Розвиток початкової освіти в Бессарабії (1918-1944 рр.): Автореф. дис… канд. пед. наук / В.В. Тадіян, Нац. пед. ун-т ім. М.П.Драгоманова. — К., 1999

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa

Oaae?yi Aeaaeeneaa Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE – 37.01(09)

?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa??

(1918 – 1944 ?.?.)

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?cia?euenueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. ?cia?e

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

EAAAEA?IA Aieiaeeie? Aiaoie?eiae/

Iaeanueeee ?inoeooo oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a,

aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

?oaeaiei TH??e Aeieo?iae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, aeioeaio eaoaae?e

iaaeaaia?ee;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe noa?oee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Eaeaie/aiei I?iaeue Iaae?aia,

?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee,

i?ia?aeiee niaoe?ae?no

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny – “14” aeiaoiy 1999?., i 16-30aiae.

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae. 26.053.01 a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa
(252601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “7” aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
I.I.?oaeieoeueea

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee a Oe?a?i?
ia?aaeaa/a? aeeaiea aea/aiiy ?noi??? a?o/eciyii? ina?oe ? anaa?/iee
aiae?c aeina?aeo ieioeiai.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo i?eioeei?a ?aae?caoe?? caaaeaiue, aecia/aieo
Aea?aeaaiith iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith “Ina?oa. Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”,
? iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ina?oe, ui iieyaa? o ?? iaa?aeae?eueiino?
a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??? ? ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e, caa?aaeaii? oa
caaaa/aii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aecia/aii? ina?oe aaaeeeaei
iieacieeii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? aa?iii?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei.

No/ania iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea iiaeiia oi?ioaaoe aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaio
oai?/o iniaeno?noue ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino?:
a?iiaaeyieia iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, aoiai?noa, iin?y aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
iaoe??. Aeinyaiaiiy oeueiai ?aeaaeo iiaeeeaa eeoa ca aeiiiiiaith
ieeueiiai aea/aiiy, aeeaieiai ona?aeiieaiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo
?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe. A Aanna?aa?? aiia neeaaeaeanue
?noi?e/ii, oi?ioth/enue ia a?oio? iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e a ii?aeiaii?
?c caeiaooeaie ?oioinueei? oa ?a?iiaenueei? iaoee. E?eoe/iee aiae?c
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie aeicaieeoue oieeiooe iiaoi?aiue iiieeie
? i?i?aooie?a, ni?eyoeia iaeneiaeueiiio canoinoaaiith e?aueo iaaeaaiue
ina?oyi ieioeiai. C iaeyaeo ia oea, caa?iaiiy aei aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? (1918 – 1944
?.?.) iaaoaa? aeiyoeiaiai iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy.

A nai?io aeine?aeaeaii? ie aeoiaeeee c ai??i?ieo iieiaeaiue, ui
iiyniththoue eia?eo aeai?o ia’?eoa ? i?aaeiaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy,
?ice?eaathoue aeine?aeieoeueeo iiceoe?th uiaei cia/aiiy ?noi?e/ieo
ciaiue aeey no/aniino? ? nai???aei?noue inieneaiiy ?noi?e/iiai a?ae??ceo
/ano, a yeiio ?icaeaa?oueny i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa??, a naia:

1. ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a iaaiiio ?aa?ii?
e?a?ie iiaea o?ainethaaoeny ia nenoaio no/anii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i?. I?ae o?ainethaaiiyi, a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo, ie ?icoi??ii
ni?euei?noue ?noi?e/ieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui aeanoea? i?ioeano ?icaeoeo
ina?oiuei? nioe?aeueii? nenoaie.

2. Oe?e?niee ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee o?aaiaio – i?aae?iiy o?yaeo
aoaeue-yei? aea?aeaae a iaaiiio ?aa?ii? – iiaea i?iyaeyoeny o
nai???aeiino? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a noni?euenoaa (o iaoiio
aeiaaeeo — ii/aoeiaa oeiea). O ca’yceo c oeei iniaeeaee ?ioa?an
noaiiaeoue aea/aiiy ?noi??? oe?eueii? ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? (a
iaaeao no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo i?eaeoiaenueeeo caiaeue) ye niaoeeo?/iiai
?aa?iio ?c nai???aeiei ?noi?e/iei ieioeei (ia??iae 1918-1944 ?.?. – a
a?eueoino? oea ?iee i?aae?iiy ei?ie?anueei? ?oioi??).

Neeaaeia ?noi?e/ia aeiey iie?aoi?/iiai ianaeaiiy Aanna?aa??,
i?e?aeiaiiai a 1918 ?ioe? aei ?oioi??, noaea i?e/eiith oi?ioaaiiy
niaoeeo?/ii? nenoaie ina?oe, yea, c iaeiiai aieo, aoea eiiiiiaioii
caaaeueii?oioinueei?, a c ?ioiai – caa?aaea iniaeea? iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ene.
Noaiiaeaiiy ii/aoeiai? oeiee a Aanna?aa?? a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO noie?ooy
i?aeoe/ii caeeoeeinue iica oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a. Caaaeuei? iaoeia?
iieiaeaiiy, ui i?noyoueny a i?aoeyo A.Ae.Aiiaea?y, I.I.A?euaiea,
I.N.A?eoeaiea, A.I.Ieoth?iaa, ?.?.?inoeeona, a oaeiae iaoeia? ?ica?aeee
oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo ? ?oioinueeeo a/aieo (A.Ae.Aa/einueeiai,
O.I.Cai?ioiuei?, A.AEieioa, A.ss.Iacaioeaaa, I.A.Ni?oei, I.Aiae?ona,
O.E?a/oia, ?.I?noi?a, I.Eicaeo, O.*iaioa?o, O.*iaaio) cana?ae/othoue, ui
iiceoeaiee iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae, iaeiie/aiee a ii/aoeiaeo caeeaaeao
e?ath a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO noie?ooy, caaaaoeoue no/anio nenoaio ina?oe,
noaia aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? i?aeoeee
nueiaiaeaiiy. Iaeiae ?nio? iaaia noia?a/i?noue i?ae ia’?eoeaiith
iio?aaith aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe
a Aanna?aa?? a 1918-1944 ?iee (iniaeeai a?aoiaoth/e aaaaoiaoi?/iee
neeaae ianaeaiiy e?ath), cia/ei?noth oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iaoeiaa
inieneaiiy yeiai aeicaieeoue aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe a ?noi?e/i?e o?iiieia??, c iaeiiai aieo, ? oei, ui a neeo
nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei niaoe?aeueiiai ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeaie ia aoei noai?aii. Ona?aeiieaiiy oeueiai oaeoo
ye i?iaeaie, yea iio?aao? iaoeiaiai ae??oaiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi
aeooaeueiino? oa ia?ic?iaeaiino? ?? coiiaeee aea?? oaie: “?icaeoie
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944 ?.?.)”.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue 1918-1944 ?.?., oae
caaiee “?oioinueeee ia??iae ?noi??? Aanna?aa??” (c 1918 aei 1940 ?. e?ae
aoa /anoeiith ei?ie?anueei? ?oioi??, c 1940 ii 1941 ?iee – o neeaae?
O?N?, a c eeiiy 1941 ii eeiaiue 1944 – i?ae ?oioii-oaoenonueeith
ieoiaoe??th). Oea aoa oe?eaaee ? aiaeii/an neeaaeiee ia??iae o
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath. Eiai ieaeith iaaeo coiiaea
ii/aoie ?oioinueei? ieoiaoe?? oa iia’ycai? c oeei oe?euei? ?aoi?ie; a
aa?oiy iaaea ca?aa?oueny ?c caaa?oaiiyi ?oioii-oaoenonueei? ieoiaoe??
Aanna?aa?? ? ea?aeeiaeueieie ci?iaie a nenoai? ina?oe.

Aea?? oaeiai ia??iaeo iiynith?oueny, ii-ia?oa, iiaeeea?noth i?inoaaeeoe
i?ioean ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a e?a? a oiiaao iiaii? ?oioi?caoe??,
a?ae/oaeaiiy iieiae? a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e aoiin?a e?ath,
caaino?aiiy ai?ioueae ia?iaeo ca naith oeieo ?, ii-ae?oaa, oei oaeoii,
ui aaaaoee ia iiae?? a ina?oiueiio aeeoo? e?ath a?ae??cie /ano
caeeoa?oueny iaeiaeine?aeaeaiei a ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeiny a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai
ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe ?cia?euenueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo. Iai?yiie iaoeiaiai iiooeo:
“I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ni?yiiaai?noue o nenoai? i?aeaioiaee iieiaeiai
a/eoaey ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy ineoieia?/ii? no?eeino? eiai ae?yeueiino?”
(? 1870080789).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – oai??y ? i?aeoeea ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944 ?. ?.).

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiaeo oe?e
a Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944 ?.?.).

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy
? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiaeo oe?e a Aanna?aa?? a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO noie?ooy a
oiiaao ieoiaoe?? e?ath ei?ie?anueeith ?oioi??th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiceoeaieo iaaeaaiue a i?aeoeeo no/anii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaaea o i?eiouaii?, ui ??aaiue ?icaeoeo
ina?oe a oe?eiio ? ii/aoeiai? cie?aia coiiaeth?oueny aca?iiae??th oaeeo
oaeoi??a, ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee,
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iee, aeaiia?ao?/iee oa ina?oiuei-aaiaciee. Aieiaiei
oaeoi?ii, ui aecia/aa ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a
cacia/aiee ia??iae, ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee, ? yeui
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? /eiieee nei?eaiaai? c o?aooaaiiyi
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iiai ? ina?oiuei-aaiaciiai oaeoi??a, oi a ?icaeoeo
ina?oe iiaeooue aooe iiceoeai? aeinyaiaiiy, ?, iaaiaee, yeui oey
aca?iiae?y i?ae oaeoi?aie a?aenooiy, oi noa? i/aaeaeiith iaaaoeaia
aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo ina?oe.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa ? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai?
oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

· aeine?aeeoe aaiethoe?th nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? ?
aeeiai?eo ?? ?icaeoeo;

· aecia/eoe ia??iaeecaoe?th noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa??, aeyaeoe iniaeeaino? ?? ?icaeoeo ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao;

· ?ice?eoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ? aeeiai?eo ci?noo ii/aoeiaeo oe?e
Aanna?aa?? a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae;

· ocaaaeueieoe i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae ae?yeueiino?
ii/aoeiaeo oe?e a Aanna?aa?? a 1918-1944 ?.?..

