Розробка методу та засобів для дослідження геомеханічних процесів у гірничовидобувних регіонах: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / В.Д. Сидоренко, Нац.

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I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

NEAeI?AIEI A?EOI? AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 622.1+622.83

?IC?IAEA IAOIAeO OA CANIA?A AeEss AeINE?AeAEAIIss AAIIAOAI?*IEO
I?IOeAN?A O A??IE*IAEAeIAOAIEO ?AA?IIAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.01 – “Ia?eoaeaea??y”

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o E?eai??cueeiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio : aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, eao?aao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie OAAeI?AIEI Iaaei Eineiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e ia?eoaeaea?nueei? ni?aae E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? *AOAA?EE Ieoaeei
Na?a?eiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aaiiaoai?/ieo iniia oaoiieia??
a?aee?eoi? ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei ?inoeoooo aaioaoi?/ii?
iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee OeA?EEIANUeEEE
Aieiaeeie? Aaeaioeiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o
? aaiiaoai?ee Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai a??ie/i?oaeiiai
?inoeoooo I?ii?iiiie?oeee Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio AAA?EEAIEI TH??e Ieeieaeiae/, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e aai?ioi?iaoeee oa aaiaeac?? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aeiiaanueeee a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiee ?inoeooo,
eaoaae?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei? ni?aae ? aaiaeac?? (i. Ae/aanuee) I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.080.04 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Ea?ea Ia?ena,
19).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, i?. Ea?ea Ia?ena,
19).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 25 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,aeieo. oaoi. iaoe, n.i.n.
A.I. ?I?IEI

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i? ?niothoue aeae?eueea aaeeeeo
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a c iaeaea noiaeeie i?iaeaiaie
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy. Iaeiei c iaea?eueoeo ?
E?eai??cueeee cae?ci?oaeiee aanaei, a yeiio i?ioyaii a?eueoa 100 ?ie?a
i?iaiaeyoueny ?ic?iaee ye i?aecaiiei, oae ? a?aee?eoei niiniaaie.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai aeieeee cia/i? ca ianyaii i?aecaii? ii?iaeieie. Nioi?
eaaae?aoieo e?eiiao??a caiii? iiaa?oi? aeyaeeeny a ciiao ianiaiai
iaaaethaaiiy, oainoinoiaeu oa a?aeaae?a. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iino?eii?
ci?ie iai?oaeaii aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a??nueeeo ianea?a, ui aeeeeea?
ci?ie a i?e?iaeiiio i?ioean? no/anieo cnoa?a caiii? iiaa?oi?. Inoaii?i
/anii caaaeai? yaeua ?noioii aeoea?coaaeeny ca ?aooiie aeciaaiieo
i?ioean?a. Aiane?aeie oeueiai niinoa??aathoueny iino?ei? cnoae caiii?
iiaa?oi?, ai?o?a ea????a ? o.i. ?acii c oeei noaioe?? niinoa?aaeaiue
(ioieoe iii?ii? ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ii? ia?aae?), ye? neoaeaoue
iniiaith aeey niinoa?aaeaiue ca ?icaeoeii aeacaieo yaeu, iio?aieee a
ciio aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o ?, i?e?iaeiuei, ci?ieee nai? iieiaeaiiy, a
aeaye? acaaae? cieuai?.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui a iaeaeeae/iio iaeaooiueiio cae?enithaaoeiaoueny
?ioaineaiee ia?ao?ae aei a?aee?eoi-i?aecaiii? ?ic?iaee, i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai ia?eoeny aac ei??iiiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ii? neoaeae o aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo
?aa?iiao. sse i?eiee, c?inoa? ?ieue ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ii?
neoaeae a cayceo c iaiao?aei?noth i?iaaaeaiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o iaae ? i?ae
i/enieie i?inoi?aie. Oea aeoaea aaaeeeai i?e i?iaaaeaii? ae?iaie
cono??/ieie aeaiyie ? ??ciiai aeaeo ca?eie o i?inoi??.

?acii c oeei ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aeei?enoiaoaai? iei? ??ci? iaoiaee
aecia/aiiy ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae yaii canoa??ee ? ia caaacia/othoue
iaiao?aeii? oi/iino? oa iia?aoeaiino? o aei??thaaiiyo o iiaeo oiiaao, ui
neeaeeny i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaeiaeu ia aaeeeeo aeeaeiao.

*a?ac oea aeieea? iaaaeueia iaiao?aei?noue o ae??oaii? iaeaaaeeea?oi?
aeey oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?iaeaie, yea iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo iaoiae?a ? cania?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o ? eiio?ieth ca noaiii caiii? iiaa?oi? oa ooo/ieo nii?oae
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy aaciaee a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai ?aa?iio.

Naia ae??oaiith oe??? aaaeeeai?, a e?ioeaaiio ?aooieo, aeey ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie i?iaeaie ? i?enay/aia oey aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa,
iaoith yei? ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo ? cania?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, a oiio /ene? ? i?ae aieeaii a??ie/eo ?ia?o, ia
i?eeeaae? iaea?eueoiai E?eai??cueeiai cae?ci?oaeiiai aanaeio, ye?
aeicaieythoue noai?eoe iaae?eia ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aa?iio.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa coiiaeea iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy iiooe?a iiaeo
aeinyaiaiue o aaeoc? o?ceee, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aeieeea ?aeay:
aeei?enoaoe iniiae aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai aei??thaaiue aeey noai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo i?eno?i?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeany o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?noeoaoo ? ? neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith ainiaeiaia??ieo oa aea?aeathaeaeaoieo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o: “Aecia/aiiy aieeao ianiaeo aeaoo?a i?e i?iaaaeaii? a??ie/eo ?ia?o
ia noai ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae ea???o ?iACEo” (oaia ? 36-158-95);
“?ic?iaea iaoiaeo ? oaoi?/ieo cania?a aecia/aiiy ci?uaiiy ii??ae i?ae
aieeaii a??ie/eo ?ia?o” (oaia ? 36-267-98-99).

Iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? caoeuathoueny o ?iaio?:

1. I?e ia?ai?uaii? oi?oe?a aei?ii?ithth/iai ? i?eeiath/iai iioe/iiai
aieieia acaeiaae in? aei aaee/eie aeanyoe ?aae?on?a na?oeiaiaea
?ioaineai?noue na?oea ci?ith?oueny e?i?eii, a i?e ?o ci?uaii? a
i?oiaiiaeuei?e ieiuei? – ia?aaie?/ii. Ci?ia ?ioaineaiino? na?oea ca
e?i?eiei caeiiii aeicaiey? aei??thaaoe aenioi?, a ca ia?aaie?/iei –
ieaiia? eii?aeeiaoe.

2. Eii?aeeiaoe oi/ee a?aee?eo i?e aaceiioaeoiiio aei??thaaii? ci?uaiue
ia’?eoa o i?inoi?? c oi/i?noth 1 iei, aecia/athoueny iaeneioiii
na?oeii?iioneaiiy ii na?oeiaiaeao, yeee aeinyaa?oueny i?e caci?? 4/3
?aae?ona aieieia i?ae oi?oeyie eiaen?aeueii ?icoaoiaaieo
aei?ii?ithth/iai ? i?eeiath/iai iioe/ieo aieieii.

3. Caaaeaiiy oi?oe?a aei?ii?ithth/iai ? i?eeiath/iai na?oeiaiae?a,
iai?aaeaieo ia aei??thaaeueiee ia’?eo, aeicaiey? e?ea?aeoaaoe
aeaicia/i?noue ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino? ?ioaineaiino? na?oea a?ae
a?aenoai? aei ia’?eoa.

4. Canoinoaaiiy aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai a ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo i?eeaaeao
(aeao/eee ci?uaiue ? caaaeaiiy aa?oeeae?, iioeeii??e, ??aiai??e,
oeaio?e?e), ye? aeei?enoiaothoue iiaeoeyoe?th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea, ui
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac na?oeiaiaee, i?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue aei??thaaiue o
ii??aiyii? c iioe/ieie i?eeaaeaie a 10 ?ac?a ? cieaeo? aieea
oaiia?aoo?e, oeneo, aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oa ?aae?aoe?eieo iie?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. Anoaiiaeai? caeaaeiino? ?ioaineaiino? na?oea a?ae ia?ai?uaiiy oi?oe?a
aei?ii?ithth/iai ? i?eeiath/iai iioe/ieo aieieii acaeiaae in? ?
i?oiaiiaeueii aei ia?, ui aeicaiey? aei??thaaoe ci?uaiiy o i?inoi??.

2. Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeneioi na?oeii?iioneaiiy ii na?oeiaiaeai
aeinyaa?oueny i?e caci?? 4/3 ?aae?ona iioe/iiai aieieia i?ae oi?oeyie
aei?ii?ithth/iai ? i?eeiath/iai na?oeiaiaea, ui aeicaiey? oeae iieaciee
i?eeiyoe ca oi/eo a?aee?eo.

3. Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? ? aeine?aeaeai? aieieiiii-iioe/i?
nenoaie aeey noai?aiiy aeao/ee?a ia?eoaeaea?nueeiai i?ecia/aiiy
i?io?aeiiai ? a?aeaeaiiai oeio c iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea aeey
aei??thaaiiy ci?uaiue ia’?eoa o i?inoi??.

4. Aeey aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo nenoai i?io?aeiiai ?
a?aeaeaiiai oeio anoaiiaeaiee oa?aeoa? ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? na?oea,
a?aeaeoiai a?ae ia’?eoa, ui aei??th?oueny, a?ae aaee/eie eiai ci?uaiiy.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo iaoeiaeo iniia iaoiae?a
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aei??thaaiue aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia
aac? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo iaoiae?a ? cania?a aei??thaaiue.

Iaoiaee oa ia?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue. Iinoaaeaia a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
iaoa aecia/eea canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeniiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, yeee
iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio ocaaaeueiaii? ?acoeueoao?a oa aiae?oe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aieieiiii-iioe/ieo iai?aaeaieo ?icaaeoaeoaa/?a ?c
?icae?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi iioe/ieo eaiae?a, eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaieo i?eno?i?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy, iaoa??aeaie ai?iaaaeaeoaaiiy a a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiio ?aa?ii?.

Ia?eo aeine?aeaeaiue – iaoiae ? caniae aaiiaoai?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia
i?eeeaae? E?eai??cueeiai a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai ?aa?iio.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aeena?-oaoe?? aaco?oueny ia ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiiyo a aaeoc?
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai. Aiia i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi
aei?iaoaaieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeai-iy, ?acoeueoaoaie oai?aoe/ieo
?ic?iaie, eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue, iaoa??aeaie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiio ?aa?ii?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe caiaeeoueny aei ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee ? iiaeo
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo i?eno?i?a aeey eiio?ieth ca noaiii caiii?
iiaa?oi? ? ioieo?a iii?ieo ia?aae o a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?iiao c
?ioaineaiith ?ic?iaeith ?iaeiaeu, a naia: i?eno?i? aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy
ci?uaiue a??nueeeo ii??ae; i?eno?i? aeey aecia/aiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai
iai?yieo; aieieiiii-iioe/i? iioeeii??e; aieieiiii-iioe/i? ??aiii??e aeey
a?ae?inoaoe/ieo i?aae???a; aieieiiii-iioe/iiai oeaio?e?a, ye? iineoaeeee
iniiaith aeey noai?aiiy niinoa?aaeieo noaioe?e aeey ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
oeaio?o ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai
?aa?iio.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iniia? aaaaoi??/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue noi?ioeueiaaia i?iaeaia, aecia/aia iaoa, ?aeay ?iaioe ?
iaoeiaee iai?yiie, yeee iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? iniia aieieiiii-iioe/ieo
aei??thaaiue aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo ?a?no?oth/eo i?eno?i?a
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

E??i oiai, aaoi?ii aeeiiai? aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeeeaino? oa aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo nenoai aeey noai?aiiy iacaaieo
i?eno?i?a.

Aaoi? a?aa iniaenoo o/anoue o aeaioiaeaii? aeine?aeieo c?ace?a,
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ?o aeine?aeaeaiiy a eaai?aoi?ieo ? i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao. Ia iniia? aeuacaaaeaiiai aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa iia?
ia?eoaeaea?nuee? i?eno?i? ia aac? aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai.

Iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?ia noaia i?aai?caoe?? oa
ieaioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oeaio?o c ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
caaacia/aiiy aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ii i??? ?o aeeiiaiiy,
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo E?eai??cueeiai
a??ie/i?oaeiiai ?inoeoooo (iei? E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
1990-1999 ??.); iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? aoc?a Oe?a?ie
“Ia?eoaeaea?nueea caaacia/aiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996
?.); ia?oiio I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iia?aoeaiee eiio?ieue ?
ea?oaaiiy ye?noth i?ia?aeueii? ne?iaeie i?e aeaeiaoaaii? ? ia?a?iaoe?”
(E?eaee ??a, 1996 ?.); Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“No/ani? oeyoe ?icaeoeo ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ?ia?o ia aac?
ia?aaeiaiai a?o/eciyiiai oa ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee,
1997 ?.); I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “A??ie/? iaoee ia ?oaaae? OO?
noie?ooy” (sseoa, 1997 ?.); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aaiaeace/iee iii?oi?eia, aaiaeeiai?ea ? ?ao?aeoiiao??y ia
?oaaae? OO? noie?ooy” (Euea?a, 1998 ?.); ?icoe?aiiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?
ia?eoaeaea?nueei? ni?aae, i?eeeaaeii? oa aeui? aaiaeac?? E?eai??cueeiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iai
i?aei?e?inoaa c ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo, aeieia?/ieo, aaiiaoai?/ieo ?
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (E?eaee ??a, 1999 ?.).

