Розвиток та становлення топографії нижньої порожнистої вени в пренатальному періоді онтогенезу людини: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / М.Ю. Кочмарь,

2

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oa?iii?euenueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y

?i. ?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai

EI*IA?Ue IEOAEEI TH??EIAE*

OAeE:616-053.31-071.3:612.134

?ICAEOIE OA NOAIIAEAIIss OIIIA?AO?? IEAEIUeI?

II?IAEIENOI? AAIE A I?AIAOAEUeIIIO IA??IAe?

IIOIAAIACO ETHAeEIE

14.03.01 — II?IAEUeIA AIAOII?ss

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?iii?eue – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oaeai?iaenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieiaaoeueeee Aiae??e Noaiaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?a-

oeaii? o??o?a?? oa a?noieia?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo

Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa

ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaeaea ?iiai Eineiiae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i. ?.Ai?aa/aanueeiai,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa oiiia?ao?/-

ii? aiaoii??;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *a?eania A?eoi? Aaa?e-

eiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.Aiai-

iieueoey, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?aaii-O?aie?anueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y,
eaoaae?a ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? ethaeeie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny __19 eenoiiaaea___ 1999 ?. i _14__ aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 58.601.01 o
Oa?iii?euenuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? ?i. ?. Ai?aa/aanueeiai
(282001, i.Oa?iii?eue, Iaeaeai Aie?, 1)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?iii?euenueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? ?i. ?. Ai?aa/aanueeiai (282001,
i.Oa?iii?eue, aoe.?onueea, 12)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee___19 aeiaoiy___1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E?o I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ciaiiy iniaeeainoae a?eiai? ii?oieia??
aia??iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa aia??ioiiia?ao?? oiai /e ?ioiai i?aaio ia?
ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieoaiue a?eiai? o?c?ieia?? ?
iaoieia?? (A.A.Eiaaoieeia, 1990, I.N. Ne?eii?eia oa ?i.,
1992,?.?.Aia?ee, 1995, A.?.I?e?o?i, 1996, A.A.Aia?i oa ?i., 1998,
A.I.E?ooeye, 1998). Oni?o iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia noaeeiao /a?aaii?
ii?iaeieie ?, cie?aia, ia ieaei?e ii?iaeieno?e aai? o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo, ia’?eoeai?noue o?aeooaaiiy io?eiaieo i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? aeaieo caeaaeeoue a?ae ciaiiy iniaeeainoae oiiia?ao?? oa
aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie. Ia aeaeue, aeai? a
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ii oeueiio ieoaiith noaiaoe/i?, oi?eathoueny, a
iniiaiiio, iienaiiy /ano ? i?noey ?? caeeaaeee(A.I.Eieo?a,
N.A.Eaaeoeueea, 1994, ?.?.Cie?ia, 1995, TH.O.Aooai?e/oe, 1997,
?.E.Aaeaea oa ?i., 1998, A.N.Aieiaaoeueeee oa ?i., 1998, A.A.*a?eania oa
?i., 1998). Aaaaoi ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny oe??? i?iaeaie, aea/ai?
iaaeinoaoiuei, a aeaye? c ieo caeeoathoueny aeeneon?eieie. Cie?aia,
o?aaiaioa?ii aea/ai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy noiaao?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie ? ?? ii?oieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea, oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ?c noi?aeieie i?aaiaie
cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o i?ioyaii ?aiiueiai iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. I?ooi c
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeiee?a ia i?inoaaeea eiiieaenii ca ?icaeoeii ?
noaiiaeaiiyi oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie a aeeiai?oe?
i?ioyaii anueiai i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.
Aeooaeuei?noue iaoi? ?iaioe iaoiiaeaia ua ? iaiao?aei?noth c’ynoaaiiy
ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aaeoiia oa /ano iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy aiiiae?e oa
i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie c iaoith ?ic?iaee iiaeo
iaoiae?a ?o o??o?a?/ii? ei?aeoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaia a/aiith ?aaeith iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo 24 n?/iy 1995 ?., i?ioieie ?
3. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai ieaio iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa
a?noieia?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? aaaeeeaeo aaiicieo eieaeoi?ieo noaeei a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie”, yea ? o?aaiaioii iaoeiai? i?iaeaie i?ae
iiia?ii aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0196U003532.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/eoe ii?oiaaiac oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao??
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. C’ynoaaoe /an ? aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy caeeaaeee ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a.

2. Aea/eoe aeeiai?eo noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ??cieo a?aeae?e?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie, ?? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy c non?aei?ie i?aaiaie oa
noaeeiaie a i?ioean? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo ethaeeie oa o
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo.

