoaaoe naaa ethaeoe oiai, ooi
oia? ia oe?eaaee ? iai?e?iiee, iioe?thth/e, oaeei /eiii, “i?eioeei
ei?eniino?” ia noa?o caei?ia’y oa ineo?ee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo aoe/ii? nenoaie ienueiaiieea
aea? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe, ui an? aiie o?nii iia’ycai? c uanoyi ye
eeth/iaith aoe/iith oe?ii?noth a oai??? Aeiie/aiea.

I?aoey ye ii?aeueia oe?ii?noue noa? aeey iueiai oei “aecaieaiiyi”, /a?ac
yea ethaeeia iiaa?oa?oueny aei ia?oiiniia aoooy, i?cia? “na?oiao aeooo”
a ?? aa?iii??. ? oe?ii?nia aa?o?noue i?aoe? aecia/a?oueny, a?aoo?-?aoo,
oei, /e ciaoiaeeoue ethaeeia uanoy ye a?ae/oooy aa?iii?? c iaaeieeoi?i
na?oii.

Eiino?othth/e iiao ii?aeueio nenoaio, Aeiie/aiei, ye “anaa?/iee”, ia i?a
ia?eoe oaaaith ieoaiue aeeaiei iniaeno?nii? noa?e ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee
– eioaiiy ? noaoaaeo a?aeiinei – o eiioaeno? noni?eueii? ii?ae?.
Caaaeyee oiio, ui “i?iaeaie noao?” ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy aoea ia’?eoii
oe?ieiai iaoeiaiai ?ioa?ano, Aeiie/aiei nei?enoaany iaaiaeith c?iaeoe ?o
i?aaeiaoii aeaniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – /a?ac i?ecio a?aeiioaiue “?inoeieo
– ?icoi”. O eiioaeno? nai?? oai??? a?i ii?ooea ieoaiiy i?i
ni?aa?aeianai?noue iiiyoue “uanoy” ? “oethao”, iinoaaeaoe oeth aeeeaio
ia nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei-ineoieia?/iee ??aaiue. Ia??aeiei eaiaiai
eiai o?einio?? oethao ? aeeoeia. Aiia ooai?th? oo a?nue, iaaeiei yei?
?icai?oathoueny on? ?iaeeii? eaoaee?cie.

Iiaaaa aei aioo??oiueiai aoooy ethaeeie niiioea? Aeiie/aiea ana aeeooy
caienethaaoeny iaae neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith a?iiaaenueeiai ? iniaenoiai.
A?i ona?aeiiethaaa, ui, eiino?othth/e oei nioe?aeueii? iniaenoino? naia
oi?ia eieaeoeaiiai ?nioaaiiy iaae?a? cia/ii? aaae, oiio iniaenoa uanoy
noaaeoueny iei o i?yio caeaaei?noue a?ae a?iiaaenueei? ae?yeueiino?:
aiii iiaeeeaa o?eueee o caaae?, iaoe??, aea?aeaa?. Iaeiae ia caeeoeeeny
ia iii?/aieie ?icaeoie, ui ia?aaeoaaee oaeei aeniiaeai. Ia?ace eieaeoeao
caeaa?eueoiai ? neiaie?/ieie ? i?eoiaothoue iaaaoeaia caaa?aeaiiy.
Aaeeea ?aeay iaeii/anii noa? ieoa?ai aea?oaii?eiioaiue ?iaeea?ae?a. O
?iiaiao aeniao??aionueeiai oeeeeo Aeiie/aiea oey i?iaeaia cao/eoue
a?eueo aeiaaeueii, ioiiethth/e ieoaiiy ?nioaaiiy aeeeoaoi??a,
ciainiaeaiiy ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a, aaeeeiianooaaia aea?oaii?eiioaiiy
?aea? (iania? ?ai?an?? ? ?aiioeeae) oiui. Aa?aiiny noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
Aeiie/aieia? oae ? ia aaeaeiny inoaoi/ii iiaeieaoe oie uaaaeue, aea
?ic??ciythoueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ? noni?eueia noa?e ethaenueeiai aeeooy.
Ia?ao?ae eiai aei ooii?e aea? oiio i?aenoaae. Aea “?inoeieo a?iiaaee”,
?aeath a?iiaaenueei? ni?eueiioe a?i aoaea ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o iaea?eueo
oe?ieiio cia/aii?. Ia i?e aaco?oueny noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia
“Eiiei?aeecio”, yeo, cia/iith i??ith, a?i iaiaaaany ?aae?coaaoe o
nenoai? ooaeiaei?o ia?ac?a.