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue oai??y iaoeiaiai
i?ciaiiy, iieiaeaiiy i?i ae?aeaeoe/i?noue, aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue oa
nenoaii?noue ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano, aca?iica’ycie aioo??oi?o eiiiiiaio?a
ina?oiuei? nenoaie ?c ciai?oi?ie nioe?aeueieie oaeoi?aie, ui ?o
iaoiiaeththoue, i?iaiinoe/i?noue oaiaeaioe?e ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie uiaei no/aniino?; i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino? ?
aeaoa?i?i?cio, ?noi?e/iiai ? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: oai?aoe/iee, eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iee,
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee aiae?c aeaea?ae ? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ?o
eeaneo?eaoe?y e oeiieia?caoe?y, ii??aiyeueii-c?noaaiee aiae?c
iaa/aeueieo ieai?a, i?ia?ai, oe?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaaeaaia?/ii? oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? i?ane. Aaeeea cia/aiiy iaee nenoaiaoecaoe?y,
eeaneo?eaoe?y oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo c i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy: iaoa??aee c ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e
Aanna?aa?? (I.Aiae?on, A.Aiiaea?, A.Oaeueai?a, O.*eaioa?),
aeine?aeaeaiiy a yeeo ?icaeyioo? i?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai ?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?ath (I.Aaothoeia, ?.Aoaeae, A.Cauoe,
N.Eono?yaiaa), iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?oioinueeeo ?noi?ee?a (I.A?ao,
I.Eacaeo, ?.I?noi?, A.Iiia-Eenyio, O.*iaaio), ui aeaee ciiao aeine?aeeoe
aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo a aaeoc? ina?oe a Aanna?aa??. Cia/io oe?ii?noue aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaei aea/aiiy caeii?a ?oioinueeiai o?yaeo ( 1919, 1924,
1927, 1939 ?ie?a) i?i ina?oo; iinoaiiae I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe
?in??, iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ii? i?ane oiai ia??iaeo, cie?aia aacao
“I?aaaea”, “I?eaeoiaenueea i?aaaea” (1919, 1940, 1941 ?ie?a), a yeeo
ai?uai? noaoenoe/i? aeai?, a?aeia?aaeaii iie?oe/iee oa aeiiii?/iee noai
I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaee a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ? aeieoiaioe,
ui caa??aathoueny a a?o?aao: Iaeanueeee iaeaniee a?o?a, o?e?ae
Iaeanueeiai iaeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a i?no? ?cia?e?, oeaio?aeueiee
aea?aeaaiee a?o?a Iieaeiae. Anueiai aoei aea/aii 87 oiiae?a a?o?aieo
ni?aa, iae. a?. ?in?enueeith, oe?a?inueeith oa ?oioinueeith iiaaie,
i?iaaaeaiee ?o e?eoe/iee aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy, a oaeiae i?iaiae?ciaai?
i?aoe? a?aeiieo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o ae?y/?a, iaaeaaia?a, ioae?oeeno?a,
noni?eueia-iie?oe/ia, ?noi?e/ia, iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a ? ia??iaeeea.
Anueiai aea/aii aeecueei 250 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (a oiio /ene? 83
?oioinueeith iiaith).

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue
o 1995 – 1999 ?.?. o o?e aoaie:

· ia ia?oiio aoai? (1995 – 1997 ?.?.) aoei aecia/aii iai?yiee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea/aeanue ?noi?e/ia, o?einionueea, iaaeaaia?/ia,
ineoieia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a, cae?enithaaeiny oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy i?iaeaie,
eiie?aoecoaaeeny caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aea/aeeny a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe
? iaoa??aee, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe ?in?enueei? oa ?oioinueei? aea?aeaa,
aiae?coaaeeny ca?oe ii/aoeiaeo oe?e e?ath, noaoenoe/i? aeai? oiui;

· ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1997 – 1998 ?.?.) i?iaeiaaeoaaeiny aea/aiiy
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy; io?eiai? iaoa??aee
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, ioae?eoaaeeny o
iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo;

· ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1998 – 1999 ?.?.) aea/aeany e?oa?aoo?a c oiiae?a
niaoe?aeueiiai caa??aaiiy, iaoa??aee ?noi?e/ieo ioca?a,
ocaaaeueithaaeeny iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioaaeeny aeniiaee ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aia?oa aeaii a?aoiaioiaaiee aiae?c
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oa iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?oioinueeeo, ?in?enueeeo oa
oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo uiaei ?icaeoeo ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae, c?iaeaii aeniiaee a?aeiinii aieeao aeyaeaieo
iaie oaeoi??a, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa??, yeee i?aaenoaaeaiee c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, a
aeine?aeaeaii? iaaoee iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ocaaaeueiaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo ae?yeueiino? ii/aoeiaeo oe?e ?
aeeiai?ea ?o ?icaeoeo a e?a? a e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy
(“?in?enueeee” ia??iae ?noi??? e?ath).

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a noaiiaeoue niaith ia?oo
ni?iao nenoaiiiai aiae?co aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo (1918-1944 ?.?.), yea
i?aaenoaaeaia o aeaeyae? oanoe aoai?a, aecia/aieo ca?aeii c
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei, eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iei,
aeaiia?ao?/iei oa ina?oiuei-aaiaciei oaeoi?aie, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue ??
?icaeoie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aeine?aeaeoaaiee iaoa??ae, iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
caaaa/othoue oai??th ? i?aeoeeo iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe e aeoiaaiiy,
ni?eyoeiooue caa?aaeaiith ? ia?aaea/? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo
ieioeeo iieie?iue. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
aeeeaaea/aie i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a iaaeaaia?ee, ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee,
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, i?e ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?n?a aeey nooaeaio?a ? neooa/?a
aoc?a, a oaeiae a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a
no/anieo caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a i?aaenoaaeaiee a eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
iniaeeainoae ? oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a
1918-1944 ?.?., o aaaaeaii? a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo, ?ai?oa ia
iioae?eiaaieo aeieoiaio?a, aena?oeaii? iaa?aeiieo ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a ?
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, iia’ycaieo c ae?yeuei?noth ii/aoeiaeo oe?e a
Aanna?aa??.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? iniiaieo aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny iinoaiiaeith aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?iaeai ia
iaoiaeieia?/iiio ??ai?; oe?ioith aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae,
aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aaeaeaaoieo eiai ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo oa caaaeaiiyi; iiaiioith iaea?aeaieo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoa??ae?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany oeyoii
ioae?eaoe?e iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, aeiiia?aeae ? aenooi?a ia i?aeia?iaeieo,
anaoe?a?inueeeo, iaeanieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, oaeeo ye
“Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay: ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?” (Iaeana,
1995), “No/ania ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie, iiooee, ciao?aeee”
(Oa?iii?eue, 1996), “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii?
ina?oe” (Ee?a-Oa?nii, 1997), ”Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi??y,
aoiia?ao?y, iiaa” (?cia?e, 1995). Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
iioae?eiaai? a aeaaiaaeoeyoe iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, nienie yeeo iiaeaii
iai?ee?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaoeiny a ?cia?euenueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo? (aeia?aeea ? 115 a?ae 8.02.99 ?.,
?AeI?) oa a Iaeanueeiio ?inoeooo? oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a (aeia?aeea ?
98 a?ae 15.03.99 ?., I?OA) oeyoii ?ic?iaee ? /eoaiiy eo?no “?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee Oe?a?ie”, niaoeeo?no “?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? (e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO no.)”, ia eo?nao
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? a/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo eean?a, i?e iaienaii?
nooaeaioaie eo?niaeo oa aeeieiiieo ?ia?o.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny ianooii? iieiaeaiiy:

1. A 1918 – 1944 ?.?. a Aanna?aa?? a?aeaoaaany i?ioean ooaa?aeaeaiiy
nenoaie ?oioinueei? ii/aoeiai? oeiee, iniiao yei? neeaee /ioe?eeeani?
ii/aoeia? oeiee (oeiee i?eia??), ii/aoeiaa ina?oa aeaio oeeee?a (7 ?ie?a
iaa/aiiy), yea ?iciiae?eyeanue ia aeaiaioa?iee oeeee – 4 ?iee ? noa?oee
– 3 ?iee, eo?ne aeey aei?ineeo, ao?oee (iineae?eee) aeey n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? oa aeioe?euei? caeeaaee (a?aaeeiooee), ia ?icaeoie yeeo
aieeioee, c iaeiiai aieo – ina?oyinueea iie?oeea ei?ie?anueei? ?oioi??,
a c ?ioiai – ai?ioueaa aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ianaeaiiy e?ath ca
iaoe?iiaeueio oeieo;

2. Ci?no ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a oeieao neoaeeee iie?oeoe? anei?eyoe??
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ianaeaiiy Aanna?aa??, iicaaaeaiiy eiai
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e. Aieiaieie oaeoi?aie, aeaoa?i?ioth/eie ?icaeoie
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa??, noaee nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee, eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iee, aeaiia?ao?/iee oa
ina?oiuei-aaiaciee;

3. C o?aooaaiiyi ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? niaoeeo?ee ?? aaiethoe?? iiaeeeaith noaea
ianooiia ia??iaeecaoe?y noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? oeiee a
Aanna?aa??: 1. (1918 –1919 ?.?.) – ia??iae aea?aeaaii? aaeaioaoe?? aei
?oioi?? uieii i?e?aeiaii? oa?eoi??? (Aanna?aa??); ??. (1920-1925 ?.?.) –
ia??iae anei?ethaaiiy oa?eoi??? Aanna?aa?? a aea?aeaaia ooai?aiiy
?oioi??; ???. (1926-1938 ?.?.) – ia??iae aeoeaii? ?oioi?caoe?? anueiai
ianaeaiiy e?ath; ?V. (1939-1940 ?.?.) – iiiiiie?y aea?aeaae ia
aeoiaaiiy; V. (1940-1941 ?.?.) – i?ioenoiyiiy iie?oeoe? ?oioi?caoe??
ei?ie?anueeiai o?yaeo ?oioi??, ia??iae iiooe?a ?aaeyinueei? iiaeae?
?ai?aai?caoe?? e?ath; VI. (1941-1944 ?.?.) – ia??iae ?oioii-oaoenonueei?
ieoiaoe?? e?ath.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??:

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 263 noi??iee iaoeiiieno (iniiaiee oaeno c 29 oaaeeoeyie, 2
noaiaie ? 1 ae?aa?aiith caeia? 170 noi?.; nienie aeei?enoaii?
e?oa?aoo?e, ui i?noeoue 349 aeaea?ae, – 21 noi?.; 34 aeiaeaoee – 71
noi?.)