3. Aea/eoe e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iniiaieo ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ai?iaeiaae aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo oa
o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. 4. C’ynoaaoe ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa /an
iiaeeeaiai aeieeiaiiy a?iaeaeaieo aiiiae?e oa aa??aio?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa eiiieaenii aea/aii
?icaeoie ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino?
oiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiioaiue ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie c noi?aeieie
i?aaiaie oa no?oeoo?aie ia ??cieo noaae?yo i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie. I?inoaaeaii aeeiai?eo ci?ie oi?ie oa ?ici???a
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie o ??ci? ia??iaee aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai
?icaeoeo. Anoaiiaeaii ii?oieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy a?iaeaeaieo
aaae, aiiiae?e oa aa??aio?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, ye? ?
iane?aeeii ii?ooaiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo aaie ia iaei?e ?c i’yoe noaae?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Io?eiai? iaie aeai?
iiaeeaeththoue oa aeiiiaiththoue ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ?icaeoie oa
noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ethaeeie. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiiiaaathoue c?icoi?oe iaoiaaiac ? iniaeeaino? ia?aa?ao
?yaeo caoai?thaaiue nenoaie ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, ye?
cono??/athoueny a iinoiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco; aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe i?e/eie oa iaoai?ci aeieeiaiiy aeayeeo aiiiae?e
oa aaae ?icaeoeo ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a; iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaoiae?a iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy ia
noaeeiao, cie?aia, ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie. Aeai? i?i iniaeea?noue
aoaeiae oa oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? aca?iia?aeiioaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e aeaeaii? o/aiaeo iin?aiee?a c aia??ieia??,
aiaoii?? ethaeeie, oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? oa iia?aoeaii? o??o?a??,
aeeoy/i? o??o?a??, oiui.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia
eaoaae?? aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa a?noieia??
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia eaoaae?ao aiaoii??
ethaeeie Aoeiaeinueei?, Oa?iii?euenueei?, ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
aea?aeaaieo iaaee/ieo aeaaeai?e, Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii?
aeaaeai?? oa A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi cae?eniaii aea??
iai?yieo, ianyao ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca?? a?ieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo,
aeeiiaii ii?oieia?/i?, ii?oiiao?e/i? oa ?aeiino?oeoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeaii aiae?c aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e. Aeena?oaioii naiino?eii
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, i?iaiae?ciaaii oa ocaaaeueiaii
io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, iaienaii an? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe??, iaa?oioiaaii
aeniiaee i?aoe?, noi?ioeueiaaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a oaeiae
i?aeaioiaeaii iaoeia? aeai? aei ioae?eaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia 50-e, 51-e, 52-e oa 53-e
i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Oaeai?iae, 1996,
1997, 1998, 1999), ?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a,
aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (Eoaainuee, 1998), ia ni?eueiiio
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aiaoii?? ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa
a?noieia??, eaoaae?e oaeoeueoaonueei? o??o?a?? iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ? Caea?iaonueeiai iaeaniiai
a?aeae?eaiiy iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a oa
oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?a Oe?a?ie a?ae 29 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o,
a oiio /ene? 5 — o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 4 — o iaoa??aeao iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e oa c’?cae?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia oe?a?inueeith iiaith ia
180 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Neeaaea?oueny c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eo?a ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aeniiae?a oa nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa
?ethno?iaaia 52 ?enoieaie, 6 oaaeeoeyie oa 1 ae?aa?aiith.
A?ae?ia?ao?/iee aeac?aiee i?noeoue 173 aeaea?aea, c ieo — 50
ca?oa?aeieo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa?iaeii aeey aeineiaeaeaiiy
noaee 138 o?oiia ca?iaeeia, ia?aaeieiaeia, ieiaeia oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
ethaeeie, yei iinooieee c iieiaiaeo oa iaoieiaiaiaoiii/ieo aiaeaeieaiue
eieoaaeueieo caeeaaeia i.Oaeai?iaea. Aea/aiiy o?oi?a ieiaeia aaaith
a?eueoa 500,0 a ? o?oi?a iiaiia?iaeaeaieo i?iaiaeeeiny a
iaoieiaiaiaoii?/ieo a?aeae?eaiiyo Oaeai?iaenueei? oeaio?aeueii? iinueei?
eeiii/ii? eiea?ii oa Caea?iaonueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? eiea?ii. E?ii
oiai, aeey ?iaioe aeei?enoaii na?i? ainoieiai/ieo c?icia ca?iaeeia oa
ia?aaeieiaeia ethaeeie ic eieaeoei? eaoaae?e aiaoiii? ethaeeie
Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? (i.*a?i?aoe?).

Aieiaee neeaae ia’?eoia aeineiaeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaeaiee a oaaeeoe? 1. ?o
a?e aecia/aany ca oaaeeoeyie ia i?aenoaa? aei??thaaiue
o?i’yii-eoi?eeiai? aeiaaeeie (OEAe).

Aeii?thaaiiy ca?iaeeia i ia?aaeieiaeia ia?oeo aeaio iinyoeia ?icaeoeo
i?iaiaeeee iiney iaeiiaeaiii? oienaoei? a 5 ?ic/eii iaeo?aeueiiai
oi?iaeiio. Oea caaacia/eei noaeinoue oi?ie nooaeiaiiaeiaii?
eiinenoaioei? ?o oiea i oei naiei aeicaieeei oieeiooe iaaaaeaieo
iia?ioiinoae i?e aecia/aiii aieo ia’?eoia.

Ii?oiiao?ith ia?aaeieiaeia o?aoueiai iinyoey ?icaeoeo, ieiaeia oa
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo i?iaiaeeee a?ae?aco iiney ?o iinooieaiiy a i?icaeoo?o.
Ia’?eoe o?enoaaee o 5 ?ic/eii iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iaeiio i?ioyaii 2
oeaeiia, iiney /iai ?o ia?aiineee a 3 ?ic/ei iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iaeiio,
aea aiie caa?iaaeeny.

Iiney oienaoei? o?oie ca?iaeeia oa ia?aaeieiaeia i?iieaaee i?ioyaii
aeiae a i?ioi/iie aiaei. O ia?aaeieiae?a a?eueoa 18,0 ii OEAe i?iaiaeeee
aeaeaeueoeeiaoeith e?noie i?ioyaii o?ueio ae?a o 7 ?ic/ei? acioii?
eeneioe. Uia oieeiooe iaa?yeo niieo/ii? oeaieie i?aia?aoe iii?uaee ia 24
aiaeeie o 5 ?ic/ei n??/aiieeneiai iao??th.

Ciaaiaeiaiiy i?aia?ao?a ca?iaee?a ? ia?aaeieiae?a cae?enithaaee oeyoii
i?iaaaeaiiy ?o e??cue aaoa?ath aoeeiaiai nie?oo c?inoath/i?
eiioeaio?aoe??. Iio?i i?aia?aoe aeo?eioaaee o noi?o? 100 aoeeiaiai
nie?oo e oei?ioi?io ? caeeaaee o ia?ao?i. Aeaioiaeaiiy na??eieo
a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a ?c ia?ao?iiaeo aeie?a oiaueiith 15,0 iei i?iaiaeeee
a iaei?e ?c o?ueio aca?iiiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo ieiuei — naa?oaeuei?e,
o?iioaeuei?e aai ai?eciioaeuei?e. Na??ei? c??ce oa?aoaaee
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii ? caeeth/aee o eaiaaenueeee aaeuecai.

An?i o?oiai ieiae?a ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo i?ney aio?iiiiao?e/ieo
aei??thaaiue ? ?o ia?ea?oaaiiy ?icoeiaee ia?aaeith no?ieo ooeoaa ii
na?aaeeii?e e?i?? a?ae y?aiii? ae??cee ? aei eiaeiaiai c’?aeiaiiy.
A?aei?aia?iaoaaee i?aaie /a?aaii? oa a?oaeii? ii?iaeiei. I?aia?aoe
i?iieaaee i?ioi/iith aiaeith oa o?enoaaee o 5% ?ic/ei? iaeo?aeueiiai
oi?iae?io i?ioyaii 2 oeaeaei?a. I?ney ?icn?eaiiy caaeiueiai eenoea
i?eno?ieiai? i/a?aaeie a?aeie?aiethaaee ai?oo, ieaeith ii?iaeienoo aaio
oa i?aaie cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o.

