Розрахунок та прогнозування шляхового фрикційного опору руху рейкових екіпажів: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / В.П. Ткаченко, Східноукр. держ. ун-т

4

NO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE oI?aa?neoao

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 629.1.072

Oea/aiei A?eoi? Iao?iae/

?IC?AOOIIE OA I?IAIICOAAIIss OEssOIAIAI O?EEOe?EIIAI III?O ?OOO ?AEEIAEO
AE?IAAE?A

05.22.07 — ?ooiiee neeaae cae?cieoeue oa oyaa ii?cae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Eoaainuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eiiy?a Ieaen?e Ieeieaeiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e “Cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o”.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ei?ioaiei Ieoaeei Eaii?aeiae/,

Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e “Aeaeo?i?ooiiee neeaae”;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeueii?i TH??e Aaneeueiae/,

Ee?anueeee ?inoeooo cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiaiiac Aai?a?e ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aeeiai?ee aaaaoii??ieo iaoai?/ieo nenoai.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, eaoaae?a
“Aenieoaoaoe?y oa ?aiiio ?ooiiiai neeaaeo”, I?i?noa?noai o?ainii?oo
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 1400 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae29.051.03 No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

348034, i. Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20a, NOAeO, ei?i.1, cae
can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:

348034, i. Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20a, a?ae?ioaea NOAeO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 28 aa?aniy 1999a.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Inai?i TH.?.

CaAAEUeIA Oa?AEOA?ENOEEA ?iAIOE

Cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o Oe?a?ie, ye ? ?ai?oa, a?ae?a?a? iaeaaaeeea?oo
?ieue o aaioaaeieo oa ianaaee?nueeeo ia?aaacaiiyo. Aeey naiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?i aeiaaa? aei 18 % caaaeueiiai niiaeeaaiiy
aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa ? 4,5 % — aeaeo?iaia?a??. Cieaeaiiy iii?o onueiai ia
1 % aeicaieeei a ui?ieo aeiiiieoe ia iaeiiio eieiiioea? aei 40 IAoa
aeaeo?iaia?a?? /e 17 o aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aei 75 % aeaeo?iaia?a?? oa iaeeaa, ui
niiaeeaathoueny cae?cie/iei o?ainii?oii, ?aea ia iiaeieaiiy iii?o ?ooo
iioya?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iii?o ?ooo aecia/eee ia?niaeoeaiee
iai?yi eiai cieaeaiiy ca ?aooiie neeaaeiai?, ca’ycaii? c o?eeoe?eiith
aca?iiae??th eie?nieo ia? ? ?aeeiaiai oeyoo — oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai
(aai e?iaiaoe/iiai) iii?o ?ooo. I?eaaaeai? o ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe
iieacothoue, ui ? ?aaeuei? ?aca?ae cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo
ae?iaae?a ia 8…20 %.

I?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo oei?a ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiaeee, oa?aeoa?enoeee iii?o ?ooo ia aiae?cothoueny.
*anoi oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaaei?aaaeaiiai ca?eueoaiiy a aenieoaoaoe??
o?eeoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiioaeoe eie?n ?c ?aeeaie, ye?, aeeiioth/e
?ieue o?eeoe?eieo aeaiioa??a c aenieei ??aiai ?icn?thaaiiy aia?a??,
noai?ththoue aeiaeaoeiaee ii?? ?ooo. Iai?yiei oiio i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi
iiaeooue aooe aeai? aenieoaoaoe?? c ?ioaineaiiai i?ae??co a?aaai?a ?
aieiaiio ciino aieiaie ?aeie, i?i ye? noaee eacaoe, ye i?i «?aeeiao
/oio».

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeei?enoai? OE «Eoaainueeoaieiaic», a?aeiia?aeii aei Aea?aeaaii?
I?ia?aie ?icaeoeo cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? oa?eoee a IAe?: «Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?aae?caoe?? neee
oyae i?e aieea? ia eieiiioea ciai?oi?o aeeiai?/ieo cao?aiue»
(?aea?ae.?aa.81012271); «?ic?iaea cania?a, ui caaacia/othoue ?aeeiaiio
?ooiiiio neeaaeo iaiao?aei? c/?ii? oa aeeiai?/i? yeino?» (?aea?ae.?aa.
0193U002386); «?ic?iaea o?ceei-oaoi?/ieo iniia aenieiaoaeoeaieo nenoai ?
oaoiieia?e o?ainii?oo» (?aea?ae.?aa.0196U021047); «Iaoeia? iniiae,
eiioeaioe?y ? oai??y noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e o?ainii?oo c
iie?ioaieie aia?aaoe/ieie ? aeieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie» (?aea?ae.
?aa.0196U021048); «Iaoeia? iniiae noai?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e
nenoaiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oiaeiaeo /anoei ia?niaeoeaieo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a» (?aea?ae.?aa.0197U008355).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo oa i?iaiicoaaiiy iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a,
iaoiiaeaiiai o?eeoe?eiith aca?iiae??th eie?n ?c ?aeeaie, ia aac?
?icaeoeo oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii?
iaoe aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue:

— aecia/aiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? eie?nieo ia? ? ?aeeiaiai
oeyoo aeey ??ciiiai?oieo i?io?e?a iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy ? ?ic?iaea
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo c o?aooaaiiyi eiai
aaiiao?e/ieo oa i?oaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee;

— ?ic?iaea iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a, uiaei
e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a ni?yioaaiiy eie?nieo ia? ?aeeiaith eie??th;

— iaea?aeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ciai?oi?o oa?aeoa?enoee c/aieaiiy eie?n
?c ?aeeaie o cii? iaeeo ? aeecueeeo aei ioeueiaeo eiacaiue, o oiio
/ene?, i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii?;

— ii?aoethaaiiy iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai
iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a;

— ?ic?aooiie oa?aeoa?enoee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo aeey na??eieo
iaeeieoeue ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ? aiae?c aieeao iniiaieo ia?aiao??a oiaeiaeo
/anoei ae?iaae?a ia ii?? ?ooo;

— aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iii?o ei/aiith eieana ii ?aeoe? i?e iayaiino?
o eiioaeo? eaa?oeiaiai i?neo;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a ca
?aooiie iie?ioaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c
?aeeaie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— aia?oa iaea?aeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo
?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a;

— ?ic?iaeai? iniiae oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a, ui aaco?oueny ia
a?iioac? i?i ?noioio ia??aiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo nee ? e?ooy/eo iiiaio?a
ii a?eeao caieiooeo no?oeoo? neeiaeo eaioetha?a i?eaiaeo ? ni?yioaaiiy
eie?nieo ia?;

— aia?oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyoiaiai
o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a, caniiaaio ia ie?aieo
iieiaeaiiyo oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a ? aeyaeaieo
caeiiii??iinoyo i?inoi?iaiai aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeooaaiiy eie?n ? ?aeie;

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana c
?aeeith, ye noaoe/ii iaaecia/aii? nenoaie nie?aiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi
eiioaeoii? i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo ? aaiiao??? i?io?e?a eie?n ? ?aeie;

— ia noai?aiiio aaoi?ii eiiieaen? aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aia?oa iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iii?o
?ooo a nenoai? «eieani — ?aeea» i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii?, ui
aeicaieyoue ca’ycaoe e?iaiaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e eiioaeo?a eie?n
?c ?aeeaie ? aeei?enoaoe ?o, ye ciai?oi? ooieoe?? i?e iaoaiaoe/iiio
iiaeaethaaii? e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? ae?iaae?a ?
eie??;

— aia?oa iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? iii?o ei/aiith eieana ii ?aeoe? a?ae
ia?aiao??a eaa?oeiaiai i?neo oa aonoeie caiiaiaiiy eiioaeoii? ciie;
anoaiiaeaii, ui coneeey c?oeioaaiiy /anoie i?neo a eiioaeo? eieana ?c
?aeeith iai?iii?oe?eia ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio /anoee; iaea?aeaiee
ae?ac aeey coneeey c?oeioaaiiy;

— noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e iiia?a/ii? ea?iaaiino? ae?iaae?a ?aeeiaith
eie??th; o aeaeyae? oaeiai e?eoa??th i?eeiyoi e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo;

— aeyaeaii ca’ycie i?ae no?oeoo?ith e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a oiaeiaeo
/anoei ae?iaae?a ? iii?ii ?ooo;

— aia?oa noi?ioeueiaai? ? iaa?oioiaai? iaoeia? i?eioeeie cieaeaiiy iii?o
?ooo ae?iaae?a ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eieo ? oee?eoeyoe?eieo
ao?ao a caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo?ao aaaaoieiioaeoii? nenoaie nie?aiiy ?
ni?yioaaiiy ae?iaae?a ?aeeiaei oeyoii; iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei caniaii
aeeeth/aiiy caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a ? aaaaeaiiy ?ica’ycoaaeueieo
aoceiaeo oi/ie ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue:
iaoiaeeee iiaeaethaaiiy, ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyoiaiai
o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a; iaoiaeeea ioe?iee
ea?iaaiino? ?ooiiiai neeaaeo; oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo
a?eueoino? na??eieo iaeeieoeue ?aeeiaiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo; eiiieaen
aei?iaoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy c/aieaiiy ?
e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo o nenoai? «eieani — ?aeea».

Iaoiaeeea iiaeaethaaiiy aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana ?c ?aeeith ?
iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ? ioe?iee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo
ae?iaae?a ai?iaaaeaeai? ia OE «Eoaainueeoaieiaic», aea aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e i?iaeooaaii? oiaeiaeo /anoei oaieiaic?a,
aeecaeue-ii?cae?a oa o?aiaa?a.

Noai?aiee aaoi?ii eiiieaen aei?iaoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy (a.n. N?N? ??
802832, 1012142, 1176199, 1444636) aeei?enoaiee i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo
aeaiaio?a aoce?a oiaeiai? /anoeie iiaeo oaieiaic?a ? o?aiaa?a OE
«Eoaainueeoaieiaic», a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? IAe? o Aaeocaa?e
iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi??? (AIAeE) «Oyaeia? yeino? ? aeiiii?/i?noue
eieiiioea?a» ? AIAeE «Oa?oy ? ianoeei a i?eaiaeao eieiiioea?a», ca?aeii
c ainiiaea?nueeeie aeiaiai?aie c i?aei?e?inoaaie Oe?a?ie ? ?in??.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a oa?eoee o ?ic?iaeo «I?oaeia eieani
aeey ?aeeiaiai ae?iaaeo», ia yeo i?iaeaia e?oeaic?y o??i? «Oa??iooaeue
Aeoee?iaacaeueoaoo» (I?ia//eia) (a.n.N?N? ?? 1184699, 1187375, 1243960;
iaoaioe: O?aioe?? ?2557032, NOA ?4635990, ?oae?? ?1195564,
Aaeeeia?eoai?? ?2153308 oa ?i. ).

Iaea?aeai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? o iiaeo ?icae?eao eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a, eaai?aoi?ieo ?ia?o,
eo?niaiai ? aeeieiiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
nooaeaio?a.

Iniaiaee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi:

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aiae?co neeiaeo iioie?a o caieiooeo no?oeoo?ao
e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a iaoai?/ieo ia?aaea/ iiooaeiino? [1,18];

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana ?c
?aeeith [12*,13*];

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iiaeaethaaiiy ? ioe?iee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo
?ooiiiai neeaaeo [4,6*];

— ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a, aeai?eoie oa
i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo ia IE [2];

— iaea?aeai? oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? iii?o ei/aiith
eieana ii ?aeoe? a?ae ia?aiao??a eaa?oeiaiai i?neo ? aonoeie caiiaiaiiy
eiioaeoii? ciie [14*];

— iaea?aeai? ?ic?aooieia? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo aeey
a?eueoino? na??eieo iaeeieoeue ?ooiiiai neeaaeo [5,11*];

— iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee c/aieaiiy ? iii?o ?ooo a
nenoai? «eieani — ?aeea» i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii? [1,19*];

— noai?aiee eiiieaen aei?iaoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiue
c/aieaiiy eie?n ?c ?aeeaie ? ia?aiao??a iii?o ?ooo [19*];

— ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a [2,7,10];

— cai?iiiiiaai? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiyo ae?iaaeii? /anoeie ?ooiiiai neeaaeo c
iecueeei ??aiai iii?o ?ooo [3,15*,16*,17* — i?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? aaoi?ii
o ni?aaaoi?noa?. Eiie?aoiee ia?niiaeueiee aianie caeiaoaa/a aei oeeo
i?aoeue:

[6] — ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo
ae?iaae?a;

[11] — aeeiiaia iinoaiiaea caaea/? oa iaoaiaoe/i? aeeeaaeee;

[12] — ?ic?iaeaia ?ic?aooieiaa noaia oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaiooi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana c ?aeeith;

[13] — aeeiiaii iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy eiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c
?aeeaie;

[14] — aeeiiaii iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iii?o ?ooo oa iaienai?
aeniiaee;

[15,16,17] — cai?iiiiiaai? iia? a?aei?ii? iciaee;

[19] — ?ic?iaeaia noaia noaiaeiai? onoaiiaee oa iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaio?a.

];

— noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeia? i?eioeeie cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eieo ? oee?eoeyoe?eieo ao?ao o aaaaoieie?niiio
?oo?th [8, 9].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? oa?eoee
o aeiiia?ae? aaoi?a ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao ?
eiia?anao: «Ooai?aiiy ? oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy eieiiioea?a aaeeei?
iiooaeiino?» (Ai?ioeeiaa?aae-1985?.); «Viii I?aeia?iaeiee eiia?an ii
eie?nieo ia?ao» (Iaae?eae-1985?.); «I?iaeaie iaoai?ee cae?cie/iiai
o?ainii?oo» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee-1984,1988??.); «Caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
aoce?a oa?oy iaoei» (Ai?ioeeiaa?aae-1988?.); «Caniae ae?aaiinoeee
oaoi?/ieo nenoai cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo» (Iinuee-1989?.); «I?iaeaie
?icaeoeo eieiiioeaiaoaeoaaiiy» (Eoaainuee-1990?.; E?ei-1993,1995,
1997,1998??; Iineaa-1996?.); «Xvi, Oviii i?aeia?iaei? neiiic?oie c
eieeaaiue o o?ce/ieo nenoaiao» (Iiciaiue-1994,1998??.); ia
i?aeeaoaae?aeueiiio nai?ia?? «Oi?aae?iiy oaoi?/iith aenieoaoaoe??th
?ooiiiai neeaaeo» Oa?AeaCo (Oa?e?a-1997?.); ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo NOAeO (Eoaaine-1980-1998??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 91 iaoeiao ?iaioo, c
yeeo: 2 iiiia?ao??, 6 a?ioo?, 25 noaoae o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, 19
aeiiia?aeae ? oac aeiiia?aeae ia eiioa?aioe?yo, eiia?anao ? neiiic?oiao,
14 aeaiiiiaaieo ?oeiien?a, 25 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa oa iaoaio?a.
Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 19 ae?oeiaai?e ?iaio?. C ieo
10 (o oiio /ene? 2 iiiia?ao??) iaienai? aac ni?aaaoi??a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeth/a? anooi, a?n?i ?icae?e?a,
aeniiaee, 171 ?enoiie ia 60 noi?., 19 oaaeeoeue ia 10 noi?., aeaa
aeiaeaoee ia 16 noi?., nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 292 iaeiaioaaiue
ia 25 noi?. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 387 noi?.

InIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iieacaii aeooaeuei?noue oaiaoeee, iaa?oioiaaii aea?? ia’?eoo oa
i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe.

?ICAe?E 1. IAEssAe aeine?aeaeaiue o?eeoe?Eii? aca?iiae?? eie?N
cae?cie*iiai ?OOIIIai neeaaeo c ?aEEAIE. iaoa oa CaAAeAIIss
AeiNE?AeAEAIUe. Aca?iiae?y ?ooiiiai neeaaeo oa eie?? iia’ycaia c o?ueiia
ooieoe?yie eie?nieo ia?: nie?aiiy, ni?yioaaiiy oa oyae, ui iaeeaaeathoue
ca’ycee ia a?aeiini? ia?ai?uoaaiiy ae?iaaeo oa oeyoo.

?noi?e/ii eiino?oeoe?y eie?nieo ia? ? i?e/eiith niaoeeo?/ieo aeeiai?/ieo
i?ioean?a, /anoi oa?aeoa?ieo o?eueee aeey ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo. Aieiaia
?o iniaeea?noue iieyaa? o aca?iiiio aieea? eie?n ? eie?nieo ia? iaeia ia
iaeia /a?ac a?n?, ?aio oa ?aeeiaee oeyo ? ia??aiii??iiio ?iciiae?e?
e?ooy/iai iiiaioo i?ae eieanaie eie?nii? ia?e.

Aiane?aeie oeueiai, niinoa??aa?oueny oee?eoeyoe?y neeiaeo iioie?a o
caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo?ao aeaiaio?a oiaeiai? /anoeie, i?eaiaeo,
eie?nieie ia?aie oa ?aeei-oiaeueiith ?ao?oeith. Oee?eoeyoe?ei? iioiee,
ca’ycai? ?c ooieoe??th ni?yioaaiiy eie?nieo ia?, ye i?aaeei, ? i?e/eiith
aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoai?/ieo ao?ao oa i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o ?ooo. Neeaaeiao iii?o
?ooo, iia’ycaio c o?eeoe?eiith aca?iiae??th eie?n ?c ?aeeaie, aaoi?
iacaaa e?iaiaoe/iei iii?ii. Aea? /anoeie i?iaeaie o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae??
?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a oa eie?? — c/aieaiiy eie?n c ?aeeaie oa
ai?eciioaeueiee aieea ae?iaae?a ia eie?th — o?nii iia’ycai? c i?iaeaiith
iii?o ?ooo.

Ii/eiath/e ?c ia?oeo aeine?aeaeaiue iii?o ?ooo, iaeaea an? aiie aoee
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? i?iaaaeeeeny c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy oi?ioe aeey
oyaiaeo ?ic?aooie?a. Aaea i?e ia?oeo aeine?aeao, i?iaaaeaieo
A.?.Eiiooeinueeei, aoei aecia/aii aieea ia ii?? ?ooo «oe?aeeeaeo
(ia?aceoieo) ?oo?a aaaii?a». I/aaeaeii, oea iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oith
caaaeeith i?i e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo ae?iaae?a. Aaeeeee aianie o
aeine?aeaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo, o na?e /an, c?iaeee a/ai?: I.I.Anoaoia,
I.I.Aa?aiia, I.A. Ae/eianueeee, I.I. Ao?nueeee, I.I.Aeaia?a,
I.?.Aeieiiaeaa, Aeaain, A.I.Eaaaae?a, TH.A.Eiiiiinia, A.I.Etha?iia,
I.I.Iao?ia, I.I.No?iinueeee, Iieii, Ii?aeiai, Ooooiee, A.E.Oiiaeo.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e iii?o ?ooo ae?iaae?a iieaco?, ui aiii caeaaeeoue a?ae
/eiiee?a, cia/io /anoeio yeeo ca?ac aaaeei ci?ieoe. Ia?aaeon?i, oea noai
?aeeiaiai oeyoo, yeee aeiaaa? aaeeeeo eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao ia eiai
i?aeo?eieo oa ?aiiio. Oaeiae iaia? iiaeeeaino? ?noioii ciaioeoe ii??
?ooo ca ?aooiie ia?aiao??a eiioaeooaaiiy eieana ?c ?aeeith. Iai?ioe, i?e
?nioth/?e oaiaeaioe?? ca?eueoaiiy ae?aiao?o eie?n ? i?aeaeuaiiy inueiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiue ne?ae i/?eoaaoe ca?eueoaiiy iii?o ei/aiith. Aaeeeee ?aca?a
cieaeaiiy iii?o — cai?io ia ?ooiiiio neeaae? aoeniaeo i?aeoeiiee?a
eiacaiiy ia i?aeoeiieee ei/aiiy — aaea aeei?enoaii. Iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaiei aaoi? aaaaea? cieaeaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo. O ?aieao
oeueiai iai?yieo iaiao?aei? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy o?eeoe?eii?
aca?iiae?? ae?iaae?a ? oeyoo oa iiooe ia ?o iniia? iiaeo oaoi?/ieo
??oaiue eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy oiaeiaeo /anoei, ui aeicaieythoue
iie?ioeoe oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? ?ooiiiai neeaaeo oa
oeyoo. Oea, ianaiia?aae, noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiue ai?eciioaeueieo
ni?yiiaoth/eo coneeue o eiioaeoao eie?nieo ia? c ?aeeaie.

Iaea?eueo cia/i? aeinyaiaiiy o aaeoc? ai?eciioaeueii? aca?iiae??
ae?iaae?a oa oeyoo iia’ycai? c aeine?aeaeaiiyie N.I.Aiae?i?anueeiai,
I.?.Aeaeoa?a, A.?.Aiaiiaca, I.O.Aa?iai, N.A.Aa?oeinueeiai,
I.I.Aiaeeoeueeiai-Oeai?ei, I.E.Aieoaaiea, E.I.A?a/ueiai?,
?.O.A?eai?’?aa, A.I.Aeaieeiaa, A.Ae.Aeaiiae/a, TH.A.Aeueii?ia,
E.E.Aeia?eiiia, TH.?.Aeioiaia, I.E.Aethi?ia, A.N.?ano?aoiaa, A.A.?aaiea,
I.I.??oeiaa, A.I.?aaiiaa, A.A.Eaia?aa, Ae.A.Ea?iiinueeiai,
A.I.Eaoi?eiaa, I.I.Eiaaeueiaa, I.ss.Eiaaia, I.?.Eiei??aa, I.I.Eiiy?aa,
E.I.Ei?ieueiaa, I.E.Ei?ioaiea, I.?.E?aa/aiea, N.N.E?aieiai?nueeiai,
N.I.Eooeaiea, A.A.Eaca?yia, Ae.I.Eaaaaeaaa, A.A.Eueaiaa, A.A.Iaaeaey,
E.I.Iaeaioue?aa, A.A.Iiie/a, O.Itheea?a, I.A.Ia/a?aa,
?.I.Ieueoaanueeiai, A.I.Iainueeiai, I.I.Iaoiiiaa, I.I.?aae/aiea,
N.O.?aaeueea, E.I.??ci?eiaa, TH.N.?iiaia, I.?.?onni, A.A.Niieyinueeiai,
O.I.Oeaieiaa, A.O.Ooeaeiaa, O.Oaeiaia, I.A.Oieiaeaoeeiai,
E.TH.Oeaaeiinueeiai, ?.?.*aeiieiaa oa ?i.

Iaaiee aieea ia oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c ?aeeaie ia? oi?ia ?o
iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy. I?inoi?iaee ?iciiae?e eiioaeoieo coneeue oa
oaeaeeinoae eiacaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae aeeoa?aioe?eieo
i?ieiacoaaiue o eiioaeoao oa aeeoa?aioe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo. Iniaeeai aiie
iiyaeythoueny i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii?, oei a?eueoa, eiee iaeei
?c eiioaeo?a a?aaaiaaee. Aiae?coth/e i?aoe? A.Iaeueia?aia ? A.Oioeiooa,
aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeeoa?aioe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo i?e aeaioi/eiaiio a?aaaiaaiio
eiioaeooaaii? ia iaoo?ieo noaiaeiaeo onoaiiaeao oa ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee
iiaeaethaaiiy aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana c ?aeeith.

*eiaeo /anoeio iii?o ?ooo, iniaeeai o e?eaeo ae?eueieoeyo oeyoo,
neeaaea? aeiaeaoeiaee ii??, aeeeeeaiee a?oiiaith aca?iiae??th eie?n ?c
?aeeaie, yeee aaoi? iaceaa? oee?eoeyoe?eiei iii?ii ?ooo. Eiai ??aaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae ?iciiae?eo eiacaiue o eiioaeoao, ia yeee aieeaathoue ye
?aaeei ?ooo, oae ? eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e ae?iaaeo. Aeeoa?aioe?eiee ?
oee?eoeyoe?eiee ii?? ? neeaaeiaeie e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo.
A?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/i? eeaneo?eaoe?? e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo ia?
iciaee, ye iniiaiiai, oae ? aeiaeaoeiaiai iii?o. E?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?acii
c iii?ii, ui iia’ycaiee ?c iayai?noth o eiioaeoao eie?n ?c ?aeeaie oae
caaiiai “o?aoueiai o?ea”, neeaaeathoue oeyoiaee (eie?eiee) o?eeoe?ei?e
ii?? ?ooo.

Aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo ii?aoethaaiith i?eioeei?a i?iaeooaaiiy
ae?iaae?a c iecueeei iii?ii ?ooo ia iniia? a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
?iciiae?eo e?iaiaoe/iiai i?ieiacoaaiiy o eiioaeoao eie?n ?c ?aeeaie
aein? ia aoei. Ia i?aenoaa? iaeyaeo noaio i?iaeaie noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
oa caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

?ICAe?E 2. AeiNE?AeAEAIIss AaIIAO?E*IEO Ia?aiao??a AcA?IIAe?? ?AEEIAEO
AE?IAAE?A OA OEssOO. Iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy caeaaeiinoae iieiaeaiiy
oi/ie eiioaeo?a a?ae iiia?a/iiai ci?uaiiy eie?nii? ia?e, uiaei oeyoo,
iia’ycaia, ianaiia?aae, c aeanoeainoyie aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeooaaiiy oa
aeiaeaoeiaei iii?ii ?ooo a?ae oa?oy a?aaaiy ii ?aeoe?. ?icaeyioo? 30
aa??aio?a eiia?iaoe?e noaiaea?oieo ? aeine?aeieo i?io?e?a eie?n oa
?aeie. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iieacothoue, ui i?aeoe/ii aeey an?o
aa??aio?a ?niothoue iieiaeaiiy aeaioi/eiaiai a?aaaiaaiai eiioaeooaaiiy.
Aeaioi/eiaee eiioaeo i?aaenoaaeaii ye noaoe/ii-iaaecia/aio nenoaio c
iieacieeii iaaecia/aiino? 1.

Caaea/a i?i ?iciiae?e iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ae eiioaeoaie ae??ooaaeany c
o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoieo caeeaeaiue. ?icaeyaeaeeny aea? a?oie ia?aiao??a:
aeey ia?oiai eiioaeoo (I) ? aeey ae?oaiai eiioaeoo (II).