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, aea?? o?iiieia?/ieo
?aiie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiai iniiai? caaaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi aeaea?aeueio aaco, iaoeiao iiaecio,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa??” i?iaiae?ciaaii
noai aena?oeaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??,
ia?aaeoiiae noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a
e?ioe? O?O – ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy, oiiaii aeae?eai? aoaie ?icaeoeo
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a e?a? a iaaeao cacia/aieo o?iiieia?/ieo ?aiie, aeaii
iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny a aiae?c?
eiiiiiaio?a ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? ca /an?a
aoiaeaeaiiy Aanna?aa?? a neeaae ?in??.

Ony noeoii?noue i?aoeue, ye? oae /e ?iaeoa oi?eathoueny aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, ?icaeyaeaeanue a aeae?eueeio iai?yieao.

Ia?oee iai?yiie – oea ?in?enueeiiiai? i?aoe? c ?noi??? Aanna?aa?? e?ioey
O?O – ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noie?ooy, ye? a iniiaiiio aena?oeththoue
?noi??th ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? ina?oe acaaae? a I?eaeoiaenueeiio
e?a?, iieacothoue aieea ia ia? iie?oeee ?on?o?eaoe?? e?ath. Na?aae
i?aoeue aeiieoiaoe?eiiai ?oioinueeiai ia??iaeo, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny
i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, i?eaa?oathoue oaaao aeine?aeaeaiiy
I?oaaaeia I.N. “Caeiiu e ni?aai/iua naaaeaiey ii ia/aeueiiio ia?iaeiiio
ia?aciaaieth” (N.-Iaoa?ao?a, 1898). Cia/ieie aeieoiaioaie, ye?
ia?aaeathoue o?ae aeeneon?e a iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoeaao uiaei iai?yie?a
oe?eueii? ina?oe aeey aoiin?a e?ath, ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano, ? iaoa??aee a/eoaeuenueeeo c’?cae?a,
ia?aae, aeiiia?ae?, ca?oe ea??aiee?a ina?oe (Aaeue A.I. “Eoiae
aeayoaeueiinoe e n?aaenoaa niaea?aeaiey Aanna?aaneie ia?iaeiie oeieu ca
10 eao (1886 – 1898); Eao?ia A.I. “Ni?aai/iay eieaa aeey o/aaiuo
caaaaeaiee III. Io/?o i nuacaea o/eoaeae Aeea?iaineiai oacaea,
Aanna?aaneie aoaa?iee.”, 1902a.).

Ae?oaee iai?yiie – oea ?oioinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y, ui i?aaenoaaeaia
i?aoeyie I.A?ao, ?. Ei?aie, ?. Eacaeo, ?. I?noi?a, A. Iiia-Eenyio, a
yeeo iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?icaeoeo ?oioinueei? ina?oe a Aanna?aa??.

O?ao?e iai?yiie – i?aaenoaaey? ?iaioe ?oioinueeeo aeine?aeiee?a, ui
noaiiaeyoue eieaeoe?? caeii?a, ?aaeaiaio?a ? ?iceeaae?a ?iaioe oe?e oa
aiae?c i?eioeei?a noai?aiiy oeeo aeieoiaio?a (I. Iaaoeaneo “?aoi?ia
ina?oe”, 1927).

*aoaa?oee iai?yiie – aeeth/a? i?aoe? no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a, ye?
caeiathoueny aea/aiiyi ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
?icaoaeiaith ina?oe oa ?icaeoeii oe?eueieoeoaa a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a?.
Aaaeeea? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? oaeoe i?noyoue aeine?aeaeaiiy A.A.Eieioa.
Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaeythoue caaaeaiiy, ye? ae??oai?
aeine?aeieeii, a naia: oeyoe ?icaeoeo oeiee ia oa?eoi??? oe?a?inueeeo
i?eaeoiaenueeeo caiaeue a ia??iae ?oiueiai aoiaeaeaiiy aei neeaaeo
?in??, aieea ia?aaeiaeo ?in?enueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ae?yeuei?noue
oe?e, iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue O.Aio?aa a Aanna?aa??, ?aaiethoe?eiee
?oo a e?a? ca aecaieaiiy a?ae ieoiaoe??, ai?ioueaa ca iie?auaiiy
ia?iaeii? ina?oe. A oaiaeaioe?eii-ia?enenonueeiio ieai? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?in?? aeeeaaeai? a eiec? I.Inieiaa
“Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea a aei?aaiethoeeiiiie ?innee (1861-1917)”.
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath a?aeoai?ai? a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.Ai?/ea, ?.Aoaeaea, N.Eono?yaiai?, A.Oe/eie oiui.

I’yoee iai?yiie ooai?ththoue i?aoe?, ye? ?ice?eaathoue iniaeeaino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?ath, noenei
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ina?oi? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia oeueiio oii?.

Oinoee iai?yiie – oea a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe. Iniaeeai oe?iieie aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aeieoiaioe, ui caa??aathoueny o o?e?ae?
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Iaeanueei? iaeano? a i?no? ?cia?e?. A a?eueoino? oea
iaoa??aee, ye? aena?oeththoue i?aai?caoe?th ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio
e?a?, ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue oe?e ?cia?euenueeiai oa
Aea?iainueeiai iia?o?a.

Iaeaaeii ioe?ithth/e an? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeieoiaioe c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
ina?oe a Aanna?aa??, ie aeine?aeeee ? aena?oeeee aaaeeea? aniaeoe
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a?.

Aioo??oiy aeeiai?ea aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iieacaia o aeaeyae? oanoe
?noi?e/ieo aoai?a, ye? aoee aecia/ai? ca nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei
oaeoi?ii, a naia: 1. (1918-1919 ?.?.) – ia??iae iie?oe/ii? aaeaioaoe??
uieii i?e?aeiaii? oa?eoi??? (Aanna?aa?? ) aei ?oioi??; 2. (1920-1925
?.?.) – ia??iae anei?ethaaiiy oa?eoi??? Aanna?aa?? a aea?aeaaia
ooai?aiiy ?oioi??; 3. (1926-1938 ?.?.) – ia??iae ye?nii? ?oioi?caoe??
e?ath; 4. (1939-1940 ?.?.) – ia??iae iaoe?iiae?caoe?? oe?e; 5. (eeiaiue
1940 – eeiaiue 1941 ?.?.) – Aanna?aa?y o neeaae? ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie;
6. (eeiaiue 1941 – na?iaiue 1944 ?.?.) – ia??iae ?oioii-oaoenonueei?
ieoiaoe?? e?ath.

Aeey aiae?co aioo??oiuei? aeeiai?ee eiaeiiai aoaio ie ?icaeyaeaee
ii/aoeiao ina?oo c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, oiaoi ye iaoiaee/io
nenoaio, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c no?oeoo? ??cieo ??ai?a. I?e aea/aii?
ia’?eo?a oe??? nenoaie ie aeei?enoiaoaaee nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c o
ii?aeiaii? c ?ioeie iaoiaeaie. Aeaiaioe iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie aea/aeenue
ye ie?aii, oae ? o aca?iica’yceo. Aiae?c ca’yce?a iieacaa iayai?noue
nai???aeieo oaiiiai?a. Oae ca’ycee i?ae iaoith ? ci?noii ii/aoeiaiai
iaa/aiiy neeaee nenoaiiooai?thth/ee oaeoi?, yeee coiiaea iaaio
oii?yaeeiaai?noue iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie. Iniaeea? oaiiiaie aecia/aeeny i?e
aena?oeaii? ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie nenoaie c aeaoa?i?ioth/eie
oaeoi?aie, ye? iaoiiaeththoue ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia iaaiiio
aoai? a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Nie?ath/enue ia a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui ciai?oi? ca’ycee “ina?oe” i?iyaeythoueny o ??cieo nenoaiao
a?aeiioaiue: iie?oeea o?yaeo – ina?oa (nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iee oaeoi?),
aeiiii?/iee ??aaiue ?aa?iio – ina?oa (nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oaeoi?),
aoiieoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie ?aa?iio – ina?oa (aoii-eoeueoo?iee oaeoi?),
aeaiia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y ?aa?iio – ina?oa (aeaiia?ao?/iee oaeoi?),
ina?oi?e aeina?ae iiia?aaeiueiai – ina?oa (ina?oiuei-aaiaciee oaeoi?).

sse iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ieue, yeo a?ae?a?athoue icia/ai?
a?aeiioaiiy, ? oaeoi?e, ui ? iane?aeeiaeie, aeey nenoaie ina?oe iiaeia
?icoe?ieoe ye aeaoa?i?ioth/?. Ie i?inoaaeeee, ye i?iyaeythoueny oe?
oaeoi?e ? ye aiie aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe.