Aeey aea/aiiy noiaao?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a o
ee?oeiaeio, ui ioi/o? ieaeith ii?iaeienoo aaio, /a?ac ?i’?eoe?eio aieeo
aaiaeeee noi?o ?c i?aeeeneaiiai nieyiith eeneioith 5 ?ic/eio
iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iae?io ? a?ae?iea?aiiaoo iao??y. Iooe?oe?

Oaaeeoey 1

A?EIAEE NEEAAe ? E?EUeE?NOUe IA’?EO?A AeINE?AeAEAIIss

A?e ia’?eo?a

(o oeaeiyo, i?nyoeyo)O?i’yii-eoi?eeiaa

aeiaaeeia (OEAe),iiAeine?aeaeaii

ia’?eo?a4-e oeaeaeaiue4.0 — 6.965-e oeaeaeaiue7.0 — 8.976-e
oeaeaeaiue9.0 — 13.597-e oeaeaeaiue13.6 — 20.078-e oeaeaeaiue20.5 —
30.089-e oeaeaeaiue30.5 — 41.0610-e oeaeaeaiue41.5 — 53.0911-e
oeaeaeaiue53.5 — 66.0712-e oeaeaeaiue66.5 — 80.064-e i?nyoeue81.0 —
130.095-e i?nyoeue131.0 — 185.0126-e i?nyoeue186.0 — 230.077-e
i?nyoeue231.0 — 270.088-e i?nyoeue271.0 — 310.089-e i?nyoeue311.0 —
345.0910-e i?nyoeue346.0 — 375.08Iiaiia?iaeaeai?376.0 ? a?eueoa12

aoaeaeeneiai aaco, ye? ooai?eeeny a ?acoeueoao? o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe??
iaeo?ae?caoe??, ?icoa?iaoaaee oeaieio, ui aeicaieeei “oiiei” i?aia?oaaoe
oa aeae?eyoe noaeeie.

Ia a?aei?aia?iaaieo ieiaeao ? iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aeaoaeueii aea/aee
aiaoii?/i? no?oeoo?e cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o oa caaeiueiai
na?aaeino?iiy, iienoaaee neioii?th oa neaeaoioii?th ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a, ca aeiiiiiaith iae?iiao?e/ii? e?i?eee
aei??thaaee aeiaaeeio oa ae?aiao? oeeo noaeei.

Aeey aea/aiiy oiiia?aoi? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoieia, a
oaeiae oiiia?aoi-aiaoiii/ieo aca?iiaiaeiinei c iioeie noaeeiaie i
no?oeoo?aie o ieiaeia i iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ethaeeie aoa aeei?enoaiee
iaoiae ii’?eoei?.

Iaeeaeo noaeei i?iaiaeeee ?ic/eiii /i?ii? oooi /a?ac i?aaa ia?aaena?aey
? noaaiiao aaio ia ??ai? noaaiiaiai o?eeooieea. Iaeeaaeaee aea?
e?aaoo?e: ia?oo — ia noaaiiao aaio (ieae/a a?ae i?noey aaaaeaiiy
?i’?eoe?eii? aieee a iaaeao noaaiiaiai o?eeooieea), ae?oao — ia
eaaaiaaee noiaao?. Iioii i?aia?ao i?ioyaii aeaio oeaeiia oienoaaee o 5%
?ic/eii iaeo?aeueiiai oi?iaeiio, aiaeaiethaaee o 3% ?ic/eii ia?aeeno
aiaeith (aiae 10 aei 48 aiaeei a caeaaeiinoi a?ae aaee/eie ia’?eoo) i
i?iieaaee a i?ioi/iie aiaei i?ioyaii 6 aiaeei. Ciaaiaeiaiiy i?iaiaeeee a
aoeeiaiio nie?o? c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoei?.

Ia’?eoe i?inaioethaaee o iaoeeiaiio aoi?i naeioeeeiai? eeneioe.
I?aia?oaaiiy oa aea/aiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a
i?iaiaeeee iiae eiio?ieai aiiieoey?ii? eoie. I?e aea/aii? caa?oaee oaaao
ia e?euee?noue noaeei, ?o o?ae, c yeeo aeaea?ae aiie ooai?ththoueny,
iayai?noue noaeeiieo aianoiiic?a.

C iaoith aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ie oa oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a a ca?iaeeiaiio oa ia?aaeieiaeiaiio
ia??iaeao i?aiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco iaie aoa aeei?enoaiee iaoiae
a?ao?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e, yeee aeicaieya aea/eoe aeine?aeaeoaai?
no?oeoo?e o o?ueioi??iiio, ia’?iiiio cia?aaeai? ca iaoiaeii
I.A.Oo?eaae/a (1967).

Caiaeueiaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?ney noa?aiiiai aea/aiiy na??? i?aia?ao?a
i?ae i?e?ineiiii, i?ae?aooieo e?eueeino? c??c?a. A?eoo? iaia?o aeey
caiaeueiaoaaiiy neeaaeaee iaeei ia iaeiiai. Eiaeiee c??c caiaeueiaoaaee
ia ie?aiiio eeno? iaia?o (caiaeueiaoaaee ia o?eueee eiioo?e ia’?eoa, a
oaeiae ? no?oeoo?e, yee iiaee a neoaeeoe i???ioe?aie aeey i?aaeeueiiai
ni?anoaaeaiiy iine?aeoth/eo c??c?a — ia/?iea, o?aaao oa ?i.). Ca
aeiiiiiaith eii?thaaeueiiai iaia?o eiioo?e aeine?aeaeoaaieo no?oeoo?
ia?aiineee ia iniiaiee a?eoo iaia?o. Oeyoii oo?eoiaee iaaeaaaee
cia?aaeaiith eiai ia’?iiee aeaeyae.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. Ia aea/aiiio iaie
iaoa??ae? (22 aia??ii?a, 43 ia?aaeieiae?a, 61 ieiaee, 12
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo) aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy noiaao?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie iia’ycaii c aeaiia aaiicieie nenoaiaie: nenoaiith
aeiaoeiai-a?eaeiaeo aai oa nenoaiith aaiicieo aianoiiic?a i?ae
iinoea?aeeiaeueieie, noaea?aeeiaeueieie oa noi?aea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie.