Aeaa eiioaeoe ?niothoue iaeii/anii ia aeaye?e ia?ao?aei?e ae?eyioe?,
aeey yei?: P0 > PI > 0; 0 < PII < P0 , i?e/iio, PI + PII = P0 . I?eeiyoi i?eiouaiiy i?i e?i?ei?noue caeiio ci?ie aa?oeeaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue PI , PII o iaaeao ia?ao?aeii? ae?eyiee picscalex100010009000003f60000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02200280091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa5ffffff40090000c50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000500017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01000008000000320ae001720802000000 494908000000320ae001c90101000000490017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a8001e00602000000647908000000320a8001ed030200 0000647908000000320a8001370002000000647910000000fb0280fe0000000000009001 000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000 320a8001b80501000000a30008000000320a8001c50201000000a3000a00000026060f00 0a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc01020222 53797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000: picscalex1000100090000037f0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c024002c00f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa5ffffff800f0000e50100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600010000000fb0209fee500000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320a7d01da0b01000000280010000000fb0209fee5000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320a7d01230f01000000290017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc 0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccaf040000002d0100000400 0000f001010008000000320a8001670e01000000310008000000320a80014f0c01000000 6b0008000000320a80016c0a01000000500008000000320a8001e30601000000d0000900 0000320a8001bf05030000002020200008000000320a80016405010000003b0008000000 320a80019904010000006b0008000000320a8001470301000000500008000000320a8001 440001000000500017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccaf040000002d01010004000000f00100000800 0000320ae0011f0b01000000300008000000320ae001dc0702000000494908000000320a e001fa0301000000300008000000320ae0010d0101000000490010000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001 010008000000320a80015e0d010000002d0008000000320a80013109010000003d000800 0000320a80010c02010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000 0000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01 010004000000f0010000030000000000; picscalex1000100090000032d0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400420091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0080000fc0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 000293020500000013020002ca0817000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9c040000002d01010008000000 320aeb03150801000000490008000000320aeb03340402000000494908000000320ac901 900701000000490017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9c040000002d01020004000000f00101000800 0000320a8b038b0602000000647908000000320a8b03aa0202000000647908000000320a 6901060602000000647908000000320a69012e0302000000647908000000320a60023700 010000006b0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a8b037305010000002d000800 0000320a6901ee04010000002d0008000000320a60025c01010000003d000a0000002606 0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102 022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000, aea dy , dyI , dyII - a?aeiini? ci?uaiiy eieana ? ?aeee, a?aeiia?aeii - iioi/ia, ia aoiae? ? ia aeoiae? ?c noaio aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeooaaiiy. Ci?uaiiy a?aaaiaaiai eiioaeoo caeaaeii a?ae eooa iaa?aaiiy o iiia?a/iiio iai?yieo ia ia?aaeuo? 0,5...0,8 ii ? eiai iiaeia ia a?aoiaoaaoe. Ci?ia aeia?aaeaeaiiy aeioeeo (by) ? ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?ona eieana (DRy) a?eueo nooo?a? ? iiaeooue aooe iienai? ae?acaie: picscalex1000100090000036e0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028004400b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff000b0000400400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 4002ec070500000013024002f40a17000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccd5040000002d01010008000000 320a3a03b20902000000383208000000320a3a038109010000002c0008000000320a3a03 fa0801000000310008000000320a0301ae0901000000320017000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccd50400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ae603150801000000670009000000320a a0027405030000003233350008000000320aa0022f05010000002c0008000000320aa002 730401000000310008000000320aa002270101000000520010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200 08000000320aaf014d0801000000790008000000320aa0023c0001000000440010000000 fb0200ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010200 04000000f001010008000000320a0003ee0101000000790010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200 08000000320aa0025403010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01020004000000f0010100030000000000; picscalex100010009000003ad0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400400101200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb6ffffffc00f0000f60300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 000260030500000013020002ad0f17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc2040000002d01010008000000 320aa603c40e01000000670008000000320aa603be0b02000000313008000000320aa603 320a01000000360008000000320aa603fc09010000002c0008000000320aa60332090100 0000330008000000320aa603720402000000313508000000320aa6034104010000002c00 08000000320aa603680301000000300008000000320a6002320001000000620017000000 fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20 43797200ccc2040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320afa02f50d01000000 340008000000320afa02240701000000320010000000fb0200ff00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a fa02620d010000002d0010000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002000200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320aa6033b0b01000000 d70008000000320aa6031a08010000002b0008000000320a60022902010000003d001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 010004000000f001020008000000320aa603c30501000000790008000000320a6f01c908 01000000790010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac002c3000100000079000a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc020000 00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000 , aea g - ooee a?aaaiaaiai eiiono. Ia ?en.1 iieacaii ?ic?aooieiao noaio "ia?aoiaeo" eiioaeoo c oi/ee EI o oi/eo picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffafffffff400200000f0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000500017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccf0040000002d01000008000000320a1401700101000000 2a0008000000320a20027a0102000000494917000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccf0040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320ac001490001000000ca000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000 . EI, EII - oi/ee eiioaeoo ia aoiae?, a picscalex100010009000003e60000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600200051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffafffffffc00400000f0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000500017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccec040000002d01000008000000320a1401f60301000000 2a0008000000320a2002000402000000494908000000320a14017001010000002a000800 0000320a20027a0101000000490017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccec040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320ac001cf0201000000ca0008000000320ac0016602010000002000 08000000320ac0013b02010000002c0008000000320ac001490001000000ca000a000000 26060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc 0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000- ia aeoiae? ?c aeaioi/eiaiai noaio. Aa?oeeaeuei? ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ie eiioaeo?a i?e ia?aoiae? ?c noaio wmetafile8? ??o???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya???? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th?????? picscalex100010009000003c60100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c004c00d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff800d00007c0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 b7039d080500000013029b03ce0809000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402a303ce0805000000130266041509040000002d01000005000000 140266041d090500000013023f027b090500000014023f027b090500000013023f02560d 050000001402000275080500000013020002760d17000000fb0200ff0000000000009001 010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccd1040000002d01 020008000000320a4a03940c01000000320008000000320a5604890c0100000049000800 0000320ac9011f0b01000000490008000000320ac002660601000000490008000000320a c002f10101000000490008000000320ac002ab0101000000200017000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccd1 040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320af603a20b01000000670008000000 320af603810901000000310008000000320a60026d0501000000520008000000320a6002 090501000000200008000000320a60024900010000007a0010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010300 08000000320af603730a010000002b0008000000320a60024f07010000002b0008000000 320a6002f002010000003d0010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320a6901320a0100 0000440008000000320a6002230401000000440010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001 010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000 320ac002ef000100000053000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000 fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010300 04000000f0010200030000000000; picscalex100010009000003c60100000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c004a00e1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff600e00007c0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000300109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 b70344090500000013029b03750909000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402a30375090500000013026604bc09040000002d01000005000000 14026604c4090500000013023f02220a0500000014023f02220a0500000013023f023b0e 05000000140200021c0905000000130200025b0e17000000fb0200ff0000000000009001 010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccb2040000002d01 020008000000320a4a033b0d01000000320008000000320a5604300d0200000049490800 0000320ac901ba0b02000000494908000000320ac002bc0602000000494908000000320a c002f10102000000494908000000320ac002ab0101000000200017000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccb2 040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320af603490c01000000670008000000 320af603280a01000000310008000000320a6002c30501000000520008000000320a6002 5f0501000000200008000000320a60024900010000007a0010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010300 08000000320af6031a0b010000002b0008000000320a6002fb07010000002d0008000000 320a60024603010000003d0010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320a6901cd0a0100 0000440008000000320a6002790401000000440010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001 010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000 320ac002ef000100000053000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000 fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010300 04000000f0010200030000000000, aea DRI, DRII - ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?on?a o I ? II eiioaeoao ia iiia?a/iiio ia?ai?uaii? eieana dy; zI, zII - aa?oeeaeuei? neeaaeia? caeeaeaiue DI ? DII; gI, gII - ooeee o I ? II eiioaeoao. Aeiaaeeia ia?ao?aeii? ae?eyiee, ia ye?e ?nio? aeaioi/eiaee eiioaeo iiaea aooe aecia/aia c oi?ioee: picscalex100010009000003330200000500170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c020007000f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffc00e0000b00600000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 c803ee02050000001302ac031f0309000000fa0200002000000000000000220004000000 2d010100050000001402b4031f0305000000130277046603040000002d01000005000000 140277046e030500000013025002cc030500000014025002cc030500000013025002b307 09000000fa02000008000000000000002200040000002d0102000500000014020e02c602 0500000013020e02d307040000002d010000050000001402c8037d09050000001302ac03 ae09040000002d010100050000001402b403ae090500000013027704f509040000002d01 00000500000014027704fd0905000000130250025b0a05000000140250025b0a05000000 13025002800e040000002d0102000500000014020e0255090500000013020e02a00e0400 00002d010000050000001402c004a602050000001302c004c00e17000000fb0200ff0000 000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccbe 040000002d01030008000000320aac068f0a01000000490008000000320aac0633070200 0000494908000000320a5b037e0d01000000320008000000320a6704730d020000004949 08000000320ad501f90b02000000494908000000320a5b03ef0601000000320008000000 320a6704e40601000000490008000000320ad501760501000000490017000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 ccbe040000002d01040004000000f001030008000000320a4c06a6090100000067000800 0000320a4c064a0601000000670008000000320a07048a0c01000000670008000000320a 0704610a01000000310008000000320a0704fb0501000000670008000000320a0704d203 01000000310010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01030004000000f001040008000000320a4c067808010000002d000800 0000320a0704570b010000002b0008000000320a6e022b08010000002b0008000000320a 0704c804010000002b0008000000320a20056a01010000003d0010000000fb0280fe0000 000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01040004000000f001 030008000000320a75010a0b01000000440008000000320a750187040100000044000800 0000320a20051a000100000078000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000 0000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01 030004000000f0010400030000000000. ?en.1 Noaia "ia?aoiaeo" eiioaeoo c oi/ee EI o oi/eo wmetafile8? ??A???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy©yyy`??I?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????Cai?iiiiiaaia aaoi?ii iaoiaeeea iiaeaethaaiiy eiioaeoieo aeioe/ieo nee aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c ?aeeaie aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii, o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiieie, iienaoe ia?aiao?e c/aieaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeooaaiiy eie?n ? ?aeie. ?ICAe?E 3. Iaoiaeeea OaI?AOE*IEO AeiNE?AeAEAIUe E?iaiaoe/iiai IiI?O ?oOO ?aEEiaeo Ae?IAAE?A. Oee?eoeyoe?y iiooaeiino? a caieiooeo eiioo?ao oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaaaoiiioi/ieo aeeiai?/ieo nenoai. Iaea?eueo iai/ii i?iyaey?oueny oee?eoeyoe?y neeiaeo no?oi?a o caieiooeo eiioo?ao oiaeiaeo /anoei ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo. Eiioaeo eiaeiiai eieana ?c ?aeeith iiaea iaoe aeaa noaie - iaeiioi/eiaee oa aeaioi/eiaee. I?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii? ae?eueieoe? iiaa?oiiue eieana ? ?aeee i?ae oeaio?aie ieyi eiioaeo?a ooai?ththoue caieioo? neeia? eiioo?e. O iaaeao eiioaeoieo eiioo??a aeieeathoue oee?eoeyoe?ei? neeia? iioiee, iaeeaaeai? ia iniiaiee iio?e neeiai? ia?aaea/? "eieani - ?aeea". Neeia? eaioethae "eieani - a?nue - eieani - ?aeea - oiaea - ?aeea - eieani" ooai?ththoue inueia? eiioo?e. I?aeinueiaee eiioo?, ooai?th?oueny neeiaei eaioethaii "eie?nia ia?a - ?aeeiaee oeyo - eie?nia ia?a - ?aia a?cea - eie?nia ia?a". A iniiao iaoiaeeee iiaeaethaaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo iieeaaeaia oai??y caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a. Neeiaee eiioo? - e?iaiaoe/iee eaioetha, eaiee yeiai ia?aaeathoue caieiooee neeiaee iio?e. Ia?aoai?aiiy iaoai?