Ci?no nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oaeoi?o ye aeaoa?i?iaioe ?icaeoeo
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, iieyaa? o aieea? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oiia
noni?euenoaa ia noai ? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo nenoaie ina?oe. Ci?no
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oaeoi?o, ye aeaoa?i?ioth/iai ina?oo, aecia/a?
aeiiii?/ia noaaeaiiy noni?euenoaa aei ina?oe: ianya eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue,
nai?/ani?noue iiiaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, no?oeoo?a
o?iainoaaiiy oeiee oa i??a ?? o?iainiai? naiino?eiino? oiui. Ci?no
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ii? aeaoa?i?iaioe aaa/a?oueny o caeaaeiino? nenoaie
ina?oe a?ae aoi?/ieo, ia?iaeieo aeoiaieo ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o oaeoi?ieo
oaiiiai?a. Aei oaeeo oaiiiai?a, aacia?a/ii, iaeaaeeoue ia?iaeia
iaaeaaia?ea, niaoeeo?/iei /eiii aecia/aia o eoeueoo?iiio eiiaeiia?ao?
Aanna?aa??. Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii, ui aieeaa? ia aeoiaaiiy a
aaaaoiaoi?/iiio ?aa?ii?, ? aca?iicaaaa/aiiy eoeueoo? ??cieo ia?iae?a, ui
iaoeathoue a u?eueieo oiiaao ?aa?iio, yeei, aei ?a/?, ? ? Aanna?aa?y.
Ci?no aeaiia?ao?/iiai oaeoi?o, ye aeaoa?i?iaioe ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, ia
iaoo aeoieo, iieyaa? o aieea? aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?ioean?a e?ath (aeeiai?ea
/enaeueiino? ianaeaiiy, i?a?aoe?ei? yaeua, o?aai?caoe?y, no?oeoo?a
caeiyoino? oiui) ia noai ? ?icaeoie ina?oe, cie?aia, ii/aoeiai?.

Aecia/ath/e iaaio caeaaei?noue nenoaie ina?oe a?ae ?nioth/iai
noni?eueiiai ? aea?aeaaiiai eaaeo, iaiao?aeii aiaeii/an a?aoiaoaaoe ? ??
a?aeiinio naiino?ei?noue a?ae iueiai, yea ae?aaea?oueny, ia?aaeon?i, a
niaaeei?iiino? iiai? nenoaie o?aaeeoe?e ? iaioaeueiino? iiia?aaeiuei?.
Oey “ina?oiy niaaeei?ii?noue” ?icaeyaeaeany iaie ye nooo?aee aaae?eue
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe. Naia oeae ci?no ie caeeaee a iiiyooy
“ina?oiuei-aaiaciee oaeoi?” – aeei?enoaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai aeina?aeo
“oe?eueii? iie?oeee” a i?aeoeoe? oeiee aeaiiai ia??iaeo ? eiai aieea ia
iie?ioaiiy iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy iieiae? e?ath.

Aeyaeai? oaeoi?e aenooiaee ia?aaeoiiaaie ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
e?a?, ni?iiiaeieie cae?enieoe ?noi?e/iee iaeyae i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? oeiee a Aanna?aa?? o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Oae,
iniiaieie ia?aaeoiiaaie ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a /an
i?aae?iiy oea?nueei? ?in?? aoee: aeiiii?/ia i?aeianaiiy e?ath ? ?icaeoie
eai?oae?noe/ieo a?aeiinei, ye? oi?ioaaee nioe?aeueia caiiaeaiiy ia
ina?/aieo eaae?o?eiaaieo ethaeae; ?ic?iaeaia ?in?enueeei o?yaeii
oe?eueia caeiiiaeaanoai, yea aecia/aei iai?yiee ? i?eioeeie nenoaie
ina?oe e?ath. Aea ?in?enueeee o?yae ia/aaoi ia iii?/aa
aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai neeaaeo ianaeaiiy I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath.
I?aeoe/ii a aeeooy ai?iaaaeaeoaaeanue “oai??y io?oe?eii? ia?iaeiino?”,
ca?aeii c yeith aea?aeaaia ia?iaei?noue iiaea neeaaeaoeny c ??cieo
ia?iae?a oeyoii anei?eyoe??. Noie?oi? iaioaaiiy ?in?? ia i?eianei
ia?iaeai I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath, ye ? an?e Aanna?aa??, iii?oieo ci?i o
aeooiaiiio aeeoo?. Oe?a?ioe? caeeoeeenue ii noo? inoi?iiue oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iaoooaaeeny iaoe?iiaeuei? aeiiae
iieaeaaai, aieaa? oa ?ioeo ia?iaeiinoae. Nooe?eueia ?oneo?eaoe?y
aaeueioaaea ? caeiina?aoaaea ?icaeoie aoiieoeueoo?. Ca ??aiai
ienueiaiiino? Aanna?aa?y a e?ioe? O1O noie?ooy iin?aeaea iaeia c
inoaii?o i?noeue na?aae 50 aoaa?i?e ?a?iiaenueei? ?in??. Ca ia?aienii
1897 ?ieo ienueiaii?noue na?aae oe?a?ioe?a noaiiaeea eeoa 9%, oiae? ye
na?aae ?in?yi – 31%, ?a?a?a – 36%, i?ioe?a – 50%, iieye?a – 54%. O 1876
?ioe? aoei aeaeaii caeii i?i iiaio caai?iio oe?a?inueei? iiae a oeieao ?
acaaae? a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?.

O i?ioean? aiae?co ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a iniaeeao caoe?eaaeai?noue aeyaey?
i?iaeaiaoeea oe?eueii? ina?oe aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, yea iinoa? ye
iniiaia ?oo?eia neea ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Nai???aei?noue ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944 ?.?.)” i?iaiae?ciaaii aaiethoe?th ? aeeiai?eo
?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a oeae ia??iae, iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a oeieao ia eiaeiiio aoai?, aeyaeaia
niaoeeo?ea ae?e (aieeao) aeae?eaieo cia/oueo oaeoi??a ia ?icaeoie
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? eiaeiiai ?? eiiiiiaioa c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo. ?acoeueoaoii oaei? ?iaioe noaa aeia?? ia eiaeiiio aoai?
iaea?eueo cia/oueo oaeoi??a oa nooo?aeo i?iaeai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe.

Niaoeeo?ea i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a e?a? a oeae
ia??iae aecia/aeany iie?oeeith ?oioinueeiai o?yaeo, yeee 9 ea?oiy 1918
?ieo io?oe?eii iaieioo? i?e?aeiaiiy Aanna?aa?? aei ?oioi??. O?yae
?oioi?? anoaiiaeth? a e?a? a?enueeiai-eieii?aeueiee ?aaeei, i?ae yeei
ia?aaoaaei ianaeaiiy Aanna?aa?? iiiaae 22 ?iee. A e?a? ii/eia?oueny
nooe?eueia ?oioi?caoe?y aeooiaiiai aeeooy. Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
cania?a ?oioi?caoe?? I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath iiaeiia aoea noaoe oeiea.

C 1918 ?ieo a Aanna?aa?? ii/aee ae?yoe i?aaie ina?oe o oi?i? iia?oiaeo
?aa?ci?ao?a. A 1919 ?ioe? aoei anoaiiaeaii ?aaeaiaio aioo??oiuei?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? ii/aoeiaeo oe?e ?oioi?? c ea??aieie ?ino?oeoe?yie, a
oaeiae c eiiaioa?yie ? aeiaeaoeaie oi?ioey??a i?ioani?a A.A.I?oaeeaneo –
ia/aeueieea ath?i iniaenoiai neeaaeo ii/aoeiai? oa na?aaeiuei? ina?oe
Aanna?aa??. A oeieao ?iniaeoi?e i?iaiaeeee aa?oaoe?eio ?iaioo na?aae
o/i?a i?i iaiao?aei?noue iaa/aiiy ?oioinueeith iiaith. A?aeiia?aeii aei
caeii?a, ye? ae?yee ia 1 aa?aniy 1918 ?ieo, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe ?
eoeueoo?e ?oioi?? anoaiiaeei iia? ?aaeaiaioe c aaei?i?no?aoe?? i?nueeeo
ii/aoeiaeo oe?e c on?ia ci?iaie. *ioe?eeeani? ?oioinuee? ii/aoeia? oeiee
(“oeiea i?eia??”) iinooiiai cai?ieee oea?eiaii-ia?ao?yeuei?,
i?i?noa?nuee? oa cainuee? iaeiieeani? o/eeeua. Aeaieeani? ia?iaei?
o/eeeua aoee /anoeiai ?ai?aai?ciaai? a ii/aoeia? oeiee ae?oaiai nooiaiy
c o?e??/iei no?ieii iaa/aiiy. A oeae ia??iae o?yae i?iaiaeeoue /anoo
ci?io oe?eueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aei 1924 ?ieo a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a?
ae?ya caeii i?i ii/aoeiao ina?oo, caoaa?aeaeaiee ei?ie?anueeei aeae?aoii
26 ea?oiy 1897 ?ieo ?c ci?iaie ? aeiiiaiaiiyie, ye? aoee aianai? a 1901,
1903, 1904, 1905, 1908, 1909, 1914, 1918, 1919 ?ieao.

Noai ii/aoeiaeo oe?e a ia??iae ia?oiai aoaio aoa aeaetha?aeiei. Oea aoa
/an aea?aeaaii? aaeaioaoe?? ?oioi?? a Aanna?aa??. Oeae ia??iae
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ianiaeie oaeethaaiiyie ianaeaiiy, yea ia aeciaaaei
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee o?yaeo. O?yae, a naith /a?ao, ia aeae?eya eioo?a
ia ina?oo, oeiee cae?eaaeeny, iniaeeai a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, a o?,
ui ae?yee, ia?aoiaeeee iinooiiai ia iaa/aiiy ?oioinueeith iiaith.
Ina?oyinueea iie?oeea ?oioi?? i?aeoe/ii a?aeeo/eea ae?oae a?ae oeiee,
a?ae aea/aiiy nai?? ??aeii? iiae. Anueiai oeieith a oeae ia??iae aoei
ioiieaii 45% ae?oae oe?eueiiai a?eo e?ath, a iino?eii a?aea?aeoaaee
oeieo 78% a?ae e?eueeino? ioiieaieo.