Cina?aaeaeoth/enue ia ??ciiiai?oieo i??eoaaiiyo oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o,
aoei a iani?aaaaeeeaei ia?eoe oaaaith naio e?oa?aoo?o, aaeaea
o?einionueeee aniaeo i?noeoueny a oe?e?ni?e anoaoe/i?e nenoai?
ienueiaiieea. O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “eiiei?aeenonueea” nenoaia
A.Aeiie/aiea ?icaeyaea?oueny a eiioaeno? eiai e?oa?aoo?ieo
aenia?eiaio?a.

Ooaeiaeiy oai?/?noue aoea aeey Aeiie/aiea o??th “o?eaoiith”, ca?aeee a?i
aeaieiooaaa nai? ?aea?, ye? noinoaaeeny ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo i?iaeai. Oaia
“/aniino? c niaith” iaea?eueo aeoeaii ia?a?aaaeany o eiai iia?noyo oa
i’?nao ? iiaeaaaea aa??aioe aeaai?o iiooe?a iiaeae? “?aeaaeueiiai
a?iiaaeyieia”. Iaeiae, eiee eaeaoueny i?i iiaeaeue oyaethaaiiai
iaeaooiueiai noni?euenoaa, eiino?othaaiiy nioe?aeueieo ? aoe/ieo eie?c?e
ia iiaei iaiaaeeoeny “?ano?naie” iaei? i?ice ? ae?aiaoo?a??. *a?ac oa,
ui ienueiaiiee aoa i?ioeaieeii e?eaaaeo iaoiae?a ia?aaoaeoaaiiy na?oo, a
?aaeueieo oeyo?a iie?oe/iiai ie?iiai a?aaoethaaiiy ia ciaeoia, a?i
aaea?oueny aei o?aaeeoe?eieo, aeanoeaeo ooii?/iei ?iiaiai, cania?a ?
aeei?enoiao? caaaeueio noaio oeueiai aeai?o.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ooaeiaeiuei? niaaeueie ienueiaiieea aeine?aeieoey
a?aecia/a?, ui aeey an?o ?iiai?a Aeiie/aiea oa?aeoa?ia o?einionueea
i?iaeaiaoeea. Ieoaoeue i?aeoi nei?enoaany ii?aaeith A.Eaith: “Oi/ao aooe
o?einioii – ieoe ?iiai”, aea, yeui aanoe iiao i?i ?iiaie inoaii?o eiai
?ie?a, ioneii aeciaoe, ui aiie i?aaenoaaeythoue e?oa?aoo?o i?eioeeiiai
iiaiai oeio o caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? oai?/ino? Aeiie/aiea.. Ienueiaiiee
iae?a? iaeaeeae/o aei?iao aei /eoa/a – nai? aeoiee noiniaii uanoy
aeneiaeth? eai?aea?ii ? oi/ii. Oiio o o?einionueei-aoe/iiio aniaeo? oe?
oai?e i?aaenoaaeythoue iaaaeyeee ?ioa?an, oi/a, eiia??ii, i?ia?athoue o
ooaeiaeiueiio ieai? (/a?ac oa, ui a ieo i?aaenoaaeaii ia?aaaaeii
iicae?oa?aoo?iee iaoa??ae). ?acii aiie noaiiaeyoue ienoaoeueeee aa??aio
ao?eaiiy “eiiei?aeecio”. Eaeaoueny, ia?aaeon?i, i?i ?iiaie “A?/iee
?iia?aoea” ? “Eai?ici??e”, noeeue yeeo ia iia’ycaiee c yeithnue iaaiith
o?aaeeoe??th a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??. Aeaiaio aeeniooo, i??? i?i
“uanoy aeey an?o”, i?iaeaia “a?ao ia a?aoa” iaaeeaeathoue ?o aei oai??a
Aeinoi?anueeiai. Aiaeii/an, Aeiie/aiei canoinoaaa o ?iiai?noeoe? ? na?e
ae?aiaoo?a?/iee iaoiae, ?icaeaath/e o ?iiaiao “oaao? aeieo?eie” A.?anaia
? A.Oio. Ii noo?, aiie yaeythoue niaith i?iaeo aieiaiiai oai?o
o?einionueei-aoe/iiai aei?iaeo Aeiie/aiea, aea a?i, ye iai caea?oueny,
?ica’ycaa aieiaia ieoaiiy aeaniiai aeeooy ? ia??oiooaaa ?acoeueoaoe
aeanieo i??eoaaiue.

