Російсько-японські мовні взаємозв’язки ХVІІІ ст. (історико-лінгвістичне дослідження): Автореф. дис… д-ра філол. наук / І.П. Бондаренко, НАН України,

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO NOIAeICIAANOAA ?i.A.E?EINUeEIAI

AIIAeA?AIEI ?aai Iao?iae/

OAeE 801.3:808.2:809.56

?IN?ENUeEI-ssIIINUeE? IIAI? ACA?IICA’ssCEE XVI ? ? no.

(?NOI?EEI-E?IAA?NOE*IA AeINE?AeAEAIIss)

— iiae ia?iae?a Ac??, Ao?eee,

aai?eaai?a Aia?eee oa Aano?ae??

10.02.02 — ?in?enueea iiaa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? iiae

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EA?IAIEI TH??e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?I EA *OI (E?i ?aoi),

?inoeooo na?oiai? e?oa?aoo?e AI ?in??,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ICA?IAA I?ia A?eai??aia

?inoeooo iiaiciaanoaa ?i.I.I.Iioaai?

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?in?enueei? iiae

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

OEUAIEI Einoyioei Ieeieaeiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ? I.O.Oaa/aiea

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e Aeecueeiai Noiaeo

a?aeae?eaiiy noiaeiciaanoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.O?aiea

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 15 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.174.01 a ?inoeooo? noiaeiciaanoaa
?i.A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 250001, I.Ee?a,
aoe.A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
noiaeiciaanoaa ?i.A.E?einueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie (I.Ee?a, aoe.A?ooaanueeiai,
4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 26 na?iiy 1999 p.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe I.A.AOAAIIE

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ii/aoeiaeo
i?aeiiaieo eiioaeo?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a XVIII no., ooiaeaoi?aie e
aieiaieie ae?eiaeie iniaaie yeiai aoee yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe?, ui
i?ioyaii noie?ooy aeiaaeeiai iio?aieyee ia oa?eoi??th ?in?? — Eai/aoeo,
Aeaoonuee? oa Eo?eeuenuee? ino?iae. Ia iath/e ciiae iiaa?iooeny ia
aaouee?aueio, yiiioe? aoee ciooai? naiino?eii iiaiiaoaaoe ?in?enueeo,
uia iio?i aeeeaaeaoe naith ??aeio iiao ?in?yiai o yiiinuee?e oeie?,
noai?ai?e 1705 p. ca ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Iao?a I a Iaoa?ao?c?. Eeoa aeayeei
?c ieo oaea iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. aaeaeiny iiaa?iooeny aei ssiii??.
Iaienai? yiiinueeeie ii?aieaaoeyie ye o ?in??, oae ? a ssiii?? ia?o?
aeaiiiai? neiaieee, ?iciiaieee, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee oa a?aiaoeee, ui
caa?aaeeny ia?aaaaeii a ?oeiieniiio aeaeyae?, iieeaee ii/aoie
eiaeeo?eaoe?? ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei — nenoaiiiio
e?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/iiio iienia? aeaio iia. Oe? aeaea?aea a?aeaeca?eaethaaee
ia eeoa ?ae?ieaeoe ?o aaoi??a: ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ??aaiue aieiae?iiy
iaaiei a?e?iaaii ?in?enueeith oa yiiinueeith iiaaie, eiiiaoaioi?noue
yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a o ??cieo aeaeao iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ?o
?iaeea?aeoaeueiee eaene/iee caian, aea e ?in?enueeo oa yiiinueeo iiae
o??? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe a oe?eiio, a oaeiae iiaio neooaoe?th a oeeo aeaio
e?a?iao o XVIII no.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue cacia/aieo ?oeiienieo neiaiee?a, ?iciiaiee?a ?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a i?noeoue iaaecae/aeii oe?iiee ?, aieiaia,
aaniethoii ia aeine?aeaeaiee (ianaiia?aae — c iiceoe?e ?onenoeee) iiaiee
iaoa??ae ye aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai aiae?co ?in?enueei? ?iciiaii? iiae
XVIII no., ine?eueee naia ?? ia?aaeon?i naiino?eii iiaiiaoaaee yiiinuee?
ii?aieaaoe? a iiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, ni?eeoth/enue c ?in?enueeeie
iiaoeyie, oae ? aeey aea/aiiy oiiaoe/ieo oa eaene/ieo iniaeeainoae
aeayeeo yiiinueeeo ae?aeaeo?a o??? ae ?noi?e/ii? aeiae — ea?in?inueeiai,
in?inueeiai, naeaeaenueeiai oa ?ioeo, ine?eueee aaoi?e oeeo aeaiiiaieo
aeaea?ae aoee aeo?aeoeyie c ??cieo ?aa?ii?a ?icae??aeaii? a o? /ane ia
/eneaii? eiyc?anoaa oaiaeaeueii? ssiii??.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ianaiia?aae
coiiaeaia iiaeciith oaenoiaiai iaoa??aeo, yeee oia?oa a ?noi???
a?o/eciyiiai iiaiciaanoaa noaa aacith aeey eiiieaeniiai e?iaa?noe/iiai e
e?iaaii?aaiaoe/iiai aiae?co. Oi?eaeuei?noue ?in?enueeiyiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iei acaaae? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a oeueiio aeiaaeeo e?iaa?noe iiaeooue
aeieoiaioaeueii oi/ii i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?oeo iiaieo
eiioaeo?a i?ae aeaiia non?aei?ie ia?iaeaie ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai?,
c’ynoaaoe ia’?eoeai? e noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie, ye? coiiaeee aeieeiaiiy
ia?oeo iiaieo (ia?a?nii — aeeeth/ii iiaeaii?aeo) noinoie?a i?ae
?in?yiaie oa yiiioeyie, ni?eyee ?icaeoeia? i?aeiiaieo ca’yce?a /e,
iaaiaee, aaeueioaaee ?o, oiaoi aeine?aeeoe aeeiai?eo iiaieo aca?iei
i?ioyaii oe?eiai noie?ooy. A?aeiinia iiaiioa oa a??ia?aei?noue
a?ia?ao?/ieo na?ae/aiue noiniaii ia?oeo yiiioe?a, ye? iiaioaaee
?in?enueeo iiao, a oaeiae iayai?noue iaaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i ?in?yi, ui
ia?oeie aea/eee yiiinueeo, aeicaieythoue ia?nii?o?eoaaoe ia?aa?a
noaiiaeaiiy ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo i?aeiiaieo eiioaeo?a, ia’?eoeaii
ioe?ieoe aianie eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? iniae a oeae i?ioean, A ioaea,
aeooaeuei?noue ?aoa?iaaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? ua e o oiio;
ui aia?oa ?ae?ieaeo a?e?ia-aa, eiai eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue a
?ioiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu? ?icaeyaeathoueny ye ia?aaeoiiaa ? ye i?ae??oioy
i?ioeano ca?iaeaeaiiy iiaieo ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiia ia?iaeaie, ye
iaieio/ee ? iaia’yceiaee aoai a ?noi??? aoaeue-yeeo i?aeiiaieo
noinoie?a.