Caeeaaeea ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ii/eia?oueny o ca?iaee?a 5,0 —
6,5 ii OEAe ia /aoaa?oiio oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo
?c oi?ioaaiiy e?ai?aeueii? ?? /anoeie. Aiia iia’ycaia c ooai?aiiyi
aaiiciiai noiaao?a a ?acoeueoao? aianoiiic?a i?ae aa?oiueith /anoeiith
ia/?ieiaeo aaiicieo neioni?ae?a, ye? ? ?icaaeoaeaeaiiyi
aeiaoeiai-a?eaeiaeo aai. Aaiiciee noiaao? iai?aaey?oueny aei na?oey ?
aiaaea? o aaiiciee neion.

A oeae ia??iae iniiaieie aaiicieie noiaao?aie, ui a?aeaiaeyoue aaiicio
e?ia a?ae caeeaaeie i?aai?a “/a?aaii?” ii?iaeieie ia 4 oeaei? ?icaeoeo ?
ia?i? iinoea?aeeiaeuei? aaie, ye? i?ioiaeyoue iicaaeo iaciiao?in?a ?
eaoa?aeuei?oa aei?naeueii? ai?oe. Aea/aiiy na??e a?noieia?/ieo c??c?a
ca?iaee?a 6,0 — 6,5 ii OEAe iieacaei, ui o an?o aeiaaeeao e?aa oa i?aaa
iinoea?aeeiaeuei? aaie ?icoaoiaai? aneiao?e/ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei
o?aaoa. O an?o aeiaaeeao i?ina?o e?ai? iinoea?aeeiaeueii? aaie aoa
ie?oaei? oi?ie, a i?aai? — iaaeueii? oi?ie. A iinoea?aeeiaeuei? aaie
cae?enith?oueny a?aeoie aaiicii? e?ia? a?ae ia?aeiieo ie?ie /a?ac
nenoaio i?eeeo aaiicieo noaeei, ye? a?oiothoueny o aeaeyae? iaae?aeueieo
? eaoa?aeueieo aai iaciiao?ina. Aiie aiaaeathoue a ia?aaeith
i?aie?oaei?noue iinoea?aeeiaeueii? aaie, oiae? ye a ?? caaeith
i?aie?oaei?noue aiaaeathoue aei?naeuei? aaie a?ae caeeaaeee o?aaoa oa
a?/ii? no?iee oeaeiia.

Ia ii/aoeo 5 oeaeiy ?icaeoeo o ca?iaee?a 7,0 — 8,0 ii OEAe a
?acoeueoao? iaa?no?ae?caoe?? aianoiiic?a i?ae a?eaeiaeie i?eoieaie
iaae?aeueieo aai iaciiao?in?a oi?io?oueny ua iaeia ia?a aai —
noaea?aeeiaeuei? aaie, ye? i?ioiaeyoue acaeiaae aaio?iiaae?aeueieo
iiaa?oiiue caeeaaeee iaaeie?iee?a ? aoi?eiieo ie?ie.

Oaea ia?aaoaeiaa aaiicii? nenoaie o ca?iaee?a 5 oeaeiy
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny “ia?aiinii”
a?aeoieo aaiicii? e?ia? a?ae ia?aeiieo ie?ie ? noaoaaeo caeic a nenoaio
noaea?aeeiaeueieo aai.

Ia oe?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo ia ??ai? III-IV iiia?aeiaeo o?aaoe?a i?ae
e?aith oa i?aaith noaea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie iiia?aaeo ai?oe oi?io?oueny
?ioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiee aianoiiic, aei yeiai i?eeyaathoue aoi?eii? ie?ee
nai?ie aaio?iiaae?aeueieie iiaa?oiyie.

A oeae aea /an a ia/?ioe? ?c ieaeiuei? /anoeie aaiicieo neioni?ae?a
oi?io?oueny aaiicia i?ioiea (i?ioiea A?aioe?y), /a?ac yeo e?ia ?c
ioieiai? aaie iai?aaey?oueny o “aa?oi?e naaiaio” ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienouei? aaie.

I?ioyaii 6 oeaeiy o ca?iaee?a niinoa??aa?oueny ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie
i?aai?a a?oaeii? oa /a?aaii? ii?iaeiei, ye? a?oiothoueny o aeaeyae?
ie?aieo i?aaiieiiieaen?a, a oaeiae ae?ao?aaie. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei
oi?ioaaiiy oae caaii? “ia?aeiii?” ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, ui
aeeth/a? ia/?ieiaee, ae?ao?aaiaeueiee oa ?io?aia?eea?ae?aeueiee
a?aeae?ee, a oaeiae ua iaei??? ia?e aaiicieo noiaao??a —
noi?aea?aeeiaeueieo aai. Inoaii? ooai?ththoueny a ?acoeueoao?
iaa?no?ae?caoe?? aianoiiic?a i?ae iaae?aeueieie i?eoieaie caeeoe?a
iinoea?aeeiaeueieo aai o ca?iaee?a 11,0 — 12,0 ii OEAe (na?aaeeia 6
oeaeiy ?icaeoeo).

A ?acoeueoao? aianoiiica i?ae “aa?oi?i naaiaioii” ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?ioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiei neionii /a?ac i?aao
noaea?aeeiaeueio aaio oi?io?oueny iaaeie?eiaee a?aeae?e ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie, a oa /anoeia i?aai? noaea?aeeiaeueii? aaie, yea
a?inoa? a ia?aio?io ia/?iee, aeiiiaith? ?? ia/?ieiaee a?aeae?e.

Iai?ee?ioe? 6 oeaeiy ?icaeoeo o ca?iaee?a 12,0 — 13,5 ii OEAe
eaoaeaeueiee a?aeae?e i?aai? noi?aea?aeeiaeueii? aaie, ae?aiao? yei?
ca?eueoo?oueny oaeaeoa i?ae e?ai?, oa ?? i?aainoi?iii?e aianoiiic ?c
?ioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiei neionii ? aeenoaeueiith /anoeiith i?aai?
iinoea?aeeiaeueii? aaie i?eaiaeyoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ie?eiaiai oa
i?aeie?eiaiai a?aeae?e?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

Oaeei /eiii, iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui noiaao? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie,
a iniiaiiio, oi?io?oueny iai?ee?ioe? ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco
ethaeeie. A ieaei?e ii?iaeieno?e aai? aeae?eaii 6 a?aeae?e?a:
i?aeie?eiaee, ie?eiaee, iaaeie?eiaee, ia/?ieiaee, ae?ao?aaiaeueiee oa
aioo??oiueiia?eea?ae?aeueiee.