?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? eiino?oeoe?? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?eno?i?a
aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?uaiiyi caiii? iiaa?oi?, caaeaiiy
aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo, aieieiiii-iioe/i? iioeeii??e, ??aiii??e ?
oeaio?e?e aeei?enoai? i?e nii?oaeaeaii? niinoa?aaeieo noaioe?e ia ea????
? 1 AAO “Oeaio?aeueiee a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiee eiia?iao” ? ea???? ? 2-a?n
Iiaie?eai??cueeiai eiiieaeno E?eai??cueeiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai
eiia?iaoo, a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? ??ciiiai?oieo ?ia?o
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? o
35 i?aoeyo, o oiio /ene?: noaoo? o i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo – 17;
noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo – 1; iaoaioe Oe?a?ie ia aeiaoiaee – 2;
aeaiiiiaaieo noaoo? – 3; oace eiioa?aioe?e – 12, c yeeo noaoo? o
i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo aac ni?aaaoi??a – 9.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iyoe
?icae?e?a ? aeniiaeo, aeeeaaeaieo ia 223 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo,
aeeth/a? 64 ?enoiee, 13 oaaeeoeue, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui
ia?aoiao? 134 iaeiaioaaiiy oa 2 aeiaeaoee (A ? A).

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo i?ioani?ai, aeieoi?ai oaoi?/ieo iaoe
Aeciao Aieiaeeie?o Oaaei?iae/o ? Oaaei?aieo Iaaeo Eineiiae/o ca iaoeia?
eiinoeueoaoe?? oa iino?eio oaaao aei ?iaioe; eieaeoeaai eaoaae?
ia?eoaeaea?nueei? ni?aae ? i?eeeaaeii? oa aeui? aaiaeac?? E?eai??cueeiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aeiiiiiao ? ii?aaee, ye? ni?eyee iie?auaiith
?iaioe; ni?a?ia?oieeai Aea?aeaaiiai iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iai i?aei?e?inoaa c
ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo, aeieia?/ieo, aaiiaoai?/ieo ? a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/iei i?aoe?aieeai a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo
i?aei?e?inoa E?eaaano ca aeiiiiiao a i?iaaaeaii? i?iieneiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ca no?oeoo?iith noaiith aeine?aeaeaiue
(?en. 1), ui a?aeia?aaea? aanue eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue a?ae iinoaiiaee
i?iaeaie aei iaea?aeaiiy iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a, ci?no yeeo
aeeeaaeaii ieae/a.

wmetafile8? ??x

?? ?A????????&?

?yyyy????Word?Microsoft Word??? ???????
3a???u?????????????I???Courier New?I????-?????????uy??????

?en. 1. No?oeoo?ia noaia aeine?aeaeaiue

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaiee no/aniee noai E?eai??cueeiai
cae?ci?oaeiiai aanaeio, yeee ? ? aoaea a iaeaooiueiio iniiaiith aacith
cae?ci?oaeii? ne?iaeie Oe?a?ie. A?i ?ici?uaiee ia Oe?a?inueeiio
e?enoae?/iiio ueo?, acaeiaae E?eai??cueei-E?aiai/ooeueeiai aeeaeiiiai
?iceiio i?ioyaei?noth aeecueei 100 ei ? yaey? niaith aocueeo nioao
aeieaia??enueeeo iaoaii?o?ciaaieo ii??ae. Ii?iaee ooai?ththoue
neeaaeii-neeaae/anoo no?oeoo?io nenoaio – E?eai??cueeee neiee?ia??e, ui
caio?th?oueny a i?ai?/iiio iai?yieo i?ae eooii 10-25.

Iniiaia /anoeia caian?a E?eai??cueeiai ?iaeiaeua a?aeiineoueny aei
Naenaaainueeiai i?inoyaaiiy no?aeiiai e?eea iniiaiiai neiee?ia??y. A
a?ae?iaeeiai?/iiio a?aeiioaii? an? oeie ?oae, aiane?aeie aaeeei?
ii?enoino?, aaaaoiaiaei? ? iathoue aenieo aiaeia?aeaea/o.

Ca aaaaoi??/iee ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue o E?eai??cueeiio aanaei?
oaeoii?/iei ?ooai, a oei a?eueoa iaioaeoii?/iei ?ooai caiii? ei?e,
i?eae?eyeiny iaei oaaae. I?e oeueiio i?eeiaeany oa /e ?ioa eiioeaioe?y
oaeoii?/ii? aoaeiae aeey ae??oaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aecia/aieo oe?eae. sseui
aeoiaeeoe c nooi i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ aeiaaie?oi?o niinoa?aaeaiue ia
o?eaiiiiao?e/ieo (aaiaeeiai?/ieo) iie?aiiao, a oaeiae o a??ie/eo
ae?iaeao ? ia iiaa?oi? i?e i?iaaaeaii? a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?ia?o i?e
a?aee?eo?e oa i?aecaii?e ?ic?iaoe? ei?enieo eiiaeei, oi aeieea?
aiaaiai?noue o iaiao?aeiino? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy ye aa?oeeaeueieo, oae
? ai?eciioaeueieo ?oo?a caiii? ei?e a ?aa?ii? c iiceoe?? i??e ? /enea. A
oea aaea caaaeaiiy iaaecae/aeii neeaaeia. I?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaeiaeu
iino?eii a?aeaoaathoueny ci?ie iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a??nueeeo
ianea?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia ?iciiae?e (ia?a?iciiae?e) oeneo a a??nueeeo
ii?iaeao, ui iaieio/a aeeeeea? ci?io i?e?iaeiiai oiaeo no/anieo ?oo?a
caiii? iiaa?oi?. A oeueiio iai?yieo aeoaea oe?eaa? ?acoeueoaoe
iaea?aeai? TH.I, Aaa?eeaiei, I.?. Aeaieniaei, I.?. Eoe?eianueeith, I.?.
Eo?i/e?iei, TH.I. I?eieaoeiei, A.E. Iaie?ooeiei, A.I. Naciiiaei, ?.ss.
Naia?nueeei, Ae.?. Nin?eii, A.A. Oea?eeianueeei, I.N. *aoaa?eeii.

A?aeiii, ui i?iieneiaee cae?ci?oaeiee aanaei ciaoiaeeoueny ia iaaeao ?O
ano?iiiii-aaiaeace/iiai iie?aiio, ui iaiaaeaiee ?yaeaie o??aiaoeyoe??
1-ai eeano, ye? aoee ooai?ai? a 1924-1927 ??. Ia iniia? ioieo?a 1-ai
eeano, ii/eiath/e c 1928 ?ieo, ia ie?aieo ae?eueieoeyo aoea ?icaeiaia
ia?aaea 2-ai eeano. A 1949-1950 ??. aoea iiaoaeiaaia ia?aaea
o??aiaoeyoe?? 1-ai ? 2-ai eean?a, yea nie?aeany ia ?yaee 1-ai eeano.
Iaeiae ?yaee 1-ai eeano ia niinoa??aaeeny ? ?o eii?aeeiaoe i?eeiaeeny
iaci?iieie. Ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy aeaio nenoai o??aiaoeyoe??, aecia/aiiy
ci?ie iieiaeaiiy ioieo?a aeeiioaaeiny ii oae caaiiio iaoiaeo
o?ainoi?ioaaiiy ia?aae, yeee aeei?enoiao?oueny aeey ieineeo i?yiieooieo
eii?aeeiao. Oaeei /eiii aoee iaea?aeai? aaeoi?e ai?eciioaeueieo ?oo?a.
I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui ioieoe o??aiaoeyoe?? a iaaeao E?eaaano
ci?ieee nai? eii?aeeiaoe iano?eueee, ui iaaeoi ?noioii ia?aaeuothoueny
iiaeeea? iiieeee ?o aecia/aiiy. I?e oeueiio aaa/a?oueny aeayea
caeiiii??i?noue o iiae?e? naieo aaeoi??a ?ooo ia ie?ai? a?oie, a yeeo
aeae?eythoueny iia?euei? aeiee ? aeieia? ?ooe. A cayceo c oeei aeoaea
aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeyaeaiiy no/anieo ?oo?a caiii?
ei?e, iniaeeai a cayceo c ia?niaeoeaiei ?icaeoeii a??ie/iaeaeiaoaii?
i?iieneiaino?, yea iiaycaii c inai?iiyi aeeaieeo ai?eciio?a ?
aeei?enoaiiyi noi?nii? a?aee?eoi-i?aecaiii? ?ic?iaee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui iacaaaeath/e ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i
caeyaaiiy ?oaeieo o?e ? nenoai ?ic?iaie, an? iieeaaee iiaeia
eeaneo?eoaaoe ia iieeaaee c? no?eeei a?aeneiiaiiyi, cae?eoith oi?iith
cnoaaiiy, ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae o iaaeao a?aie/iiai eiioo?o ?
eiinieueio oi?io cnoaaiiy. ?acii c oei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
aeeaeie ?ic?iaee a?aeaoaa?oueny ieaiii??ia caoooaiiy i?ioeano cnoao.
Iaeiae, aeeiai?/ia ae?y ianiaeo aeaoo?a, ui i?iaiaeyoueny aacia?a?aii a
ea???ao ? oaooao, i?iaeiaaeo? /eieoe ?noioiee aieea ia noai ioieo?a
ieaiiai-aenioiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy oeueiai aieeao iaie i?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? aaiaeace/i?
niinoa?aaeaiiy ia /ioe?ueio eiio?ieueieo eouao ?aia??a. I?e oeueiio
anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?uaiiy ?aia??a, caeeaaeaieo a inaaeeiao oiauo,
a?aeiinii aeeaeiieo, oa o ei??ii? ii?iaee, iaaaaaoi ia?aaeuothoue
aeiionoei? cia/aiiy ?o iano?eeino?, ui aei??aiththoue 0,10 ii. C iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ci?uaiiy ?aia??a a?ae oaeoi??a naeni?/iiai
aieeao ianiaeo aeaoo?a aoei aeeiiaii 29 oeeee?a aei??thaaiue, ye?
i?iaiaeeeenue aei ? i?ney ianiaeo aeaoo?a ia ea???ao ?1 ? ?2 OeACEo. I?e
oeueiio ae?aoiaoaaee oae?, ia iao iiaeyae, iniiai? oaeoi?e: noia?io iano
ca?yaeo aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei; a?aenoaiue a?ae aeieo, ui i?ae?eaa?oueny, aei
niinoa?aaeii? oi/ee; oiaueio oa?o inaaeeiaeo ii??ae; ?ioa?aae /ano i?ae
ii/aoeii ? cae?i/aiiyi aeaooo. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy ooieoe??, yea iaea?eueo
eiia??ii a?aeia?aaea? oa?aeoa? ci?ie ci?uaiue a?ae ia?a?aoiaaieo
oaeoi??a, aeeiioaaeeny ?ic?aooiee ia AII ca aeae?eueeiia oeiiaeie
e?eaeie. Aiae?c aeaieo aeicaieea c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo
i?eeiyoiith e?eaith, yea oa?aeoa?eco? ci?uaiiy ?aia??a a?ae oaeoi??a
naeni?/iiai aieeao, ? i?yia, oiaoi caeaaei?noue aeyaey?oueny e?i?eiith.

Iaea?aeai? aii??e/i? caeaaeiino? ci?uaiiy i?ooeiaeo (Si?) ? a?oioiaeo
(Sa?) ?aia??a ai?ieneiothoueny ??aiyiiyie:

Si? = 0,280 + 0,05 wmetafile8? ??a????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyyA??a?? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????xH????`p? ???u??
???????»????-????hp????i?????-?????i°????c?????c
?????c?????uAth??????Sa? = 0,047 + 0,061 wmetafile8?
??a???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @????&??yyyy?????AyyyYyyyA??a?? ???&?
?MathType??P? ???u?????????»????-?????xH????`p? ???u??
???????»????-????hp????i?????-?????i°????c?????c
?????c?¬???uAth??????aea Q — noia?ia iana aeaooiaeo ?a/iaei o
aeieao, ye? i?ae?eaathoueny, ea; R — a?aenoaiue a?ae iaeaeeae/iai aeieo,
ui i?ae?eaa?oueny, aei ?aia?a, i; h — iiooaei?noue noeneoaaii?
inaaei/ii? ii?iaee a?ae ei??iieo ii??ae aei yei?y ?aia?a, i; O —
?ioa?aae /ano, n.

Aiae?c iaea?aeaieo caeaaeiinoae aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey ioe?iee
aieeao ianiaeo aeaoo?a o ea???ao ia no?ee?noue caiii? iiaa?oi? i?ooeia?
?aia?e.