/ii? aia?a?? o aoaeue-ye?e ia?aaea/? iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaii noaiaoe/ii o aeaeyae? neeiaiai iioieo c ?icae?eaiiyi /e ceeooyi o aoceiaeo oi/eao. Neeia? no?oie ?iciiae?eythoueny ia ca'ycoaaeuei? (f), aeoioethth/? (a) oa ?icn?thth/? (d). Ca'ycoaaeueiei neeiaei iioieii iaceaa?oueny iio?e, ui c'?aeio? aoceia? oi/ee. ?ioaineai?noue ca'ycoaaeueiiai iioieo aei??aith? iiooaeiino?, ui ia?aaea?oueny /a?ac aeaiaio: fi = Fi Vi , aai fi = I? w i. Aeoioethth/? iioiee iia'ycai? ?c iayai?noth o e?iaiaoe/iiio eaioethc? i?oaeieo aeaiaio?a. ?icnithth/ee iio?e aeieea? i?e iayaiino? o aoceia?e e?aioe? aeaiioa?a. C o?aooaaiiyi oee?eoeyoe?eieo no?oi?a iiooaeiino? /a?ac ?aeeiao eie?th neeiaee iio?e eie?nii? ia?e ? caieiooei ? ooai?th?, ye i?i?ioi, iaeei caieiooee eiioo?, a i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii? iaeiiai c eie?n - aeaa caieiooeo eiioo?e (?en.2). Neeia? eiioo?e iathoue oae? aeanoeaino?: - noia neeiaeo no?oi?a aoceiai? oi/ee aei??aith? ioeth; - noia ao?aeiiai, aeo?aeiiai, aeoioethth/eo ? ?icn?thth/eo neeiaeo no?oi?a aei??aith? ioeth: wmetafile8? ??T????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&? ?MathType??`????&??yyyy??????????brdrr0100090000039f0100000200170000 000000050000000902000000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e 01180005000000310201000000050000000b0200000000050000000c024004000f120000 0026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffb9ffffffc00e0000f90300000b0000 0026060f000c004d617468547970650000e00017000000fb0280fe000000000000900101 0000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d0100 0008000000320a8002fe0d01000000300008000000320a8002070c010000002900080000 00320a80026c0a01000000640008000000320a8002b10701000000610008000000320a80 02300701000000280008000000320a8002380301000000660008000000320a8002830001 000000660017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e 657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01010004000000f00100000800000032 0ae0024a0b01000000690008000000320a0a011c06010000006e0008000000320af60321 0601000000310008000000320ae0027f0801000000690008000000320ae002c603010000 006e0008000000320ae002070101000000300010000000fb0280fe000000000000900100 0000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f00101000800000032 0a8002da0c010000003d0008000000320a80024b09010000002b0008000000320a80028a 04010000002b0008000000320a8002cb01010000002b0010000000fb0200fe0000000000 009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008 000000320ac302ae0501000000e50011000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000000204 0200104d542045787472610002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a2c 01af0a01000000720008000000320a8c01da0701000000720008000000320a2c01420301 000000720008000000320a2c018d000100000072000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01 000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00 cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000; - noia?i? neeia? iioiee aei??aiththoue noiai neeaaeiaeo ii a?aeiia?aeieo eii?aeeiaoao: brdrr010009000003df0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400000002 010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b 0200000000050000000c02a00260141200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0 ffffffb0ffffff20140000500200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000070 0010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000 002d01000008000000320a2002461301000000790008000000320a20022c100100000071 0008000000320a2002f50c010000006a0017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000 cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9a040000002d01010004 000000f001000008000000320a2002001301000000690008000000320a2002d60f010000 00690008000000320a20029c0c01000000690008000000320a2002be0902000000697a08 000000320a2002d00602000000697908000000320a2002e5030200000069780800000032 0a2002090101000000690017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054 696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9a040000002d01000004000000f00101 0008000000320ac0017a1201000000660008000000320ac001500f010000006600080000 00320ac001160c01000000660008000000320ac001380901000000660008000000320ac0 014a0601000000660008000000320ac0015f0301000000660008000000320ac001830001 000000660011000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d542045787472 610002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a6c00841201000000720008 000000320a6c005a0f01000000720008000000320a6c00200c0100000072000800000032 0a6c00420901000000720008000000320a6c00540601000000720008000000320a6c0069 0301000000720008000000320a6c008d0001000000720010000000fb0280fe0000000000 009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008 000000320ac0011111010000002b0008000000320ac001e70d010000002b000800000032 0ac001ad0a010000002b0008000000320ac001cf07010000002b0008000000320ac001e1 04010000002b0008000000320ac001e501010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffff ff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737465 6d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000; brdrr010009000003df01000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02600240141200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa5ffffff00140000050200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c00020400000 02d01000008000000320ae0011d1301000000790008000000320ae001081001000000710 008000000320ae001d70c010000006a0017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000c c0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccae040000002d010100040 00000f001000008000000320ae001d71201000000690008000000320ae001b20f0100000 0690008000000320ae0017e0c01000000690008000000320ae001a60902000000697a080 00000320ae001be0602000000697908000000320ae001d90302000000697808000000320 ae001030101000000690017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc04020010546 96d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccae040000002d01000004000000f001010 008000000320a80010b1201000000610008000000320a8001e60e0100000061000800000 0320a8001b20b01000000610008000000320a8001da0801000000610008000000320a800 1f20501000000610008000000320a80010d0301000000610008000000320a80013700010 00000610011000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457874726 10002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a8c003412010000007200080 00000320a8c000f0f01000000720008000000320a8c00db0b01000000720008000000320 a8c00030901000000720008000000320a8c001b0601000000720008000000320a8c00360 301000000720008000000320aa000600001000000760010000000fb0280fe00000000000 09001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f0010100080 00000320a8001ee10010000002b0008000000320a8001c90d010000002b0008000000320 a8001950a010000002b0008000000320a8001bd07010000002b0008000000320a8001d50 4010000002b0008000000320a8001df01010000003d000a00000026060f000a00fffffff f01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656 d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000; brdrr010009000003df01000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02a002a0141200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffb0ffffff60140000500200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c00020400000 02d01000008000000320a20028c1301000000790008000000320a2002681001000000710 008000000320a2002270d010000006a0017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000c c0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc0040000002d010100040 00000f001000008000000320a2002461301000000690008000000320a200212100100000 0690008000000320a2002ce0c01000000690008000000320a2002e60902000000697a080 00000320a2002ee0602000000697908000000320a2002f90302000000697808000000320 a2002130101000000690017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc04020010546 96d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc0040000002d01000004000000f001010 008000000320ac0016a1201000000640008000000320ac001360f0100000064000800000 0320ac001f20b01000000640008000000320ac0010a0901000000640008000000320ac00 1120601000000640008000000320ac0011d0301000000640008000000320ac0013700010 00000640011000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457874726 10002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a6c00ad12010000007200080 00000320a6c00790f01000000720008000000320a8000350c01000000760008000000320 a80004d0901000000760008000000320a6c00550601000000720008000000320a6c00600 301000000720008000000320a80007a0001000000760010000000fb0280fe00000000000 09001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f0010100080 00000320ac0014d11010000002b0008000000320ac001190e010000002b0008000000320 ac001d50a010000002b0008000000320ac001ed07010000002b0008000000320ac001f50 4010000002b0008000000320ac001ef01010000003d000a00000026060f000a00fffffff f01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656 d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 ?en.2 Noaia neeiaeo eiioo??a aca?iiae?? eie?nii? ia?e ? eie?? O caieiooeo eiioo?ao iiaeeeai aeieeiaiiy oee?eoeyoe?eieo iioie?a c ??aiai iiooaeiino?, iacaeaae- iei a?ae iiooaeiino? i?eaiaeo. Aei iaaieo aecia/aieo iaae, cieaeaiiy aei?noeino? eiioo?o aeicaiey? ciaioeoe ??aaiue oee?eoeyoe?? iiooaeiino?. Iaeiae, i?e noaoe?iia?ieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe ia?aaea/? iaiaaeaiiy eiioo?ieo iioie?a iiaea aooe aeinyaiooa o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith ?ica’ycoaaeueieo aoceiaeo oi/ie. ?ica’ycoaaeuei? oi/ee o i?eaiaeao aai ia?aaeaa/athoueny eiino?oeoeaii c iaoith iaiaaeaiiy aioo??oi?o nee a ia?aaea/? (eiino?oeoeai? ?ica’ycoaaeuei? oi/ee), aai aeieeathoue o ca'yceo c ooieoe?yie nenoaie (ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?ica’ycoaaeuei? oi/ee). Iaiaaeoaaeuei? ?ica’ycoaaeuei? oi/ee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ii?iaii ni?aoethaaiiy - a?aie/iei neeiaei iioieii, i?e aeinyaiaii? yeiai cae/aeia aoceiaa oi/ea ia?aoai?th?oueny o ?ica’ycoaaeueio. Aoaeue-yea c iaiaaeoaaeueieo oi/ie, ye i?aaeei, iia'ycaia c iaoai?/ieie ao?aoaie ? ?icn?thaaiiyi aia?a??. ??aaiue ? oa?aeoa?enoeea ao?ao o caieiooeo eiioo?ao caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio ?ica’ycoaaeueieo oi/ie. O caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo ?icn?thaaeueiee iio?e aecia/a?oueny ye iiooaei?noue nee oa?oy: brdrr0100090000032801000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02a00280071200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffb1ffffff40070000510200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01000009000000320a2002ff0503000000636b6a0 008000000320a2002210402000000f26a08000000320a20024601010000006a001700000 0fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2 043797200cc7e040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac00117050100000 0560008000000320ac0014c0301000000460008000000320ac0013700010000006400110 00000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457874726100020400000 02d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7a008a0501000000720008000000320a7a0 09b0301000000720008000000320a6c007a0001000000720010000000fb0280fe0000000 000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000 008000000320ac0011602010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000 010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0400000 02d01000004000000f0010100030000000000cos(brdrr010009000003f0000000020017 0000000000050000000902000000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000 002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0200000000050000000c02a002800412 00000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffa2ffffff40040000420200000b 00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700017000000fb0200ff00000000000090 01010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9a040000002d 01000009000000320a2002fa0203000000636b6a0008000000320a20021a01020000006d 6a17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65772052 6f6d616e2043797200cc9a040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac00111 0201000000560008000000320ac001440001000000460011000000fb0280fe0000000000 00900100000002040200104d542045787472610002040000002d01000004000000f00101 0008000000320a7a00840201000000720008000000320a7a0093000100000072000a0000 0026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000 cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000). 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Aieiaiee aaeoi? nee aca?iiae?? a ie?aiiio eiioaeo? eieana c ?aeeith ia? oaeo no?oeoo?o: brdrr010009000003b801000003001a00000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02c002e0140e00000026060f001200ffffffff000008000000c0f fb4ffa01474020b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000800008000000fa02000 01000000000000000040000002d010000050000001402540076000500000013025400820 105000000140254000904050000001302540031050500000014025400e20705000000130 25400ee080500000014025400820c05000000130254008e0d0500000014025400b611050 0000013025400c2121a000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0002001054696d6 573204e657720526f6d616e20437972204974616c69630030040000002d0101000900000 0320ac00132000100000046000c0109000000320ac001df0301000000500028010900000 0320ac0019e070100000046000c0109000000320ac0013e0c0100000046000c010900000 0320ac00172110100000046000c011a000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000cc000 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972204974616c69630030040000002d0 1020004000000f00101000a000000320a30022c0102000000696a4f004f0009000000320 a300267050100000069004f000d000000320a3002a1080400000063ea696a7e001c014f0 04f000f000000320a3002410d0500000063f6696af5007e0090004f004f004f000f00000 0320a300275120500000063f6696a79007e0090004f004f00900010000000fb0240fe000 0000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0000040000002d01010004000000f00 1020009000000320ac0017802010000003d00f60009000000320ac0014b06010000002b0 0f60009000000320ac001eb0a010000002b00f60009000000320ac0011f10010000002b0 0f6001a000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000cc0002001054696d6573204e65772 0526f6d616e20437972204974616c69630030040000002d01020004000000f0010100090 00000320a3002bd0401000000300090000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000 010000000fb021000080000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00060400000 02d01010004000000f0010200030000000000, aea picscalex100010009000003070100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600240051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbfffffff000500001f0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000700009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 49005f0005000000130249004a0105000000140249009f0205000000130249008a031700 0000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200ccc3040000002d01010008000000320ae001690402000000696a08000000 320ae001350401000000200008000000320ae001460302000000f1f608000000320ae001 7c0101000000690008000000320ae001ee0001000000300017000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc30400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a8001760201000000460008000000320a 80010202010000002c0008000000320a800145000100000050000a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379 7374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000- aaeoi?e aa?oeeaeueieo ? 