Iineeaiiy ?oioi?caoe?? e?ath aeeeeeaei o ia?iaeo i?e?iaeiee ii??. Aaeeea
cia/aiiy iaei Oaoa?aoia?nueea iianoaiiy, yea i?aeo?eioaaee o/eoae?
e?ath. I?ioa ?oioi?y ia caeeoeea naiai iai??o – ia?aoai?eoe Aanna?aa?th
a ?ioaa?iaaio /anoeio nai?? aea?aeaae.

A 1924 ?ioe? aoei i?eeiyoi caeii i?i aea?aeaaio ii/aoeiao ina?oo, a
yeiio aecia/aii iaoo ?iaioe oeiee, oeie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a,
ci?no ina?oe ? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee ina?oe, iaieioaii
ii/aoeiao ina?oo iaia’yceiaith ? aaceiooiaiith. A oeae ia??iae c?inoa?
e?euee?noue iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ? /enaeuei?noue o/i?a, iiaoaeiaaii
aaaaoi iiaeo iaa/aeueieo aoae?aaeue. Oi?o?eothoueny ? iaa/aeuei? ieaie
oe?e. Iniiaiei iieacieeii iaa/aiiy aaaaeaeanue ye?noue ciaiue. Aieiaiith
iaoith ii/aoeiai? oeiee aoei io?eiaiiy o/iyie i?i?ioio ciaiue,
iaiao?aeieo o iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?. Aea iaciaiiy ?oioinueei? iiae
aaeueioaaei ? ye?ni?, ? e?euee?ni? iieacieee iaa/aiiy. A?eueo?noue
ae?oae caeeoaeanue iica oeieith.

Ioaea, ae?oaee aoai (1920 – 1925 ?.?.) – oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cae?eooyi
iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e, ?icaeoeii ?oioinueeeo oe?e, caanaiiyi aoiieoeueoo?e
iaoeaioe?a e?ath.

Iaeyeai? c?inoaiiyi ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo a e?a?, iniaeeai na?aae
iieiae?, I?i?noa?noai iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ? i?aaie ia?iaeii? ina?oe
?iaeee ana, uia a?aeaa?iooe iieiaeue a?ae ?aaiethoe?eieo ae?e. A 1927
?ioe? aoee iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee ?aoi?ie ina?oe, a yeeo a?aei?/aii, ui
aieiaiith iaoith oeiee ? ?icaeoie iiaiioe?iiiai cae?aiiai iieiaeiai
iieie?iiy. Oeae caeii aoa i?ia?aneaiei e?ieii o ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe , aea, ye ? iiia?aaei? caeiie, iiai?noth ia aeeiioaaany. O /a?ai?
1938 ?ieo aoa caoaa?aeaeaiee iiaee iaa/aeueiee ieai aeey ii/aoeiaeo
oe?e, yeee ia?aaeaa/aa eiiieaen i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue, ui aeeth/aee ?iaioo
a iaenoa?iyo. Iaa/aeueiei ieaiii aoee ia?aaeaa/ai? oae? ?icae?ee:
aeoiaaiiy caei?ia’y (o?ce/ia aeoiaaiiy) – aiaoii?y, a?a??ia oa
nii?oa?iianoeea; ?icoiiaa iaa/aiiy – aaia?ao?y, o?ceea, o?i?y
(aeaiaioa?ia), iaoaiaoeea, ?noi??y, ??aeia iiaa (?oioinueea); ooaeiaei?
aeoiaaiiy – iicaeeania /eoaiiy, aeaeeaioaaiiy, ae?aeia, oaao?, ni?ae,
iaethaaiiy, eae?a?ao?y, ?ae?a?y; i?aeoe/ia iaa/aiiy – ?iaioa a
iaenoa?iyo; aiaeeie aeey o/ano? a ?iaio? i?aai?caoe?? “No?aaea oea??e”
(Ioi?iia aea?aeaae). I?ia?aia aeey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?aeiiaiaeoaaea
o/eoaeyi caeo/aoe an?o o/i?a o aeeoy/o i?aai?caoe?th “No?aaea oea??e”,
aea aoee noai?ai? an? oiiae aeey cae?eniaiiy ?oiueiai ?ae?a?eiiai,
ii?aeueiiai ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai aeoiaaiiy.

A?o?ai? aeieoiaioe na?ae/aoue, ui a oeae ia??iae aeeeaaeaiiy a oeieao
aaeinue eiiieaenii, cae?enithaaeinue ocaiaeaeaiiy iaa/aiiy c ?ioa?anaie
ae?oae, caeo/aiiy naieo ae?oae aei caaaeueii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe,
cae?enithaaany ca’ycie o?ce/ii? ? ?icoiiai? ?iaioe.

Aea, ia caaaeath/e ia an? coneeey aea?aeaae, oni?oi?noue ?
a?aea?aeoaaiiy a oeie? caeeoaeinue aeoaea iecueeei. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith
aoei iaciaiiy /anoeiith o/i?a ?oioinueei? iiae, /ano? i?iionee caiyoue
o/iyie, iecueea eaae?o?eaoe?y o/eoaeuenueeeo eaae??a, a?aenooi?noue
i?ae?o/iee?a, iacaoe?eaaeai?noue o?yaeo a iaa/aii? ae?oae i?inoiai
ia?iaeo. A 30-o ?ieao a?aiioi?noue a Aanna?aa?? aoea iaeieae/ith a
?a?ii?, aiia neeaaeaea 29,9%.

O?yae i?iaeiaaeo? iie?oeeo ?oioi?caoe?? anueiai ianaeaiiy e?ath. 8
a?oaeiy 1933 ?ieo a nai?o oee?eoey?ao I?i?noa?noai ina?oe ?oioi??
ciaia’yco? aee?aeoi??a oe?e ia aeiioneaoe a oeieao i?yei? ?ioi? iiae,
e??i ?oioinueei?.

A 1930 ?ioe? a i?noao ?aeiiaiaeiaaii caaaeueia naie??/ia iaa/aiiy
(ii/aoeiaa iaa/aiiy aeaio oeeee?a), a naeao oeae i?ioean ?icii/eia?oueny
c 1934 ?ieo. Caaaeueiee iieaciee oni?oiino? a oeieao ia?oiai oeeeeo
noaiiaeoue 49%, ae?oaiai oeeeeo – 6%. A oeae ia??iae oeiea oe?eaaeoueny
iaoiaeaie “aeoeaii? oeiee”, aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ye?niiio
canai?iith i?ia?aie.

Oaeei /eiii, 1926 – 1938 ??. – oea /an noaa?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
oe?eueieoeoaa a Aanna?aa?? a caaaeueii?oioinuee?e no?oeoo??, caanaiiy
aoiieoeueoo?e iaoeaioe?a e?ath.

A 1939 ?ioe? ia?aaeia? a/eoae? e?ath aenoioee ieceo i?ia?aneaieo aeiia o
aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, i?aeaeaee e?eoeoe? ci?no iaa/aiiy a ?oioinuee?e
oeie?. Na?aae aeiia aoee oae?: iiiiaeoe ?iaioo cae?eoeo oe?e ? a?aee?eoe
iia? oeiee ye a naeao, oae ? a i?noao, iiaa?iooe a iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee
o/eoae?a ? aeeeaaea/?a, ca?eueiaieo c ?iaioe, ca?eueieoe a?ae iieaoe ca
iaa/aiiy ? caaacia/eoe i?ae?o/ieeaie, oe?eueiei i?eeaaeaeyi, iaeyaii ?
oa?/oaaiiyi ae?oae aac?ia?oieo, a?aeieo ? o/eoae?a, ca?eueoeoe ca?ia?oio
ieaoo o/eoaeyi.

?oioinueeee o?yae aeaea? iiaee oe?eueiee caeii 1939 ?ieo, a yeiio
eaeaoueny i?i iineeaiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai aieeao ia o/i?a, i?i
oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aiiy ae?oae o?oaeyueo oa ia?oioinueeiai aoi?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy o na?aaei?o oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, i?i ia?ao?ae ia
iaa/aiiy eeoa ?oioinueeith iiaith. Iaeei ?ac ia oeaeaeaiue, i?ioyaii
aeiy (/aoaa?) ae?oe iiaeii? caeiaoeny a i?aai?caoe?? “No?aaea oea??e”,
aieiaiith iaoith yei? aoei i?aeaiooaaoe iieiaeue, a?aeaeaio ?nioth/?e
aeaae?.

Oeiee i?aoethaaee ca ieaiaie 1938 ?ieo. Eiioeaioe?? iaa/aeueieo ieai?a
oi?ioaaeenue i?ae aieeaii nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa aea?aeaae,
caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo ? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oai??e oiai /ano. A ?o
iniia? eaaeaa noaa?eueii-aeeiai?/iee i?aeo?ae aei neeaaeo ? ci?noo
iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i. I?ia?aie c eiaeiiai iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo
aeaeaaaeeny o aeaeyae? ?ino?oeoe?e ? neeaaeaeeny c aeaio /anoei: ci?no
aeenoeeie?ie oa i?aeoe/ia ?? aeei?enoaiiy a aeeoo?. Ca noaoenoe/ieie
aeaieie a 1938-1939 ??. a?aiioi?noue ianaeaiiy I?eaeoiaenueeiai e?ath
neeaaeaea a na?aaeiueiio 50,7% (ae?iie – 37%).

Ioaea, 1939-1940 ??. – oea ia??iae iiaii? iaoe?iiae?caoe?? oe?e,
?icaeoie ?oioinueei? eoeueoo?e, c?inoaiiy ia?aae? oe?e oa aeioe?eueieo
caeeaae?a (a?aaeeiooeue). Aaeeea cia/aiiy a oeae ia??iae i?eae?ey?oueny
aeoiaaiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai (?oioinueeiai) ?aeaaeo i?e oi?ioaaii?
iniaenoino? o/iy.