Ioaea, “Eiiei?aeeci”, ia aeoieo eiai aaoi?a, iaa noaoe ia?oith
i?ia?aiith aa?iii?eiiai noni?euenoaa, iaeiae, oey oai??y ia ? aeiaiith,
ia /iio ? iaaieioo? Aeiie/aiei, aiia eeoa oiniaeth? aeac?aee ia eooaeo
oeyoo aei iiiaeaiiy, aei ?icaeoeo ocaiaeaeaiiai ethaenueeiai ni?aaeeooy
– oeyoo aei uanoy. Cae?i?ia ia naiaiae? ?iaeea?aea, oey nenoaia ii?ae?
ia?aaeaa/a? eiai iacaeaaei?noue ? i?aai aeai?o. Nenoaia i?iiiio?
ethaeei? aeio?eioaaoeny iaaieo i?aaee-ii?aae uiaei aeanii? iiaaae?iee,
yea ni?eyoeia noaoe neeueiei, caei?iaei ? uaneeaei. Uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
aeaniiai naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, ethaeeia naia, ia ??ai? ii?aeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?, iiaeiia i?eeoe aei oeueiai.

O AENIIAEAO aeena?oaoe?? noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aena?oeththoue iniaeeaino? eeth/iai? i?iaeaie
aoe/ii? nenoaie A.Aeiie/aiea – eaoaai??? uanoy. I?aee?aneth?oueny
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy “Eiiei?aeecio”, aea cia/ia i?noea i?eae?ey?oueny
ii?aeueiiio aaeineiiaeaiith ethaeeie ia aoiai?noe/ieo canaaeao.

I?ioean inieneaiiy iniiaieo eiinoaio aoooy a?aeaoaaany o Aeiie/aiea
/a?ac aeooae?caoe?th i?iaeaie uanoy, ui ? aecia/eei oa?aeoa? eiai
ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo ooeaiue. Eiioeaioe?y oai?aiiy uanoy aoea caniiaaia ia
aeoea?caoe?? ii?aeueiiai i?eioeeio “/aniino? c niaith” ? oyaeyeany ye
oai??y naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, ui iiaea a iaaeeceoe ethaeeio aei uaneeaiai
aoooy ? iiaiioe?iiiai ni?eeiyooy na?oo, aei i?ciaiiy naiai aeeoo?aiai
naino, ye nenoaia aeooiaieo oe?iiinoae, iia(ycaieo i?ae niaith
ethaia(th, ui aenooia? o??th aa?iii?eiith neeith, yea ?aeia? ethaeeio c
?ioeie ethaeueie, caa??aath/e, aiaeii/an, ?? naiaiaeo oa
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, ?icoiii, yeee ni?ey? i?ciaiith ?
o?ainoeaiaeaioiino? aac o/ano? ???aoe?iiae?noe/ii? neee, oa ae??th o
iaaeao iaaii? ni?eueiioe, yea ni?iiiaeia i?aeaanoe ethaeeio aei o???
?aea?, ui iaaeanoue cia/aiiy ?? aoooth ? ie?aeiino? i?aoe?. I?eeeaae
“Eiiei?aeecio” ionea aeiaanoe, ui uanoy ia aea?oueny ethaeei? ye
?iaiaioia aeai?noue, aiii ? i?iaeoeoii oai?aiiy ethaeeie, iiiaioii ??
aeuiai i?ciaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aonae I.?. I?iaeaia ii?aeueiiai aeai?o o na?oiaeyaei?e i???ioaoe??
A.Aeiie/aiea. – E.: Ciaiiy, 1998. – 22 n.

2. Aonae I.?. Eaoaai??y uanoy o ii?aeuei?e nenoai? A.Aeiie/aiea //
A?niee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. O?einio?y.
Iie?oieia?y. – Aeione 27. – Ee?a, 1998. – N.11 – 13.

3. Aonae I.?. “Iiaa ii?aeue” A.Aeiie/aiea o eiioaeno? ineoiaiae?co
C.O?aeaea. //Aeooaeuei? o?einionuee? oa eoeueoo?ieia?/i? i?iaeaie
no/aniino?. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – Ee?a, 1998. – N.94–101.