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Neee c/aieaiiy o nenoaiao eii?aeeiao eie?n OjOYj aecia/aoueny caeaaeii a?ae eiacaiue oa ii?iaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue o eiioaeoao: picscalex100010009000003040300000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c024004e0251200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb9ffffffa0250000f90300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000e00010000000fb029dfde600000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320a7d027d0c01000000280010000000fb029dfde6000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320a7d024d1101000000290010000000fb029dfde60000000000900100000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7d02 2d2001000000280010000000fb029dfde600000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a7d02fd24010000002900 17000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccd7040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a80026025 010000002c0008000000320a80028f22010000002c0008000000320a8002581e01000000 4b0008000000320a8002c31a010000004e0008000000320a8002e1130100000046000a00 0000320a8002fd110500000020202020200008000000320a8002a211010000003b000800 0000320a8002df0e010000002c0008000000320a8002b80a010000004b0008000000320a 80022307010000004e0008000000320a8002440001000000460017000000fb0200ff0000 000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccd7 040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320ae002c0230300000079696a000900 0000320ae00252210300000078696a0008000000320ae002851f01000000790008000000 320ae002b81d01000000300008000000320afd026a1c010000006a0008000000320ae002 d81b01000000690008000000320a0a01e21802000000494908000000320af6038b190100 0000490008000000320af6037c1801000000690008000000320ae0020a16020000006a79 08000000320ae0029e1501000000200008000000320ae002af1402000000f1f609000000 320ae00210100300000079696a0009000000320ae002a20d0300000078696a0008000000 320ae002d80b01000000780008000000320ae002180a01000000300008000000320afd02 ca08010000006a0008000000320ae002380801000000690008000000320a0a0142050200 0000494908000000320af603eb0501000000490008000000320af603dc04010000006900 08000000320ae0026d02020000006a7808000000320ae002010201000000200008000000 320ae002120102000000f1f610000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8002de220100 0000650008000000320a80027d2001000000650008000000320a80028d1c010000007900 08000000320a80022e0f01000000650008000000320a8002cd0c01000000650008000000 320a8002ed0801000000790010000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac3028f180100 0000e50008000000320ac302ef0401000000e50010000000fb0200ff0000000000009001 000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000 320af603df18010000003d0008000000320af6033f05010000003d0010000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a80024f17010000003d0008000000320a8002af03010000003d00 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000 0000 aea y0 - a?aie/iee eiao?oe??io c/aieaiiy; 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O iaaeaiiio ?icae?e? ia?ai? ?ic?aooieia? noaie oa iiaoaeiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? na??eieo iaeeieoeue ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a c o?aooaaiiyi aeanoeainoae e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? eie?n c ?aeeaie. Iiaeae?, i?ecia/ai? aeey aeine?aeaeaiue a /ania?e iaeano?, iathoue oi?io ??aiyiue Eaa?aiaea ae?oaiai ?iaeo: brdrr0100090000038701000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01190005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c026002200e0b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000500 0050000001402c001200017000000fb0240fe000000000000bc02000000cc00020010546 96d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000200040000002d010000070000002105010 0cc0000000000050000001402c0017f04070000002105010042000000000005000000140 2c0013e080700000021050100c60000000000050000001402c001950c070000002105010 0510000000000050000001402ac01e10111000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000000 0000200004d542045787472610000040000002d01010004000000f001000007000000210 50100260000000000050000001402ac01510207000000210501002600000000000500000 01402ac01e60507000000210501002600000000000500000014025600040207000000210 501007200000000000500000014025600d10507000000210501007200000000000500000 01402b000110a07000000210501007200000000000500000014024e00e90c07000000210 50100720000000000050000001402c001da0117000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010 000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000200040000002d01000 004000000f00101000700000021050100710000000000050000001402c001a7050700000 021050100710000000000050000001402c001e7090700000021050100710000000000050 000001402c001220310000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d6 26f6c0000040000002d01010004000000f001000007000000210501002b0000000000050 000001402c001ef0607000000210501002b0000000000050000001402c0013b0b0700000 0210501003d000000000010000000fb021000080000000000bc020000000001020222537 97374656d0006040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, aea I - ?ia?oe?eia; A - aeeneiaoeaia; AE - aei?noe?noia iao?eoe?; brdrr010009000003b000000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02600280011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa6ffffff40010000060200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000500 017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc15040000002d01000008000000320ac0012800010000005100110 00000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457874726100020400000 02d01010004000000f001000008000000320a76008f000100000072000a00000026060f0 00a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022 253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, brdrr0100090000030801000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02600220041200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa6ffffffe0030000060200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000500 017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc02040000002d01000008000000320ac0010303010000007100080 00000320ac001a80201000000200008000000320ac0017d02010000002c0008000000320 ac0019f0101000000710008000000320ac001440101000000200008000000320ac001190 1010000002c0008000000320ac0013b0001000000710011000000fb0280fe00000000000 0900100000002040200104d542045787472610002040000002d01010004000000f001000 008000000320a7600250301000000720008000000320aad015c030100000026000800000 0320aad01100301000000260008000000320a7600c10101000000720008000000320aad0 1d20101000000260008000000320acc005d000100000072000a00000026060f000a00fff fffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737 4656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000- aaeoi?e ocaaaeueiaieo nee ? eii?aeeiao. Iiaoaeiaaii iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeey ianooiieo ae?iaae?a: ?aii? eieiiioeae - OAe, A, Aae; eieiiioeae ?c c/eaiiaaieie a?ceaie - AE19, AE22i, AE23, AE8, *N-2, Re 6/6; eieiiioeae ?c o?ueioa?nieie a?ceaie - OA3, OAI2, I62, OA10I, OA116, OA120, OA114, OA121, OAI60, OAI75, O, NN7100, AE60; eieiiioeae ?c aeaia?nieie a?ceaie - AE80, AE85, OA136, OA126; aeecaeue-ii?cae Ae?1; aeaeo?i-ii?caee na??e A?, ?O, OGV, BD4, RBDe4; aaaiie c a?ceaie EAC-OeIAe?; ?a?iiaenuee? aaaiie c a?ceaie I?iaeai-Aeaeooe ? R28; aaaiie ?c a?ceaie 18-100 (OeIAe?-O3-I), 18-101, 18-102, Y25N; o?aiaa? E6, C6, Tram2000, CLRV, Bt, Be8/8, EOI-5-IC, EO10. ?en.3 Caeaaeiino? i?ae iii?ii ei/aiith eie?nii? ia?e ? iiia?a/iei eiao?oe??ioii aeei?enoaiiy c/aieaiiy ?ICAe?E 6. OaI?AOE*I? AeiNE?AeAEAIIss OA?AEOA?ENOEE IiI?O ?oOO ?aEEIAIai ?OOIIIAI NeEAAeO. ?acoeueoaoe ?ioaa?oaaiiy nenoai ??aiyiue ?ooo ae?iaae?a iieacaee, ui e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo iiaea aeinyaaoe /eiaeeo aaee/ei, iniaeeai o e?eaeo iaeiai ?aae?ono. Aein? oeae aeae iii?o ?ooo /anoeiai a?aoiaoaaany i?aaeeaie oyaeiaeo ?ic?aooie?a (IO?), ye aeiaeaoeiaee ii?? a?ae e?eaeo ni?iuaieie aii??e/ieie oi?ioeaie, ye? ia a?aeaeaathoue aieeao eiino?oeoeaieo ia?aiao??a eiie?aoieo oei?a ?ooiiiai neeaaeo. ?ic?aooiee aoei c?iaeaii aeey iaa?no?aeueiiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo o i?yieo ae?eueieoeyo oeyoo oa e?eaeo ?aae?onii 100...2000 i c i?aeianaiiyi ciai?oiuei? ?aeee ia 40...160 ii, ? aeey o?aiaa?a - o e?eaeo 20...200 i c i?aeianaiiyi - 15...40 ii. Aeey ii??aiyiiy oa?aeoa?enoee aoee i?eeiyo? ioe?ii/i? ?aaeeie ?ooo. Ii ?acoeueoaoai ?ic?aooie?a iaea?eueoee ii?? iathoue ?aii? ae?iaae?. Iaea??o? iieacieee na?aae ?icaeyiooeo aa??aio?a - AI (wemax= 4,79 I/eI), iaee?au? - o AAE (wemax=4,08 I/eI). Ae?iaae? Oae ? Aaeaeaiia-Aaiuei caeiathoue i?ii?aeia i?noea. ??aaiue iii?o ?ooo a?eueoino? a?ceiaeo aeaeo?iaic?a i?eaeecii o aeaa ?ace ieae/ee, i?ae o ?aiieo eieiiioea?a. Iaeiicia/ii aecia/eoe a?aeiini? iieacieee iii?o ?ooo ii oeiai aeaeo?iaic?a aaaeei, caaaeath/e ia ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae ?aaeeio ?ooo. Aeiyoeii iiaeia aaaaeaoe aeaeo?iaic Re2/2, ii?? yeiai ia on?o ?aaeeiao iaeiaioee (wemax=1,56 I/eI). Iaea?eueoee e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ia a?eueoino? ?aaeei?a - o aeaeo?iaica AE85 (wemax=2,1 I/eI). Na?aaei?e ??aaiue e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o o e?eaeo a?eueoino? oaieiaic?a ia 20...25 % aeuee, i?ae aeey aeaeo?iaic?a ? eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,76 I/eI (OAI7) aei 2,62 I/eI (OA3). Ia ?en.4, o aeaeyae? c?acea, iieacai? ?ciae?aa?aie e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo aeaeo?iaic?a Ae80, Ae85 ? oaieiaic?a OA121, OA136. ??aaiue e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o aeaeo?i- ? aeecaeue-ii?cae?a, o ii??aiyii? c eieiiioeaaie, iaaenieee. Ia oaeaeeino? 20...30 i/n ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao a?ae 1,11 I/eI (Bd4) aei 1,42 I/eI (Ae?2). Ia oaeaeeino? a?eueoa 40 i/n ii?? ?ooo cia/ii c?inoa?. Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ianaaee?nueeeo aaaii?a ? aeaeo?i-ii?cae?a noiae?, oi/a ii ??aith ii?? ianaaee?nueeeo aaaii?a, o na?aaeiueiio, ia 5...10 % iaioee. Ia ?en.5 iieacai? ?ciae?aa?aie e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o aaaii?a ICM oa aaaii?a ?c a?ceaie Minden-Deutz o e?ea?e ?aae?onii 1000 i c i?aeianaiiyi ciai?oiuei? ?aeee 120 ii i?e oaeaeeino? 30 i/n. Aeey o?aiaa?a oa?aeoa?ieie ? ?aaeeie ?ooo o e?eaeo iaeiai ?aae?ono, ?ieiee aei 20...25 i. A?eueo?noue e?i?e o?aiaaeieo eie?e, iniaeeai a ?noi?e/ieo ?aeiiao aaeeeeo i?no, ia 20...30 % neeaaeathoueny ?c oaeeo e?eaeo. ?oo o?aiaa?a o e?eaeo noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?ioaineaieie o?eeoe?eieie aaoieieeaaiiyie, ciai?oi?i i?iyaii yeeo ? oa?aeoa?iee aa?ane eie?n. Iaea?eueo? cia/aiiy iii?o aeyaeeeny o o?aiaay Eoi-5-i3 (9,41 I/eI aeey e?eai? 100 i; 14,3 aeey 50; 23,3 aeey 30). O?aiaa? Be 8/8 ? Eo10 ca cia/aiiyie iii?o aoiaeyoue o na?aaeith a?oio (a?aeiia?aeii 7,96 ? 7,67; 12,0 ? 12,2; 19,3 ? 19,7 I/eI). I?i?iaeueiee ??aaiue e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o o o?aiaa?a o??ie “Oeiaea” (6,11; 9,31; 15,1 I/eI). Ia ?en.6 iieacai? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o o?aiaa?a EOI-5-I3 oa EO10. Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?icaeyiooeo o ?iaio? aaioaaeieo aaaii?a ?ic??ciythoueny o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ia a?eueoa i?ae ia 10...15 %. Iaee?au? iieacieee o aaaiia ?c a?ceaie R25C (0,45 I/eI i?e 10 i/n; 0,44 i?e 20; 0,98 i?e 30). Iaea?eueoee ii?? oa?aeoa?iee aeey aaaii?a ?c a?ceaie 18-101 (0,62; 0,57; 1,15 I/eI). E?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo ae?iaae?a i?e ?on? o i?yieo ae?eueieoeyo eie?? ? iacia/iei ? neeaaea? 3...8 % a?ae iniiaiiai iii?o ?ooo. Ia i?eeeaae? /ioe?ueioa?niiai aaaiio aeine?aeaeaii aieea ia ii?? ?ooo ia?aiao??a ae?iaae?a ? eie??. Iaea?aeaii, ui e?ea? eoo?a iaa?aaiiy iathoue ae?aaeaiee i?i?ioi, a?aeiia?aeiee aac? a?ce?a 3,0...5,0 i. a) a) a) a) ?en.4 Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo eieiiioea?a a) - AE80; a) - AE85; a) - OA121; a) - OA136 a) a) ?en.5 Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo aeaeo?i-ii?cae?a a) - ICM; a) - Minden Deutz. a) a) ?en.6 Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo o?aiaa?a a) - EOI-5-I3; a) - EO10. I?e caci?? o ?aeeia?e eie?? iiiaae 30 ii ? aac? iaio?e ca 3,0 i eooe iaa?aaiiy aeinyaathoue /eiaeeo aaee/ei (0,017...0,025 ?aae), i?e/iio iaei caeaaeaoue a?ae ?aae?ona e?eai?. Ca?eueoaiiy caci?o a eie?? a?ae 20 aei 80 ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o a e?ea?e ia 25 %. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ooo ae?iaae?a c ??ciiiai?oieie i?io?eyie eie?n iieacaee /eiaeee aieea ?o oi?ie ia e?iaiaoeeo ? aeeiai?eo o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? ae?iaae?a ? eie??. Aaaeei iaeiicia/ii a?aeiia?noe ia ieoaiiy, ui naia aeyaey? ae??oaeueiee aieea ia iieacieee oe??? aca?iiae?? - oi?ia iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy eieana /e oi?ia a?aaaiy, i?ioa i?io?eyi ?c a?aaaiaaei eiionii 700 a?aeiia?aeathoue a?eueo aenie? (ia 25...40 %) cia/aiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo, i?ae i?io?eyi ?c a?aaaiaaei eiionii 600. ?iciiae?e iieaciee?a e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ii i?io?eyi eie?n i?e ?on? o i?yieo aeaui ?ioee. Iaee?au? iieacieee iathoue i?io?e?: SC(O?aioe?y) (0,39 I/eI); A(ssiii?y), A?eueoe?(NIAe) (0,41 I/eI); R2(Aiae?y), E (O?aioe?y), INAEAe (0,42 I/eI). Iaea?eueoee e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo noai?th? noaiaea?oiee i?io?eue Oaaeoea??? (0,68 I/eI). Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia?aiao??a iiaeiaaeiueiai ca'yceo eie?nieo ia? c ?aiith a?cea ia iieacieee iii?o ?ooo o ae?aiacii? iiaeiaaeiuei? aei?noeino? aoeniaeo iia?aee?a AEao = 1,00...20,0 eI/ii iieacaei, ui aeey oaeaeeino? aeua ca 15 i/n i?aeaeuaiiy aei?noeino? iiiaae 5,0 eI/ii i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia iieacieee iii?o, iniaeeai o e?eaeo iaeiai ?aae?ono. O iaaeao a?ae 5,0 aei 1,0 eI/ii niinoa??aa?oueny eiai i?aeaeuaiiy o 1,5...1,7 ?ace. I?ioa iioeiaeueia cia/aiiy aei?noeino? iiaeiaaeiueiai ca'yceo a aoeniaeo aoceao iacaaoe aaaeei, oiio ui ia iieiaeaiiy i?i?ioio e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o aieeaa? ?aaeei ?ooo. Aeey ??aiiaaaeieo ?aaeei?a ?ooo iaee?au? iieacieee iii?o ?ooo iathoue i?noea i?e AEao=4,2...7,5 eI/ii. Aeey aecia/aiiy ca?ao ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c aeaieie aenieoaoaoe?? ii iniiaiiio e?eoa??th aeinoia??iino? - e?iaiaoe/iiio iii?o ?ooo - aoee aeei?enoai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a, iienai? o ?ICAe?E? 4, oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?, i?eaaaeai? o iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo. ?ICAe?E 7. AeiNE?AeAEAIIss IiIA?A*II? EA?IAAIINO? ?aEEIaeo Ae?IAAE?A. Iiiyooy ea?iaaiino? oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny o oai??? ?ooo o?ainii?oieo iaoei. Ea?iaai?noue - aeanoea?noue o?ainii?oiiai caniao i?aeeyaaoe ea?oth/iio aieeao. I?e iayaiino? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ea?iaai?noue aecia/a?oueny, ye ?aaeoe?y iaoeie o aeaeyae? ci?ie ?aeeiaeo, eo?niaeo aai iiia?a/ieo e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ia ea?oth/ee aieea c aieo i?aaio oi?aae?iiy. Ci?ia o?a?eoi??? ?ooo (ni?yioaaiiy) cae?cie/ieo ae?iaae?a, ye a?aeiii, cae?enith?oueny ?aeeiaith eie??th caaaeyee ai?eciioaeueiei ?aeeiaei ?aaeoe?yi. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo o?ainii?oieo cania?a o oiio aeaeyae?, ye aiia ?icaeyaea?oueny o oai??? ?ooo eie?nieo iaoei, ? o?ea?aeueiith caaea/ath, ai ia? i?noea oi?aae?iiy ii aei?noe?e i?ia?ai? ? eiai ?acoeueoao, o iaaeao caci??a ?aeeiai? eie?? oa aeaoi?iaoe?e ?aeeiaeo ieoie, cacaeaeaa?aeue a?aeiiee. sse?ni? iieacieee ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a iia'ycai? c aeiaeaoeiaei aieeaii ia ae?iaae c aieo eie??, ye i?aaio oi?aae?iiy, ? ia eie?th o aeaeyae? neeiaeo ?aaeoe?e ae?iaaeo ia ea?oth/ee aieea, iia'ycaieo c i?ioeanii oi?aae?iiy. Aei oaeeo iieaciee?a ne?ae a?aeianoe ai?eciioaeueiee aieea ia eie?th ? aeiaeaoeiaee ii?? ?ooo, iia'ycaiee c oi?aae?iiyi. Ea?oth/ee aieea o aeaeyae? eiioaeoieo aieiaeo coneeue c??aiiaaaeo? neeia? /eiieee ae?iaaeo, ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue aienoaaiith o e?eao. Ae?th/? o nenoai? "ae?iaae - eie?y" neeia? /eiieee, ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?ioeano aienoaaiiy, iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia iai?aaeyth/? /eiieee oa /eiieee iii?o. I?eeiaoith iai?aaeyth/iai /eiieea ? iiceoeaiee iai?yi iiiaioo, yeee a?i noai?th? a?aeiinii iai?yio aienoaaiiy, /eiieea iii?o - a?ae'?iiee iai?yi iiiaioo. ?icaeyiooi neeia? /eiieee, ae?th/? ia eie?ni? ia?e, ca ?o iioiaeaeaiiyi: iiaeiaaei? (FcoeI(ijk)x, FcoeII(ijk)x) oa iiia?a/i? (FcoeI(ijk)y, FcoeII(ijk)y) neeaaeia? nee c/aieaiiy; a?aa?oaoe?ei? neeaaeia? ii?iaeueieo ?aaeoe?e (FceI(ijk), FceII(ijk)); iiaeiaaei? oa iiia?a/i? aoenia? ?aaeoe?? (Fa(ijk)x, Fa(jk)y). Aieiai? aaeoi?e iiia?a/ieo nee eie?nieo ia? o aaniethoi?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao Xoy : brdrr0100090000030702000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02a002c01a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa2ffffff801a0000420200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01000008000000320a2002211a010000002900080 00000320a20022519020000006a6b08000000320a2002681801000000280008000000320 a2002e11701000000340008000000320a2002591701000000790008000000320a2002761 401000000290008000000320a20027a13020000006a6b08000000320a2002bd120100000 0280008000000320a20023f1201000000330008000000320a2002b711010000007900080 00000320a2002d40e01000000290008000000320a2002d80d020000006a6b08000000320 a20021b0d01000000280008000000320a20029a0c01000000320008000000320a20020c0 c01000000790008000000320a2002290901000000290008000000320a20022d080200000 06a6b08000000320a2002700701000000280008000000320a2002fc06010000003100080 00000320a20027b0601000000790008000000320a2002710301000000290008000000320 a20027502020000006a6b08000000320a2002b80101000000280008000000320a20023a0 101000000790017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d65732 04e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d01010004000000f00100000800000 0320ac001631601000000460008000000320ac001c11001000000460008000000320ac00 1160b01000000460008000000320ac001850501000000460008000000320ac0014400010 00000460011000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d5420457874726 10002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7a00b216010000007200080 00000320a7a00101101000000720008000000320a7a00650b01000000720008000000320 a7a00d40501000000720008000000320a7a00930001000000720010000000fb0280fe000 0000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00 1000008000000320ac0013915010000002b0008000000320ac001970f010000002b00080 00000320ac001ec09010000002b0008000000320ac0014a04010000003d000a000000260 60f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010 2022253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000; 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Iaeneiaeuei? eiioaeoi? eiacaiiy eie?n c aoaeoeaiei ooeeii aei 1:20, i?e ?on? aac aeioeeo a?aaaiy, aeinyaathoue ia a?eueo 0,1 %, oa o e?eaeo ?aae?onii iaio ca 1000 i oeae /eiiee noa? iii?ii. Oaeei /eiii, iiaeiaaei? neeaaeia? nee c/aieaiiy, ye neeiaee /eiiee aienoaaiiy o e?eao, ia a?ae?a?a? i?aeoe/ii i?yei? ?ie?, oiio ui iai?aaeyth/? iiiaioe ? iiiaioe iii?o iathoue ??aaiue ia a?eueo 8 % a?ae a?aie/iiai iiiaioo c/aieaiiy. Iiia?a/i? eiacaiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae eoo?a iaa?aaiiy y‘. Caeaaeii a?ae onoaiiaee eie?nii? ia?e iaeneiaeuei?, na?aaei? oa i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy aecia/athoueny ii oi?ioeao: picscalex100010009000003510200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400500131200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbfffffffc0120000ff0400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 a0026507050000001302a002820810000000fb0209fee500000000009001000000020002 001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a4504c20d0100000028001000 0000fb0209fee500000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a4504a211010000002900050000001402a002f10a 050000001302a002171210000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002000200105379 6d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a93042c1201000000 fa0008000000320a1e032c1201000000fa0008000000320ae2042c1201000000fb000800 0000320aa9012c1201000000f90008000000320a9304c10601000000ea0008000000320a 1e03c10601000000ea0008000000320ae204c10601000000eb0008000000320aa901c106 01000000e90008000000320a4904870f010000002b0008000000320ad101b40d01000000 2b0008000000320a0003da08010000002d0008000000320a0003af03010000003d001000 0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 020004000000f001010008000000320a4904901001000000640008000000320a4904490e 01000000720008000000320ad101950b02000000726408000000320a0f02640701000000 700008000000320a0003240001000000650017000000fb0200ff00000000000090010100 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cce5040000002d010100 04000000f001020008000000320a9d03300c01000000320008000000320aa9043e0d0100 0000290008000000320aa904be0c010000006a0008000000320aa904010c010000002800 08000000320a2501fd0f01000000320008000000320a31020b1101000000290008000000 320a31028b10010000006a0008000000320a3102ce0f01000000280009000000320a5402 1501030000006d61780008000000320a60039f0201000000790008000000320a60032802 01000000290008000000320a6003a801010000006a0008000000320a6003eb0001000000 280017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200cce5040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a4904 fe0a01000000430008000000320ad101cb0e01000000430008000000320a0003fb090100 0000320008000000320a2c04990701000000320009000000320a0003eb04030000007369 6e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000 bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00102000300 00000000; 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Iiia?a/i? neeaaeia? nee c/aieaiiy iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe ?ieue iai?aaeyth/iai /eiieea i?aeoe/ii o?eueee i?e onoaiiaoe? a?ce?a ?c ia?aeinii i?e iaa?aaii? ia?oi? eie?nii? ia?e ia aioo??oith ?aeeo. I?e ?ioeo onoaiiaeao oeae /eiiee ? iii?ii. ??aaiue iiiaio?a iii?o aenieee, ai iiia?a/i? eiacaiiy ia?aa?eueoothoue e?eoe/i? oa cae?eoe/i? cia/aiiy. E??i oiai, oa?aeoa?enoeea caeaaeiino? iiiaioo iii?o a?ae eooa iaa?aaiiy, a naia ca?eueoaiiy iiiaioo iii?o i?e ca?eueoaii? eooa iaa?aaiiy, ? iaaaoeaiith. Iniaeeai yne?aai oea i?iyaey?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? iai?aaeyth/eo eie?nieo ia?, anoaiiaeaieo ia aiaeee? iiia?aaeo a?cea (oaieiaic 2oa126). A?aa?oaoe?ei? neeaaeia? eiioaeoieo ?aaeoe?e i?e iiia?a/iiio ci?uaii? eie?nii? ia?e aei iiiaioo aeioeeo a?aaaiy aei aieiaee ?aeee i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia i?ioean aienoaaiiy. I?e a?aaaiaaiio aeioeeo iai?aaeyth/a ?ieue a?aa?oaoe?eieo nee iiaea aooe aeoaea aaeeeith, caeaaeii a?ae ia?a?iciiae?eo ii?iaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?ae I ? II eiioaeoaie aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo eieana c ?aeeith. Oae, a?aa?oaoe?eia a?aaaiaaa neea i?e iaaaioaaeaii? ia eieani 115 eI iiaea aeinyaaoe aeey a?aaaiaaiai eiiona g = 60i - 196 eI, a aeey g = 70i - 325 eI. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy e?euee?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aienoaaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii iiaeaeue c ia?aiao?aie aeaeo?iaica Ae80. Ia ?en.7 iieacaia caeaaei?noue iieiaeaiiy ??aiiaaae a?ce?a a?ae ?aae?ono e?eai? oa iaiaaeaiiy c oiia coiaeo c ?aeie o aeaeyae? aeieoth/iai eiioo?o. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aeey aoaeue-yeiai ?aae?ono e?eai? a?cee anoaiiaeththoueny ?c a?ae'?iiei ia?aeinii. O e?eaeo ?aae?onii a?eueo ca 780 i iiaeeeai e?iaiaoe/ia aienoaaiiy. I?e ?aae?onao e?eaeo o iaaeao 780...260 i ia? i?noea iaeiia?/iee a?aaaiaaee aeioee, a naia, ia?oi? eie?nii? ia?e i ciai?oith ?aeeo. O e?eaeo ?aae?onii iaio ca 260 i - aeaia?/iee: ia?oi? eie?nii? ia?e i ciai?oith ?aeeo, ae?oai? eie?nii? ia?e i aioo??oith. Iaeii/ania iaa?aaiiy ia?aaeiuei? eie?nii? ia?e ia ciai?oith ?aeeo, a caaeiuei? - ia aioo??oith, o.o. iiaiee ia?aein, iiaeeeaee i?e e?eaeci? eie??, iaioa ca e?eoe/io (oi/ea 7). ?io? eie?ni? ia?e ?ooathoueny aac aeioeeo a?aaai?a c ?aeeaie ? ni?yiiaothoueny ?aiith a?cea. Iiaeiaaei? ? iiia?a/i? eiacaiiy, ye iaa?aath/eo, oae ? a?eueieo eie?nieo ia?, aeeeeeathoue ii?? ?ooo, ui ia?aai?th?oueny ni?yiiaoth/eie coneeeyie. I?aeo?ae aei ni?yioaaiiy ae?iaae?a ?aeeiaith eie??th, ye i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy c aieo oeyoo, aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a ca iieacieeaie aienoaaiiy. Aei oaeeo iieaciee?a a?aeiinyoueny aieiaee aieea ia oeyo oa e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo. ?en.7 Aeieoth/ee eiioo? ??aiiaaae a?ce?a ae?iaaeo AE80 o e?eaeo aeey noaiaea?oiiai ?aeeiaiai oeyoo 1 -7 - iieiaeaiiy a?ce?a o e?eaeo: 1 - 5000 i; 2 - 2000 i; 3 - 1000 i; 4 - 750 i; 5 - 500 i; 6 - 300 i; 7 - 200 i; 8 - iaiaaeaiiy ii oiiaao a?aaaiaaiai aeioeeo ia?oi? eie?nii? ia?e ciai?oiuei? ?aeee; 9 - iaiaaeaiiy ii oiiaao a?aaaiaaiai aeioeeo ae?oai? eie?nii? ia?e aioo??oiuei? ?aeee; 10 - ciia aaciaee ii oiiaao noiaeo c ?aeie. Aca?iica'ycie e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ? aieiaiai ai?eciioaeueiiai aieeao ia oeyo iai?yiei /eiii iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi: brdrr010009000003c604000003001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02400760271200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffc0ffffff20270000000700000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000a00 109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014021902620 305000000130219029d0610000000fb029dfde6000000000090010000000200020010537 96d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a7602940c010000007b0010000000fb0 209fee500000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010200040 00000f001010008000000320a6606cf0c01000000280010000000fb0209fee5000000000 09001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010200080 00000320a6606a31001000000290010000000fb028dfde60000000000900100000002000 2001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a66064e0 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6d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a80013b0001000000 3d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000 bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300 00000000- ni?yiiaoth/e neee aca?iiae?? a?aaai?a eie?n ?c ?aeeaie; brdrr0100090000036c01000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02a002600f1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa2ffffff200f0000420200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc0f040000002d01000008000000320ac001a10e010000002000080 00000320ac0018e0b01000000460008000000320ac001be0501000000460008000000320 ac001440001000000460017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc04020010546 96d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc0f040000002d01010004000000f001000 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200000000050000000c02a00200031200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa3ffffffc0020000430200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000700 017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526 f6d616e2043797200cc15040000002d01000009000000320a20029f0103000000696a6b0 008000000320a20026b0101000000200008000000320a2002e80001000000e1001700000 0fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2 043797200cc15040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac0011f000100000 0590011000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d54204578747261000 2040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7a0081000100000072000a00000 026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000c c0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 - aieia? neee aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c ?aeeaie; brdrr0100090000038801000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000000020 10100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b0 200000000050000000c02e004600a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0f fffffa3ffffff200a0000830400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000000 110000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400000 02d01000008000000320a2803330501000000e50010000000fb02e0fe000000000000900 1000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00100000800000 0320a81049a05010000003d0010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001 053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ae002cd03010 000003d0017000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e2043797200cc81040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320 a3801b40501000000320008000000320a8104390601000000310008000000320a8104340 501000000690009000000320a5003a70803000000696a6b0008000000320a50036d08010 00000200008000000320a5003da0701000000e10008000000320a50034102020000006a6 b08000000320a5003c70101000000200008000000320a50033b010100000070001700000 0fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2 043797200cc81040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ae002de060100000 0590008000000320ae002190001000000590011000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000 00002040200104d542045787472610002040000002d01010004000000f00100000800000 0320a6c01500701000000720008000000320a6c018b000100000072000a00000026060f0 00a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022 253797374656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000 - ?aii? neee - iiai? iiia?a/i? neee aca?iiae?? eie?nieo ia? c ?aeeiaei oeyoii. Ia i?eeeaae? ae?iaae?a Ae80 oa Oa116 c?iaeaii aiae?c oeueiai aca?iica'yceo i?e ?on? o e?eaeo ae?eyieao eie??. Aiae?coth/e caeaaeiino? iaeneiaeueieo ?aiieo ? ni?yiiaoth/eo nee ? e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo a?ae ?aae?ono e?eai? oa oaeaeeino? ?ooo, oeyoii aeeeth/aiiy ia?aiao??a V ? r, aoee iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino?, ui ?ethno?othoue aca?iica'ycie ?aiieo ? ni?yiiaoth/eo nee ? e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo. Iaea?aeai? aeai? iieacothoue, ui ca?eueoaiiy a?aaaiaaeo ni?yiiaoth/eo ? ?aiieo nee i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeoe/ii i?iii?oe?eiiai i?aeaeuaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo. E?auo ea?iaai?noue, oaeei /eiii, iathoue ae?iaae? c iaioei ??aiai e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo a e?ea?e. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo, ye ?ioaa?aeueiee e?eoa??e yeino? oi?aae?iiy aienoaaiiyi. ?ICAe?E 8. Ia?NIAEOEAE ?iCAEOEO EiINO?OEOe?E OiAeIAEO *ANOEI ?aEEIaiai ?OOIIiai NeEAAeO c OI*ee cI?O IiI?O ?oOO. O aeayeeo iaaeao iie?ioaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iii?o ?ooo o e?eaeo ? i?yieo ae?eyieao eie?? iiaeia aeinyaoe iioei?caoe??th ia?aiao??a o?