Ai?ioueaa ia?iae?a oe?a?inueei? Aanna?aa?? ca iacaeaaei?noue
i?iaeiaaeoaaeanue aae aei /a?aiy 1940 ?ieo, eiee o?yae ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco cai?iiiioaaa o?yaeo ?oioi?? iiaa?iooe Aanna?aa?th. 15 na?iiy 1940
?ieo aeeoia Oeac I?aceae?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee N?N? “I ainnoaiiaeaiee ia
oa??eoi?ee Aanna?aaee aeaenoaee niaaoneeo caeiiia i iaoeeiiaeecaoeee
caiee”. Aaeeea ?iaioa aoea i?iaaaeaia o noa?? ina?oe. A oeieao aoea
aaaaeaia ?aaeyinueea nenoaia iaa/aiiy. Iaa/aiiy ia?aaiaeeoueny ia
?in?enueeiiiaia aeeeaaeaiiy. A I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? a?aee?eaa?oueny
ia?oee aeuee iaa/aeueiee caeeaae (o/eoaeuenueeee ?inoeooo a
A?eai?iae-Aei?no?ianueeo), oaoi?eoie, 350 oe?e, a oiio /ene? 176
ii/aoeiaeo. Aea nioe?aeueia ?io?ano?oeoo?a a i?noao ? naeao oaeiae
ooai?thaaeanue aac aeinoaoiueiai iae?eo a?aooaaiiy aaaaoiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
neeaaeo ianaeaiiy ? ia?niaeoea eiai ?icaeoeo.

1940-1941 ?.?. – oea ia??iae e?ea?aeaoe?? iaienueiaiiino?, a?aee?eooy
aa/??i?o oe?e, c??no ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, ioiieaiiy iaeaea an?o ae?oae
oeieith, iiooe iiaeo iaoiae?a ?iaioe oeiee. Iaeii/anii oea aoa i?ioean
?ioaineaiiai aoyaoaaiiy oeeo caiaeue a ?aaeyinueeo oioae?oa?io nenoaio.
?icaeoie ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? aoa coieiaiee Aaeeeith
A?o/eciyiith a?eiith. A ia??iae ?oioii-oaoenonueei? ieoiaoe?? aaeeei?
oeiaee aoei caaaeaii ia?iaei?e ina?o?. A 1941 ?ioe? a?eueo?noue oe?e
e?ath aoei cae?eoi. A 1942 ?ioe? a?aee?eaathoueny ii/aoeia? oeiee, oae
caai? “ia?iaei?”. A oeieao iaa/aiiy ciiao ia?aaiaeeoueny ia ?oioinueeo
iiao. Oea aoa ia??iae cieuaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee. Aoee coieiai?
aoaeue-ye? i?iyae aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a e?a?. O?yae cayaea, ui
aeey ae?oae iai?iaoeueeiai ianaeaiiy ia iiaeiii aooe i?yeeo oe?e, e??i
/ioe?e??/ii? ii/aoeiai? oeiee, iaoa yei? – iaa/eoe ?aooaaoe a iaaeao 500
? ?icienoaaoeny. I?ia?aia aoea nei?i/aia, aea/aiiy iiae iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei ia ieaioaaeinue. Ioaea, oeae /an oa?aeoa?eco?oueny neeaaeieie
i?ioeanaie a aaeoc? ina?oe.

?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a I?eaeoiaenueeiio e?a? aea/aany iaie ye
nenoaia, ui neeaaeaeanue c /anoei, ye? ciaoiaeeeenue a o?nieo
aca?iica’yceao ? ooai?thaaee iaaio oe?e?ni?noue.

I?ae nenoaiith ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ie ?icoi?ee i?ioean ? ?acoeueoao
canai?iiy nenoaiaoeciaaieo ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ye? ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith i?aeaioiaee ethaeeie aei aeeooy, i?aoe? ? ye? ni?yiiaoaaeenue ia
caaacia/aiiy ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.

?icaeoie oai??? ? i?aeoeee ii/aoeiai? oeiee ?icaeyaeaany ia ye
i?yiie?i?eiee ?oo, a ye ae?aeaeoe/iee ca oa?aeoa?ii, noia?a/eeaee ?
aeeiai?/iee i?ioean, ia ??cieo aoaiao yeiai aeieeathoue ?aea?, iaoiaee ?
oaeoe, ye? aeaeici?iththoueny, ooaa?aeaeothoueny /e ia i?eeiathoueny.

Aeniiaee

1. Aaiethoe?y nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a 1918-1944 ?.?.
coiiaeaia ia’?eoeaieie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo e?ath oa aieeaii i?ioean?a,
ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a ?a?ii?. A 1918 ?ioe? ii/eia?oueny nooe?eueia
?oioi?caoe?y aeooiaiiai aeeooy iaoeaioe?a e?ath. ?oioinueea iiaa aoea
aaaaeaia ye iaia’yceiaa aeey an?o caeeaae?a ? oe?e. ?icii/aeinue
cae?eooy iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e. I?i?noa?noai ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e ?oioi??
anoaiiaeei iia? ?aaeaiaioe ii aaei?i?no?aoe?? i?nueeeo ii/aoeiaeo oe?e.
Aiie iiae?eyeeny ia ae?ii/?, /ieia?/? oa i?oai?. Eo?n ii/aoeiaeo oe?e
?iciiae?eyany ia 4 eeane, i?oai? oeiee iaee 2 eeane. Ii/aoeiaa oeiea
aoea iaia’yceiaith aeey ae?oae 7 – 15 ?ie?a.

A 1924 ?ioe? o?yae ?oioi?? i?eeiya iiaee caeii i?i aea?aeaaio ii/aoeiao
oeieo. Aei ia?oiai nooiaiy ii/aoeiai? ina?oe aoiaeeee aeeoy/? naaeee
(a?aaeeiooee), ii/aoeia? oeiee, oeiee ? eo?ne aeey aei?ineeo, oeiee ?
eo?ne aeey aeaa?eueieo oa ?icoiiai a?aenoaeeo ae?oae. Iaa/aiiy
?iciiae?eyeinue ca a?eii: 5-7 ?ie?a – a aeeoy/eo naaeeao, 7-16 – a
ii/aoeiaeo oeieao, 16-18 – eo?ne aeey aei?ineeo. Ii/aoeiaa oeiea
neeaaeaeanue c aeaio oeeee?a iaa/aiiy: aeaiaioa?iee – 4 ?iee ? noa?oee –
3 ?iee.

O 1927 ?ioe? i?ioiaeeoue ?aoi?ioaaiiy ii/aoeiai? ina?oe. Aaeeeiai
cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny ?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae ae?oae, ii/eiath/e c 3-o
?ie?a. No?ie aeioe?eueiiai aeoiaaiiy ca?eueoo?oueny aei 4-o ?ie?a.
Iaoiaeeea ii/aoeiai? ina?oe aoaeo?oueny ca i?eioeeiii oeiee i?aoe?. I?e
oeieao a?aee?eaathoueny oe?euei? iaenoa?i? oa aeae?eythoueny caiaeuei?
ae?eyiee. Oeae caeii aoa i?ia?aneaiei e?ieii o ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe.

A 1938 ?ioe? aaiaeeoueny iiaee iaa/aeueiee ieai ? ?acii c oeei
ci?ith?oueny oi?ia iaa/aiiy ia noa?oiio oeeee? ii/aoeiai? oeiee.
Iaa/aiiy i?iaiaeeoueny 6 i?nyoe?a ia ??e, ?aooo /ano o/i? caeiathoueny
i?aeoe/iith ?iaioith a caeaaeiino? a?ae niaoe?aeueiino? (a n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?, iaenoa?iyo /e iaaaceiao).

A 1939 ?ioe? ?oioinueeee o?yae aeaea? iiaee caeii i?i iineeaiiy
iaoe?iiae?noe/iiai aieeao ia o/i?a. A oeieao aeoeaii i?iiaao?oueny
i?aai?caoe?y “No?aaea oea??e” (“Ioi?iia aea?aeaae”).

2. ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a e?a? a 1918-1944 ?.?. i?aaenoaaeaiee
o?noueia aoaiaie: 1918-1919 ?.?. – ii/aoie noai?aiiy nenoaie ?oioinueei?
ii/aoeiai? oeiee, ai?ioueaa ca iaoe?iiaeueio oeieo ? ia?aaeon?i ca iiao
aeeeaaeaiiy; 1920-1925 ?.?. – ooaa?aeaeaiiy ii/aoeiai? oeiee o
caaaeueiiaea?aeaai?e nenoai? ina?oe, cae?eooy iaoe?iiaeueieo oe?e,
caanaiiy aoiieoeueoo?e, coaiae?iiy ina?oe aaaaoueio ia?iae?a Aanna?aa??;
1926-1938 ?.?. – ia??iae aia?a?eiiai ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a oiiaao
aeoeaii? ?oioi?caoe?? ina?oe ? anueiai ianaeaiiy e?ath, oea ia??iae
ye?niiai no?eaea ona?aaeei? nenoaie ina?oe, aaaaeaiiy iiaiai
iaa/aeueiiai ieaio, ia?ao?ae aei naie??/ii? ii/aoeiai? ina?oe; 1939-1940
?.?. – ia??iae iaoe?iiae?caoe?? an?o oe?e (e??i i?iaoeueeeo), ii/aoie
eoeueoo?ii? ?aaiethoe??, ia?aoiaeo aei na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. Caeiiiaeaa/i
aaiethoe?y nenoaie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe cae??ieaia caeiiii 1939 ?ieo, yeee
aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaeaaaa aeoiaaiith iieiae?, ca?eueoaiith
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aieeao ia o/i?a. A iniiao ?aoi?ie iieeaaeaii iiiiiie?th
aea?aeaae ia aeoiaaiiy, i??i?eoao aeoiaaiiy iaae iaa/aiiyi oa aeiiao
aoaeoaaoe iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean ia a?oio? aeinyaiaiue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee; 1940-1941 ?.?. – i?ioenoiyiiy iie?oeoe?
?oioi?caoe??, ia??iae ?ai?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ina?oe a e?a?, iai?oaeaia
?iaioa ina?oyi ia aac? ??aeii? iiae (?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei?) a
oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ina?oe; 1941-1944 ?.?. – ia??iae
?oioii-oaoenonueei? ieoiaoe?? e?ath, caanaiiy ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? ina?oe
acaaae?, a?aee?eooy “ia?iaeieo” oe?e, ye? ioiieee eeoa 14% ae?oae
oe?eueiiai a?eo. Ieoiaoe?eiee ?aaeei ia ae??oo? i?iaeai ii/aoeiai?
ina?oe. Ia?aaeia? a/eoae? ia?aoiaeyoue aei i?aai?caoe?? i?eaaoiiai
iaa/aiiy, a oiio /ene? ? iaoe?iiaeueiith iiaith.