Ia noai ioieo?a ieaiiai-aenioiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aaeeeee aieea iathoue
cnoai? aeaoi?iaoe?? ai?o?a ea????a oa oein?a ?ice?eaieo a?aeaae?a.
Cnoai? yaeua iathoue i?noea i?aeoe/ii ia an?o aaeeeeo ea???ao ?
caeiathoue cia/i? ianyae a??nueeeo ii??ae, iioe?thth/enue ia nioi?
iao??a. A ?acoeueoao? oeueiai aaaaoi ioieo?a ieaiiai-aenioiiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia o?eueee cia/ii ci?uothoueny, aea e acaaae?
ao?a/athoueny. A ?iaio? iaaaaeaii aeinoaoith e?euee?noue i?eeeaae?a.

Ia noai ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo iii?ieo ia?aae oaeiae iathoue
aieea oaoiiaaii?, aeciaaii? oa aiaeiaaii? i?ioeane. Iii?i? ia?aae?
ao?a/athoue naith oi/i?noue /a?ac ii?ooaiiy a?ae?iaaieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a
oa ?ioeo iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi??a. Ca?aene aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
i?iaiae?coaaoe yeino? ?ai?oa noai?aieo ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo ia?aae, uia ia
aiineoe a?oaeo iiieeie a ??oaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo oa
a??ie/eo caaea/. ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue ca aeaoi?iaoe?yie
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ioieo?a, iai?eeeaae, o aa?oeeaeuei?e
ieiuei? ia ea???? I?aaeACEo iieacaee, ui na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue in?aeaiiy
ioieo?a neeaaea? 9 ii ca ??e. Aca?iia ci?uaiiy ?aia??a ia oeueiio ea????
iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoe? 1.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aca?iia ci?uaiiy noi?aeieo ?aia??a

Iiia?aIa?aaeuaiiy, (i)ia? ioieo?aca 1987 ?.ca 1996 ?.8701-8702

8702-8703

8702-8706

8701-8706

8703-8706- 11,101

— 0,239

— 4,802

— 15,903

— 4,563- 10,989

— 0,103

— 5,118

— 15,107

— 4,285

sse aeaeii c aeeeaaeaiiai, iei? a?aeaoaathoueny neeaaei? aaiiaoai?/i?
i?ioeane. Niinoa??aa?oueny iino?eiee ?oo caiii? iiaa?oi?, aeeeeeaiee, a
iniiaiiio, i?iaaaeaiiyi a??ie/eo ?ia?o. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aeaoi?iaoe?? ioieo?a ieaiiai-aenioiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy a ?aa?ii? ?
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ye?noue ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
caaacia/aiiy.

I?e oeueiio ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aecia/eoe aaee/eio ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo
ii??ae (iii?ieo ioieo?a) o iaea?eueoiio a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiio ?aa?ii? ca
aeiiiiiaith o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue iaaeoi neeaaeii.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii aiae?c no/anieo i?eno?i?a aeey
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?uaiiyi a??nueeeo ii??ae ? aecia/ai? oeyoe noai?aiiy
i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?eeaae?a aeey oe??? iaoe.

?nio? aaaaoi ??cieo i?eeaae?a, ui aeicaieythoue c ??ciith oi/i?noth
aecia/eoe aaee/eio ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae acaaae?, a oaeiae ci?uaiiy
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ciae?a o i?inoi??. Uia aeyaeoe
neeaaei?noue oeeo i?eno?i?a oa ?o iiaeeeaino?, ?icaeyiaii, iai?eeeaae,
iaea?eueo aaeae? c ieo. A i?eeaae?, ?ic?iaeaiiio A.?. Iiaaeii ? A.A.
?na?aei, i?ioean aecia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e iieyaa? o aei??thaaii?
a?aenoai? i?ae ?ieeeii ? a?ae?aoiaoth/ei i?eno?i?i aeey aa?oeeaeueieo
ci?uaiue ? ci?ie a?aenoai? i?ae ?ieeeii ? oi/eith cae??ieaiiy no?oie aei
a?ae??ceo o?oae aeey ai?eciioaeueieo ci?uaiue. I?eeaae i?aoeth? o aeaio
?aaeeiao: aei??thaaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo ci?uaiue oa aei??thaaiiy
ai?eciioaeueieo ci?uaiue. Cnoa oa??a a i?eeaae? aecia/a?oueny a?aeiinii
iaeaeeaoiai iacnoaiiai oa?o.

Ae?oaee i?eeaae, ?ic?iaeaiee ?.N. Niaeyinueeei, A.A. Aeoaiaei, A.E.
I?nea?ueiaei, i?ecia/aiee aeey aei??thaaiiy ci?uaiiy aeeaeiieo ?aia??a.
?ioeie neiaaie, ca aeiiiiiaith aeeaeiieo ?aia??a aecia/athoueny
aeaoi?iaoe?? a??nueeeo ii??ae i?ae aieeaii ??cieo oaeoi??a, a oiio /ene?
a?ae aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o. I?eeaae ?ici?uo?oueny ye o aeno?aei?e, oae ?
a ai?eciioaeuei?e naa?aeeiaei?.

Aeoaea aaaeeeaith o an?o i?eno?iyo ? nooi?iue iaae?eiino? cae??ieaiiy
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ciae?a c a?oioii (a??nueeeie ii?iaeaie). C
oe??th iaoith aeyaeeany iio?aaa ?ic?iaeoe aeae?eueea eiino?oeoe?e ciae?a
? oaoiieia?e ?o anoaiiaeaiiy.

sse aeaeii c aeeeaaeaiiai, no/ani? i?eeaaee aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
cnoaii a??nueeeo ii??ae, ye a ?acoeueoao? oaeoii?/ieo ci?i, oae ? i?ae
aieeaii a??ie/eo ?ia?o, a?ae??ciythoueny a?ii?caee?noth ?, a?aeaa?oi
eaaeo/e, ia a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai iaae?eiino? ? oi/iino?. Iayai?noue
o?ueio no?oi i?e aecia/aii? ci?uaiiy o i?inoi?? noai?th? aeiaeaoeia?
o?oaeiiu? ? iac?o/iino? a i?ioean? aei??thaaiue. Oiio aeieeea iio?aaa o
?ic?iaoe? i?eioeeiiai iiaeo i?eeaae?a aeey aecia/aiiy ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo
ii??ae, caniiaaieo ia inoaii?o aeinyaiaiiyo a aaeoc? o?ceee.

Ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a noi?ioaaany iiaee iai?yiie a iaooe? ? oaoi?oe?,
yeee aeei?enoiao? iioe/ia aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa oi?eaeuei? aeanoeaino?
iioe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aeey ?a?no?aoe?? ??cieo o?ce/ieo aieea?a. Oea noaei
iiaeeeaei caaaeyee oni?oai iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa, aeinyaiooeo a
oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy aieieiiieo na?oeiaiae?a, ui, a naith /a?ao,
aieeioei ia ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie iioe/ii? aeaeo?ii?ee ?
aieieiiii-iioe/iiai cayceo.

Aoai ?ic?iaee iniiaieo aeaiaio?a ? i?eno?i?a o aieieiiii-iioe/i?e
oaoi?oe?, oiaoi iioe/iiai aieieia, na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/eo ?
na?oeini?eeiath/eo i?eeaae?a ? iioe/ieo noai, i?e?iaeiei /eiii aeeeany a
noai noai?aiiy aei??thaaeueieo ia?aoai?thaa/?a (aeao/ee?a). Iei? o?ce/i?
iniiae aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aeao/ee?a, a iniiaiiio, aaea caaa?oai? ? eaea
i?ioean ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aieieiiii-iioe/ii? oaoi?ee a iae??ciiiai?oi?o?
aaeoc?. Aeniea oi/i?noue aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aeao/ee?a aeicaiey?
?icaeyaeaoe iiaeeea?noue ?o canoinoaaiiy i?e niinoa?aaeaiiyo ca noaiii
oaoiieia?/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??, ioieo?a iii?ii?
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ii? ia?aae?, i?e?ici?uaiue ianea?a a??nueeeo
ii??ae a eiie?aoieo a??ie/iaaieia?/ieo ? a??ie/ioaoiieia?/ieo oiiaao.
Inoaii? ia?aaeaa/a? aei??thaaiiy, ia iniia? yeeo iiaeia ?iaeoe
ei?ioeino?ieia? i?iaiice ci?uaiue ai?o?a iiiaaeaeeaieeo ea????a, cnoaieo
yaeu ? o.?i. Iia?aoeai?noue, coiiaeaia i?inoioith aei??thaaiiy, ?
iiaeeea?noue aeenoaioe?eiiai ciyooy ?ioi?iaoe?? c aieieiiii-iioe/ieo
iii?ieo ciae?a oyaey?oueny ye i?ia?aneaiee iai?yiie, ui aeicaiey?, a
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao?, ?icai?iooe aaiiie?aiie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
ci?uaiue caiii? iiaa?oi? o aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie.
Iniaeeai oea aaaeeeai aeey E?eaaano, i?i ui aaea aiai?eeiny ?ai?oa.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo nenoai noiniaii aei caaea/
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aei??thaaiue.

A?aeiii, ui aeey na?oeiai? oaee?, yea iioe?th?oueny ii aieieiiiiio
na?oeiaiae?, aaeoi? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiaeia iienaoe ca
oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ??U?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uAth??????C oe??? oi?ioee aeaeii, ui aei??thaaeueiei
ia?eoii iiaea iiaeoethaaoeny ?ioaineai?noue na?oea wmetafile8?
??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy?????? ???&?
?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????‡?H????™H????‡?n???™n???u@
y??????Noiniaii caaea/ ia?eoaeaea??? oa aaiaeac?? iiaeeea? e?eueea
aa??aio?a iiaoaeiae aei??thaaeueieo noai. I?eioeeiiaa noaia
aieieiiii-iioe/ii? aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie a?aeia?aaeath/iai
?aoeaeoiiao?e/iiai oeio c iiaeoeyoe??th ii aiie?ooae? iieacaia ia ?en.
2. Aei?ii?ithaaiiy a?ae aeaea?aea na?oea (NA) iaaea? ia ao?aeiee
oi?aoeue iioe/iiai aieieia (IA 1) ? ia?aaea?oueny ia ia?eo aei??thaaiiy,
aea, a?aeaeaoenue a?ae eiio?ieueii? iiaa?oi?, iio?aiey? ia ao?aeiee
oi?aoeue iioe/iiai aieieia (IA 2), yeee, a naith /a?ao, ia?ai?uo?
na?oeiaee iio?e aei oioii?eeia/a (OI), eio?ee ae?iaey? a?aeiia?aeiee
aeaeo?e/iee neaiae, ui iaaeoiaeeoue o aeie i?aeneeaiiy ? ?a?no?aoe??
(AI?).

?en. 2. I?eioeeiiaa noaia aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie c aiie?ooaeiith
iiaeoeyoe??th

Aeiaaeeia iioe/ieo aieieii aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie aei??thaaiiy.
Ia?ai?uaiiy a?aeaeaii? iiaa?oi? oa na?oeiaiae?a iaeia a?aeiinii ae?oaiai
i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie oiia a?aeaeaaiiy, a, cia/eoue, aei a?aeiia?aeii?
ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? ?a?no?oth/iai iioieo. Ia aaee/eio neaiaeo aieeaa?
oaeiae oi?ia eiio?iethth/i? iiaa?oi?. Aeo?aeiee neaiae caeaaeeoue a?ae
a?aenoai? h i?ae oi?oeyie na?oeiaiae?a oa ieineith a?aeaeaiith
iiaa?oiath. I?e iaaaeeeeo cia/aiiyo oe??? aaee/eie na?oeiaa ieyia ia
iiaa?oi?, yea ? eiio?iethth/ith, aoaea yaeyoe niaith yne?aao oi/eo,
iaiaaeaio iaio yne?aaith ieyiith. C? ca?eueoaiiyi h ioneoue
niinoa??aaoeny ??cea c?inoaiiy i?eeiaeueiiai iioieo. I?e iiaeaeueoiio
ca?eueoaii? a?aenoai? eiieo?oth/ei i?ioeanii noa? aeo?ae iaea?eueo
?ioaineaieo aeaiaioa?ieo iioie?a ?c ciie aeaeeiino? ?o i?eeiaeueiei
na?oeiaiaeii ?, ye iane?aeie, aeinyaiaiiy iaeneioio ?ioaineaiino? c
iiaeaeueoei ?? ciaioaiiyi aei ioey. Oaeei /eiii, a?ao?e caeaaeiino?
na?oeiaiai iioieo, ui iio?aiey? a i?eeiaeueiee na?oeiaiae a?ae a?aenoai?
h aei iiaa?oi? ia? ae?eueieoeth iaea?eueoi? e?ooino?, ae?eueieoeth
iaeneioio ? iaaeath/o ae?eueieoeth (?en. 3). Ia ae?eyioe? 0-1, 0/-2
no?oi oioii?eeia/a e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae a?aenoai? h aei a?aeaeaath/i?
iiaa?oi? ? oeae oaeo iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey noai?aiiy
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aeao/ee?a, ui ?a?no?othoue ci?uaiiy,
cnoae, aeaoi?iaoe?? ? o.i.