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e ae?iaaeo. Oe? i?iaeaie ?icaeyioo? o /eneaiieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?iaioao ? aeathoue iaai? ?acoeueoaoe. O aeaiiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii aeae?eueea iai?yie?a ?aaeeeaeueii? ci?ie eiino?oeoe?? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. Aieiaiei aeaea?aeii e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ae?iaae?a ? oee?eoeyoe?ei? neeia? iioiee o caieiooeo eiioo?ao oiaeiaeo /anoei. Cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ae?iaae?a iia'ycaia ?c ciaioaiiyi ??aiy oee?eoeyoe?? o neeiaeo eiioo?ao oa onoiaiiyi caieiooeo eiioo??a. Cieaeaiiy ??aiy oee?eoeyoe?? a eiioaeoieo eiioo?ao iiaeeeaa, iai?eeeaae, ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioo oa?oy o eiioaeoao ? ai?eciioaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia a?aaaiaa? eiioaeoe. Ia?oa caaea/a ae??oo?oueny ca ?aooiie canoinoaaiiy a?aaaiaaeo aai ?aeeiaeo eoa?eeaoi??a. O a?aeiioaii? aei ae?oai?, iaaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia aeiaeoeny ?aoe?iiaeueiei aeai?ii i?io?e?a iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy eie?n, iioei?caoe??th ia?aiao??a oiaeiai? /anoeie ? eie??. Aea oea aoaeoeaii o?eueee o i?yieo ? e?eaeo aaeeeiai ?aae?ono. Aeey iaa?no?aeueieo ae?eyiie eie?? ?aae?onii iaio i?ae 500 i, a oaeiae aeey i?nueeiai ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo, iaiao?aei? ?aaeeeaeuei? eiino?oeoeai? ae??oaiiy uiaei oiaeiai? /anoeie, ye? aeicaieyoue cia/ii ciaioeoe iai?aaeyth/? neee. Iai?aaeyth/? a?cee oa eie?ni? ia?e ?c naiiai ii/aoeo canoiniaoaaeeny, ye can?a cieaeaiiy ai?eciioaeueiiai aieeao ia eie?th. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaii aeae?eueea eiino?oeoeaieo aa??aio?a a?ce?a, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, ye i?aaeei, c aaaaoia?niith ?aiiith oiaeiaith /anoeiith: Ainnaey, Aonna, Aaeaina, Aaeueiaieueoea, Eeaeiiaa, Aeea?aeoa, Eiooa?a, Aaeaeaiia-Aaiuei oa oiaeiaa /anoeia oaieiaico 2oa126. Ocaaaeueithth/e ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aiie ia iathoue iii?oieo i?ea?eae ia?aae ?ioeie ae?iaaeaie o a?aeiioaii? ye?nieo iieaciee?a ea?iaaiino?. A?eueo oiai, o ?yae? aeiaaee?a, ?o e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? aeyaey?oueny o 2...2,5 ?ace aeuei, i?ae o aiaeia?/ieo aa??aio?a a?ce?a aac iai?aaeyth/eo eie?nieo ia?. Aiae?c ?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee aienoaaiiy a?ce?a c ?aae?aeueiith onoaiiaeith eie?nieo ia? aiai?eoue i?i aenieo aoaeoeai?noue oeueiai ??oaiiy o a?aeiioaii? eoo?a iaa?aaiiy eie?n ia ?aeee. Oi/a o e?eaeo na?aaeiueiai oa iaeiai ?aae?ono oeae can?a o ii?aeiaii? ?c cae/aeieie eie?nieie ia?aie i?aeoe/ii ia aea? cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiith eiino?oeoe??th a?ce?a, ai ciaioo? oee?eoeyoe?ei? ao?aoe o?eueee o eiioaeoieo eiioo?ao. Iai?ioe, o eiioo?ao "eie?nia ia?a - ?aeeiaee oeyo" oee?eoeyoe?ei? iioiee c?inoathoue, /a?ac iaiaaaiiy a?ce?a aei oeaio?aeueii? onoaiiaee. Oiio canoinoaaiiy iiai?ioieo o ieai? eie?nieo ia? c ?aae?aeueiith onoaiiaeith o ?aeeia?e eie?? aac aeiaeaoeiaeo oaeineiiaeaiue ? iaeiaoaeoeaiei caniaii cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo o e?eaeo na?aaeiueiai ? iaeiai ?aae?ono. Iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei caniaii aeeeth/aiiy caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a o i?eaiae? ? oaaaeaiiy a e?iaiaoe/i? eaioethae ?ica'ycoaaeueieo aoceiaeo oi/ie. A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y niinoa??aa?oueny iaaia aeoeai?noue aeine?aeiee?a o iai?yieo eiino?oeoeaii? iiaea?i?caoe?? o?aaeeoe?eii? eie?nii? ia?e. Iaei??th ?c oaeeo eiino?oeoeaieo ?aae?caoe?e ? canoinoaaiiy eie?nieo ia? c ?iciiae?eii iaa?oaiiy eie?n. I?e oeueiio /eiaea oneeaaeiaiiy eiino?oeoe?? eie?nii? ia?e aei?aaaeiao?oueny ye?nieie iie?ioaiiyie e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee aca?iiae?? eie?n ?c ?aeeaie. Ii ?acoeueoaoao aei?iaoaaiue, ae?iaae?a aiie?ooaee iiia?a/ieo eieeaaiue aeoeyiiy ciaioothoueny ia 60...80 %; aieiaee aieea ia eie?th cieaeo?oueny o i?yieo ia 45...55 %, a o e?eaeo - ia 15...20 %; ii?? ?ooo ? aeaeaoie aeaeo?iaia?a?? o e?eaeo ae?eyieao eie?? cieaeothoueny ia 10...15 %; i?e ?on? o i?yieo, ye i?aaeei, oe?eeii a?aenooi? aeoeyiiy, aea niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei iino?eiiai aeioeeo a?aaai?a iaei??? ?c noi??i aei ?aeee, oi/ eiioaeoi? iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e oeueiio, cae/aeii, iaaaeee?; ao?aoe no?eeino? ?ooo ia niinoa??aathoueny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo /ioe?ueio aa??aio?a ae?iaae?a ?c ?iciiae?eaiei iaa?oaiiyi eie?n: oaieiaica Oa121, aeecaeue-ii?caea Ae?1, aeaeo?iaica Ae85 ? o?aiaay Eo10. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey an?o aeiaaee?a, ui aeine?aeaeoaaeeny, ? oa, ui e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ae?iaae?a c a?eueiei iaa?oaiiyi eie?n o e?eaeo ?aae?onii a?eueo 900 i ia 10...15 % aeu?e, a o e?eaeo ?aae?onii iaio 500 i ia 20...50 % ieae/ee, o ii??aiyii? c na??eieie aa??aioaie. O ae?aiacii? ?aae?on?a e?eaeo 600...800 i niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy iii?o ia 1...5 %. Aei iniaeeaiai aeaeo eiino?oeoeaiiai ??oaiiy oiaeiai? /anoeie ne?ae a?aeianoe, oae caai?, iiaeiaaei? eie?ni? ia?e. Ia iaeiiio c eiino?oeoeaieo aa??aio?a o?aiaath Eo200, ?ic?iaeaiiai OE "Eoaainueeoaieiaic", canoiniaaii aoeniaa ?ici?uaiiy oyaeiaeo aeaeo?iaeaeaoi?a i?e a?eueiiiaa?oiaeo eieanao, i?e/iio, ? aa??aioe aeeiiaiiy c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei ? a?oiiaei i?eaiaeii. I?e a?oiiaiio i?eaiae? eie?n ia eiaei?e noi?ii? a?cea ooai?ththoueny, ca'ycai? /a?ac ?icaeaaaeuei? ?aaeoeoi?e, iiaeiaaei? eie?ni? ia?e. ?ic?aooiee aeey e?eaeo ?aae?onii 20...100 i iieacaee, ui ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aienoaaiiy ae?iaaea Eo200 iaei a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oa?aeoa?enoee aeey oaeiai ae o?aiaay c a?eueiiiaa?oiaeie eieanaie. Eiai e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? noaa ieae/a onueiai ia 3...5 %. Aeine?aei? eie?ni? ia?e c ea?iaaiei eiacaiiyi, aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii o??iith Iaa (I?ia//eia). Na?aae ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue oaeeo eie?nieo ia? caaaeueiei ? oa, ui eooiaee ca'ycie i?aaiai ? e?aiai eie?n cae?enith?oueny aeeoa?aioe?aeueiith ioooith. ?icaeyiooi aeaa caniae oi?aae?iiy ioooith: ianeaiee ? aeoeaiee. I?e ianeaiiio cania? ioooa i?aoeth? ye ioooa a?aie/iiai iiiaioo. Aeoeaiee can?a i?eionea? oi?aae?iiy aaee/eiith a?aie/iiai iiiaioo a i?ioean? ?ooo. ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? aeey ae?iaae?a c ?aaoeueiaaiei ca'yceii eie?n, caeaaeaoue ye a?ae caniao oi?aae?iiy, oae ? a?ae caeiio ?aaoethaaiiy. I?e ianeaiiio cania? aeinyaa?oueny cieaeaiiy oee?eoeyoe?eiiai i?ieiacoaaiiy ia 30...50 %, aea e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo noa? a?eueo aenieei, i?ae aeey ae?iaae?a ?c a?eueiei iaa?oaiiyi eie?n. I?e aeoeaiiio cania? oi?aae?iiy a i?yieo ae?eyieao eie?? e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo iiaeia cieceoe ia 10...15 %. sse aeey ianeaiiai, oae ? aeey aeoeaiiai caniao ?aaoethaaiiy, cia/aiiy iii?o ?ooo o e?eaeo ae?eyieao eie?? caeiathoue na?aaei? iieiaeaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei iieaciee?a aaciaiai ae?iaaeo oa ae?iaaeo c a?eueiei iaa?oaiiyi eie?n. Cieaeaiiy aei?noeino? a?aeiiniiai inueiaiai iiai?ioo eie?n o i?oaeieo eie?nieo ia?ao, e??i ciaioaiiy nee aeeiai?/ii? aca?iiae?? ae?iaaeo oa oeyoo, ciaioo? oee?eoeyoe?ei? i?ieiacoaaiiy oa e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo o i?yieo ae?eueieoeyo eie?? ia 5...8 %, i?ioa o e?eaeo ae?eueieoeyo eie?? cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo, i?aeoe/ii, ia niinoa??aa?oueny. I?iaaaeai? o aeaiiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei caniaii cieaeaiiy ??aiy oee?eoeyoe?? iiooaeiino? o e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioethaao ni?yioaaiiy eie?nieo ia? ?aeeiaith eie??th ? aaaaeaiiy o caieioo? eiioo?e ?ica'ycoaaeueieo aoceiaeo oi/ie. Caeaaeii a?ae i?ecia/aiiy ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ? ianooiieo oiia eiai aenieoaoaoe??, aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe aeaa iniiaieo iai?yiee ?icaeoeo eiino?oeoe?e oiaeiaeo /anoei ?aeeiaiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo ?c ciaioaiei ??aiai iii?o ?ooo. Aeey ?ooiiiai neeaaeo iaa?no?aeueieo cae?cieoeue c ?aae?onaie 1000 i iie?ioaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iii?o ?ooo iiaeia aeinyaoe i?aeai?ii ia?aiao??a oiaeiai? /anoeie ia aac? o?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e: aeai?ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?io?eth iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy eie?n; aace a?ce?a; oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo ca'yce?a eie?nieo ia? c ?aiith a?cea. I?e oeueiio iiaeia i/?eoaaoe cieaeaiiy e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ia 5...15 %. Aeey ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, i?ecia/aiiai aeey aenieoaoaoe?? o e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyieao eie?? c ?aae?onaie iaioeie ca 800 i (i?nueeee ?aeeiaee o?ainii?o, aeeth/ath/e iao?iiie?oai, a??nuee? iaa?no?aeuei? ae?eueieoe?, ea?'??iee oa i?iieneiaee ?ooiiee neeaae oa ?i.) a?eueo aoaeoeaiei ? noi?uaiiy ?aae?aeueii? onoaiiaee eie?nieo ia? ?c a?eueiei iaa?oaiiyi eie?n. Oaea eiino?oeoeaia ??oaiiy aeicaiey? ca ?aooiie onoiaiiy caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a eie?nieo ia? caanoe aei i?i?ioio ??aaiue oee?eoeyoe?? o eiioaeoieo eiioo?ao ? cieceoe e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo, o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eieie aa??aioaie, ia 50...60 %. AeNIIAEE I?aaenoaaeaia aaoi?ii ?iaioa a?aeiineoueny aei iaeiiai ?c i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue – ?ano?nicaa??aath/? oaoiieia?? ? ni?yiiaaia ia ciaioaiiy iaae?iaie/eo ao?ao aia?aiiin??a ia oyao ii?cae?a. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe ?iaioe aoa aeeiiaiee eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a ? eie??, iia'ycaii? c iii?ii ?ooo ?ooiiiai neeaaeo. Iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee ? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?iaioe noi?ioeueiaai? o ianooiiiio aeaeyae?. 1. ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iii?o ?ooo ia a?aeaeaathoue eiai caeaaeiino? a?ae eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae oiaeiaeo /anoei ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, ui ia aea? iiaeeeaino? i?iaiicoaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee iii?o ae?iaae?a ia noaae?? ?o i?iaeooaaiiy. Aiae?c no?oeoo?e ? eiiiiiaio?a iniiaiiai ? aeiaeaoeiaiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a aeicaieea aecia/eoe iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiee iai?yi eiai cieaeaiiy, ui iieyaa? o iie?ioaii? oa?aeoa?enoee e?iaiaoeee ? aeeiai?ee o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? eie?nieo ia? c ?aeeiaith eie??th. 2. Aaiiao?e/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiioaeooaaiiy eie?nieo ia? ? eie??, aei yeeo aaoi? a?aeiineoue caeaaeiino? eii?aeeiao oi/ie eiioaeo?a, aoaeoeaieo ooee?a ? ?aae?on?a iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy a?ae a?aeiiniiai iieiaeaiiy eie?n ? ?aeie ?, caeaa?eueoiai, eoni/ii-e?i?eieie. Aeey a?eueoino? eiia?iaoe?e i?io?e?a eie?n ? ?aeie, ye i?i?ioi iaeia ?c a?aeiinieo iieiaeaiue eie?nii? ia?e ? ?aeee, aea? aeaioi/eiaee eiioaeo. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo, ye noaoe/ii-iaaecia/aii? nenoaie nie?aiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi eiioaeoii? i?oaeiino? iaoa??aeo ? aaiiao??? eiioaeooaaiiy i?e e?i?eiiio caeii? ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiue ? eiacaiue i?ae eiioaeoaie o cii? "ia?aeeaaeee". 3. ?ic?iaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a, ui aaco?oueny ia a?iioac? i?i ?noioio ia??aiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo neeiaeo no?oi?a ii a?eeao caieiooeo no?oeoo? e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a i?eaiaeo ? ni?yioaaiiy eie?nieo ia?. Aeyaeaiee ca'ycie i?ae no?oeoo?ith e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a oiaeiaeo /anoei ae?iaae?a ? ?o iii?ii ?ooo. Iieacaii, ui o caieiooeo eiioo?ao noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey oee?eoeyoe?? neeiaeo iioie?a ? cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioo ei?enii? ae?? aaaaoia?niiai eie?niiai ?oo?y. 4. Aieiaieie aeaea?aeaie e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ae?iaae?a ? oee?eoeyoe?ei? neeia? iioiee a eiioo?ao "eie?nia ia?a - ?aeeiaee oeyo" ? eiioaeoieo eiioo?ao i?e aeaioi/eiaiio a?aaaiaaiio eiioaeooaaii? eie?n ?c ?aeeaie c eiao?oe??ioaie oee?eoeyoe??, ui aeinyaathoue cia/aiue 0,8...0,9. Oee?eoeyoe?ei? neeia? iioiee ? iane?aeeii iaa?aeiia?aeiino? aaiiao?e/ieo ? e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a eiioaeooaaiiy eiaeiiai ie?aiiai eieana ? e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ?ooo ae?iaaeo o oe?eiio. 5. Ia iniia? oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a ? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeoo ?c aeei?enoaiiyi caniao aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyoiaiai (eie?eiiai) o?eeoe?eiiai (aai e?iaiaoe/iiai) iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. 6. Iaea?aeai? a ?iaio? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo a?eueoino? na??eieo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a iieacothoue, ui caeaaeii a?ae oaeaeeino? ?ooo ? ia?aiao??a oeyoo, o iaa?no?aeueieo e?eaeo aiii neeaaea? aei 20...50 %, a aeey i?nueeiai ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo a e?eaeo ?aae?onii 20...60 i - aei 80 % iiaiiai iii?o ?ooo. I?e o?aaeeoe?eiiio a?ceiaiio eiiiiioaaii? ae?iaae? c aeaia?nieie a?ceaie iathoue e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo ia 40...60 % iaioee, i?ae ae?iaae? ?c o?ueioa?nieie a?ceaie. 7. Aeey eie?n c aaeeeei eooii ooeeo a?aaaiaai? /anoeie iiaa?oi? ei/aiiy oa?aeoa?i? a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy iii?o ?ooo. Cie?aia, i?e eoo? a?aaaiaaiai ooeeo 700, ii?? ?ooo /ioe?ueioa?niiai ae?iaaeo a 1,3...1,6 ?ace aeuee, i?ae i?e eoo? ooeeo 600 . 8. Ia noai?aiiio aaoi?ii eiiieaen? aenia?eiaioaeueii-aei?iaoaaeueiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aia?oa iaea?aeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee c/aieaiiy ? e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo o nenoai? "eieani - ?aeea" i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii?, ye? aeicaieythoue iia'ycaoe e?iaiaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i? ia?aiao?e eiioaeo?a eie?n ?c ?aeeaie oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o, ye ciai?oi? ooieoe?? i?e iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaii? o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? ae?iaae?a oa oeyoo. 9. Iaea?aeaii caeaaeiino? iii?o ei/aiith eieana ii ?aeoe? a?ae ia?aiao??a oa aonoeie caiiaiaiiy eiioaeoii? ciie eaa?oeiaei i?neii. Iaaea iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? ia noene /anoie i?neo i?iii?oe?eia ae?aiao?o iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio /anoee o nooiai? 