Aeey no/aniiai iiaiciaanoaa iiaeeea?noue ia’?eoeaiiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co
ia?oiaeoie?a iiaieo (a iiaeaii?aeo ? iiaio?a) ca’yce?a — yaeua
iaaecae/aeii ??aee?nia. Ae?enii, ui eiie?aoii, iai?eeeaae, a?aeiii iai
i?i ia?o? iiai? eiioaeoe i?ae oaoa?aie oa ?in?yiaie, ie??i naiiai oaeoo
/eneaiieo eaene/ieo caiice/aiue c iaei??? iiae a ?ioo? sseei /eiii
aa?yae ?th?eeiae/ ? iiaiiaoaaee iiao nai?o i?aeeaaeeo? sse aea/aea
o?aioeocueeo iiao ei?ieaaa Aiia — aei/ea ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai? sse naia
ni?eeoaaeeny i?ae niaith oo?ee oa caii??cuee? eicaee a oo ?noi?e/io
aeiao, eiee aiie aoee ia ai?iaaie, a ni?eueieeaie? Aai ye aea/aee
oo?aoeueeo iiao oe?a?inuee? iaa?eueieee, caoiieai? a iieii ? iacaaaeaee
aeaacai? ia /oaeeio? Oi/ieo a?aeiia?aeae ia oe? oa ?io? aeoaea oe?eaa?,
ye ia iaoo aeoieo (? ia eeoa c nooi i?ciaaaeueieo, aea e oai?aoe/ieo
iiceoe?e), caieoaiiy o no/anieo iiaiciaaoe?a iaia?. ? iaa?aeiii, /e
c’yaeyoueny aiie a iaeaooiueiio. Aaeaea ?noi?e/ia a?aeaeaeai?noue
cacia/aieo i?aeiiaieo eiioaeo?a oa a?ae iaeaaeieo oaenoiaeo aeaea?ae
aeicaieythoue e?iaa?noai o e?auiio aeiaaeeo eeoa aeniaoaaoe ??ci?
iaoeia? a?iioace ? ia a?eueoa. Ui ae noino?oueny ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo
iiaieo aca?iei, oi caaaeyee a?aeiini?e o?iiieia?/i?e aeecueeino? ?o
aeieeiaiiy oa iayaiino? aaaaoueio iiaieo aeaea?ae, ye? a?aeiinii aeia?a
caa?aaeeny, aiie ? ??aee?niei aeiyoeii c oe??? ?noi?e/ii?
caeiiii??iino?.

Iiaeeea?noue aeaoaeueiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co iaienaieo yiiioeyie
eaeneeia?ao?/ieo oa ?ioeo ?ia?o, ye? noaee ia?oei e?ieii ia oeyoo
iiaeaeueoi? iinooiiai? eiaeeo?eaoe?? ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iica’yce?a, aeicaiey? io?eiaoe iia? aeoaea oe?ii? oa oe?eaa? aeai?
noiniaii iaio oeeo iia o ?ao?iniaeoeaiiio ieai?. Oae, iai?eeeaae, «Iiaue
eaeneeii neaaaii-yiiineee» (1736-1738 pp.) Yiiaece, noai?aiee iei ia
iniia? «Eaeneeiia o?aycu/iiai» O.I.Iie?ea?iiaa, ye ? aeaye? ?io?
?oeiieni? neiaieee oa ?iciiaieee oeueiai oaeaiiaeoiai yiiinueeiai
thiaea, aeathoue yne?aaa oyaeaiiy i?i oo iiaio neooaoe?th, yea neeaeany
a ?in?? a ia?o?e iieiaei? XVIII no. ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaeany ci?ooaaiiyi
??cieo iia oa iiaieo noee?a, a oaeiae ona ua nooo?aei aieeaii
oe?a?inueei? eieaeii? iiae ia ?in?enueeo. Aeaiiiai? ?oeiieni? neiaieee
?ioiai yiiioey — Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath, oae naii, ye ? yiiinueei-?in?enueeee
neiaiee ?c ?oeiieno «Eaieai ?aoi», neeaaeaiee Oeoaeath, Y?oa?i, Oaoa?i ?
Oaaecth?i, iathoue aeiyoeiao oe?ii?noue aeey ?noi?e/ii? oiiaoeee,
aeoeaioieia??, ae?aeaeoieia?? oa noee?noeee, ine?eueee ?ai?acaioothoue
??ciiiai?oi? yiiinuee? ae?aeaeoe o??? aiioe e ?in?enueeo ?iciiaio iiao
e?ioey XVIII no.

E?iaaii?aaiaoe/iee aiae?c oeeo iiaieo aeaea?ae aea? ?aaeueio
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee ioe?ieoe ?ieue oa aianie o??? /e ?ioi?
?noi?e/ii? iniae a ia?aa?a ca?iaeaeaiiy e eiaeeo?eaoe??
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a, aea e anoaiiaeoe ianyae, a
?iiae? iaa?oue iiai?noth ?aeiino?othaaoe neiaieeiaee caian eiie?aoiiai
?iaeea?aea, c’ynoaaoe ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai yiiinueeiai oa
?in?enueeiai eaeneeii?a, ia’?eoeaii aecia/eoe ??aaiue eiiiaoaioe??
a?ae?iaaa a ??cieo aeaeao iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ni?iaeooaaoe aeaye?
iaoai?cie naiino?eiiai aa?enoe/iiai iaieiae?iiy eaene/iei neeaaeii oa
a?aiaoe/iith nenoaiith ?iicaiii? iiae (aaeaea naia oae aea/aee
?in?enueeo iiao ia?o? yiiioe?; ui iio?aieyee aei ?in?? — Aeaiaae,
Nai?ia, Eiaeath oa ?o ni?aa?o/ecieee). A oea, o naith /a?ao, aeoaea
oe?iiee iaoeiaee iaoa??ae aeey ?noi??? e?iaaiaeeaeaeoeee,
ineoie?iaa?noeee, iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy ?in?enueei? iiae ye ?iicaiii?,
aaaaoueio ?ioeo noi?aeieo aeenoeeie?i.