Aeey iaoi? iaoe ?ic?iaeo aeao/ee?a iiaeia aanoe, aeei?enoiaoth/e eeoa
iaeeie/i? aieieia /a?ac niaoeeo?/i? oiiae ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo
caaea/: oeaio?oaaiiy, aecia/aiiy eii?aeeiao, aea aeiaaa?oueny
eieae?caoe?y aei??thaaiue, aeene?aoi?noue ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ia?aaea/a ?? ia
cia/i? a?aenoai? /a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue iayaiino?, a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao,
ia?niiaeo a i?noeyo onoaiiaeaiiy aeaoaeoi??a.

C ?en. 3 aeieeaa?, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi a?aenoai? i?ae a?nyie
na?oeiaiae?a, iiooaei?noue na?oeiaiai neaiaeo, ui ?a?no?o?oueny,
/ooeea?noue aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie aei ia?a-i?uaiue cieaeo?oueny, ui ?
iaaaaeaiei i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aeao/ee?a
ci?uaiiy, aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?i. *a?ac oea iioeiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie
iiaeiia aieiae?oe aei??thaaeueia nenoaia i?e I = 0, oiaoi noi?uaieie
a?nyie na?oeiaiae?a IA1 oa IA2 (?en. 4).

I?eioeei ae?? oe??? nenoaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui na?oei a?ae aeaea?aea NA
iaeiei c ?oeaa?a a?aeaaeoaeoaa/a aeinyaa? ia?aeiaiiai oi?oey, aeoiaeeoue
o caci? aaee/eiith h ?, a?aeaeaoenue a?ae eiio?iethth/i? iiaa?oi?
iio?aiey? /a?ac ae?oaee ?oeaa ia

oioii?eeia/, aeaeo?e/iee neaiae c yeiai i?eoiaeeoue o aeie i?aeneeaiiy
oa ?a?no?aoe??. I?e eiioaeo? a?aeaeaii? iiaa?oi? c ia?aeiaiei oi?oeai
a?aeaaeoaeoaa/a niinoa??aaoeiaoueny iaeneiaeueiee na?oeiaee iio?e ia
oioii?eeia/. Caeaaei?noue na?oeiai? iiooaeiino? ia oioii?eeia/?
a?aeaaeoaeoaa/a ia a?aenoai? h aei a?aeaeaii? ieiueie iaaaaeaia ia ?en.
5.

O aeiaaeeo a?aeaeaaiiy na?oea a?ae iiaa?oi?, yea ia? oi?io noa?e
?aae?ona R (?en. 6), aecia/eii ?ioaineai?noue a?aeaeoiai na?oeiaiai
iioieo a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?oiaiiaeueiiai ci?uaiiy a?n? na?oeiaiaeo ia
aaee/eio o:

wmetafile8? ??

??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyya??

wmetafile8? ??Oe???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA??O?? ???&? ?MathType??A
???u?????????»????-?????F@ ???Fu???…a???m ???u??
???????»????-????u???«@???-?????«H???a????a
????a ????i????N ???d???Ae
???T???????A??????uAth??????Aiae?c oe??? oi?ioee
iieaco?, ui aeey iaaaeeeiai caci?o ?ioaineai?noue a?aeaeoiai neaiaeo
eaaae?aoe/ii caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?uaiiy, a e?oo?noue ooieoe??
ca?eueoo?oueny i?e ciaioaii? ?aae?ona noa?e/ii? iiaa?oi?.

Iaeneioi ooieoe?? aeinyaa?oueny iaeiicia/ii i?e ni?aiaaeaii? a?n?
na?oeiaiaea ? noa?e/ii? iiaa?oi?, yeo a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye oeaio?oaaeueio i?oeo aeniei? oi/iino?. C ?ioiai aieo,
ia caeaaei?noue, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny, aieeaa? ci?ia ae?aa?aie
iai?aaeaiino? i?e a?aeaeaaii? na?oea a?ae noa?e.

Caeaaei?noue eooa ?icn?thaaiiy a?nueiaiai i?iiaiy:

wmetafile8? ?? ???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aa???&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy ????? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-??????§????1/2???uAth??????yea aeey
o0 ia?aoai?th?oueny o ae?ac:

wmetafile8? ??ae????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy@???? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-??????8????1/2???uAth??????Oaeei
/eiii, i?e ciaioaii? ci?uaiiy eoo ?icn?thaaiiy e?i?eii ciaioo?oueny,
oiaoi /anoea na?oeiaiai iioieo, yea iiaa?oa?oueny o na?oeiaiae,
ca?eueoo?oueny ? ia? iaeneioi i?e o = 0. Ciaioaiiy ?aae?ona noa?e/ii?
iiaa?oi? R i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eooa ?icn?thaaiiy i?e o=const,
oiaoi ca?eueoo?oueny e?oo?noue ooieoe?? ?(o), a ?acii c iath ? oi/i?noue
oeaio?oaaiiy.

I?eioeeiiaa noaia aieieiiii-iioe/ii? aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie i?io?aeiiai
oeio iieacaia ia ?en. 7.

sse aeaeii c ?en. 7, aeo?aeiee oi?aoeue IA1 ?, oae ae iiaeoe,
na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/ei oe?eeeii ? anoaiiaeaiee ia ia?ooiio ieaooi?io,
iiaea aeei?enoi-aoaaoeny ye aaiaeace/ia ia?ea, aai ?aia?, a?aeiinii
yeiai aei??ththoueny ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae ca aeiiiiiaith
e?iaiaoe/ii caycaiiai c ieie ao?aeiiai oi?oey i?eeiaeueiiai na?oeiaiaeo
IA2. Oey nenoaia aei??thaaiue, yea caniiaaia ia aieieiiii-iioe/i?e
aeaiaioi?e aac?, aeicaiey? ?a?no?oaaoe ye ieaiia?, oae ? aenioi?
ci?uaiiy oi?oey na?oeiaiaeo IA2, a ?acii c oeei ? a?aeiia?aeiee ?oo
a?oio?a (a??nueeeo ii??ae).

*a?ac oa, ui aeei?enoiaoaaia ia i?aeoeoe? aieieii IA1 ei?ioea, oi an?
iiaee (aeaeo?iiaai?oi? oaee?) iioe?ththoueny ii aieieio ia caycoth/enue
? caoooathoue ??aiii??ii. Cia/eoue, oaea ae ?iciiae?eaiiy aia?a?? ia?
aooe ? i?e ?? ia?aaea/?. sseui aeiaaeeie IA1 oa IA2 iaeiaeia?, oi
ae?aa?ai? iai?aaeaiino? i?eeiaeueiiai aieieia ?aeaioe/ia ae?aa?aia
iai?aaeaiino? aei?ii?ithth/iai aieieia. I?e aieiaeo cnoaao oe? ae?aa?aie
iai?aaeaiino? a i?ioeeaaeieo oi/eao aei?ii?ithaa/a ? i?eeia/a ia
iaeiaeia?, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe aia?a??. Iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ao?ao
aaco?oueny ia aecia/aii? eieaeueiiai EEAe ia?aaea/? o eiaei?e oi/oe?
aei?ii?ithth/iai oi?oey.

O aeiaaeeo ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo iiooaeiino? i?ae an?ia iiaeaie
aaaaoiiiaeiaeo iioe/ieo aieieii c ia?aaie?/iei i?ioaeai iieacieea
caeiieaiiy, aoaeoeai?noue ia?aaea/?, ye a?aeiii, aecia/a?oueny ae?acii:

wmetafile8? ??w???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy@??©?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????aea wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????AyyyOyyy???5?? ???&? ?MathType??
????uAth??????

wmetafile8? ??th????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyyA??#?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-??????3/4????¶???uAth??????Oea
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caaacia/o? iaeiii?ioeaioio oi/i?noue o iaaeao
wmetafile8? ??i????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???y?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????°@????°¦???uAth??????wmetafile8?
??]??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? a`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy ??‰?? ???&?
?MathType??? ???u?????????»????-?????O aeiaaeeo iaeeo ci?uaiue
ia?ii:

wmetafile8? ??th????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? @
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyya??y?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????°O???°ss???uAth??????i?e/iio oea
aeeiio?oueny c iaeiii?ioeaioiith oi/i?noth aeey wmetafile8?
??i???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? @A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy???y?? ???&?
?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????°@????°Y???uAth??????Oaeei /eiii,
o aeiaaeeo iaeeo ci?uaiue iaeneioi na?oeiai? iiooaeiino? iaeiicia/ii
aeinyaa?oueny i?e r=0, oiaoi i?e ni?aiaaeaii? a?nae IA1 oa IA2. E?i?eia
caeaaei?noue EEAe a?ae a?/iiai iaiiaiaeaeaiiy i?e r0 aeicaiey? aiai?eoe
i?i iiaeeea?noue aenieioi/iiai noi?uaiiy a?nae ?, i?e?iaeii, i?i
aenieioi/ia aecia/aiiy, iai?eeeaae, ieaiiaeo eii?aeeiao (o, o) cnoa?a
a??nueeeo ii??ae. Aacith aeey a?ae?aooieo aa?oeeaeueii? eii?aeeiaoe
iiaea aooe aei?ii?ithth/ee oi?aoeue na?oeiaiaeo IA1, anoaiiaeaiiai ia
ia?ooiiee ?aia?. Ciaioaiiy caci?o i?ae eiaen?aeueieie na?oeiaiaeaie aei
ioey aeanoue aaee/eio aa?oeeaeueiiai ci?uaiiy. Ae?oaee niin?a
?a?no?aoe?? eii?aeeiaoe z aeo?ea? c ?icaeyaeo aaeaino aei?ii?ithaaiiy,
ui iioe?th?oueny acaeiaae IA1.

Ia ?enoieao 8 ? 9 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?icaeyiooi?
aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie. Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny aeey aaaaoiiiaeiaeo
eaa?oeiaeo aieieii ae?aiao?ii na?oeaaeie 50 iei. Aeine?aee i?aeoaa?aeeee
iayai?noue aaniethoiiai iaeneioio na?oeiaiai iioieo ia a?n? IA1 ia
a?aenoai? z 4/3 a a?ae oi?oey na?oeiaiaeo. Oaeei /eiii aeiaaaeaii, ui
ia iniia? aieieiiii-iioe/ii? aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie i?io?aeiiai oeio c
iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea iiaeeeaa iiaoaeiaa i?eeaaeo, yeee
aeicaieeoue aei??thaaoe aeaoi?iaoe?? oa cnoae o i?inoi??. Aei??thaaeueia
nenoaia i?io?aeiiai oeio iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ? aeey eooiaeo
aei??thaaiue, ui aeicaieeoue iieeanoe ?? ca iniiao i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iioeeii???a, aeao/ee?a caaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo ? oiio iiae?aieo
i?eno?i?a.

C a?ao?ea (?en. 8) aeieeaa?, ui iaea?eueoa e?oo?noue oa?aeoa?enoeee 4
%/iei aeinyaa?oueny aeey noaiaea?oieo aieieii (ae?aiao? na?oeaaeie 50
iei) i?e z=0. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy a?eueoi? e?ooino?, iai?eeeaae, i?e
noai?aii? oaiia?aoo?ieo aeao/ee?a aeey iii?ieo aeeaeiieo ciae?a,
aei??thaaeueia nenoaia iiaeiia neeaaeaoeny c iioe/ieo aieieii ??ciiai
ae?aiao?a. Iai?eeeaae, i?e ae?aiao?? na?oeaaeie aei?ii?ithth/iai aieieia
50 iei, a i?eeiaeueiiai – 10 iei, e?oo?noue oa?aeoa?enoeee wmetafile8?
??Oe???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-??????@????????uAth??????Oaeei /eiii,
?icaeyiooa aieieiiii-iioe/ia nenoaia aei??thaaiiy i?io?aeiiai oeio c
iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?? aeey
?ic?iaee ??cieo ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo i?eno?i?a.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyiooa ? ?ic?iaeaia ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ia aeniei/ooeeaa (aeey
i?aoeec?eieo aei??thaaiue) aei??thaaeueia nenoaia, aea aieieiiiee
na?oeia?ae aeei?enoiao?oueny ye oaeeaaaaeo/ee o?aeo aeey iiaoaeiae
/ooeeaiai aeaiaioa – ?ioa?oa?iiao?a.

Ia eiio?ieueiiio ia?eo?, ci?uaiiy yeiai iaiao?aeii ?a?no?oaaoe,
cae??ieth?oueny aeca?eaei c iaeneiaeueiei eiao?oe??ioii a?aeaeaaiiy. Ia
iie??iaaio oi?oeaao iiaa?oith iioe/iiai aieieia iaiineoueny
ae?aeaeo?e/ia aai iai?ai?ici?a iaoaeaaa aeca?eaeueia iie?eooy.
Na?oeia?ae anoaiiaeththoue ia noieeeo, yeee iiaeia ia?ai?uaoe acaeiaae
ia?iaiaeeeoey?a aei eiio?iethth/i? iiaa?oi? aeine?aeaeo-aaiiai ia?eoa. A
oeueiio aeiaaeeo ia?ii ?ioa?oa?iiao? Oaa??-Ia?i, yeui a ?ie? aeaea?aea
eiaa?aioiiai na?oeiaiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeei?enoaoe eaca?iee ae?iae.
Aeey o?eniaaii? aeiaaeeie oaee? ?ioaineai?noue na?oea, a?aeaeoiai a?ae
iai?ai?ici?iai aeca?eaea ? aeca?eaea, yea ciaoiaeeoueny ia ia?eo?, aoaea
caeaaeaoe a?ae ??cieoe? iioe/ii? aeiaaeeie oiaeo oeeo iioie?a ? aoaea
ia??iaee/ii /a?ac wmetafile8? ??·????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????AyyyOyyy@??U?? ???&?
?MathType??0????uAth??????