3. C iinooiiaei ?icaeoeii ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ci?ithaaany i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy ? aeeiai?ea ci?noo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe. A ia?o? ?iee ieoiaoe??
caiyooy a oeieao i?iaiaeeeenue ca iaa/aeueieie ieaiaie ei?ie?anueei?
?oioi?? 1896 ?ieo. Ie?aii aoa aecia/aiee oa?i?i iaa/aiiy a ii/aoeia?e
oeie? a i?noao oa n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino? (a?aeiia?aeii 4 ? 5 ?ie?a).
Ci?no ina?oe aoa ci???ioiaaiee oae, uia o/i? n?euenueeeo oe?e
iaieiae?aaee eeoa oeie ciaiiyie, ye? aiooaaee a ?o aei i?aoe? a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. A caeii? 1924 ?ieo aoei i?aee?aneaii, ui
ii/aoeiaa oeiea ? ae?oaei caeeaaeii ii/aoeiai? ina?oe , aea ae?oe
io?eiothoue ciaiiy c aeaiaioa?ii? eoeueoo?e. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii
aea/aiith ?ae?a?? ? ii?ae?. O ci?iao ii/aoeiai? ina?oe niinoa??aaeeny
oaiaeaioe?? iaaeeaeaiiy ?? aei i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa. E??i ?ae?a??, ienueia,
/eoaiiy ? ii/aoe?a a?eoiaoeee a iaa/aeueiee ieai 1938 ?ieo aoee aaaaeai?
a?aeiiino? i?i iaaeieeoi?e na?o, na?e e?ae, ethaeeio, aaia?ao?th,
aaiiao??th, ?noi??th, i?aoeth (ie?aii aeey oeii/ee?a ? ae?a/aoie), ni?ae
oiui, o??aiththoueny no?iee iaa/aiiy o i?noao ? n?euenueeeo i?noeaainoyo
(4 ?iee). I?ia?aia aeey ii/aoeiaeo eean?a ?aeiiaiaeoaaea caeo/eoe an?o
o/i?a o aeeoy/o i?aai?caoe?th “No?aaea oea??e”, aea aoee an? oiiae aeey
cae?eniaiiy ?o ?ae?a?eiiai, ii?aeueiiai ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai aeoiaaiiy. A
30-o ?ieao iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eyee ?aeaieia?/iiio aeoiaaiith ? aieeao
ia iieiaeue, aeoiaaiith ?? a i?ioean? ae?yeueiino? ? a iicao?i/iee /an.
Iaoiaee iaa/aiiy ?icaeaaeenue a?ae aeii?ioaaiiy neiaanii-?iaeoeoeaieo,
ye? aacoaaeeny ia iaoai?/iiio caiai’yoiaoaaii?, aei ia?aaaae
neiaanii-iai/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo. Aeoiaia ae?yeuei?noue ii/aoeiaeo oe?e
cae?enithaaeanue ni?eueii c oea?eaith, n?i’?th oa a?iiaaenuee?noth ?
aoea iiaoaeiaaia ia a?iiaaenueei-iao??ioe/ieo ? ?ae?a?eieo ?aeaaeao oa
iaoe?iiaeueieo (?oioinueeeo) oe?iiinoyo.

Ii/aoeiaa oeiea aiooaaea ae?oae aei anooio a i?ioan?ei? o/eeeua oa
e?oea?. Iaecaaaeuei?oeie oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe aoee:
caaino?aiiy ai?ioueae ca ?? iaoe?iiae?caoe?th, no?oeoo?ia aa?iii?caoe?y,
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia aeooae?caoe?y oa ??aiaaa i?aeianaiiy ina?oe.
Iniiaiei caniaii i?eeo/aiiy ae?oae aei ??aeii? iiae ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e aoiin?a e?ath aoei n?iaeia aeoiaaiiy ia ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?yo,
aeei?enoaiiy aeoiaiiai aeina?aeo ? ioae?ino? ia?iaeo.

4. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? caaino?aiiy
ai?ioueae aoiin?a e?ath ca naith oeieo, i?eeo/aiiy aei oe??? ai?ioueae
ana oe?oeo e?e ianaeaiiy. Iineeaiiy ?oioi?caoe?? e?ath aeeeeeaei o
ia?iae? i?e?iaeiee ii??. A ai?ioueao ca iie?oe/i? i?aaa, iaoe?iiaeueio
ina?oo aenooia? ?ioae?aaioe?y, a oiio /ene? e a/eoae?. Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy
iaaoei Oaoa?aoia?nueea iianoaiiy. Na?aae aeiia, ye? aoee i?aae’yaeai?
o?yaeo, aieiaieie noaee: iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy a i?aaao iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, i?aai ?iciiaeyoe ? iaa/aoeny ??aeiith iiaith, naiaiaea i?ane,
eoeueoo?e oa ?ae?a??. Aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iicia/aany oaeiae
iaaeei?enoaieie iiaeeeainoyie ? ao?aoaie a ?icaeoeo ina?oe, a oiio /ene?
? ii/aoeiai?.

5. C’ynoaaiiy ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie
i?aeoaa?aeeei i?aaeeuei?noue iaoi? a?iioace i?i oa, ui
?acoeueoaoeai?noue ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yi?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai, eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iiai ?
ina?oiuei-aaiaciiai oaeoi??a. I?i oea na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co
aioo??oiuei? aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ia eiaeiiio aoai?
?icaeyiooiai ia??iaeo c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo.

6. Aea/aiiy ?noi??? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? a oiiaao
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i o aea?aeaa? oa
aeoiaeo Oe?a?ie a ?a?iiaenueeee i?ino?? ? aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii
caaaa/aiiy oai??? ? i?aeoeee ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe,
ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaoe iiceoeai? iaaeaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai aeina?aeo a no/ani?e oeie?. Iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae
caa?iooe ia ni?yiiaai?noue ina?oe ia oi?ioaaiiy aeniei?ioaeaeooaeueii?,
aeooiaii aaaaoi? iniaenoino?, ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueieo ina?oi?o
o?aaeeoe?e, oi?ioaaiiy o iieiae? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, a?aeiino?,
ia?ciaiino? c iaoe?iiaeueiith ?noi???th oa eoeueoo?ith, iaaeaiiy ??aieo
iiaeeeainoae a io?eiaii? ina?oe i?aaenoaaieeai an?o iaoe?iiaeueiinoae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a aeaaiaaeoeyoe ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a:

1. Oaae?yi A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ? ci?noo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
I?eaeoiaa’? (ae?oaa iieiaeia O1O – ia?oa iieiaeia OO noie?ooy)//Iaoeiaee
a?niee. ?cia?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo. Aei. 2.
Iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie no/anii? oeiee. – ?cia?e, 1997.- N. 96-100.

2. Oaae?yi A.A. Ina?oaa a I?eaeoiaa’? (e?iaoeue O1O – ii/aoie OO no.)
//Iaoeiaee a?niee ?cia?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo.
Aei. 3. –?cia?e, 1998.- N.238-243.

3. Oaae?yi A.A. Aea?aeaaia iie?oeea o ni?aa? ?icaeoeo ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. //Ia?niaeoeae. –Iaeana, 1998.-
?3-4.- N.117-122.

4. Oaae?yi A.A. Ci?no oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? a 1918-1940?.?. //Ia?niaeoeae.- Iaeana, 1999.-?1
(5).-N.81-86.

5. Aeaaeeneaa Oaae?yi. Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944)// Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy.-E.- 1999.-o.3. –? 2. – N.
176-182.

6. Oaae?yi A.A. Aeaye? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ina?oe a oe?a?inueeiio
I?eaeoiaa’? (ae?oaa iieiaeia O1O – ia?oa iieiaeia OO noie?ooy).
//I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y. Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay:
ieioea, no/ania, iaeaooi?. Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae. – Iaeana,
1995.-N.182-184.

7. Oaae?yi A.A. Ina?oa a ?cia?euenueeiio iia?o? Aanna?aa?? (1918-1919
?.?.) //Oe?a?inueea I?eaeoiaa’y: ?noi??y, aoiia?ao?y, iiaa. Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. – ?cia?e, 1995.-N.78-79.

8. Oaae?yi A.A. I?iaiinoe/i?noue ciaiue o canai?ii? oeeeeo
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeenoeeie?i o iaaeaaia?/iiio aoc?. //No/ania
ii/aoeiaa oeiea: i?iaeaie, iiooee, ciao?aeee. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? 18-19 ea?oiy 1996 ?ieo. – Oa?iii?eue,
1996.- N.165-167.

9. Oaae?yi A.A. Ia?aciaaiea a I?eaeoiaeneii e?aa a 1941-1944 aiaeao.
//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. – ?cia?e, 1995.- N.92-94.

10. Oaae?yi A.A. ?icaeoie ina?oe a oe?a?inueeiio I?eaeoiaa’? a ia?o?e
iieiaei? OO no. //I?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ia ii/aoeo OO
noie?ooy. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, AII Oe?a?ie.-E., 1996.-N.84-91.