Eiie?aoiei oaenoiaei iaoa??aeii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee
oae? iiai? aeaea?aea:

1. [Aeaiaae], «Neanea Aeaiaay» — i?ioieie aeiieoo yiiinueeiai ii?yea a
Nea??nueeiio i?eeac! (1701 p.);,

2. [Yiiaeca], Aieaaoeu (1736 p.);

3. [ Yiiaeca], Iiaue eaeneeii neaayii-yiiineee (1736-38 pp.);

4. [ Yiiaeca], E?aoeay A?aeeaoe/ea (1738 ?.);

5. [Yiiaeca], I?aaeaa?ea ?acaiai?ia yiiineiai ycuea (1739 p.);

6. [Yiiaeca], Orbis sensualium pictus (1739 p.);

7. [Oaoa?eiia Aiae??e (Naiaao?)], «Eaeneeii» (1782 p.);,

8. [Eiaeath], «?onnei yiiineee neiaa?ue»// ssieaae/ O.E. N?aaieoaeueiue
neiaa?ue anao ycueia e ia?a/ee, ii acao/iiio ii?yaeeo ?aniieiaeaiiue
(1791-92 pp.);

9. [Eiaeath], ?in?y ?i?o? («I?ineey aiiuoi») (1792-93 pp.);

10. [Eiaeath], Oieona aoi?yeo (1794 ?.);

11. [Eiaeath], ?in?y iiiaec?nth (1796 p.);

12. [Eiaeath], ?in?a aai?i (??e iaienaiiy iaa?aeiiee);

13. [Eiaeath], ?in?a e??i (??e iaienaiiy iaa?aeiiee);

14. [??caiia I.I.], ?oeiaiaenoai e iiciaieth yiiineiai ycuea,
niaea?aeauaa acaoeo, ia?aiia/aeueiua a?aiiaoe/aneea i?aaeea e ?acaiai?u
(1803 ?.);

15. [??caiia I.I.], Neiaa?ue ssiiineiai ycuea ii ?inneeneiio aeoaaeoo
nia?aiiue (1804 ?.);

16. [Oeoaeath, Y?oae, Naoae, Oaaecth?i] Eaieae ?aoi (1807 ?.).

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui aieiai? o?oaeiiu? i?ae /an aiae?co cacia/aieo
iiaieo aeaea?ae, a?eueo?noue c yeeo ua ia iioae?eiaaia, iieyaaee a
iaiao?aeiino? «?icoeo?oaaiiy» (oi/iiai i?i/eoaiiy) aaeeei? e?eueeino?
«oaiieo ieyi», ui o?aieythoueny a ia?oeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo ?
yiiinueei-?in?enueeeo neiaieeao XVIII no.: yiiinueeeo ne?a (/anoi
ae?aeaeoeci?a eaene/iiai, ii?oieia?/iiai /e oiiaoe/iiai ??aiy), ui
o?aine?eaoaaeeny e?oa?aie ee?eeeoe?; oa ?in?enueei? eaeneee, aeiiaa yei?
ia?aaeaaaeany a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie — yiiinueeei neeaa?/iei aeoaa?oii, iaei
i?enoiniaaiei aeey aaeaeaaoii? ia?aaea/? ia ienuei? oiiaoe/ii? nenoaie
?in?enueei? iiae, a ia?aeeaae oe??? eaeneee yiiinueeith iiaith
o?enoaaany noa?iaeaai?i ???iae?o?/iei nei?iienii.

Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe n ?ao?iniaeoeaia eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaii?ai? (?in?enueeiiiaii?) eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? a?e?iaa?a (yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a XVIII no. ) o
?ioiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, aeaoaeueiee e?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c eiie?aoieo
?acoeueoao?a oe??? ae?yeueiino? — ?oeiienieo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo ?
yiiinueei-?in?enueeeo neiaiee?a, ?iciiaiee?a, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, ui
a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ia eeoa ?ae?ieaeo eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? iniae, aea e
?in?enueeo, ? yiiinueeo iiae o??? aiioe a oe?eiio, a oaeiae aea/aiiy ye
iiceoeaiiai, oae ? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iaio cacia/aieo /eiiee?a ia
i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy oa eiaeeo?eaoe?? ia?oeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a i?ae
aeaiia non?aei?ie ia?iaeaie.

Ia’?eoii ? i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa ii/aoeiaee aoai
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo (iiaeaii?aeo) eiioaeo?a, ?ae?ieaeoe
a?e?iaa?a, ui caeeaaeaee i?aeaaeeie acaaiii? ciaiiy oa aca?iiae?? oeeo
iia, a oaeiae i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy eiaeeo?eaoe?eieo a?aeiinei i?ae aeaiia
ianii??aeiaieie iiaaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c aea?aeaaieie i?ia?aiaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ieaiaie ? oaiaie. I?iaeaiaoeea aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia
c o?yaeiaith i?ia?aiith c ieoaiue noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo yiiiiciaanoaa
a Oe?a?i?, ui aoea ?ic?iaeaia I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe ca?aeii c
?icii?yaeaeaiiyi I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiai ae?aeiaiai
a?ceoo aei ssiii?? a?ae 05.04.1995 p. e aei?o/aiiyi Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie a?ae 21.04.1995 p., ? 6825/2 (Aeea.: ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie a?ae 22.05.1995 ?., ? 47-?.; iaeac ii
I?i?noa?noa? ina?oe Oe?a?ie «I?i i?eae?eaiiy iaeaaeii? oaaae iaoeiaei
?ic?iaeai c ieoaiue yiiiiciaanoaa» a?ae 13.07.1995 ?., ? 1/12-1753).
Oaia aeena?oaoe?? aoea caoaa?aeaeaia ia can?aeaii? ath?i Iaoeiai?
eii?aeeiaoe?eii? ?aaee IAI Oe?a?ie «Caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo iia ?
i?aeoeea iiaii? ae?yeueiino?» (i?ioieie ? 2 a?ae 8 ea?oiy 1999 p.) ? ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
?inoeoooo noiaeiciaanoaa oa ?inoeoooo iiaiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Aoaeue-ye? iiai? aca?iica’ycee i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee ca?iaeaeothoueny ?
cae?eniththoueny ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio ??ai? a i?ioean? iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? iin??a ??cieo iia. Caaaeaiiy e?iaa?no?a, ye?
aeine?aeaeothoue i?aeiiai? eiioaeoe, iieyaa? ia o?eueee a oiio, uia
eiinoaooaaoe oa aiae?coaaoe no/aniee ??aaiue aca?iiae?? ? aca?iiaieeao
aeaio iia, aea e ni?iaoaaoe a?aeooeaoe oa iienaoe ?o ia?a?ni?
i?aeaaeeie.

2. Ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio iiaiiio ??ai? iiai?noth a?aeaeaathoueny an?
no?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie iiae ye oi?aa?naeueii? eiioi?eaoeaii? nenoaie e
aieiaiiai caniao ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ?aae?cothoueny i?aeoe/ii an?
iiai? ooieoe??, cae?eniththoueny aoaeue-ye? iiai? aca?iica’ycee, ye?
iio?i eeoa oi?o?eothoueny oa ocaaaeueiththoueny iiaith, ui ianeoaiao?
oie /e ?ioee iiaiee eieaeoea (ia?iae /e nioe?aeueio a?oio), aeciathoueny
oa ni?eeiathoueny aai ae iaooothoueny oa a?aeeeaeathoueny eiie?aoiei
iiaiei eieaeoeaii o i?ioean? eiai iiaii? i?aeoeee.

3. Ca iaaieo oiia ??aaiue aieiae?iiy ie?aiei a?e?iaaii ?iicaiiith
iiaith, e?iaa?noe/iee oaeaio oa cae?aiino? ?iaeea?aea iiaeooue noaoe
aieiaieie /eiieeaie ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?oeo eiaeeo?eiaaieo i?aeiiaieo
ca’yce?a o aeaeyae? noai?aieo oei /e ?ioei a?e?iaaii ia?oeo aeaiiiaieo
neiaiee?a, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a oiui. sse?noue oeeo ia?oeo
eiaeeo?eaoe?eieo iiaieo iaoa??ae?a, o naith /a?ao, noa? caii?oeith
aoaeoeaiino? ?o i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy, a oaeiae iiceoeaiiai /e
iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?aeiiaieo ca’yce?a.

4. Noai?ai? a?e?iaaaie ia?o? aeaiiiai? neiaieee, ?iciiaieee, iaa/aeuei?
iin?aieee oiui a?aeaeaathoue ia eeoa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee ??aaiue
aieiae?iiy ?iaeea?aeii ?iicaiiith iiaith, ia o?eueee oa?aeoa?ecothoue
eiai ?ae?ieaeo, aea e iathoue aaeeeo e?iaa?noe/io oe?ii?noue aeey
?ao?iniaeoeaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a ye ae?oai?, oae ?
??aeii? iiae a?e?iaaa.

Aieiaiei iaoiaeieia?/iei i?ae??oioyi aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee ae?aeaeoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i ?aei?noue iiae oa iiaeaiiy; i?i
aca?iica’ycie iiae ? ieneaiiy, i?i aca?iiae?th oa aca?iicoiiaeai?noue
iiae ? na?aaeiaeua, iiae ?iaeea?aea ? iiae eieaeoeao; i?i iiao ye can?a
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ae?eniino?; a oaeiae i?i iiaia na?aaeiaeua, ye aiaeii/an
? ?acoeueoao, ? iaia’yceiao oiiao ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoaeue-yei? aeeai?
iiae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa ia oaenoiaiio
iaoa??ae?, noai?aiiio a?e?iaaaie, aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
iiaieo aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae aeaiia e?iaaaeueii aeoaea a?aeaeaeaieie
iiaaie. Aia?oa ?in?enueea iiaa yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a oa ?o
eiioi?eaoeaia ae?yeuei?noue o ?in?enueeiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye nai???aeiee ooiaeaiaio, ia yeiio ??oiooaaeany any
nenoaia ii/aoeiaeo iiaieo ca’yce?a i?ae ?in?yiaie oa yiiioeyie, a
e?iaa?noe/i? aeinyaiaiiy (/e iaaaea/?) yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a o oeueiio
a?aeiioaii? ye caii?oea iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa aoaeoeaiino? oeeo
ca’yce?a. Ie??i oiai, nai iiaiee iaoa??ae (ia?aaaaeii eaeneeia?ao?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o) oa aeaye? e?iaa?noe/i? yaeua, ui a?aeaeeeny a iueiio,
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeena?oaioii aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee iiaii? neooaoe? ? a
?in?? XVIII no, a oe?eiio oa ?in?enueei? ?iciiaii? iiae (ianaiia?aae
-nea??nueeiai i?nueeiai i?inoi??//y e?ioey XVIII no.) cie?aia, a oaeiae
aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aeayeeo iniaeeainoae (aieiaiei /eiii — oiiaoe/iiai
??aiy) ??cieo yiiinueeeo ae?aeaeo?a o??? ?noi?e/ii? aeiae.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy nai?? ?iaioe aaoi? aa/eoue O oiio, ?aei
aia?oa ?ic?iaeai? iei iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?ieaeoo a?e?iaaa oa
e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?ie? ?iaeea?aea a noaiiaeaii? iiaieo eiioaeo?a i?ae
aeaiia ia?iaeaie, ye ? canoiniaaia iaoiaeeea aiae?co iiaiiai iaoa??aeo,
noai?aiiai oeeie a?e?iaaaie, iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ii/aoeiaiai aoaio aoaeue-yeeo i?aeiiaieo
aca?iica’yce?a, a?ae yeeo caeeoeeeny iaai? aeieoiaioaeuei? na?aeioeoaa —
aeaiiiai? neiaieee, ?iciiaieee, a?aiaoe/i? iiene oiui.