Aeey oni?oiiai aeei?enoaiiy iienaieo iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo nenoai
iaiao?aeii iaoe niaoe?aeueiee i?eno??e, ui aeicaieeoue aei??thaaoe
na?oeiao iiooaei?noue iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oaeee i?eno??e
?ic?iaeaiee iaie i?ae iacaith “Eaaio-1”, yeee neeaaea?oueny c
aei?ii?ithaa/a ? i?eeia/a. Aei?ii?ithaa/ yaey? niaith na?oeiae?iae
?*-ae?aiaciio oeio 2I5-2 c iaeneioiii aei?ii?ithaaiiy o iaaeao =0,88
iei. Iiooaei?noue aei?ii?ithaa/a ?aaoeth?oueny nooi?i/anoi c?
noaa?e?caoe??th no?oio iaea/ee. Iaeneiaeueia iiooaei?noue
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia iaioa 25 iAo. I?eeaae aeicaiey? aei??yoe iiooaei?noue
iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia aeoiae? aieieiiii-iioe/iiai eaaaey o
a?aeiinieo iaeeieoeyo i?e o?eniaai?e aeiaaeei? oaee? 0,75-0,9 iei.

Aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai
iieeaaeai? a iniiao noai?aiiy i?eeaae?a aeey
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

O ?icae?e? /aoaa?oiio iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee iiaeo
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo i?eno?i?a ia iniia? aieieiiii-iioe/ieo
aei??thaaeueieo nenoai. Na?aae ieo, ianaiia?aae, i?eeaae aeey
niinoa?aaeaiiy ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae, a oiio /ene?, i?ae aieeaii
a??ie/eo ?ia?o. Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?nioth/eo, o ?ic?iaeaiiio i?eeaae?
a?aee?eiaee i?eno??e aeeth/a? a naaa o?eeii?aeeiaoiee noieee, ia?oee
eaa?oeiaee aieieiiiee na?oeia?ae, ia?oee e?iaoeue yeiai cae??ieaiee ia
o?eeii?aeeiaoiiio noieeeo, ae?oa? eaa?oeia? aieieiii? na?oeiaiaee, ia?o?
e?ioe? yeeo anoaiiaeai? ia aa?oi?o e?ioeyo a?aeiia?aeieo oeaio?aeueii? ?
a?/ieo no?oi ni?aa?nii ?i, ? iioe/iee oanoa?, na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/ee
ae?iae ? na?oeii?eeia/ yeiai iioe/ii caycai? c ae?oaeie e?ioeyie ia?oiai
na?oeiaiaeo ? ia?oiai e?ioey iaeiiai c ae?oaeo na?oeiaiae?a, yeee
anoaiiaeaiee o noeeoaaeueiiio i?enoinoaaii? iaoyaeiiai i?eno?ith, ui
?ici?uo?oueny ?c caci?ii o ia?aeaeueieo ieiueiao.

Noaia i?enoinoaaiiy iieacaia ia ?en. 10.

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I?ioean aei??thaaiiy a o?ueio i?iaeoe?yo iieyaa? a ianooiiiio. Ca
aeiiiiiaith i?e?iiao?e/ieo aaeio?a eii?aeeiaoiiai noieeea, iioe/ia
aieieii, ii iaeneiaeueiiio cia/aiith iiooaeiino? na?oeiaiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy a iicia/eao iioe/iiai oanoa?a anoaiiaeth?oueny ni?aa?nii
na?oeiaiaeo, a, cia/eoue, ? a?aeiia?aei?e no?oi?. Aei??thaaiiy ieaiiaeo
eii?aeeiao cae?eniththoue a?aeiia?aeieie i?e?iiao?aie eii?aeeiaoiiai
noieeea. ?oo aieieia acaeiaae aa?oeeaeueii? a?n? aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
aaniethoiee iaeneioi o iieacaiiyo iioe/iiai oanoa?a ? ?acii c iei
eii?aeeiaoo Z. I?ney aei??thaaiiy (c /anii) eii?aeeiao Oi, Yi, Zi
eiaeii? a?/ii? no?oie a?aeiinii ia?ooiii? oeaio?aeueii? aecia/athoue
iioa?iaa ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae ye ii aa?oeeae?, oae ? ii
ai?eciioae?. I?eno??e caoeuaii iaoaioii Oe?a?ie ye aeiao?ae.

I?eno??e aeey caaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo aaco?oueny ia
aeei?enoaii? aieieiiieo na?oeiaiae?a. I?e oeueiio ieoea aenea ? a?ce?
aeeiiai? o aeaeyae? eaa?oeiaeo a?aae??ioieo aieieiiieo na?oeiaiae?a, ye?
ia?oeie oi?oeyie, ?ici?uaieie a na?aaeei? ei?iono, iaa?iai? iaeei aei
iaeiiai c caci?ii, yeee ia ia?aaeuo? ae?aiao?a na?oeiaaaeo/i? aeeee
na?oeiaiae?a, a ae?oaeie – oi?oeyie, ?ici?uaieie cciai? ei?iono,
i?aeeeth/ai? aei na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/iai ae?iaea ? oioii?eeia/a
caaaeaiiai iioe/iiai oanoa?a. E??i oiai, a?ce? caaacia/aiee
aeiaeaoeiaeie eaa?oeiaeie a?aae??ioieie aieieiiieie na?oeiaiaeaie, ye?
aeicaieythoue oaeiae aecia/eoe eii?aeeiaoe a?aeoeeaiiy.

I?ioean caaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo iieyaa? a ianooiiiio.
A?aeiia?aeiei iaoeeii ia?eoa, ui iiioo?oueny, ?c anoaiiaeaiei ia iueiio
aei??thaaeueiei i?eno?i?i aeiaeaathoueny ni?aa?niino? na?oeiaiae?a ii
iaeneioio iiooaeiino? na?oea, yea i?ieoei /a?ac caci? ? ?a?no?o?oueny
iioe/iei oanoa?ii. Eoo a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae aa?oeeae? aecia/a?oueny ca
eae?a?iai/iith e?eaith, a ieaiia? eii?aeeiaoe a?aeoeeaiiy – ?c
caeo/aiiyi aeaieo aei??thaaiiy ?iciiae?eo iiooaeiino? na?oea,
aei?ii?ithaaiiai na?oeiaiaeii aieieiiii-iioe/iiai aenea i?ae a?ce?ieie
na?oeiaiaeaie. ?ic?iaeaiee i?eno??e aeicaiey? c aenieith oi/i?noth
o?enoaaoe aa?oeeaeue ? aecia/aoe eoo ? eii?aeeiaoe c aeenoaioe?eiei
eiio?ieai, i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth aeeeth/ath/e aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a. Ia
?icaeyiooee i?eno??e iaea?aeaii iaoaio Oe?a?ie ye aeiao?ae.

Aeey aei??thaaiiy iia?eueieo ?oo?a caiii? iiaa?oi?, a oiio /ene?, ? i?ae
aieeaii a??ie/eo ?ia?o, aeei?enoiaothoueny iioeeii??e – i?eeaaee, ui
aeicaieythoue aei??yoe eooe iaoeeo iiaa?oi? c aenieith oi/i?noth.
No/ani? iioeeii??e aeiaaathoue caoenoo a?ae ee?iaoe/ieo oiia, aeey /iai
?o cae/ii caaeeaeththoue aei aeaio ? a?eueoa iao??a. sseui aei??thaaiiy
i?iaiaeyoueny ia aeaii?e iiaa?oi?, oi aei iieac?a i?eeaaeo aiinyoue
iii?aaee ia oaiia?aoo?o, oene oiui.

?ic?iaeaiee iaie i?eno??e iniiaaiee ia aeei?enoaii? aieieiiii-iioe/ii?
nenoaie, aeicaiey?, caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith eaa?oeiaeo na?oeiaiaeieo
aieieii c eiao?oe??ioii oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy 5o10-7 E, onoiooe
caeaaei?noue iieac?a a?ae oaiia?aoo?ieo eieeaaiue, iaai?oieo ?
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. Noaia aieieiiii-iioe/iiai iioeeii??o iieacaia ia ?en.
11.

Cciai? ei?iono iioe/ia aieieii i?aeeeth/aia aei na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/iai
ae?iaeo, noaa?euei?noue na?oeiai? iiooaeiino? yeiai eiio?ieth?oueny
oioii?eeia/ai eaiaeo /a?ac a?aeaaeoaeoaa/. Ia oeae aea oioii?eeia/
caaaaeai? ciai?oi? e?ioe?

––––––––––

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iaeiiiiaeiaeo aieieii a?ce?iiai aocea. Aeine?ae aei??th-aaeueieo eaiae?a
i?iaiaeeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aieea/a. *a?ac oa, ui ao?aoe na?oea o
aieieiiieo na?oeiaiaeao iae? (aiie ia?aae-uothoue ca nai?ie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie an? a?aeii? o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoaeaa? e?i?? cayceo), oea
aeicaiey? cae?aoe ?ioi?iaoe?th c iioeeii??o ia a?aenoaiyo, ui
aei??aiththoue aeanyoeai e?eiiao??a. Ae?oaith aaaeeeaith ia?aaaaith
?ic?iaeaiiai iioeeii??o ? a?aenooi?noue iio?aae a aeaea?aeao no?oio ia
i?noe? eiai anoaiiaeaiiy, caaacia/oth/e, oaeei /eiii,
aeaooiaacia/i?noue, ? aeeeth/a? iaeeaaeaiiy ae?iaie/eo ia?aoeiae ia
ei?eniee neaiae.

O ?ic?iaeaiiio iaie aieieiiii-iioe/iiio ??aiai??? aeey a?ae?inoaoe/ieo
i?aae???a ?ieue ciiaea a?a? oi?aoeue eaa?oeiaiai iioe/iiai aieieia,
ae?aiao? na?oeiaaaeo/i? aeeee yeiai neeaaea? 50 iei. Aei??thaaeueia
nenoaia iiaoaeiaaia ia iniia? iai?aaeaiiai a?aeaaeoaeoaa/a, a iaeei ?c
?oeaa?a yeiai aaiaeeoueny na?oeiaee iio?e a?ae na?oeiaei?ii?ithth/iai
ae?iaea, a ii ae?oaiio, ca aeiiiiiaith oioii?eeia/a, ?a?no?o?oueny iio?e
cai?ioiiai ?icn?thaaiiy, aeeeeeaiiai a?aeaeooyi na?oeiaiai iioieo a?ae
oi?oey na?oeiaiaeo. sse a?aeiii, o?aiae?anueeee eiao?oe??io a?aeaeooy
a?ae oi?oey na?oeiaiaeo i?e ii?iaeueiiio iaae?ii? i?iiaiy na?oea ia
iaaeo ?iciiae?eo neei – iia?o?y aai neei – ??aeeia.

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???u@y??????aea nn – iieaciee caeiieaiiy na?oeaaeie na?oeiaiaea; ni –
oa ae aeey na?aaeiaeua; ?a?ae ? ?iaae – iiooaei?noue a?aeiia?aeii
a?aeaeoiai ? iaaeath/iai na?oeiaiai iioieo. Oiio ui iieacieee caeiieaiiy
??aeeie ? iia?o?y ??ci?, oi i?e aeioeeo ??aeeie iie??iaaiei oi?oeai
na?oeiaiaea iiaeiia iaoe i?noea iiaeoeyoe?y ?ioaineaiino? na?oeiaiai
iioieo, a?aeaeoiai a?ae iaae? ?iciiae?eo aeaio na?aaeiaeu, ui neoaeeoue
noii-neaiaeii aeey aeeiioth/iai iaoai?cio ? ia?a?aooieiaiai i?eno?ith.

Ca oaei? noaie ?a?no?aoe?? a?aeiaaea? iaiao?aei?noue o ?ici?uaii?
oioii?eeia/a a cii? anoaiiaeaiiy iinoaeei ??aiai??a. ?ici??e ciiaeo
aeeeth/athoue iiaeeea?noue iiieeee eiioaeooaaiiy ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy
aieeao yaeu cii/oaaiiy. Caaaeyee iaeiio caoooaiith i?e iioe?aii? na?oea
ii aieieiiieo na?oeiaiaeao, aeiaaeeia aei??thaaeueieo eaiae?a iiaea
neeaaeaoe nioi? iao??a. I?iaaaeai? ania?eiaioe i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeo
iiaeoeyoe?? c ia?aiaaeii aaee/eie na?oeiaiai neaiaeo i?eaeecii 8 ?
aenieo oi/i?noue (1 iei) o?enaoe?? ??aiy ??aeeie. Ei?enooaaiiy iioe/ieie
aieieiaie aeicaiey? aecia/aoe eoo iaoeeo aeine?aeaeoaaii? iiaa?oi?.