11. Oaae?yi A.A. Aeaye? i?iaeaie ii/aoeiai? oeiee Aanna?aa?? (1918-1940
?.?.) //Iaoeiaee a?niee. ?cia?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee
?inoeooo. Aei. 2. Iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie no/anii? oeiee.- ?cia?e,
1997.-N.92-96.

12. Aeaaeeneaa Oaae?yi. Aeaye? nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe
noaiiaeaiiy ina?oyinueeie ni?aae a Aanna?aa?? (1918-1940 ?.?.)
//Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe. Ca??iee
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue.-E.,-Oa?nii: I?eioi? oeiee, 1997. —
N.213-215.

Aiioaoe??

Oaae?yi A.A. ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a Aanna?aa?? (1918-1944 ??.) –
?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y
iaaeaaia?ee. — Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a
Aanna?aa?? (oe?a?inueeee I?eaeoiaenueeee e?ae) o ia??iae ia?aaoaaiiy
e?ath o neeaae? ei?ie?anueei? ?oioi??. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a, iioae?eiaaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e aeyaeai? iniiai?
oaeoi?e, ui aeaoa?i?iothoue ?icaeoie ii/aoeiai? ina?oe ? eiaeiiai ??
eiiiiiaioa, ye? ?icaeyaeaeenue c iiceoe?? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, noai?aia
? ia?aa??aia a?iioaoe/ia noaia aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo ii/aoeiai? ina?oe o
aecia/aiee ia??iae, ?ice?eo? iniaeeaino? i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ? oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo ina?oe o ii/aoeiaeo
eeanao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii/aoeiaa ina?oa, nenoaia ii/aoeiai? ina?oe,
iaoe?iiaeueia oeiea, iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy, Aanna?aa?y, ?icaeoie.

Oaaeeyi A.A. ?acaeoea ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a Aanna?aaee (1918-1944
aa.) – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. –
Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo enneaaeiaaiey ?acaeoey ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey
a Aanna?aaee (oe?aeineee I?eaeoiaeneee e?ae) a ia?eiae i?aauaaiey
Aanna?aaee a ninoaaa ei?ieaaneie ?oiuiee.

Aiaeec aioo?aiiae aeeiaieee ?acaeoey ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a e?aa
?anniao?eaaeny n iiceoeee nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea, o.a. eae iaoiaee/aneay
nenoaia, ninoiyuay ec no?oeoo? ?acee/iuo o?iaiae. Yeaiaiou iaoiaee/aneie
nenoaiu eco/aeenue eae ioaeaeueii, oae e ai acaeiinayce. Oae nayce
iaaeaeo oeaeueth e niaea?aeaieai ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ninoaaeee
nenoaiiia?acothuee oaeoi?, eioi?ue iaoneiaee ii?aaeaeaiioth
oii?yaei/aiiinoue iaoiaee/aneie nenoaiu.

Ia iniiaa aiaeeca a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia, iioaeeeiaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e
eeoa?aoo?u auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u, aeaoa?ieie?othuea ?acaeoea
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a e?aa, a eiaiii: nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee,
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee, eoeueoo?ii-yoie/aneee, aeaiia?aoe/aneee e
ia?aciaaoaeueii-aaiaciue, aeeyiea eioi?uo io?aceeinue ia anao
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo eiiiiiaioao: oeaee, niaea?aeaiee, iaoiaeao, oi?iao
iao/aiey e ainieoaiey.

Aioo?aiiyy aeeiaieea enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea i?aaenoaaeaia a aeaea oanoe
enoi?e/aneeo yoaiia, eioi?ua auee ii?aaeaeaiu ii
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei oaeoi?ai, a eiaiii:

1. (1918-1919 aa.) – ia?eiae iieeoe/aneie aaeaioaoeee e ?oiuiee
i?eniaaeeiaiiie oa??eoi?ee (Aanna?aaee); 2. (1920-1925 aa.) – ia?eiae
anneieeyoeee oa??eoi?ee Aanna?aaee a ainoaea?noaaiiia ia?aciaaiea
?oiuiee; 3. (1926-1938 aa.) – ia?eiae ea/anoaaiiie ?oiuiecaoeee e?ay; 4.
(1939-1940 aa.) – ia?eiae iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oeie; 5.(1940-1941 aa.) –
Aanna?aaey a ninoaaa Oe?aeineie NN?; 6. (etheue 1940-aaaono 1944 aa.) –
ia?eiae ?oiuinei-oaoenoneie ieeoiaoeee I?eaeoiaeneiai e?ay.

No?oeoo?a nenoaiu ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, oeiu o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee e i?eioeeiu eo i?aaiecaoeee e aeayoaeueiinoe auee
ii?aaeaeaiu caeiiaie ei?ieaaneie ?oiuiee 1896 a. n eciaiaieyie e
aeiiieiaieyie, a oaeaea caeiiaie ia ia?aciaaiee, i?eiyouie a 1918, 1924,
1927 e 1939 aiaeao.

Nenoaia ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey a ?oiuineee ia?eiae i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie
oeiaie o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee: /aou?aoeaoiyy ia/aeueiay oeiea (oeiea
i?eia?y), ia/aeueiay oeiea aeaoo oeeeeia (7 eao iao/aiey), eioi?ay
ninoiyea ec yeaiaioa?iiai oeeeea – 4 aiaea iao/aiey e noa?oaai – 3
aiaea, eo?nia aeey ac?ineuo, e?oaeeia “iineaeaeee”, aeioeieueiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee (a?aaeeiooea), /anoiuo oeie e “ia?iaeiuo” oeie a ia?eiae
aieiu. A oeieao aeoeaii ?aaioaea e i?iiaaaiaee?iaaeanue i?aaiecaoeey
“No?aaea oea?ee” (“Caueoa ioa/anoaa”), aaea auee nicaeaiu ana oneiaey
aeey inouanoaeaiey ?aeeaeiciiai, ii?aeueiiai e a?aaeaeaineiai ainieoaiey
aeaoae.

A 1938 a. aue ooaa?aeaeai iiaue o/aaiue ieai aeey ia/aeueiuo oeie,
eioi?ue i?aaeiieaaae eiiieaen i?aeoe/aneeo caiyoee, aeeth/ay ?aaioo a
ianoa?neeo. O/aaiue ieai ninoiye ec oaeeo ?acaeaeia: ainieoaiea
caei?iauey (oece/aneia ainieoaiea), oinoaaiiia iao/aiea,
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia ainieoaiea, i?aeoe/aneia iao/aiea e o/anoea a ?aaioa
i?aaiecaoeee “No?aaea oea?ee”.

Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia ana oneeey i?aaeoaeuenoaa, oniaaaaiinoue e
iinauaaiinoue a oeieao inoaaaeanue i/aiue ieceie. A 30-o aa. OO aaea
iauay oniaaaaiinoue a oeieao I?eaeoiaeneiai e?ay ninoaaeyea: a oeieao
yeaiaioa?iiai oeeeea – 49%, aoi?iai oeeeea– 6%.

Enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae ioee/aeny iaeniieuecoaiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e
iioa?yie a ?acaeoee ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey, i?e/eiaie eioi?uo auee:
yeiiiie/aneay ionoaeinoue a e?aa, aac?acee/ea ieeoiaoeeiiiiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa e noaeueaa aeeoaeae Aanna?aaee, iieeoeea ?oiuiecaoeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ieceia yoiinioeeieoeueoo?iia niciaiea yoiinia e?ay, eo
iaaeinoaoi/iia iiieiaiea cia/aiey ia?aciaaiey aeey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
?acaeoey.

Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeoaa?aeeei i?aaeeueiinoue aeiioacu i oii, /oi
?acoeueoaoeaiinoue ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey iaoiaeeony a i?yiie
caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai,
eoeueoo?ii-yoie/aneiai e ia?aciaaoaeueii-aaiaciiai oaeoi?ia. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho ?acoeueoaou aiaeeca aioo?aiiae aeeiaieee ?acaeoey
ia/aeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ia eaaeaeii yoaia ?anniao?eaaaiiai ia?eiaea.

Oa?aeoa?iui i?eciaeii iauanoaaiiie aeecie ia?iaeia I?eaeoiaeneiai e?ay a
enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae aue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oicyenoaaiiui e eoeueoo?iui
?acaeoeai. Ia?aciaaiea, ycue, eoeueoo?a iniiaiuo yoie/iuo a?oii
inoaeenue ia o?iaia ?acaeoey ia?eiaea eo ia?anaeaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeoaa?aeeei, /oi nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee oaeoi? aeeyao
ia aeaenoaea anao inoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia, oioy eoeueoo?ii-yoie/aneee e,
iniaaiii, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee oaeoi?u ieacuaatho aeeyiea ia
iieeoeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaa. Cia/eiinoue oaeoi?ia, aeaoa?ieie?othueo
ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea a I?eaeoiaeneii e?aa, ?ani?aaeaeeeanue oaeei
ia?acii: nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneee, eoeueoo?ii-yoie/aneee,
ia?aciaaoaeueii-aaiaciue, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee e aeaiia?aoe/aneee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea, nenoaia ia/aeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey, iaoeeiiaeueiay oeiea, iaoeeiiaeueiia ainieoaiea,
Aanna?aaey, ?acaeoea.

Tadian V.V. The Development of Primary Education in Bessarabia
(1918-1944)

Manuscript

Thesis in Pedagogical science, speciality code 13.00.01 – “The
History&Theory of Pedagogiks”. The M.P. Dragomanov National University,
Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis deals with the investigation of making and development of
primary education in Bessarabia (Ukrainian Danube Region) in the period
of its being under the authority of Royal Romania.

Analyzing archive materials, printed sources and literature, there have
been determined the main factors, which are connected with the
development of primary education and its every component on the basis of
the system approach. A hypothetical scheme of the dynamic development of
primary education at a definite period has been warked out and checked
up. There have been revealed the peculiarities of teaching and
educational process and the formation of education in primary schools.

Key words: primary education, a system of primary education, national
school, national system of bringing up, Bessarabia, developments.

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