Aeaye? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, cie?aia o?, ui ocaaaeueiththoue niaoeeo?eo oa o?oaeiiu?
iaieiae?iiy yiiioeyie ?in?enueeith iiaith, a oaeiae o?, ui i?enay/ai?
aiae?co ee?eee/ii? o?aine?eioe?? yiiinueei? eaeneee e iaienaiith
a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie ?in?enueeeo ne?a o ia?oeo yiiinueei-?in?enueeeo oa
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo neiaieeao XVIII no., oaea aoee iaaiith i??ith
i?aeoe/ii canoiniaai? aaoi?ii i?e noai?aii? iei iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a
oa i?ae?o/iee?a c ?in?enueei? iiae, i?ecia/aieo aeey yiiinueeeo
nooaeaio?a (Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Oeii O. «Ya?eea!»: O/aaiia iiniaea ii
?acaeoeth iaaueia naiaioe/aneie aeiaaaeee ia o?ieao ?a/aaie
i?aeoeee.-ssiii?y, Ia?a: Oai?? aeae?aeo.-1994.-45 n.; Aiiaea?aiei E.,
Oyio?a N. Ia?on: O/aaiee ?onneiai ycuea. Ia?aue yoai.-ssiii?y,
E?ioi:Nai?uei aeae?aeo.- 1995.- 85 n. (2-a aeae., aei?. e aeii.- E?ioi:
Nai?uei aeae?aeo.-1996.- 86 n.), ? i?e iaienaii? ia?oeo a?o/eciyieo
oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeiai oa yiiinueei-oe?a?inueeiai neiaiee?a
(Aiiaea?aiei 1., O?ii O. Oe?a’?inueei-yiiinueeee neiaiee.-E.:Aeae. ae?i
«Aeueoa?iaoeae»,1997.-250 n.; Aiiaea?aiei ?., O?ii O.
Oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeee, yiiinueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee. Iaa/aeueiee
neiaiee yiiinueeeo ???iae?o?a.-E.: Aeae. ae?i «Aeueoa?iaoeae»,1998.-592
n.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a 42 ioae?eaoe?yo caaaeueiei ianyaii 36 ae?oe.
a?e. (iaaiaeyoueny a e?ioe? ?iaioe ie?aiei nieneii), o oiio /ene? a
iaoeia?e iiiia?ao?? «?onneee ycue yiiineeo ii?aieaaaoaeae (XVIII aae)»
(ssiii?y, Ia?a:Oai?? aeae?aeo.-233 n. — 18,8 ae?oe. a?e.). ?c cacia/aii?
e?eueeino? ioae?eaoe?e 11 ? oacaie aeiiia?aeae, i?i/eoaieo aaoi?ii
aeena?oaoe?? ca i?iaeaiaoeeith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa neiiic?oiao, ?aooa — noaoo?. 9 iioae?eiaaieo
?ia?o aoee iaienai? a ni?aaaoi?noa? c yiiinueeeie a/aieie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. On? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
io?eiai? aeena?oaioii naiino?eii. Aea i?e ?icoeo?oaaii? ???iae?o?/i?o
iaienaiue aeayeeo yiiinueeeo ne?a, c?iaeaieo nei?iienii, a oaeiae
ie?aieo «oaiieo ieyi», ui o?aieyeeny a ?oeiienieo neiaieeao XVIII no.,
aeena?oaio eiinoeueooaaany c yiiinueeeie iiaiciaaoeyie Eaaa ? Oaaeaiiao,
Io?ayiith N?o??i, Iaeaio?ith Ein?eaaeco, Iaaoith Ianaoin?, Ieaaayn?
O??iae?, Oaio?ith Nonoio oa O?ii Oaeai, yeei a?i ue?i aaey/iee ca ?o
etha’ycio aeiiiiiao. O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee ianya eiinoeueoaoe?e o aaeoc?
noa?iaeaaiuei? yiiinueei? ???iae?o?/ii? a?ao?ee aoa cia/iei, aeena?oaio
ca caiaeith yiiinueeeo oao?aoe?a aeeth/aa ?o o ni?aaaoi?e nai?o
ioae?eaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee oa iiaoaii? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ui??/ieo ca?oieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo a
1996-1999 pp.; ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo yiiinueeeo ?noi?ee?a oa
?oneno?a (oi?aa?neoao Oai??, 1992 ?.; Inaenueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao, 1993 p.; oi?aa?neoao Oieeaeaei, 1994 ?.); ia Ia?oiio
oe?a?inueeiio neiiic?oi? c iiaiciaanoaa ? e?oa?aoo? e?a?i
Ac?enueei-oeoiieaainueeiai ?aa?iio (Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao
«Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y», 1998 ?.); ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
«Oe?a?ia o noa?? ?ioa?an?a e?a?i Ac?enueei-Oeoiieaainueeiai per?iio»
(Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y», 1999 ?.); ia
can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo ?in?enueei? iiae ?inoeoooo iiaiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie
(aa?acaiue 1999 ?.); ia III i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«Noiaeiciaa/? /eoaiiy A.TH.E?einueeiai» (?inoeooo noiaeiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie, /a?aaiue 1999 p.).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeany ? aoea ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo ia
ni?eueiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae? caaaeueiiai ? neia’yinueeiai iiaiciaanoaa,
?in?enueei? oa oe?a?inueei? iia Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa (o?aaaiue 1999 ?.).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y, yea ia? caaaeueiee ianya 487
n., neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a c 8 oaaeeoeyie ? noaiaie
oa aeniiae?a (onueiai 395 n.). Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (14 n.)
iae?/o? 250 iaoeiaeo oa oaeoe/ieo aeaea?ae, 74 noi??iee caeiathoue
aeiaeaoee (A, A, A, A) aei aeena?oaoe??, ua 4 noi??iee — nienie
ioae?eaoe?e aeena?oaioa ca oaiith eiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
(42 /+4/ iaeiaioaaiiy).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?noi??y ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo eiioaeo?a XVIII
no.» ?ice?eaa?oueny noai iaoeiai? aeine?aeaeaiino? aeena?oaoe?eii?
i?iaeaiaoeee, — c’yniaothoueny ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae, aiae?cothoueny
ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie, ui ni?eyee aeieeiaiith
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a o XVIII no. O oeueiio ae
?icae?e? noenei iiaea?oueny ?noi??y aaa??e yiiinueeeo noaeai iiaeeco
aeaeaeino?aeieo aa?aa?a ?in?? e iieno?oueny iiaeaeueoa aeiey yiiioe?a ia
/oaeei?. Aieiaia oaaaa i?e oeueiio cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia i?ioean?
iiaioaaiiy ieie ?in?enueei? iiae o na?oe? oeo oaeo?a, ye?, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaaee ia oeae i?ioean.