4. Aonae I.?. Ooaa?aeaeoth/e eiiei?aeeci // Neiai ? /an. – 1998. – ? 11.
– N.66 – 69.

Aonae I.?. Uanoy a aoe/i?e eiioeaioe?? “Eiiei?aeecio” Aieiaeeie?a
Aeiie/aiea. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth

09.00.07 – aoeea. – Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeo?oueny eaoaai??y uanoy a aoeei-o?einionueeiio
aei?iaeo Aieiaeeie?a Aeiie/aiea. C’yniaothoueny i?e/eie, ye? coiiaeee ?
aecia/eee ci?no ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo ooeaiue oe?a?inueeiai ienueiaiieea,
?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iei aeanii? eiioeaioe?? aoaeoaaiiy
uaneeaiai ethaenueeiai aoooy. Na?oiaeyaeia i???ioaoe?y Aeiie/aiea
i?inoaaeo?oueny e??cue i?ecio i?iaeaie ii?aeueiiai aeai?o caaaeii, ?acii
c oei aaiethoe?y eiai aoe/ieo iiaeyae?a iiaea?oueny o eiioaeno?
iiaea?i?nonueei? o?einio??. Ii?yae c aiae?cii eeth/iai? ii?aeueii?
oe?iiino? “eiiei?aeenonueei?” nenoaie ooaeiaeieea – i?iaeaie uanoy –
?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo /eiiee?a eiai aoe/ii?
eiioeaioe??, iieacaii ooaeiaei? a?aeoai?aiiy ?? ye o?einionueeiai ia?aco
ia i?eeeaae? inoaii?o (iaaeaeaieo) ?iiai?a A.Aeiie/aiea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: uanoy, aa?iii?y, aoe/ia eiioeaioe?y, eiiei?aeeci,
ii?aeueii-aoe/i? ooeaiiy, ii?aeueiee aea??.

Gusak N.I. Happiness in Volodymyr Vynnychenko’s ethical concept of
“concordizm». – Manuscript.

Thesis for the Candidate of Sciens Degree (Philosophy) by spesiality –
09.00.07 – ethics. – Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, 1999.

In work the category happiness in the ethics-philosophical heritage of
Volodymyr Vynnychenko is investigated. The reasons, which have caused
the contents moral search of the Ukrainian writer, are determined, the
process of formation by him of the own concept of creation of happy
human life is considered. Vital orientation of Vynnychenko is traced
through a prism of a problem of moral choice; the evolution of his
ethical sights is submitted in context of Modernity philosophy.
Alongside with the analysis of key moral values of concordizm’system of
this artist — the problem of happiness — the essence of other components
of his ethical concept is defined, the art embodiment it, as
philosophical image, is shown on an example of last (unpublished) novels
of Volodymyr Vynnychenko.

Key words: happiness, harmony, ethical concept, concordizm, moral
search, moral choice.

Aonae I.E. N/anouea a yoe/aneie eiioeaioeee “Eiiei?aeecia” Aeaaeeie?a
Aeiie/aiei. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.07 – yoeea. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana
Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa enneaaeoaony eaoaai?ey n/anouey a yoeei-oeeinioneii ianeaaeee
Aeaaeeie?a Aeiie/aiei. Ii?aaeaeythony i?e/eiu, eioi?ua iaoneiaeee
niaea?aeaiea i?aanoaaiiuo eneaiee oe?aeineiai ienaoaey, ?anniao?eaaaony
i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey ei nianoaaiiie eiioeaioeee nicaeaiey n/anoeeaiai
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey.

Ie?iaicc?ai/aneay i?eaioaoeey Aeiie/aiei ioneaaeeaaaony /a?ac i?ecio
i?iaeaiu ii?aeueiiai auai?a a oeaeii. Yoi iicaieeei i?eciaoue, /oi n
oi/ee c?aiey ii?aeueiinoe eae auai?a ii ie ia oaa ia ionooiee io
nianoaaiiuo aeeciaiiuo iiceoeee: iuoaynue nicaeaoue nenoaio ii?aee e
n/anouey, niciaoaeueii i?eaioe?iaaeny ia ia?eneci.