I?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, yeee
ii/eia?oueny o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae?, i?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioyaii anueiai
ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie, eiee cae?i/o?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeieie ia?eea?aea, ae?ao?aaie oa i?aaiieiiieaen?a
cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o — aiiaaeiiaciiao?e/iiai, iaaeie?eiaiie?eiaiai oa
iaie?aaoiaeoiaeaiaeueiiai.

Aei nueiiiai oeaeiy aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo iniiao
i?ei?oeaiiai cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o noaiiaeee ia?aeii? ie?ee,
ia?aeiiiie?eia? i?ioiee, ca/aoee aoi?eiieo ie?ie, iaaeie?iee?a ?
na/iaiae?a. Ia 7 — 8 oeaei? ?icaeoeo (ia-?aaeieiaee 14,0 — 30,0 ii OEAe)
aiiaaeiiaciiao?e/iee eiiieaen aeoiaeeoue ?c neeaaeo cai/a?aaeiiiai
i?inoi?o, a iaaeie?eiaiie?eiaee i?aaiiee eiiieaen caeia? a iueiio
e?ai?aeueia iieiaeaiiy.

I?ioyaii 9 — 10 oeaei?a (ia?aaeieiaee 30,5 — 53,0 ii OEAe) aiane?aeie
iaaieo aia??iiaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue iaaeie?eiaiie?eiaee eiiieaen
iiai?noth ao?a/a? eiioaeo ?c noaoaaiia?aeiiiie?eiaei i?aaiieiiieaenii,
iaeiae, aei iueiai iaaeeaea?oueny aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea eeoea c
i?aeoeoieiaith caeicith, uia inoaoi/ii noi?ioaaoe cai/a?aaeiio ae?eyieo
/a?aaii? ii?iaeieie.

Iai?ee?ioe? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo ( 11 — 12 oeaei? ?icaeoeo ) i?ae
ieaeiueith ii?iaeienoith aaiith oa eaoaeaeueiei iiethnii i?aai? ie?ee
?icoaoiaaia i?eie?eiaa ae?eyiea i?aaiai na/iaiaea, a e?ai?aeueiee iiethn
i?aai? ie?ee a?aeie?aieaiee a?ae aaie i?aaith iaaeie?eiaith caeicith. C
i?aaei iaaeie?ieeii ieaeiy ii?iaeienoa aaia iaaeo? eeoa ia ??ai?
aa?oiuei? o?aoeie ia?aaeiuei? iiaa?oi? caeice. Aeaaiaaeoeyoeiaea eeoea
i?eeyaa? aei ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie nai?th caaeiueith iiaa?oiath ia
??ai? ?? ai?eciioaeueii? /anoeie oa ieaeiuei? ae?eyiee ieco?aeii?
/anoeie, a c i?aeoeoieiaith caeicith aaia iaaeo? ia ??ai? caaeiuei?
iiaa?oi? ?? aieiaee.

Ui noino?oueny no?ie?a oa aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy i?eoie?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie, oi a iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo ie aeyaeee ?o aaea a
ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? (i?ioiea A?aioe?y oa ia/?ieia? aaie). ?io? i?eoiee
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oi?iothoueny ia ii/aoeo ia?aaeieiaeiaiai
ia??iaeo: iiia?aeia? aaie — ia 7 oeaei? ?icaeoeo, ie?eia?, iaaeie?ieeia?
oa aiiaaei? aaie — ia 8 oeaei? aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo.

A?noea?aeuei? i?eoiee ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie noi?ioaaeeny a
?acoeueoao? aianoiiic?a aioo??i?aaiieo aaiicieo neioni?ae?a ?c noa- ?
noi?aea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie oa c ?ioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiei neionii.
Ia???oaeuei? i?eoiee ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ooai?eeeny c
aianoiiic?a i?ae noi?a- oa iinoea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie c iiia?aeiaei oa
e?eaeiaei aaiicieie nieaoaiiyie.

I?ioyaii ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ethaeeie
caaa?oo?oueny noaiiaeaiiy aia??ioiiia?ao?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie ?c noi?aei?ie i?aaiaie.

Noiaao? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie cacia? nooo?aeo ci?i, ye? aaaeooue
aei oi?ioaaiiy ?? inoaoi/iiai noaio. Oea noino?oueny ??aiy oa aaee/eie
eooa oi?ioaaiiy aaie, ?? aeiaaeeie oa ae?aiao?a. Iieacieee aaee/eie eooa
oi?ioaaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie c?inoathoue a?ae 43,21 + 0,82 o
/ioe?ueioi?ny/ieo ieiae?a aei 58,63 + 0,40 o aeanyoei?ny/ieo ieiae?a. O
iiaiia?iaeaeaieo aaee/eia eooa oi?ioaaiiy aaie noaiiaeoue 59,13 + 0,32.

Aeiaaeeia ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie i?ioyaii ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo
c?inoa? a?ae 31,11 + 0,26 ii o /ioe?ueioi?ny/ieo ieiae?a aei 78,52 +
0,32 ii o aeanyoei?ny/ieo ieiae?a. I?e/iio, ?c ca?eueoaiiyi a?eo ieiae?a
niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeiinia ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie i?aeie?eiaiai a?aeae?eo,
iacia/i? eieeaaiiy iieaciee?a oa?aeoa?i? aeey ie?eiaiai, iaaeie?eiaiai
oa ia/?ieiaiai a?aeae?e?a, ? iaeaea ia ci?iththoueny iieacieee
a?aeiinii? aeiaaeeie ae?ao?aaiaeueiiai oa ?io?aia?eea?ae?aeueiiai
a?aeae?e?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

O iiaiia?iaeaeaieo na?aaeiy aeiaaeeia ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie
noaiiaeoue 91,57 + 0,24 ii, i?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeiinia
ciaioaiiy aeiaaeeie ia/?ieiaiai oa ae?ao?aaiaeueiiai a?aeae?e?a ?
a?aeiinia ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie i?aeie?eiaiai oa ie?eiaiai a?aeae?e?a
aaie.