?noi??? ca?iaeaeaiiy ia?oeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo aca?iia?aeiinei ia
aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? i?enay/aia cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iioae?eiaaieo ye o ?in?? ? ssiii??, oae ? ca ?o iaaeaie
(ianaiia?aae — o NOA oa Aiae??). O ia?oo /a?ao oea ?iaioe
A.I.Aeaenaiae?iaa, A.?.Aaaeeii?, A.Aa?oieueaea, E.N.Aa?aa, A.I.Aa?oa,
?.Aieoia?o?iiaa, I.?.A?aiaeaiao?aa, I.A.?o?iiaa, N.Ciaiainueeiai,
E.I.Eooaeiaa, I.A.Ethia?a, A.Eaaona, ?.A.Iaea?iai?, A.O.I?eea?a,
N.?.Iiaaeianueeiai, I.I.Iaeiae?ia, Ae.I.Iicaein?aa, I.A.Neiaoeiaa,
I.N.Oaaa/ea, Y.ss.Oaeiaa?a, I.*a/eia, ?.E?aecae?, E.Eoii, E.Iaeaio?e,
N.Iaeaio?e, N.Ein?ii, A.Eioaeueniia, ?.Noi??? oa ?i. Ui ae noino?oueny
i?iaeaie ia?oeo iiaieo eiioaeo?a i?ae ?in?yiaie oa yiiioeyie,
a?ae?ia?ao?y c oeueiai ieoaiiy cia/ii a?aei?oa. I?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
oaie ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei oi?eathoueny a nai?o i?aoeyo
?in?enuee? iiaiciaaoe? oa ?noi?eee A.I.Aeiaoia, I.?.Aanaeia-nueeee,
A.I.Ai?aaeyae, I.?aaiia, ?.I.Eiaeaioeue, A.I.Eiinoaioeiia, A.I.Eiieeia,
A.I-Eoeeeiaa, I.I.Iao?iaa, I.Naeai?a, a oaeiae yiiinuee? aeine?aeieee
I.?eooa, O.Eaiio?a, N.Io?ayia, ?.Naea?oo? oa ?i.

sse aoaeue-yea noni?eueia yaeua — a naia oae ie ?icaeyaea?ii ii/aoie
nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy yiiinueei? iiae a ?in?? ? ?in?enueei? a ssiii??
— oeae i?ioean iaa iaai? ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae, nai? ia’?eoeai? oa
noa’?eoeai? i?e/eie. Oa?aeoa?iei ? oa, ui a ?noi???
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei inoaii? c?a?aee yeui ia
ae??oaeueio, oi iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeao ?ieue, cie?aia, o noa??
eiaeeo?eaoe?? i?aeiiaieo noinoie?a, i?ae yeith ie ?icoi??ii
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee iien aeaio iia c iiceoe?e e?iaaiaeeaeaeoeee.

Aei ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei, ui niiioeaee ?in?yi caii/aoeoaaoe aeoeaia
aea/aiiy yiiinueei? iiae (aei ?a/?, ia?oi? na?aae no?aeieo iia) ?
iaa?oue noai?eoe c oe??th iaoith a 1705 p. niaoe?aeueio yiiinueeo oeieo,
yea c ia?ai?iiei oni?oii ooieoe?iioaaea nii/aoeo a Iaoa?ao?c?, a iio?i o
??eoonueeo i?ioyaii onueiai XVIII no., ie a?aeiineii oae? ?noi?e/i?
iiae?? oa oaeoe.

Ii-ia?oa, oea iinooiiaa inai?iiy ?in?yiaie (ii/eiath/e c ae?oai?
iieiaeie XVI no. ? cae?i/oth/e XVII no. ) i?aeoe/ii an??? oa?eoi???
Cao?aeiiai oa No?aeiiai Nea??o ? ?o aeo?ae o na?aaeei? XVII no. aei
aa?aa?a Ioionueeiai ii?y oa Oeoiai ieaaio, ui a naith /a?ao a?aee?eaaei
i?yiee oeyo aei ssiii??. sse iane?aeie, iai?ee?ioe? XVII no. iaeaea?
e?a?ie noathoue non?aeaie, oi/a ana ua e ?iciaaeiaaieie ii?ai. Aea i?ney
ii/aoeo aoae?aieoeoaa ?in?yiaie ia Aeaeaeiio Noiae? aaeeeeo ii?nueeeo
noaeai ii?a iinooiiai ia?anoa? aooe iacaeieaiiith ia?aoeiaeith i?ae
aeaiia non?aei?ie ia?iaeaie. Ia/ano? e caaaeaee aeiaaeeia? aei oeueiai
/ano cono??/? ?in?yi c yiiioeyie ia noo? e ia ii?? noathoue aeaaeae?
/ano?oeie, caeiiii??ieie.

Ii-ae?oaa, oe?ea iecea a?enueeiaeo oa aeeieiiaoe/ieo ii?acie ?in?? a
20-o ?ieao XVIII no. i?ney oni?oiiai, aea iao?eaaeiai i?inoaaiiy ia
i?aaeaiue oa cao?ae (iiaa?iaiiy oo?eai o 1711 p. caoiieaiiai iai?ee?ioe?
XVII no. Aciaa, iiaiee i?iaae ?a?iiaenueei? i?n?? Iao?a ? a 1716-1717
pp. oa ?io?), ui cioneee ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeoey ci?ieoe iai?yiie
nai?o iie?oe/ieo oa oa?eoi??aeueieo i?aaiaiue ? iiaa?iooe iiaeyae ia
no?ae — o a?e Ia?n??, Eeoath oa ssiii??. Ii/eiath/e c XVIII no,
?in?enueea ?iia??y ?icoe?th?oueny iaeaea aeeeth/ii o i?aaeaiii-no?aeiiio
oa no?aeiiio iai?yieao. Ioae?ee Iao?i, yeiio naiai /ano ana ae oaee
aaeaeiny «i?i?oaaoe a?eii» aei ?a?iie, i/aaeaeii, a?aoo?-?aoo c?icoi?a
?noi?e/io aeieth nai?? e?a?ie: aeey ?in??, ui caaaeaee i?aaioea noaoe
?a?iiaenueeith aea?aeaaith ? iaiieaaeeai «?oaaea a?eia» a cao?aeiiio
iai?yieo, «aeaa??» a?ae/eiyeeny (?iiae? — aeia?ia?eueii, a /ano?oa — c
canoinoaaiiyi neee) eeoa c? noiaeo.