Aianoa n oai yaiethoeey aai yoe/aneeo acaeyaeia i?aaenoaaeaia a
eiioaenoa iiaea?ienoe/aneie oeeinioee, /oi aeieacuaaao aaeaeaaoiinoue
Aeiie/aiei eoeueoo?a OO aaea a oeaeii. Ai-ia?auo, ?aciaae?auaaaony
iaiin?aaenoaaiiia “aeeyiea” oeeinioee Ieoeoa ia oe?aeineiai ienaoaey e
oi, /oi aicieeei eae i?iaeoeo nianoaaiiie ii?aeueiie ?aoeaenee ia
aeeciaiiua yaeaiey. Ai-aoi?uo, i?iaeaiu yecenoaioeeaeueiie oeeinioee
?ane?uaathony o Aeiie/aiei a ?aieao ia?aaeeaiu “ss – Ae?oaie”, /oi
iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue aai oai?/anoai ia?yaeo n i?iecaaaeaieyie
o?aioeocneeo ienaoaeae yecenoaioeeaeueiie i?eaioaoeee. A-o?aoueeo,
nouiinoue ii?aeueiiai i?eioeeia Aeiie/aiei – “/anoiinoue n niaie” –
aiaeece?oaony a eiioaenoa ineoiaiaeeoe/aneiai o/aiey: yoio “iaoiae
ioiioaiey e aeecie” yaeyaony naiaai ?iaea “io?aaeaieai” i?ioeanna aai
nianoaaiiiai naiiainieoaiey a ii?aeueii-yoe/aneii ieaia.

Iineieueeo ia/aeii ion/?oa a yoe/aneie eiioeaioeee A.Aeiie/aiei yaeyaony
iiiyoea aa?iiiee, iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeaii a ?aaioa aaiaceno a?
aini?eyoey e ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai aiieiuaiey. ?iaeae?iiue eoeueoo?ie
“?oaaaea aaeia”, eioi?ay a eo/oeo naieo i?iyaeaieyo aeaiiino?e?iaaea
aa?iiieth e oeaeinoiinoue ie?a, Aeiie/aiei a iineaaeiee ia?eiae aeecie
i?eoiaeeo e aoaeaeenoneie oeeinioee n a? iiieiaieai anaiauaiethuae neeu
aa?iiiee. Aa?iiiey e niaeanea ii?aaeaeeee nouiinoue “eiiei?aeenoneie” (
n eao. – “niaeaniaaiiie”) nenoaiu ienaoaey.

Caaeoiaiiue eae nenoaia iiaaaeaiey, “Eiiei?aeeci” aeieaeai aue
iieacaoue, /oi n/anouea ia aea?ony /aeiaaeo eiiaiaioii, a yaeyaony
i?iaeoeoii aai aunoaai iiciaiey e nianoaaiii oai?/anoaa.

Iineieueeo n/anouea niioiineony ni anae iieiioie e oeaeinoiinoueth
/aeiaa/aneiai auoey, nenoaia naiiniaa?oainoaiaaiey cao?aaeaaao ?acee/iua
noa?u aeecie: naiaeioth, eioeiioth, iauanoaaiioth, aeoaee?oy i?eioeei
“/anoiinoe n niaie”. Iiyoiio ia?yaeo n aiaeecii eeth/aaie ii?aeueiie
oeaiiinoe yoe/aneie oai?ee ooaeiaeieea – i?iaeaiu n/anouey –
?ane?uaaaony nouiinoue ae?oaeo a? ninoaaeythueo: i?iaeaiu ethaae,
aeaoae, a?aea e aeaaea ieoaiey. A ?aaioa iieacaii ooaeiaeanoaaiiia
aiieiuaiea oai?ee n/anouey Aeiie/aiei eae oeeinioneiai ia?aca ia i?eia?a
iineaaeieo (iaiioaeeeiaaiiuo) ?iiaiia ienaoaey.

Nenoaia aa?iiiecaoeee e niaa?oainoaiaaiey /aeiaaea ?anniao?eaaaony eae
neioaoe/aneay e ooiie/aneay, /oi, iaeiaei, ia iaoaao i?eciaoue a?
i?aaie/iie, oae eae naycothuei iiaeoaenoii aunooiatho naiaiaea
eiaeeaeaea, aai iacaaeneiinoue e i?aai auai?a.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: n/anouea, aa?iiiey, yoe/aneay eiioeaioeey, eiiei?aeeci,
i?aanoaaiiua eneaiey, ii?aeueiue auai?.

An? ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee iaaeaeaii? a?o?aii? niaaeueie Aeiie/aiea, yeeie
aeena?oaioea ei?enooaaeany o iaienaii? ?iaioe, aoee etha’ycii iaaeai?
i?ia?aeiei iaoeiaei ni?a?ia?oieeii ?inoeoooo e?oa?aoo?e ?i. O.A.
Oaa/aiea IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?ii o?eieia?/ieo iaoe Neaa/aiei A.I., yea
i?aoethaaea c oiiaeaie o 1995 ?ioe?.

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