A?aeiinia ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa?aeoa?ii
aeey aeanyoei?ny/ieo ieiae?a oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo ia ??ai?
ae?ao?aaiaeueiiai oa ?io?aia?eea?ae?aeueiiai ?? a?aeaee?a.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ine?aeeoaaaoe ca aoaiaie ?icaeoeo ? noaiiaeaiiyi
oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a i?ioyaii
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie, ie iiaeaii c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui oi?ioaaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie o?nii iia’ycaii ?c
?icaeoeii noi?aeieo i?aai?a ? no?oeoo?.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeaea?aeaie oi?ioaaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie ? aea? aaiici? nenoaie — aeiaoeiai-a?eaeia?
aaie oa nenoaia iinoea?aeeiaeueieo, noaea?aeeiaeueieo ?
noi?aea?aeeiaeueieo aai oa ?o aianoiiice.

2. A i?ioean? aia??iaaiaco ethaeeie ieaeiy ii?iaeienoa aaia i?ioiaeeoue
i’youe noaae?e:

I — noaae?y aioo??ia/?ieiaeo ia?aeiieo aaiicieo neioni?ae?a; ?? —
noaae?y oi?ioaaiiy “aa?oiueiai naaiaioa” ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie;
??? — noaae?y oi?ioaaiiy “iaaeie?eiaiai naaiaioa” ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie; IV — noaae?y oi?ioaaiiy “ieaeiueiai naaiaioa” ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie; V — noaae?y oi?ioaaiiy i?eoie?a ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

3. Caeeaaeea oa oi?ioaaiiy i?eoie?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie
i?ioiaeeoue ia iaeii/anii, a a?aeiia?aeii aei /ano caeeaaeee oa
oi?ioaaiiy iaaieo aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

4. Inoaoi/ia i?aai?caoe?y nenoaie ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie
a?aeaoaa?oueny iai?ee?ioe? ia?aaeieiaeiaiai oa a ?aiiueiio ieiaeiaiio
ia??iaeao iioiaaiaco ethaeeie (i?ioyaii o?aoueiai — i’yoiai i?nyoe?a
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ?icaeoeo).

5. Noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a
caaa?oo?oueny o ieiae?a 8 — 10 i?nyoe?a ?icaeoeo oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaiieo.

6. A aia??iaaiac? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie ethaeeie aeae?eaii o?e
“e?eoe/i?” ia??iaee ?icaeoeo, eiee ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aenooiathoue
ia?aaeoiiaith aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a aoaeiae oa aiiiae?e ?icaeoeo noaeeie:
a) 4-5 oeaeaeaiue aia??iaaiaco — oi?ioaaiiy “aa?oiueiai” naaiaioa
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie; a) 6 oeaeaeaiue aia??iaaiaco — oi?ioaaiiy
“ieaeiueiai” naaiaioa ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie; a) 7-8 oeaeaeaiue
aia??iaaiaco — oi?ioaaiiy i?eoie?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

1. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe ii?oieia?/iith iniiaith aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoiae?a o??o?a?/iiai
e?eoaaiiy iaoieia?? aaiicii? nenoaie, cie?aia, ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo oa ae?oae ?aiiueiai a?eo.

2. Aeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a
aioaiaoaeueii? i?io?eaeoeee i?e?iaeaeaieo aaae noaeeiii? nenoaie oa
caiia?aaiith iiieeie i?e ?o ae?aaiinoeoe?.

3. Iaoa??aee aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e
aeeeaaeaii? nooaeaioai a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a c aiaoii?? ethaeeie,
a?noieia?? c aia??ieia??th ? oiiia?ao?/ii? aiaoii?? ia eaoaae?? aiaoii??
ethaeeie, iia?aoeaii? o??o?a?? oa a?noieia??, eaoaae?e aeeoy/i? o??o?a??
iaaee/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oaeai?iaenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?e
iaienaii? iiiia?ao?e ? i?ae?o/iee?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

1. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie a ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”. — 1996. — Aei.3. — N.
10-13.

2. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Oiiia?aoi-aiaoii?/i? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie c noi?aei?ie i?aaiaie ia ?aii?o noaae?yo aia??iaaiaco
ethaeeie // Iaoeiaee a?niee Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y
“Iaaeeoeeia”. — 1997. — Aei.4. — N. 212-215.

3. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Aoaie oi?ioaaiiy i?eoie?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie
oa ?o ii?oieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea // Oe?a?inueeee iaaee/iee aeueiaiao. —
Eoaainuee, 1998. — Aei.2. — N. 119-121.

4. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Ii?oieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie o ieiaeiaiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Oaeai?iaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “Iaaeeoeeia”. —
1999. — Aei.7. — N. 19-21.

5. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Iniaeeaino? oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa
?? ii?oieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- E.,1999. — Aei.16. — N.
100-102.

6. Aieiaaoeueeee A.N., E?ooeye A.I., Ei/ia?ue I.TH., ?iniea O.O.
Iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?,
iaia?ii? oa iai?aiaia?ii? aai a ?aiiueiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie
// Iaoeia? caienee, /anoeia ?. — Ee?a, 1997. — N. 152-153.

7. Aieiaaoeueeee A.N., E?ooeye A.I., Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie oa ?? i?eoie?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie // Aanoiee i?iaeai aeieiaee
e iaaeeoeeiu. — Iieoaaa-Oa?ueeia, 1997. — N. 19-22.

8. Ei/ia?ue I.TH. Ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie ethaeeie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie
// Iaoa?. iaoe. eiio. “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aiaoii??
noaeeiii? nenoaie”. — Euea?a, 1995. — N. 67.

9. E?ooeye A.I., Ei/ia?ue I.TH., ?iniea O.O. ?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? aaiicieo noaeei cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o a i?aiaoaeueiiio
ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie // Iaoa?. iaoe. eiio. “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??”. — *a?i?aoe?, 1998. — N. 37-38.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ei/ia?ue I.TH. “?icaeoie oa noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei?
ii?iaeienoi? aaie a i?aiaoaeueiiio ia??iae? iioiaaiaco ethaeeie”.
Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueia aiaoii?y. — Oa?iii?euenueea
aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y ?i.?. Ai?aa/aanueeiai IIC Oe?a?ie.
Oa?iii?eue, 1999.