Ii-o?ao?, oea ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie o ?in?? (cie?aia, ia O?ae?) eaaei? oa
a?enueeiai? i?iieneiaino?, ui aeiaaaei, iniaeeai i?ney i?eieiaiiy
I?ai?/ieo a?ei oa iioiae?a i?ioe oo?e?a, iiaeo ?eie?a caooo aeey ana
c?inoath/i? e?eueeino? oiaa??a oa ca?i?, yea ae?iaeyeany ia
iiaicaoaeiaaieo oaa?eeao ? caaiaeao. Aaoi? aeieoiaioaeueii-?noi?e/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai ii/aoeiaiio aoaio ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo
iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo noinoie?a, N.Ciaiainueeee c oeueiai i?eaiaeo
ienaa: «Eiee ia?aae iineianueeeie i?aaey/eie eieaie ssiii?y
aeiaethaaeeny ye aaaaoa caeiaii oa n??aeii e?a?ia, c ?icaeiooei
ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii ? aaaaoiethaeiei ianaeaiiyi, e?a?ie, yea aaea
ian aiaiaiaeueio ca?ith, e?a?ia, oi/a e non?aeea, aea aaciaaeii aeaeaea
a?ae iniiaiiai yae?a Iineianueei? aea?aeaae, iaa?yae /e a eiainue ?c
oeeo e?e iiaea c’yaeoeny aeoiea i?i caaieiaoaaiiy oaei? e?a?ie. ?ioa
ni?aaa — oi?a?aey. ?a?iiaeoe? oi?aoaaee 0 iaaeeaaeeny c oi?a?ae? c
yiiioeyie. Oi?aothoue ? aieeaiaeoe?, c .yeeie ie iniaeeai aeecueei
iiciaeiieeeny inoaii?i /anii. *iio a ia ni?iaoaaoe (? iae io?eiaoe naith
/anoeo i?eaooe?a?» (Ciaiaineee N. A iieneao ssiiiee. Ec enoi?ee ?onneeo
aaia?aoe/aneeo ioe?uoee e ii?aoiaenoaa a Oeoii ieaaia.- Aeaaiaauaine,
1929.- N. 46-47).

Ua 1702 ?ieo caaaa/eeaee ?in?enueeee oea? i?ney nai?? cono??/? c
Aeaiaani — ia?oei yiiioeai, ui iio?aiea aei ?in?? (? i/aaeaeii, i?ae
aieeaii ?iciia?aeae inoaiiueiai i?i ssiii?th), a?ae?yaeaeath/e /a?aiaiai
eicaoeueeiai ioaiaia (i?eeaae/eea) ia Eai/aoeo «uia on?eyeeo iaie?ieo
/oaeicaioe?a caeeeeaoe ciiao i?ae eiai aaeeeiai aieiaea?y aenieo ?oeo» o
niaoe?aeueii aeaeaiiio c oeueiai i?eaiaeo ?icii?yaeaeaii? iaeacoaaa
«aeiiaaaoeny o/eieoe c yiiinueeith aea?aeaaith oa ?in?enueeeie ethaeueie
oi?ae ia iae?, ye o Eeoaeoe?a c ?in?yiaie aoaathoue oi?ae ?
iineeathoueny c Iineae aaeeeiai aieiaea?y c oiaa?aie eoi/eie, uia c oeo
iiaicaaaaeaieo oi?a?a aaeeeiai aieiaea?y eaci? iaoe cia/iee i?eaooie»
(Ciaiaineee N. A iieneao ssiiiee.- N. 47-48).

sseei ia ia?aaeienaeueiei oea iiaea caeaoeny ia ia?oee iiaeyae, aea
ii/aoeo aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae yiiioeyie cia/iith i??ith ni?eyea
iie?oeea naii?cieyoe?? ssiii?? a?ae ciai?oiueiai na?oo (naeieo naenaeo),
io?oe?eii cai?iaaaeaeaia o?yaeii aaeooo a 1637 p. ye can?a ai?ioueae c
i?iieeiaiiyi o e?a?io o?enoeyinoaa. Niaoe?aeueiei ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi
nuei?oia Oieo?aae ?ai?aeco a ssiii?? aoei caai?iiaii aoae?aieoeoai
aaeeeeo ii?nueeeo noaeai. Io?oe?eii aeicaieyeinue aoaeoaaoe eeoa iae? ca
?ici??ii ei?aae? (aaioaaei?noth aei 50 o), i?eaeaoi? aeeeth/ii aeey
eaaioaaeiiai ieaaaiiy. Iane?aeeii oeueiai oaoaeueiiai ??oaiiy noaee
/ano? aaa??? oaeeo noaeai i?ae /an ooi?i?a ? oaeooi?a. Ieaainuee? oa/??
a?aeiineee iii?aa/ai? ei?aae? ?acii c /eaiaie ?o ae?iaae?a aei aa?aa?a
Eai/aoee, Eo?eeuenueeeo ? Aeaoonueeeo ino?ia?a, ui a oie ia??iae aeoeaii
inaithaaeeny oa canaeyeeny ?in?yiaie. Naia ooo iaee i?noea ia?o?
cono??/? ?in?yi c yiiioeyie, ye? e iieeaee ii/aoie ?in?enueei-yiiinueeei
iiaiei eiioaeoai.

Ia iaio ia?aaeienaeueiith, aea oe?eeii c?icoi?eith i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy
a ssiii?? i?aeaeuaiiai ?ioa?ano aei ?in?? a oe?eiio, a oaeiae aei
?in?enueei? iiae cie?aia noaee iiaithaaiiy yiiioe?a uiaei iino?eii
c?inoath/i? aeniain?? ?in?yi ia Aeaeaeiio Noiae? ? a oeoiieaainueeiio
?aa?ii?. I?i iiaeeeao caa?ico ssiii?? c aieo ?in?? yiiinuee? iie?oe/i?
ae?y/? oa a/ai? caaiai?eee ii/eiath/e c ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII noie?ooy.
Ianaiia?aae oea aoee Oaaooi Naei (1730-1780), Iaea? ??eai (1733-1818),
Noa?oa Yai?aeo (1733-1780), O??ayia Eiaeci (1758-1829), Oiiaea Oin?ae?
(1744-1821). O ia?oiio a ?noi??? ssiii?? iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?, ui
aoei iiai?noth i?enay/aia ?in?? e iaceaaeiny «?icaeoie i?i
/a?aiiiaieineo Aaeci» (1783), eiai aaoi? — a?aeiiee yiiinueeee o/aiee
Eoaei Oaenoea (1734-1800) ienaa: «sseui ie aoaeaii ie?eoeny c oei, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny, oi any caiey Aaeci (noa?iaeaaiy iacaa Oieeaeaei — ?.A.)
noaia ?in?enueeith oa?eoi???th» (Iaeaio?a N. ssiiioeu e ?onneea. Ec
enoi?ee eiioaeoia.- I.,1983.-N. 81). Uia c’ynoaaoe ae?eni? iai??e ?in??,
yiiioe? anoia?a/ nai?e aeani?e ?cieyoe?ii?nonuee?e iie?oeoe? iaa?oue
ciooai? aoee iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. i?oe ia ia?o? iai?aio?oe?ei? eiioaeoe
c ?in?yiaie, aino?i a?ae/oaoe i?e oeueiio a?ae eaae?o?eiaaieo
ia?aeeaaea/?a ? an? iac?o/iino?, iia’ycai? c ?o a?aenooi?noth.