I?e a?ae?inoaoe/iiio i?aaethaaii? iiaa?oith ??aeeie iiaeia i?eeiyoe ca
a?aeiini?noue aeey eiio?ieth ai?eciioaeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaaii? ieiueie.
Aeei?enoaiiy iioe/ieo aieieii aeicaiey? aecia/aoe eoo iaoeeo
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iiaa?oi?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia a?aenoai? a?ae oi?oey
na?oeiaiaeo aei a?aeaeaath/i? iiaa?oi? ia 2,5 iei i?ecaiaeeoue aei ci?ie
?ioaineaiino? naoea, ui ?a?no?o?oueny oioii?eeia/ai, ia 1%. Eiao?oe??io
a?aeaeooy iiaa?oiath aiaee iaeee, oiio iiaeia a ?ie? caiiaithaa/a
a?ae?inoaoe/ii? nenoaie aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?oooue aai ia iiaa?oi? aiaee
anoaiiaethaaoe ieineee iiieaaie c iaianaiei ia eiai ciai?oith iiaa?oith
oa?ii n??aea. sse aeaeii c aeeeaaeaiiai, aeei?enoaiiy aieieiiii? iioeee
?icoe?th? iiaeeeaino? a?ae?inoaoe/iiai i?aaethaaiiy i?e cia/iiio
ca?eueoaii? oi/iino?.

sse iieaco? aeina?ae ia?aaea/? ieaiiaeo eii?aeeiao ia ??ci? ai?eciioe
?ia?o, iioe/iee iaoiae niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?ioeiith aenea aea? a aaaaoi
?ac?a oi/i?o? ?acoeueoaoe, i?ae iaoai?/i? a?ae?aooieia? i?eeaaee, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a aaciina?aaeiueiio eiioaeo? c ae?ioeiith aenea. Oei ia
iaioa caaaeueiei iaaeie?eii iaoai?/iiai ? iioeei-iaoai?/iiai iaoiae?a
oeaio?oaaiiy ? a?ii?caee?noue aia?aoo?e. Oeaio?e?e, iniiaai? ia
aieieiiii-iioe/i?e aac?, aeicaieythoue oieeiooe aeacaieo iaaeie?e?a,
caaaeyee i?i?aoth?iino? aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo nenoai. E??i
oeueiai, i?e iaiao?aeiino? ia? i?noea iiaeeea?noue caaacia/aiiy
aeenoaioe?eiiai eiio?ieth oeaio?oaaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iani?aa?niino? oeaio??a aooeie aeaio aaiciae?a,
?ici?uaieo iaeei iaae ae?oaei, iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ca aeiiiiiaith
o?eeii?aeeiaoiiai i?e?iiao?e/iiai i?eno?ith oi/ee ciai?oiueiai e?ioey
na?oeiaiaeo-ia?ao?aeieea a?aeiinii oi/ee, ui ciaoiaeeoueny ia a?n?
ieaeiuei? aooeee aaiciaea ia a?aeii?e a?aenoai? a?ae ia?. A oeueiio
aeiaaeeo aecia/a?oueny ia eeoa aaee/eia iani?aa?niino?, aea e a?aenoaiue
i?ae aieiaeaie aaiciae?a, ??aia Ii + oi + hi, aea oi – ca?a?no?iaaia
aaee/eia ia?aaeuaiiy iaei??? oi/ee iaae ?ioith, a Ii – aeiaaeeia
oeaio?e?a-aenioii??a. Oi/i?noue oaeiai oeaio?e?a caeaaeeoue, a
iniiaiiio, a?ae iioeaee o aecia/aii? eii?aeeiao i?e?iiao?e/iei
?iaeeeaoi?ii, oiio ui oi/i?noue anoaiiaethaaiiy ni?aa?niino? iioe/ieo
aieieii, ye a?aeiii, ia a??oa 1 iei. Oaeei /eiii, anoaiiaethaaiiy
ieaeiueiai aaiciaea iiaea cae?enithaaoeny ca aeiiiiiaith
aieieiiii-iioe/iiai oeaio?e?a c oi/i?noth 1 iei, a aei??thaaiiy
iani?aa?niino? ?ai?oa anoaiiaeaieo ciae?a aeecueei 5 iei.

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F????-?????????-????&??yyyy????

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???u??????????»????-????-????????&??yyyy?
???u?????????»????-????-????LE
F????-?????????-????&??yyyy????

????)? g?1/4???????u‹y??????I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie ?icaeyiooei
i?eioeeiiai iiaei i?eno?iyi aeey ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
caaacia/aiiy a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith iiaeeeaino? oa aeioe?eueiino?
aeei?enoaiiy aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ?
niinia?a, aeicaieythoue ae??oeoe aaaeeeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/io i?iaeaio
i?iaiicoaaiiy cnoao a??nueeeo ii??ae, a oiio /ene?, ? i?ae aieeaii
a??ie/eo ?ia?o, ? caaacia/eoe oaeei /eiii aaciaeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai
?aa?iio.

?ic?iaeai? caniae aeey ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy
?aa?ii?a iiaeooue oni?oii aeei?enoiaoaaoenue i?e iayaiino?
niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai oeaio?o, yeee aeaaaoeia ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i aaiaeeiai?/i?
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny.

Iaie ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?ia noaia oaeiai oeaio?o (?en. 12).

sse aeaeii c oe??? noaie, ia?aaeaa/aii aeeiiaiiy eiiieaeno iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ca ioe?ieith no/aniiai noaio
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy ?aa?iio, iiaycaoe
aaiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, c oaoiieia??th a?aee?eoeo ?
i?aecaiieo a??ie/eo ?ia?o, aeei?enoaoe i?eioeeiiai iiaee aenieioi/iee
iaoiae aecia/aiiy aieeao aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a ia noai
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ia?aae ? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ?aa?iio.

O iyoiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeaieo ia
?oi?e aac? iiaeo iaoiae?a ? i?eno?i?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
i?ecia/aiiy iienai? noai?ai? noaioe?? niinoa?aaeaiue ca aaiaeeiai?/ieie
i?ioeanaie i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei ? iaaaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe ?o i?iieneiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oaeiio iaaacia/iiio a
aeieia?/iiio ieai? ?aa?ii?, yeei ? E?eai??cueeee cae?ci?oaeiee aanaei.
Iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? ii?iaeiei ? aaaaoueio oeny/ eaaae?aoieo
iao??a cii iaaaeaiiy noai?th? ia eeoa iaaaciaeo aeey ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu,
aea e aeey anueiai ?aa?iio, a oiio /ene?, ? ye ?i?oe?aoi? caieao?on?a.
I?iaeaia ca?eueoo?oueny ua e oei, ui iei? cae?eaathoueny aeaye?
a??ie/iaeaeiaoai? i?aei?e?inoaa iiee ui c i?aecaiiei aeaeiaoaaiiyi
?oaee. Oea noai?th? aeiaeaoeiao iaaaciaeo a ia?a?iciiae?e? iai?oaeaiue o
ianeaao a??nueeeo ii??ae oa ?noioii? ci?ie aiaeiiane/aiino? inoaii?o.

?ic?iaeai? noaioe?? niinoa?aaeaiue ?ici?uai? ? aei?iaoaai? ia ea?’??? ?
1 AAO “Oeaio?aeueiee a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiee

eiia?iao” ? ia ea?’??? ? 2-a?n Iiaie?eai??cueeiai eiiieaeno
E?eai??cueeiai aea?aeaaiiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo.

O ?iaio? iaaaaeai? iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o i?noey aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniiai?
o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ii??ae.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui caaaeyee ?ic?iaeaiei aei??thaaeueiei i?eeaaeai
aeieeea iiaeeea?noue aei??thaaiiy ci?uaiue o o?ueio i?iaeoe?yo c
oi/i?noth ia a??oa 1…2 iei. Oaea oi/i?noue, yei? ia iiaeia aeinyaoe
o?aaeeoe?eieie niiniaaie aaiaeeiai?/ieo aei??thaaiue, aeicaiey?
aecia/aoe ia o?eueee caeaaei?noue cnoao a??nueeeo ii??ae aaciina?aaeiuei
a?ae ianiaeo aeaoo?a, aea e /an a?ae /ano ?a?no?oaaoe ?aeaenaoe?ei?
i?ioeane.

Aeey ia?ai?uaiiy aei??thaaeueiiai iioe/iiai aieieia a o?ueio aca?iii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo iai?yieao ?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii i?e?iiao?e/iee
iiaeath/ee i?eno??e, ui neeaaea?oueny c iaeiioeiieo noieee?a, ne??ieaieo
i?ae niaith o aca?iiii?oiaiiaeueieo ieiueiao.

I?iaaaeai? i?iieneia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaeueieo
noaioe?e AI1 oa AI2 i?aeoaa?aeeee oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaio aenieo
/ooeea?noue aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie aei aeaoi?iaoe?e a??nueeeo ii??ae. C
iaoith oieeiaiiy eieeaaiue i?aeioae, iia’ycaieo c i?iaaaeaiiyi ?ia?o o
ea?’???, i?e iioe/ieo aei??thaaiiyo canoiniaoaaeany aeeiai?/ia iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy ieaiiaeo eii?aeeiao, yea caiaeeeany aei ciaoiaeaeaiiy
iaeneioio na?oeiai? iiooaeiino? ia aeaiiio ??ai? i?e i?ioiaeaeaii?
?iaa?iith no?oiith aeneiaiai iieiaeaiiy. Iaea?aeaia caeaaei?noue
?ioaineaiino? na?oea a?ae caci?o i?ae ni?aa?nieie iioe/ieie aieieiaie
iieacaea, ui caeeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue anueiai ia 10 iei i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? na?oea, yea i?ieoei /a?ac aieieii, ia 30
iaeeieoeue, ui aeicaiey? iaae?eii ?a?no?oaaoe ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae
o aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei?. Aieieiiii-iioe/i? nenoaie ia?aaaaeathoue ca
oi/i?noth o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee a?eueo i?ae ia ii?yaeie. O ?iaio?
iaaaaeai? oi?eaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? i?e aecia/aii? aeaoi?iaoe??
ianea?a a??nueeeo ii??ae i?e i?iaaaeaii? ianiaeo aeaoo?a ? iieacaia
aeniea aoaeoeai?noue niinoa?aaeieo noaioe?e, o yeeo aeei?enoai?
?ic?iaeai? i?eno?i?.

Aeniiaee

A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaii oai?aoe/ia
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ae??oaia cia/ia iaoeiaa i?iaeaia, yea iieyaa? a
?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeo ? ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo i?eno?i?a ia iniia?
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aei??thaaiue aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo
i?ioean?a i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iaeiaeu, ? ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aaciaee
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai ? i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o iieyaathoue o
ianooiiiio:

1. Aaeeeee aieea ia ci?uaiiy caiii? iiaa?oi? iathoue a??ie/? ?iaioe, ye?
i?ecaiaeyoue aei cia/ieo ca ieiuath cii ci?uaiiy (cnoao, iaaaethaaiiy).
Aeaooe, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ia??iaee/ii a ea?’??ao ? oaooao, aieeaathoue
ia ci?uaiiy ioieo?a ieaiiai-aenioiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, aaee/eia yeiai
aecia/a?oueny noia?iith ianith i?ae?eaieo ca?yae?a, o?ce/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ?oei?aieo ii??ae ? a?aenoaiith a?ae i?noey i?ae?eaaiiy aei
niinoa?aaeii? oi/ee. Anoaiiaeai? aii??e/i? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy
ci?uaiue i?ooeiaeo oa a?oioiaeo ?aia??a a?aeiinii aeeaieeo, caeeaaeaieo
o ei??ii? ii?iaee. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i ianoaa?euei?noue aaeeeiai /enea ioieo?a iii?iiai ieaiiai-aenioiiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ia ia’?eoao E?eai??cueeiai aanaeio. Ei?enooaaoeny oaeeie
ioieoaie aeey ae??oaiiy ?iaeaia?ieo caaea/ ia iiaeia. Neeaaei?
aaiiaoai?/i? yaeua, ui i?ioiaeyoue a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu,
iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ye?noue ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai
caaacia/aiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o.

2. Cae?enithaaoe iino?eiee iaaeyae ca ci?uaiiyi iii?ieo ioieo?a o
aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?iiao, ei?enooth/enue o?aaeeoe?eieie
iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue, i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai. *a?ac oea aeieeea
iio?aaa a iiooeao iiaeo iaoiae?a ? niinia?a aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
aaiaeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie.

3. No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo iaoee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noai?aiiyi o?ce/ieo
iniia aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aeao/ee?a, eio?? aeicaieythoue cae?enithaaoe
aenieioi/i? aei??thaaiiy a ??cieo aaeocyo ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai iieacaee, ui aeniea
oi/i?noue aieieiiii-iioe/ieo aeao/ee?a aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe
iiaeeea?noue ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey niinoa?aaeaiue ca iieiaeaiiyi ioieo?a
iii?ieo ia?aae ? i?e?icnoaaie ianea?a a??nueeeo ii??ae o eiie?aoieo
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao. Iia?aoeai?noue, coiiaeaia i?inoioith
aei??thaaiue, ? iiaeeea?noue aeenoaioe?eiiai ciyooy ?ioi?iaoe?? c
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo iii?ieo ciae?a ? aeoaea i?ia?aneaiei iai?yieii aeey
noai?aiiy aaiaeeiai?/ieo iie?aii?a o aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo
?aa?iiao.

4. Oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/ai? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ia?aaaae
aei??thaaeueieo nenoai ia iniia? aieieiiii-iioe/ieo iai?aaeaieo
a?aeaaeoaeoaa/?a o ii??aiyii? c ?icae?eueiei ?ici?uaiiyi iioe/ieo
eaiae?a aeey aeeiiaiiy caaea/ c oeaio?oaaiiy.

5. ?ic?iaeai? aei??thaaeuei? nenoaie ia iniia? aeao/ee?a a?aeaeaath/iai
? i?io?aeiiai oei?a c iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea aeey
aei??thaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a??nueeeo ii??ae ca o?ueiia i?oiaiiaeueieie
iai?yieaie ? caaeaiiy aa?oeeae?.

6. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieieiiii-iioe/io nenoaio aei??thaaiiy i?io?aeiiai
oeio c iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeey noai?aiiy iaoiae?a ? niinia?a aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
aaiaeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie.

7. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii aieea aaee/eie cnoao a??nueeeo ii??ae
ia na?oeiao iiooaei?noue.

8. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ia aieieiiii-iioe/ia nenoaia
?a?no?aoe?? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey i?aoeac?eieo aei??thaaiue o
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo ?iaioao c oi/i?noth ia a??oa /2.

9. ?ic?iaeaia aeaeo?e/ia noaia, aeaioiaeaiee ? aei?iaoaaiee aei??thaa/
iiooaeiino? iioe/iiai aei?ii?ithaa/a aeey aaoiiiiiiai ei?enooaaiiy a
iieueiaeo oiiaao, ui caaacia/o? aei??thaaiiy ia aeoiae?
aieieiiii-iioe/iiai eaiaea o a?aeiinieo iaeeieoeyo aeey o?eniaaii?
aeiaaeeie oaee? 0,75-0,9 iei.

10. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeeeainoae aieieiiii-iioe/ii? nenoaie
aei??thaaiue aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? oa caoeuai? iaoaioaie Oe?a?ie ia
aeiao?ae:

– i?eno??e aeey niinoa?aaeaiue cnoa?a a??nueeeo ii??ae, ui
a?ae??ciy?oueny i?aeaeuaiith iaae?ei?noth oa oi/i?noth aei??thaaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo ? ai?eciioaeueieo ci?uaiue a??nueeeo ii??ae, a oiio /ene?,
o o?e? cnoa?a ??ciiiaio?iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. I?eno??e aeicaiey?
aei??thaaoe ci?uaiiy iaeiiiai?oii iaeiei ia?aiiniei i?eeaaeii ? aac
eiioaeoo, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe niinoa?aaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia aeia?euei?e
aeeaei? i?ioyaii aeinoaoiueiai /ano, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai aeey oiia
aonoiianaeaieo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a;

– i?eno??e aeey caaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo, yeee caaacia/o? aenieo
oi/i?noue o?enoaaiiy aa?oeeae? oa aeicaiey? aecia/aoe eoo ? eii?aeeiaoe
aeenoaioe?eiiai eiio?ieth, i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth aeeeth/ath/e aieea
ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a.

11. ?ic?iaeaii ?yae aieieiiii-iioe/ieo i?eno?i?a aeey ae??oaiiy ??cieo
caaea/ ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy a??ie/eo ?ia?o:

– iioeeii??, eio?ee aeicaiey? iaea?aeoaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th ia a?aenoaiyo,
ui aei??ththoueny aeanyoeaie e?eiiao??a, ? aea? iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaoe
i?ioeanii aei??thaaiiy ia aaeeeeo ieiuao c iaeiiai ioieoo. Aaaeeeaith
ia?aaaaith aieieiiii-iioe/iiai iioeeii??o ? a?aenooi?noue iio?aae
aeaea?aea no?oio ia i?noe? eiai anoaiiaeaiiy, caaacia/oth/e, oaeei
/eiii, aaciaeo aeaooo ? aeeeth/aiiy ae?iaie/eo ia?aoeiae ia ei?eniee
neaiae;

– ??aiai?? aeey a?ae?inoaoe/ieo i?aae???a, ui aeicaiey? ?noioii
?icoe?eoe iiaeeeaino? inoaii?o aeey cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?, ui
aeoaea aaaeeeai a oiiaao a?aee?eoi-i?aecaiii? ?ic?iaee ?iaeiaeu ei?enieo
eiiaeei;

– oeaio?e?, oi/i?noue yeiai caeaaeeoue eeoa a?ae iioeaee o aecia/aii?
eii?aeeiao i?e?iiao?e/ieie ?iaeeeaoi?aie, oiio ui oi/i?noue onoaiiaee
ni?aa?niino? iioe/ieo aieieii ia a??oa 1 iei. Oea caaacia/o?
anoaiiaeaiiy ieaeiueiai aaiaeace/iiai ciaeo ca aeiiiiiaith
aieieiiii-iioe/iiai oeaio?e?o c oi/i?noth 1 iei, a aei??thaaiiy
iani?aa?niino? ?ai?oa anoaiiaeaieo ciae?a a?ey 5 iei.

12. ?ic?iaeai? oa anoaiiaeai? niinoa?aaei? noaioe??, i?iaaaeai? ?o
i?iieneia? aei?iaoaaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aaiaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a
a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiio ?aa?ii?, a oiio /ene?, ? a?ae aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o.
Niinoa?aaei? noaioe?? anoaiiaeai? a oeaio?aeuei?e oa i?aaeaii?e /anoeiao
?aa?iio: a ea?’??? ? 1 AAO “Oeaio?aeueiee a??ie/icaaaa/oaaeueiee
eiia?iao” ? a ea?’??? ? 2-a?n Iiaie?eai??cueeiai eiiieaeno
E?eai??cueeiai a??ie/i-iaoaeo?a?eiiai eiia?iaoo.

13. Aenieoaoaoe?y aieieiiii-iioe/ieo niinoa?aaeieo noaioe?e aeiaaea
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaio aenieo /ooeea?noue aei??thaaeueii? nenoaie aei
aeaoi?iaoe?e a??nueeeo ii??ae. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe c aeaoi?iaoe?e
a??nueeeo ii??ae i?ae ae??th ianiaeo aeaoo?a ca aeiiiiiaith
aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai ocaiaeaeothoueny c aei??thaaiiyie,
i?iaaaeaieie o?aaeeoe?eieie iaoiaeaie, aea ia?aaaaeathoue ?o ca
oi/i?noth a?eueoith, i?ae ia ii?yaeie.

14. Aeei?enoiaoth/e niinoa?aaei? noaioe??, ?ic?iaeaia no?oeoo?a
i?aai?caoe?? oa ieaioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oeaio?o c
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy aaeeeeo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo
?aa?ii?a.

?ioi?iaoe?eiee oeaio? aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe cnoa a??nueeeo ii??ae ?,
oaeei /eiii, ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith aaciaee a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai ?aa?iio.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. Neaei?aiei A.Ae., Eoeeeianueea I.?. I?i iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue aaiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a o E?eaaan?. – A?niee aaiaeac??
oa ea?oia?ao??, 1998. — ?1. – N. 8-12.

2. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Iaioaeoiie/aneea aeaeaeaiey oece/aneie iiaa?oiinoe a
E?eai?iaeneii aannaeia. // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani.
iaaeaaae. iao/. – oaoi. na. – E?eaie ?ia: EOO, 1999. – Aui. 67. – N.
50-53.

3. Neaei?aiei A.Ae., Aie/oe E.E. Caeiiiia?iinoe naeaeaeaiey ai?iuo
ii?iae i?e ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo caeaaeae E?eaaanna // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.-oaoi. na. – E?eaie ?ia, EOO,
1998. – Aui. 66. – N. 132-137.

4. *e?aa A.E., Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Aeeyiea ianniauo ac?uaia ia
onoie/eainoue caiiie iiaa?oiinoe // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee:
?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.-oaoi. na. – E?eaie ?ia: EOO, 1999. – Aui. 67. – N.
46-50.

5. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Aieieiiii-iioe/i? nenoaie aeey
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aei??thaaiue / A?aeiiino? Aeaaeai??
a??ie/eo iaoe Oe?a?ie. – E?eaee ??a: I?ia?ae. — ? 2. – 1997. – N.
100-101.

6. Aeieaeo A.I., Aeieaeo E.A., Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Aeeyiea aaiiaoaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia ia ninoiyiea ioieoia ieaiiai-aunioiiai iainiiaaiey //
?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.-oaoi. na. –
E?eaie ?ia: EOO, 1999. – Aui. 67. – N. 53-56.

7. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Iiaua ono?ienoaa aeey ia?eoaeaea?neiai iaania/aiey
ai?iuo ?aaio // Iaoaeeo?ae/aneay e ai?ii?oaeiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. – 1999.
— ? 2-3. – N. 63-65.

8. Iao. 18240A. Oe?a?ia, IIE5G01N15/04 I?eno??e aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy
ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae / Caeaueoeue A.I., Neaei?aiei A.Ae. (Oe?a?ia);
? 95125343; cayae. 18.12.95; iioae. 25.12.97; Athe. ?6. – 1 n.

9. Iao 19006A, Oe?a?ia, IIE5G01N15/04 I?eno??e aeey caaeaiiy
aa?oeeaeueiiai iai?yieo / Caeaueoeue A.I., Neaei?aiei A.Ae. (Oe?a?ia); ?
96072668; cayae. 18.12.95; iioae. 25.12.97; Athe. ?6. – 1 n.

10. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Aieieiiii-iioe/i? iaoiaee oeaio?oaaiiy //
A?aeiiino? Aeaaeai?? a??ie/eo iaoe Oe?a?ie. – E?eaee ??a: I?ia?ae. — ?
2. – 1997. – N. 101-102.

11. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. ?ic?iaea aeao/ee?a aeey aenieioi/ieo
ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo aei??thaaiue // A?aeiiino? Aeaaeai??
a??ie/eo iaoe Oe?a?ie. – E?eaee ??a: I?ia?ae. — ? 2. – 1997. – N.
102-103.

12. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Ii?aaeaeaiea aeaoi?iaoeee a ai?iuo ii?iaeao //
?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/i. oaoi. na. –
E?eaie ?ia: EOO, 1996. – Aui. 59. – N. 62-65.

13. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Aieieiiii-iioe/aneay nenoaia ecia?aiey iieiaeaiey
aaiaeace/aneie ia?ee a i?ino?ainoaa // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee: ?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/i. oaoi. na. – E?eaie ?ia: EOO,
1997. – Aui. 60. – N. 50-55.

14. Yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea ia?aiao?ia ioe?uouo ai?iuo
au?aaioie / A.A. Caanaaaeaoiee, A.A. Ianiaoiue, A.A. Ia?aaoaeia, A.Ae.
Neaei?aiei // Ia?eoaeaea?ey e aaiaeacey. ?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee
iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Aaieioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a ai?iii aeaea e
aaieiaee: Na. iao/. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. — ? 7. – Oii 2. –
Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1999. – N. 126-129.

15. Iauaiiay aeene?aoii-aiaeeoe/aneay iiaeaeue ianoi?iaeaeaiey / A.A.
Caanaaaeaoiee, A.A. Ianiaoiue, A.A. Ia?aaoaeia, A.Ae. Neaei?aiei //
Ia?eoaeaea?ey e aaiaeacey. ?ac?aaioea ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo
eneiiaaiuo. Aaieioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee a ai?iii aeaea e aaieiaee: Na.
iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. — ? 7. – Oii 2. – Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA
Oe?aeiu, 1999. – N. 34-38.

16. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. Ono?ienoai aeey caaeaiey aa?oeeaeueiiai
iai?aaeaiey n eniieueciaaieai aieieiiii-iioe/aneie nenoaiu // I?iaeaiu
ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena Oe?aeiu:
Na. iao/. o?oaeia. – E?eaie ?ia: IEA?E, 1997. – N. 51-56.

17. Neaei?aiei A.Ae. I nicaeaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai oeaio?a aeey
ia?eoaeaea?nei-aaiaeace/aneiai iaania/aiey ai?iuo ?aaio // I?iaeaiu
ai?iiaeiauaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiieaena Oe?aeiu.
Na. iao/i. o?oaeia. – E?eaie ?ia: IEA?E, 1997. – N. 56-59.

18. Neaei?aiei A.Ae., Caeaueoe A.I. Aieieiiii-iioe/aneee o?iaiaia?
aeey aaiiaoaie/aneeo ecia?aiee // ?ac?aaioea ?oaeiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee:
?ani. iaaeaaae. iao/.-oaoi. na. – E?eaie ?ia: EOO. – 1999. – Aui. 68. –
N. 58-62.

19. N??iaaa N.N., Aiaeieaiei A.?., Neaei?aiei A.Ae. I?i ?icoe?aiiy
iiaeeeainoae canoinoaaiiy IAII o c??aiyeueieo ia/eneaiiyo. – A?niee
aaiaeac?? oa ea?oia?ao??, 1995. — ? 1(3). – N. 35-38.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?iaioao iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa? iieyaa?
a ianooiiiio: [1] – iaa?oiooaaa iiaeeea? iane?aeee a ?acoeueoao?
aaiaeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a; [3] – aeeiiaa noaoenoe/io ia?iaeo ?acoeueoao?a
ci?uaiiy a??nueeeo ii??ae a caeaaeiino? a?ae nenoaie ?ic?iaee; [4,6] –
cai?iiiioaaa iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy no?eeino? caiii? iiaa?oi? i?e
i?iaaaeaii? a??ie/eo ?ia?o; [8,9,18] – cai?iiiioaaa eiino?oeoe??
i?eno?i?a; [14,15] – cai?iiiioaaa iaoiaeeeo iano?auaieo o?eeooiee?a;
[19] – aeei?enoaiiy IAII a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiiyo.