Ia 138 o?oiao ca?iaee?a, ia?aaeieiae?a, ieiae?a oa iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
ethaeeie aea/aii a aeeiai?oe? iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oa noaiiaeaiiy
oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie i?ioyaii i?aiaoaeueiiai ia??iaeo
iioiaaiaco ethaeeie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieaeiy ii?iaeienoa aaia ?icaeaa?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
neeaaeieo ia?aoai?aiue nenoaie aeiaoeiai-a?eaeiaeo aai ? nenoaie
aianoiiic?a i?ae iinoea?aeeiaeueieie, noaea?aeeiaeueieie oa
noi?aea?aeeiaeueieie aaiaie. Caeeaaeea noiaao?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie ii/eia?oueny o ca?iaee?a 5,0 — 6,5 ii OEAe ia 4 oeaei?
aioo??oiueioo?iaiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo ?c oi?ioaaiiy ?? e?ai?aeueii?
/anoeie. I?ioyaii 5 — 6 oeaei?a a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy a?aeae?e?a
ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, a iai?ee?ioe? ca?iaeeiaiai ia??iaeo
(e?iaoeue 6 oeaeiy) o aia??ii?a 10,5 — 13,5 ii OEAe noiaao? aaie aaea
iiai?noth noi?iiaaiee.

I?ioyaii ia?aaeieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie i?ioiaeeoue
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oiiia?ao?? ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi? aaie, yeee
ii/eia?oueny o ca?iaeeiaiio ia??iae? ? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi
ii?iaeieie ia?eea?aea oa i?aaiieiiieaen?a cai/a?aaeiiiai i?inoi?o, a
oaeiae ?icaeoeii ?? i?eoie?a.

I?ioyaii ieiaeiaiai ia??iaeo iioiaaiaco ethaeeie oa o iiaiia?iaeaeaieo
niinoa??aa?oueny inoaoi/ia oi?ioaaiiy a?aeae?e?a ieaeiuei? ii?iaeienoi?
aaie oa ?o oiiia?ao?y.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ieaeiy ii?iaeienoa aaia, iinoea?aeeiaeueia aaia,
noaea?aeeiaeueia aaia, noi?aea?aeeiaeueia aaia, i?eoiee,
i?aaiieiiieaene, aia??iaaiac.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ei/ia?ue I.TH. “?acaeoea e noaiiaeaiea oiiia?aoee ieaeiae iieie aaiu a
i?aiaoaeueiii ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea”.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.01 — ii?iaeueiay aiaoiiey. —
Oa?iiiieueneay ainoaea?noaaiiay iaaeeoeeineay aeaaeaiey ei.E.
Ai?aa/aaneiai ICI Oe?aeiu, Oa?iiiieue, 1999.

Ia 138 o?oiao ca?iaeuoae, i?aaeieiaeia, ieiaeia e iiai?iaeaeaiiuo
/aeiaaea eco/aiu a aeeiaieea iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey e noaiiaeaiea
oiiia?aoee ieaeiae iieie aaiu ia i?ioyaeaiee i?aiaoaeueiiai ia?eiaea
iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea. Enneaaeiaaiey i?iaaaeaiu n iiiiuueth eiiieaena
nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeia: ecaioiaeaiey na?eeiuo aenoieiae/aneeo n?acia,
naaoiaie iee?ineiiee, iae?ineiie/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey n iineaaeothuei
iau/iui e oiieei i?aia?e?iaaieai, ecaioiaeaiey a?aoe/aneeo
?aeiino?oeoeee, eiuaeoeee ninoaeia. Aenoieiae/aneea n?acu ie?aoeaaee
aaiaoieneeei-yiceiii.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ieaeiyy iieay aaia ?acaeaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa neiaeiuo
i?aia?aciaaiee nenoaiu aeaeoi/ii-a?uaeaa/iuo aai e nenoaiu aianoiiicia
iaaeaeo iinoea?aeeiaeueiuie, noaea?aeeiaeueiuie e noi?aea?aeeiaeueiuie
aaiaie.

Caeeaaeea noaiea ieaeiae iieie aaiu ia/eiaaony o ca?iaeuoae 5,0 — 6,5
ii OEAe a ia/aea /aoaa?oie iaaeaee aioo?eoo?iaiiai ia?eiaea ?acaeoey ec
oi?ie?iaaiey e?aieaeueiie aa /anoe a ?acoeueoaoa aianoiiicia iaaeaeo
aa?oiae /anoueth ia/aii/iuo aaiiciuo neionieaeia. Ia iyoie iaaeaea
?acaeoey o ca?iaeuoae 6,5 — 7,5 ii OEAe a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeno?aeecaoeee
aianoiiicia iaaeaeo ia/aii/iuie aaiiciuie neionieaeaie ia?acoaony
“aa?oiee naaiaio” ieaeiae iieie aaiu, eioi?ay iai?aaeyaony e na?aeoeo e
naiinoiyoaeueii aiaaeaao a aaiiciue neion. Yoa /anoue aaiu aeeth/aao
ia/aii/iue e aoaeouea “aeeao?aaiaeueiue” e “eio?aia?eea?aeeaeueiue”
ioaeaeu. A ia/aea oanoie iaaeaee aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey (ca?iaeuoe 8,0
— 10,0 ii OEAe) ec aianoiiica iaaeaeo “aa?oiei naaiaioii”, i?aaie
noaea?aeeiaeueiie aaiie, eioi?ay a?inoaao a ia/aiue, e
eioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiui neionii ia?acoaony “iaaeii/a/iue naaiaio” ieaeiae
iieie aaiu, eioi?ue ninoieo ec iaaeii/a/iiai ioaeaea e aeiiieiyao aa
ia/aii/iue ioaeae. E eiioeo oanoie iaaeaee, o ca?iaeuoae 10,5 — 13,5 ii
OEAe, a ?acoeueoaoa aianoiiica iaaeaeo eioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiui neionii e
i?aaie noi?aea?aeeiaeueiie aaiie oi?ie?oaony “ieaeiee naaiaio” ieaeiae
iieie aaiu, eioi?ue aeeth/aao ii/a/iue e iiaeii/a/iue aa ioaeaeu. Oaeei
ia?acii, e eiioeo ca?iaeuoaaiai ia?eiaea iioiaaiaca /aeiaaea noaie
ieaeiae iieie aaiu iieiinoueth noi?ie?iaai.