1,35. Ii?? ei/aiith aeey /anoie iaioeo 0,1 ii, i?aeoe/ii, ia caeaaeeoue a?ae oiaueie neith i?neo ? ia ia?aaeuo? 2,0 I/eI, a aeey /anoie ae?aiao?ii 0,25...0,45 ii c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi neith i?neo ? i?e oiauei? 3,3...2,8 ii aeinyaa? iaeneioio - 4,5...5,0 I/eI. 10. Cai?iaaaeaeaii iiiyooy ? noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e iiia?a/ii? ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. Iieacaii, ui iiaeiaaei? oa iiia?a/i? neeaaeia? eiioaeoieo nee c/aieaiiy i?e ?on? o e?eaeo o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue iii?o, i?e/iio caeaaei?noue iiiaioo iii?o a?ae eooo iaa?aaiiy ia? a?ae'?iio aei?noe?noue. Ia iniia? aiae?co aca?iica'yceo ni?yiiaoth/eo nee ? iii?o ?ooo o aeaeyae? ?ioaa?aeueiiai e?eoa??th ea?iaaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii e?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo. 11. Cai?iiiiiaai? o ?iaio? caniae aeicaieythoue cieceoe oeyoiaee o?eeoe?eiee ii?? ?ooo ae?iaae?a ia 10...60 %, ui a?aeiia?aea? cieaeaiith caaaeueiiai iii?o ?ooo ia 8...20 % ? aeiiii?? iaeeaa oa aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia 6...15 %. 12. Caeaaeii a?ae i?ecia/aiiy ? oiia aenieoaoaoe?? aecia/ai? i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy ae?iaae?a ?c cieaeaiei iii?ii ?ooo: - o i?yieo ae?eyieao eie?? oa e?eaeo aaeeeiai ?aae?ono iiaeeeai cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo aei 10 % ca ?aooiie aeai?o ia?aiao??a o?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?e ae?iaae?a (?aoe?iiaeueiiai i?io?eth iiaa?oiiue ei/aiiy eie?n, aace a?cea, oa?aeoa?enoee iiaeiaaei?o ? iiia?a/ieo ca'yce?a eie?nieo ia? c ?aiith a?cea, oiui); - a?eueo ?noioia cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo - aei 20 %, cie?aia aeey e?eaeo iaeiai ?aae?ono, iiaeeeaa o?eueee ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy o neeia? eiioo?e e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a ae?iaaeii? /anoeie ?ica'ycoaaeueieo aoceiaeo oi/ie. nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? 1. Oea/aiei A.I. E?iaiaoe/iee ii?? ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1996. – 200 n. 2. Oea/aiei A.I. Ea?iaai?noue ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1997. - 98 n. 3. Oea/aiei A.I. Aieea eiino?oeoeaieo noai oiaeiaeo /anoei ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a ia ?o ea?iaai?noue / A?ioo?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1999.- 22n. 4. Oea/aiei A.I. Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo cae?cie/iiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo / A?ioo?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1999.- 16n. 5. Oea/aiei A.I. Oa?aeoa?enoeee e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a / A?ioo?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1997.- 42n. 6. Oea/aiei A.I., Nai?iiiaa N. TH. Oeyoiaee o?eeoe?eiee ii?? ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a / A?ioo?a. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1999.- 18n. 7. Oea/aiei A.I. Aiae?c neeiaeo /eiiee?a ni?yioaaiiy cae?cie/ieo ae?iaae?a ?aeeiaith eie??th// A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO. - 1997.- ?2(6). N.198-203. 8. Oea/aiei A.I. Ia?niaeoeae cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo// Aenieoaoaoe?y ?ooiiiai neeaaeo cae?cieoeue. - Oa?e?a: Oa?AeACO. - 1996. - N. 18-22. 9. Oea/aiei A.I. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeiaiai o?ainii?oo ca ?aooiie cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ooo ?ooiiiai neeaaeo // I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?inoa ?aa?iio a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee/ Ca??ea iaoe. i?aoeue. - Eoaainuee: NOAeO, 1998. N.108-110. 10. Oea/aiei A.I. Ea?iaai?noue ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a // Cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o Oe?a?ie. - 1998. - ?2-3. - N. 37-41. 11. Aieoaaiei I.E., Oea/aiei A.I., Ae?eii E.I. Aieea aeeiai?/ieo cao?aiue o nenoai? "eieani - ?aeea" ia oyaeia? yeino? eieiiioeaa // Ieoaiiy aeeiai?ee ? i?oeiino? ?ooiiiai neeaaeo. – A?yinuee: A?OI. - 1984. - N.52-56. 12. Aieoaaiei I.E., Oea/aiei A.I., Nai?iiiaa N.TH. E?iaiaoeea aeaioi/eiaiai eiioaeooaaiiy eieana ?c ?aeeith // Cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o Oe?a?ie. - 1999. - ?4.- N.13-14. 13. Oea/aiei A.I., Nai?iiiaa N.TH. Aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e aca?iiae?? eie?nieo ia? ?aeeiaiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo oa oeyoo // A?niee No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. - 1998. - ?6(10). - N.163-175. 14. Oea/aiei A.I., Nai?iiiaa N.TH. Ii?? ei/aiith eieana ii ?aeoe? i?e iayaiino? o eiioaeo? eaa?oeiaiai i?neo // O?ainii?o: ca. iaoe. i?. No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Eoaainuee: NOAeO. - 1998. - N.59-66. 15. A.. n. ?1206153, N?N?. IE? A61 F 5/00. Aeaia?niee a?cie cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oiiai caniao/ Ai?aoiia I.?., Iioaeeia ?.A., Eiiy?a I.I., Aieoaaiei I.E., Oea/aiei A.I., E?aia?ue I.I.-?3728393; Cayae.13.04.84; Iioae. 23.01.86, Athe.?3. 16. Iao. ?2153308, Aaeeeia?eoai?y. IE?6 B60b 17/00.Resilient wheel for a railway vehicle/ Golubenko A.L., Turchin V.P., Konyaev A.N., Suhov I.N., Kaljuzhny N.N., Filonov A.S., Pinovsky M.I., Tkachenko V.P., Kramar N.M. ?8402159, Cayae.27.06.84; Iioae.30.09.87. 17. Iao. ?4635990, NOA. IE?6 B60b 17/00. Resilient wheel of railway car/ Golubenko A.L., Turchin V.P., Einyaev A.N., Sukhov I.N., Kaljuzhny N.N., Filonov A.S., Okachenko V.P., Kramar N.M., Koropetz A. P., Pinovsky M.L. ?8402159, Cayae.27.06.84; Iioae.30.09.87. 18. Tkachenko V.P. Vehicle railway vibration influence on the train traction resistance// Vibrations in fhysical systems/ XVIth symposium-Poznan,1994.-P.160. 19. Golubenko A.L., Tkachenko V.P., Kramar N.M. Wheel structure improvement on the basis of theoretical and experimental investigation of wheel-rail adhesion/ VIII International Wheelset Congress.- Madrid, 1985.- V.11.-S.IV.3.-14p. Aiioaoe?ss Oea/aiei A.I. ?ic?aooiie oa i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.07 - ?ooiiee neeaae cae?cieoeue oa oyaa ii?cae?a. - No?aeiioe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Eoaainuee, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y ni?yiiaaia ia ciaioaiiy aeo?ao aia?aiiin??a ia oyao ii?cae?a. Aeeiiaii eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue oeyoiaiai (eie?eiiai) o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, iaoiiaeaiiai e?iaiaoeeith oa aeeiai?eith o?eeoe?eii? aca?iiae?? eie?nieo ia? ? eie??. O ?iaio? ?icaeaathoueny iieiaeaiiy oai??? caieiooeo neeiaeo eiioo??a, uiaei e?iaiaoe/ieo eaioetha?a ni?yioaaiiy eie?nieo ia? ?aeeiaith eie??th. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo oa i?iaiicoaaiiy oeyoiaiai o?eeoe?eiiai iii?o ?ooo ? iaea?aeaii eiai oa?aeoa?enoeee aeey a?eueoino? oei?a na??eiiai ?ooiiiai neeaaeo. Iaea?aeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee c/aieaiiy ? e?iaiaoe/iiai iii?o ?ooo a nenoai? "eieani - ?aeea" i?e aeaioi/eiaiio eiioaeooaaii?. Cai?iaaaeaeaii iiiyooy oa noi?ioeueiaaii e?eoa??e iiia?a/ii? ea?iaaiino? ?aeeiaeo ae?iaae?a. Aecia/ai? i?eioeeie i?iaeooaaiiy ae?iaae?a ?c iiieaeaiei iii?ii ?ooo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?aeeiaee ae?iaae, ii?? ?ooo, eie?ni? ia?e, eiioaeo eieana ?c ?aeeith, i?ieiacoaaiiy, e?iaiaoeea, aeeiai?ea, o?eeoe?eia aca?iiae?y, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, /eneia? iaoiaee. AIIIOAOeEss Oea/aiei A.I. ?an/ao e i?iaiice?iaaiea iooaaiai o?eeoeeiiiiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.07- iiaeaeaeiie ninoaa aeaeaciuo aei?ia e oyaa iiacaeia.- Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Eoaaine, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey ioiinyony e iaeiiio ec i?ei?eoaoiuo iai?aaeaiee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee - ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea oaoiieiaee e iai?aaeaia ia oiaiueoaiea iai?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo cao?ao yia?aiiineoaeae ia oyao iiacaeia. A ?aaioa auiieiai eiiieaen oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee eeiaiaoeee e aeeiaieee o?eeoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae e iooe, naycaiiiai n nii?ioeaeaieai aeaeaeaieth iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa. Nouanoaothuea iaoiaeeee ?an/aoa nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae ia io?aaeatho aai caaeneiinoe io eiino?oeoeaiuo iniaaiiinoae oiaeiauo /anoae iiaeaeaeiiai ninoaaa, /oi ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe i?iaiice?iaaoue oa?aeoa?enoeee nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Aiaeec no?oeoo?u e eiiiiiaioia iniiaiiai e aeiiieieoaeueiiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae iicaieee ii?aaeaeeoue iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea aai nieaeaiey, caeeth/athuaany a oeo/oaiee oa?aeoa?enoee eeiaiaoeee e aeeiaieee o?eeoeeiiiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey aeeiaie/aneie nenoaiu eieaniuo ia? n ?aeueniaui iooai. ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aeaoooi/a/iiai eiioaeoa, eae noaoe/anee iaii?aaeaeeiie nenoaiu iie?aiey, n o/aoii eiioaeoiie oi?oainoe iaoa?eaea e aaiiao?ee eiioaeoe?iaaiee i?e eeiaeiii caeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaa?ocie e neieueaeaiee iaaeaeo eiioaeoaie a ciia “ia?aeeaaeee”. Iieacaii, /oi aeaaiuie enoi/ieeaie eeiaiaoe/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth yeeiaaeae e nieaeaiey EIAe iiiaiiniiai eieaniiai aeaeaeeoaey yaeythony oee?eoeyoeeiiiua neeiaua iioiee a eiioo?ao “eieaniay ia?a- ?aeueniaue iooue” e eiioaeoiuo eiioo?ao i?e aeaoooi/a/iii a?aaiaaii eiioaeoe?iaaiee eiean n ?aeuenaie. I?e yoii eiyooeoeeaiou oee?eoeyoeee aeinoeaatho cia/aiee 0,85...1,0. ?ac?aaioaiu iniiaiua iieiaeaiey oai?ee caieioouo neeiauo eiioo?ia i?eiaieoaeueii eeiaiaoe/aneei oeaiyi i?eaiaea e iai?aaeaiey eieaniuo ia?. Iaia?oaeaia acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo no?oeoo?ie eeiaiaoe/aneeo oeaiae oiaeiauo /anoae yeeiaaeae e eo nii?ioeaeaieai aeaeaeaieth. Ia iniiaa iaoiaea yia?aaoe/aneiai aaeaina ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa e i?iaiice?iaaiey iooaaiai o?eeoeeiiiiai (eeiaiaoe/aneiai) nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae. Iieo/aiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiaiaoe/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth aieueoeinoaa na?eeiuo ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae iieacuaatho, /oi a caaeneiinoe io nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey e ia?aiao?ia iooe a iaaeno?aeueiuo e?eauo iii ninoaaeyao aei 20...50 % , a aeey ai?iaeneiai ?aeueniaiai o?ainii?oa a e?eauo ?aaeeonii 20...60 i - aei 80 % iieiiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth. I?e o?aaeeoeeiiiie oaeaaea/iie eiiiiiiaea yeeiaaee n aeaooiniuie oaeaaeeaie eee /aou?aoiniuie ia aaca aeaooiniuo eiatho eeiaiaoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth ia 40...60 % iaiueoaa, /ai yeeiaaee n o?aoiniuie oaeaaeeaie. Aeey eiean n aieueoei oaeii eiioniinoe a?aaiaaie /anoe iiaa?oiinoe eaoaiey oa?aeoa?iu aieaa aunieea cia/aiey nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth. A /anoiinoe, i?e oaea a?aaiaaiai eiiona, ?aaiii 700, nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth /aou?aoiniiai yeeiaaea a 1,3...1,6 ?aca auoa, /ai i?e oaea eiioniinoe 600. Iieo/aiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee noeaieaiey e eeiaiaoe/aneiai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth a nenoaia "eieani-?aeuen" i?e aeaoooi/a/iii eiioaeoe?iaaiee, iicaieythuea naycaoue eeiaiaoe/aneea e aeeiaie/aneea ia?aiao?u eiioaeoia eiean n ?aeuenaie. Iieo/aiu caaeneiinoe nii?ioeaeaiey ea/aieth eieana ii ?aeueno io ia?aiao?ia e ieioiinoe caiieiaiey eiioaeoiie ciiu eaa?oeaaui ianeii. Aaaaeaii iiiyoea e noi?ioee?iaaiu e?eoa?ee iiia?a/iie oi?aaeyaiinoe ?aeueniauo yeeiaaeae. Iieacaii, /oi i?iaeieueiua e iiia?a/iua ninoaaeythuea eiioaeoiuo nee noeaieaiey i?e aeaeaeaiee a e?eauo a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa ea?atho ?ieue nii?ioeaeaiey, i?e/ai caaeneiinoue iiiaioa nii?ioeaeaiey io oaea iaaaaaiey iineo iaonoie/eaue oa?aeoa?. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca acaeiinayce iai?aaeythueo nee e nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth a ea/anoaa eioaa?aeueiiai e?eoa?ey oi?aaeyaiinoe i?aaeeiaeaii eeiaiaoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth. A caaeneiinoe io iacia/aiey e oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu i?eioeeiu i?iaeoe?iaaiey yeeiaaeae n iiieaeaiiui nii?ioeaeaieai aeaeaeaieth. A i?yiuo o/anoeao iooe e e?eauo aieueoiai ?aaeeona aiciiaeii nieaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth aei 10 % ca n/ao auai?a ia?aiao?ia o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiino?oeoeee yeeiaaeae: ?aoeeiiaeueiiai i?ioeey iiaa?oiinoae eaoaiey eiean; aacu oaeaaeee; oa?aeoa?enoee i?iaeieueiuo e iiia?a/iuo naycae eieaniuo ia?. Aieaa nouanoaaiiia nieaeaiea nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth aei 20 %, a /anoiinoe aeey e?eauo iaeiai ?aaeeona, aiciiaeii oieueei ca n/ao i?eiaiaiey iao?aaeeoeeiiiuo eiino?oeoeaiuo ?aoaiee iooai aaaaeaiey a neeiaua eiioo?u eeiaiaoe/aneeo oeaiae yeeiaaeiie /anoe ?acaycuaathueo oceiauo oi/ae. I?aaeeiaeaiiua a ?aaioa iaoiaeu iicaieytho nieceoue eeiaiaoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth yeeiaaeae ia 10...60 %, /oi niioaaonoaoao nieaeaieth iauaai nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth ia 8...20 % e yeiiiiee oiieeaa e yeaeo?iyia?aee ia oyao iiacaeia ia 6...15 %. Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aeueniaue yeeiaae, nii?ioeaeaiea aeaeaeaieth, eieaniua ia?u, eiioaeo eieana n ?aeuenii, i?ineaeuecuaaiea, eeiaiaoeea, aeeiaieea, o?eeoeeiiiia acaeiiaeaenoaea, iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, /eneaiiua iaoiaeu. SUMMARY Okachenko V.P. Account and forecasting of railway vehicle travelling frictional resistance to a movement. - Manuscript. Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.22.07 - rolling stocks and train traction.- EastUkrainian state university, Lugansk, 1999. The dissertation is directed on reduction of expenses powers on train traction. A complex of researches of travelling frictional resistance to a movement of railway vehicle, caused kinematics and dynamics friction interaction of wheel pairs and way is carried out. In work develop rules of the theory of closed force contours with reference to kinematics circuits of a direction of wheelset by a railway develop. A technique of account and forecasting travelling frictional resistance to a movement is offered and its characteristics for the majority of types of the serial rolling-stock are received. The experimental characteristics of coupling and kinematics resistance to a movement in "wheel-rail" system are received at point-to-point contact. Concept is entered and criteria cross operate of rail crews are formulated. Principles of designing of railway vehicles with lowered resistance to a movement are determined. Key words: railway vehicle, resistance to a movement, wheelset, wheel-rail contact, slip, kkinematics, dynamics, friction interaction, mathematical modeling, numerical methods.

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