AIIOAOe?ss

Neaei?aiei A.Ae. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo oa cania?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?iiao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaith aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.01 – “Ia?eoaeaea??y”. Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a
aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?.

Anoaiiaeai? aii??e/i? caeaaeiino? aieeao a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia noai ioieo?a
ieaiiai-aenioii? iniiae ? aeieacaia iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo i?eioeeiiai
iiaeo iaoiae?a oa cania?a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/iiai caaacia/aiiy
a??ie/eo ?ia?o. Oai?aoe/ii ia?aaeaa/ai? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii
i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ia?aaaae aei??thaaeueieo nenoai, ye? aacothoueny ia
aeei?enoaii? aieieiiii-iioe/ieo iai?aaeaieo a?aeaaeoaeoaa/?a ?
?ic?iaeai? aei??thaaeuei? nenoaie ia iniia? aeao/ee?a a?aeaeaath/iai ?
i?io?aeiiai oei?a c iiaeoeyoe??th ?ioaineaiino? na?oea. Anoaiiaeaii
aieea aaee/eie aeaoi?iaoe?? a??nueeeo ii??ae ia na?oeiao iiooaei?noue
i?eno?i?a. Aeiaaaeaii, ui ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/io aieieiiii-iioe/io nenoaio
?a?no?aoe?? aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ia?eoaeaea?nueei-aaiaeace/ieo
?iaioao c oi/i?noth /2.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo aieieiiii-iioe/ieo nenoai ? i?iaaaeaieo ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeiiai iia? iaoiaee ? caniae aeey
?a?no?aoe?? ci?uaiiy ii??ae i?ae aieeaii a??ie/eo ?ia?o, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny i?aeaeuaiith oi/i?noth ? iaae?ei?noth aei???a i?aeoe/ii
ia aoaeue-ye?e aeeaei? i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai
aeey aonoiianaeaieo a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?ii?a. ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee ?
aei??thaaeuei? i?eno?i? iieeaaeai? a iniiao noai?aiiy noaioe?e
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca aaiaeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ye? caeeaaeai? ?
ooieoe?iiothoue a oeaio?aeueiiio ? i?aaeaiiiio ?aeiiao E?eai??cueeiai
cae?ci?oaeiiai aanaeio, ? ? iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie ?ioi?iaoe?? ca
aaiaeeiai?/ieie i?ioeanaie aeey niaoe?ae?ciaaiiai oeaio?o
ia?eoaeaea?nueeiai caaacia/aiiy a??ie/iaeaeiaoaiiai ?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a??ie/iaeaeiaoai? ?aa?iie, aaiaeeiai?/i? i?ioeane,
ia?eoaeaea?nueea caaacia/aiiy, aieieiiii-iioe/i? nenoaie, aei??thaaeuei?
i?eno?i?, ?ioi?iaoe?eiee oeaio?.

AIIIOAOeEss

Neaei?aiei A.Ae. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea e n?aaenoa aeey enneaaeiaaiey
aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a ai?iiaeiauaathueo ?aaeiiao. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.01 – Ia?eoaeaea?ey. – Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay
aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ecuneaieth iiauo iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa
ia?eoaeaea?nei-aaiaeace/aneeo ecia?aiee aeey enneaaeiaaiey
aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a e?oiiuo ai?iiaeiauaathueo ?aaeiiao.
Onoaiiaeaiu yiie?e/aneea caaeneiinoe aeeyiey ai?iuo ?aaio ia ninoiyiea
ioieoia ieaiiai-aunioiiai iainiiaaiey e aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo iaoiaeia e n?aaenoa ia?eoaeaea?nei-aaiaeace/aneiai
iaania/aiey ai?iuo ?aaio. Iainiiaaia aiciiaeiinoue e oeaeaniia?aciinoue
eniieueciaaiey aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo nenoai ecia?aiee aeey ?aoaiey
caaea/, naycaiiuo n enneaaeiaaieyie niauaiey ianneaia ai?iuo ii?iae e
auiieiaiey ia?eoaeaea?neeo ?aaio ia aieaa aunieii iao/ii-oaoie/aneii
o?iaia. Oai?aoe/anee i?aaeneacaii e yenia?eiaioaeueii iiaeoaa?aeaeaii
i?aeiouanoai ecia?eoaeueiuo nenoai, iniiaaiiuo ia eniieueciaaiee
aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo iai?aaeaiiuo ioaaoaeoaeae e ?ac?aaioaiu
ecia?eoaeueiua nenoaiu ia iniiaa aeao/eeia io?aaeaoaeueiiai e
i?ioiaeyuaai oeiia n iiaeoeyoeeae eioaineaiinoe naaoa. Onoaiiaeaii
aeeyiea aaee/eiu aeaoi?iaoeee ai?iuo ii?iae ia naaoiaoth iiuiinoue
ecia?eoaeueiuo ono?ienoa. Aeieacaii, /oi eioa?oa?iiao?e/aneay
aieieiiii-iioe/aneay nenoaia ?aaeno?aoeee iaania/eaaao auiieiaiea
ia?eoaeaea?nei-aaiaeace/aneeo ?aaio ?acee/iiai iacia/aiey n oi/iinoueth
ia ooaea /2. ?ac?aaioaia yeaeo?e/aneay noaia, ecaioiaeai e eniuoai
ecia?eoaeue iiuiinoe iioe/aneiai eceo/aiey aeey aaoiiiiiiai
eniieueciaaiey a iieaauo oneiaeyo. Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia
i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee aiciiaeiinoae aieieiiii-iioe/aneie nenoaiu
ecia?aiee ?ac?aaioaii naiaenoai i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo ono?ienoa aeey
?aaeno?aoeee niauaiey ai?iuo ii?iae iiae aeeyieai eioaineaiuo
ioe?uoi-iiaecaiiuo ?aaio a e?oiiuo ai?iiaeiauaathueo ?aaeiiao:
aieieiiii-iioe/aneia ono?ienoai aeey ii?aaeaeaiey niauaiee ai?iuo
ii?iae, eioi?ia iicaieyao i?iecaiaeeoue ecia?aiey iia?aoeaii e
aaeeiiia?acii, a oaeaea i?iecaiaeeoue iaaethaeaiey i?aeoe/anee ia ethaie
aeoaeia a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai ia?eiaea; aieieiiii-iioe/aneee
aeaeueiiia?, iicaieythuee nieiaoue eioi?iaoeeth ia ?annoiyieyo,
en/eneyaiuo aeanyoeaie eeeiiao?ia, ia o?aaothuee enoi/ieea oiea ia ianoa
aai onoaiiaee, iaania/eaay, oaeei ia?acii, ac?uaiiianiinoue e
eneeth/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiao ia iieaciue neaiae;
aieieiiii-iioe/aneee o?iaiaia? aeey aeae?aaee/aneeo ieaaee?ia,
nouanoaaiii ?anoe?ythuee aiciiaeiinoe yoiai aeaea ieaaee?iaaiey i?e
cia/eoaeueiii iiauoaiee oi/iinoe; aieieiiii-iioe/aneee oeaio?e?,
iaania/eaathuee onoaiiaeo ieaeiaai aaiaeace/aneiai ciaea n oi/iinoueth 1
iei, a ecia?aiea ianiiniinoe onoaiiaeaiiuo ciaeia ia aieaa 5 iei.
Eniieueciaaiea yoeo ono?ienoa iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue ia?eoaeaea?neia
iaania/aiea ai?iuo ?aaio ia iiaii o?iaia. Nenoaia ecia?aiee, iniiaaiiay
ia aieieiiii-iioe/aneie yeaiaioiie aaca, iicaieythuay iauaaeeieoue
?aaeno?aoeeth ieaiiaiai e aunioiiai iieiaeaiey aaiaeace/aneie ia?ee a
i?ino?ainoaa, eniieueciaaia aeey nicaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oeaio?ia,
iicaieythueo ii?aaeaeyoue noaiaiue aeeyiey ai?iuo ?aaio ia ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo. Aia?aua ?ac?aaioaia no?oeoo?iay noaia i?aaiecaoeee e
ieaie?iaaiey oaeeo oeaio?ia e inouanoaeaii iino?iaiea aeaoo
iaaethaeaoaeueiuo noaioeee: ? 1 ia ea?uea?a ?1 IAI OeAIEa ? 2 ia
ea?uea?a ?2-aen IEAIEa. Yoe iaaethaeaoaeueiua noaioeee iicaieytho
?aaeno?e?iaaoue aiaaeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a
E?eai?iaeneii aeaeaci?oaeiii aannaeia aiiaua e iiae aeeyieai ioe?uouo
ai?iuo ?aaio. Oai?aoe/anee iainiiaaiiay aunieay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue
?ac?aaioaiiie aieieiiii-iioe/aneie ecia?eoaeueiie nenoaiu
iiaeoaa?aeeeanue ?acoeueoaoaie yenieoaoaoeee iaaethaeaoaeueiuo noaioeee.
Iieo/aiiua ?acoeueoaou ii aeaoi?iaoeee ai?iuo ii?iae iiae aeaenoaeai
yia?aee ianniauo ac?uaia n iiiiuueth aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo nenoai
ecia?aiee niaeanothony n ecia?aieyie, i?iaiaeeiuie o?aaeeoeeiiiuie
iaoiaeaie, ii i?aainoiaeyo eo ii oi/iinoe aieaa, /ai ia ii?yaeie. Oaeei
ia?acii, ?acoeueoaou i?iiuoeaiiuo eniuoaiee e yenieoaoaoeee
iaaethaeaoaeueiuo noaioeee iieacaee, /oi e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie
inouanoaeaii ?aoaiea aaaeiaeoae aeey e?oiiuo ai?iiaeiauaathueo ?aaeiiia
i?iaeaiu – iaania/aiea aaiaeeiaie/aneie aaciianiinoe i?e aaaeaiee ai?iuo
?aaio. Yoi aeinoeaaaony oayceie i?ienoiaeyueo aaiaeeiaie/aneeo
i?ioeannia n ioe?uouie e iiaecaiiuie ai?iuie ?aaioaie ia iniiaa
i?eioeeieaeueii iiaiai, aunieioi/iiai aieieiiii-iioe/aneiai iaoiaea
ii?aaeaeaiey aeeyiey aaiaeeiaie/aneeo i?ioeannia ia ninoiyiea ioieoia
ia?eoaeaea?nei-aaiaeace/aneeo naoae e aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue ?aaeiia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ai?iiaeiauaathuea ?aaeiiu, aaiaeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu,
ia?eoaeaea?neia iaania/aiea, aieieiiii-iioe/aneea nenoaiu,
ecia?eoaeueiua ono?ienoaa, eioi?iaoeeiiiue oeaio?.

ANNOTATION

Sidorenko V.D. Development of methods and means for geomechanical
investigations in mining regions. – Copyright.

The thesis for the degree of doctor of technical sciences in speciality
05.15.01 – “Mine surveying”. – National Mining Academy of Ukraine,
Dnepropetrovsk, 1999.

There has been claimed the emperical influence of minig on the condition
of the compilation survey stations; and the need for search for
essentially new methods and means of survey and geodetic maintenance of
mining has been proved. The advantage of measuring systems based on the
application of fibre-optical directional coupler have been theoretically
predicted and experimentally proved. Measuring systems based on the
transducers on the incidental of transmitted light with modulation of
the light intensity have been developed. The rock deformation rate has
been proved to influence on the light capacity of the device. The
application of interferometric fibre-optical system of recording in
serveying proved to be expedient, accuracy being not less than /2. Based
on the investigations of the opportunities of the optical measuring
system there have been worked outessentially new methods and devices to
record rock desplacement under the affect of mining. The said devices
are distingquished by high accuracy and reliability of measurement at
any depth and within long term period that is very important in dense
populated mining regions. The eleborated methods and measuring devices
are involved in observation stations being constructed to control the
geodynamic processes in central and southen regions of Krivorozhsky iron
ore basin and serve as the main source of information on the geodynamic
process for the information center of servey maintenance in mining
regions.

Key words: mining regions, geodynamic process, survey maintenance,
fibre-optical systems, measuring device, information center.

Caeiaoaa/ Neaei?aiei A.Ae.

NEAeI?AIEI A?eoi? Aeieo?iae/

?ic?iaea iaoiaeo oa cania?a aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a
o a??ie/iaeaeiaoaieo ?aa?iiao(aaoi?aoa?ao)I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 21
aa?aniy 1999 ?. Oi?iao 30o42/4. Iai?? Polspeed. ?ecia?ao?y. Ianya 2,0
ae?oe. a?e. Oe?aae 110 i?ei. Cai. ? 51Aaceiooiaii

Aeaeaaieoeoai “I?ia?ae” AAI Oe?a?ie

324002, i. E?eaee ??a, aoe. Iooe?ia, 37

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