O i?aaeieiaeia i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey oiiia?aoee ieaeiae
iieie aaiu, eioi?ue ia/eiaaony aua a ca?iaeuoaaii ia?eiaea e
nii?iaiaeaeaaony oi?ie?iaaieai iieinoe ia?eea?aea e i?aaiieiiieaenia
iicaaeea?thoeiiiai i?ino?ainoaa — aiiaaeiiaciiao?e/aneiai,
iaaeii/a/iiii/a/iiai e iaie?aaoiaeoiaeaiaeueiiai.

*oi eanaaony i?eoieia ieaeiae iieie aaiu, oi iie ia/eiatho
oi?ie?iaaoueny a ca?iaeuoaaii ia?eiaea (aaiiciue i?ioie e ia/aii/iua
aaiu) e i?iaeieaeathony a i?aaeieiaeiii ia?eiaea: ia naaeueiie iaaeaea —
iiynie/iua aaiu, ia ainueiie iaaeaea — ii/a/iua, iaaeii/a/iua e
aiiaaeiua aaiu. Aenoea?aeueiua i?eoiee oi?ie?othony a ?acoeueoaoa
aianoiiicia aioo?ei?aaiiuo aaiiciuo neionieaeia n noa- e
noi?aea?aeeiaeueiuie aaiaie, a oaeaea n eioa?noaea?aeeiaeueiui neionii.
Ia?eaoaeueiua i?eoiee ieaeiae iieie aaiu ia?acothony ec aianoiiicia
iaaeaeo noi?a — e iinoea?aeeiaeueiuie aaiaie n iiynie/iui e e?anooeiaui
aaiiciuie nieaoaieyie.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee ieiaeiiai ia?eiaea e o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo i?ienoiaeeo
ieii/aoaeueiia oi?ie?iaaiea ioaeaeia ieaeiae iieie aaiu e eo oiiia?aoee.
I?ienoiaeyo nouanoaaiiua eciaiaiey iieacaoaeae o?iaiy e oaea
oi?ie?iaaiey aaiu, aa aeeeiu e aeeaiao?a. I?e yoii, i?ioeaioiia
niioiioaiea aeeeiu ?aciuo ioaeaeia ieaeiae iieie aaiu eiaao naie
iniaaiiinoe: n oaaee/aieai aic?anoa ieiaeia iaaethaeaaony ioiineoaeueiia
oiaiueoaiea aeeeiu iiaeii/a/iiai ioaeaea, iacia/eoaeueiua eieaaaiey
iieacaoaeae aeey ii/a/iiai, iaaeii/a/iiai e ia/aii/iiai ioaeaeia, e
ii/oe ia eciaiythony iieacaoaee ioiineoaeueiie aeeeiu
aeeao?aaiaeueiiai e eio?aia?eea?aeeaeueiiai ioaeaeia ieaeiae iieie aaiu.
Ioiineoaeueiia oaaee/aiea aeeaiao?a ieaeiae iieie aaiu i?ienoiaeeo o
aeanyoeiany/iuo ieiaeia e o iiai?iaeaeaiiuo ia o?iaia aeeao?aaiaeueiiai
e eio?aia?eea?aeeaeueiiai ioaeaeia aaiu.

A yia?eiaaiaca ieaeiae iieie aaiu /aeiaaea iiaeii auaeaeeoue o?e
“e?eoe/aneeo” ia?eiaea, eiaaea ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey aunooiatho
i?aaeiinueeie aicieeiiaaiey aa?eaioia no?iaiey e aiiiiaeee ninoaeia: 4 —
5 iaaeaee yia?eiaaiaca — oi?ie?iaaiea “aa?oiaai naaiaioa” ieaeiae iieie
aaiu; 6 iaaeaey yia?eiaaiaca — oi?ie?iaaiea “ieaeiaai naaiaioa” ieaeiae
iieie aaiu; 7 -8 iaaeaee yia?eiaaiaca — oi?ie?iaaiea i?eoieia ieaeiae
iieie aaiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ieaeiyy iieay aaia, iinoea?aeeiaeueiay aaia,
noaea?aeeiaeueiay aaia, noi?aea?aeeiaeueiay aaia, i?eoiee,
i?aaiieiiieaenu, yia?eiaaiac.

SUMMARY

Kochmar M.U. “Development and formation of vena cava inferior
topography in prenatal period human ontogenesis”. Dissertation of
candidate of medical scieces. Speciality 14.03.01.- normal anatomy.
Ternopol State Medical Academy n.I.Gorbachevskiy, Ministry of Heals of
Ukraine, Ternopol, 1999.

The peculiarity of development and formation of vena cava inferior
topography during prenatal period of human ontogenesis was learnd in
dynamics on 138 cadavers of human embrioes, preferuses, feruses and
cadavers of newborns.

Determined that vena cava inferior is developing as a result of
complicated transformation of vitellineme-senteric venaes system and a
system of anastomoses between postcardinalis, subcardinalis,
supracardinalis venaes. The vena cava inferior trunk begin it’s
development with formation of cranial part on the 4-th week of
embryogenesis (embryoes 5,0 — 6,5 mm TKD). The formation of vena cava
inferior parts is going during 5-th — 6-th weeks and vena trunk is
completely formed on the end of embryonal period (the end of 6-th week)
in embryoes 10,5 — 13,5 mm TKD.

During preferuses period takes place the topography formation of vena
cava inferior which beginning in embryonal period and is closely
connected with development of pericardial sac, organocomplexes in
retroperitonial cavity and also with formation of the tributaries of
vena.

The final formation of vena cava inferior parts and it’s topography
takes place during feruses period and in newborns.

Key words: vena cava inferior, vena postcardinalis, vena subcardinalis,
vena supracardinalis, tributaries, organocomplexes, embryogenesis.

Aeneiaeth?ii ue?o iiaeyeo iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo aeieoi?o iaaee/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani?o, caneoaeaiiio ae?y/o iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,
aeaaeai?eo, caa?aeoaa/o eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? aiaoii?? Aoeiaeinueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

E?OOessEO AIEIAeEIE?O IEEIEAEIAE*O

ca iaaeaio aeiiiiiao ? eiinoeueoaoe?? i?e aeeiiaii? iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

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