ssne?aaei i?iyaii ?icoi?iiy yiiioeyie a oeae ia??iae iaiao?aeiino?
aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae noaa oie oaeo, ui i?aeoe/ii an? ca?oe oa
io?oe?ei? i?ioieiee aeiieo?a yiiineeo, ii?aieaaoe?a, ye? iiaoaaee a
?in?? e ciiaee iiaa?iooeny aei ssiii??, ye ? ?o niiaaaee i?i ia?aaoaaiiy
ia /oaeei? («Oieona aoi?yeo», «I?in?yeieo oueii?i?e?», «N?inuei ia?o
oueii?i?e?», «Eaieae ?aoi» oa ?i.), ye i?aaeei, aeeth/aee ?oeiieni?
aeaiiiai? neiaieee. Naia oe? neiaieee e noaee ia?oiaeaea?aeaie
yiiinueei-?in?enueei? iaa/aeueii? eaeneeia?ao??, iaoiaee/iith oa
e?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/iith aacith ii/aoeiaiai aoaio aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae
a oe?e e?a?i?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiiii?/ia e iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, yea neeaeany a ?in??
iai?ee?ioe? XVI — ia ii/aoeo XVIII no., aacoiiaii, ni?eyea
caoe?eaaeaiino? ?in?yi o ?icaeoeo anaa?/eo eiioaeo?a c ssiii??th, aea
iiae?aia neooaoe?y aeieeea o?ioe i?ci?oa. E??i oiai, ?ioa?an aei ?in?? a
oe?e e?a?i? coiiaethaaany i?e/eiaie a?eueoa iie?oe/iiai, i?ae
aeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Ae?eniiio ca?iaeaeaiith oeeo eiioaeo?a (o oiio
/ene? e iiaieo) caaaaeaei eeoa iaeia — a?aenooi?noue aio?iiieia?/iiai
/eiieea, iaiao?aei?noue aeoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy a oeae i?ioean eiie?aoieo
ethaeae. Oaeei, ia iaio aaaeeeaei, i?ae ia’?eoeai? ?noi?e/i?
ia?aaeoiiae, oaeoi?ii ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iica’yce?a o XVIII no. e noaee yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe?.

Ia?oei yiiioeai, ui iio?aiea aei ?in?? a 1695 p., aoa Aeaiaae c
yiiinueeiai ii?oiaiai i?noa Inaee. A?i aea noaa ? ia?oei aeeeaaea/ai
yiiinueei? iiae a Iaoa?ao?cuee?e oeie?, caniiaai?e Iao?ii ?. Iio?i
nthaee iio?aiea Nai?ia, yeee, aei ?a/? (ye ? Aeaiaae), ii/eiaa c
aea/aiiy ia ?in?enueei?, a ei?yenueei? iiae, ine?eueee iaeaeaa aiie
aeiaaee /an ia?aaoaaee a iieii? o ei?ye?a. Ianooiieie aeeeaaea/aie a
oeie? yiiinueei? iiae aoee Yiiaeca e Niaeca. Naia Yiiaeca noaa aaoi?ii
ia?oeo a ?noi??? ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo noinoie?a neiaiee?a ?
?iciiaiee?a, noai?aieo ia oa?aiao ?in??. O 1745 ?. aei ?in?? iio?aieea
oe?ea a?oia yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a — /eai?a ae?iaaeo noaeia «Oaii-ia?o», —
ui oaae iio?i noaee aeeeaaea/aie, aea aaea a ??eoonueeo, eoaee a 1754 p.
aoea ia?aaaaeaia yiiinueea oeiea. A ia?oei yiiioeai, yeiio a 1792 p.
aaeaeiny iiaa?iooeny ia aaouee?aueio aoa Aeaeeieoy Eiaeai — aaoi? ia?oeo
aeaiiiaieo neiaiee?a, iaienaieo o ssiii??. Caaa?ooaaee ae a?eueo i?ae
noie?oith aiiiath ia?aaoaaiiy yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a o ?in?? /eaie
ae?iaaeo noaeia «Aaeai? yia?o» (Oeoaeath, Y?oae, Naoae ? Oaaecth?i), ye?
iiaa?ioeeny aei nai?? e?a?ie eeoa a 1804 p.

Acaaae? ?in?enueei-yiiinuee? iiai? eiioaeoe KVIII no., aacnoii?aii,
iiaeia aaaaeeoe oi?eaeueiei a ?noi??? an??? na?oiai? e?iaa?noeee iiaiei
aenia?eiaioii, ui anoia?a/ aeaniiio aaaeaiith aoa cae?eniaiee i?inoeie
yiiinueeeie ii?aieaaoeyie. Aenia?eiaio, o yeiio u?eueii ia?aieaeeny
aeie? ie?aieo ethaeae c ?noi?e/ieie aeieyie ?o e?a?i ? ia?iae?a, o
yeiio, c iaeiiai aieo, ae?acii i?inoaaeo?oueny aeii?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
?ioa?an?a iaae ?iaeea?aeii, a c ?ioiai — iiaeeea?noue ?aaeueiiai aieeao
eiie?aoii? iniae ia ?noi??th an??? aea?aeaae. Aenia?eiaio, yeee yne?aai
aeaiiino?o? ia eeoa aca?iioyae?iiy, aea e aca?iia?aeoi?aiaiiy ??cieo
oeea?e?caoe?e, eoeueoo?, iia. Naia aei oeueiai eiie?aoiiai aeiaaeeo
aca?iiae?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai, iaia?aaeaa/oaaiiai oa
caeiiii??iiai iiaeia a?aeianoe neiaa A?eueaaeueia Aoiaieueoa i?i iiao ye
«aaeeeee can?a ia?aoai?aiiy noa’?eoeaiiai a ia’?eoeaia», ye ia?ao?ae
«a?ae caaaeaee iaiaaeaiiai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aei anainyaeiiai aoooy»,
oiio «ui a i?e ci?oothoueny, iiiiaeththoueny ? ci?iththoueny niiniae,
oyaeaiiy an?o a?e?a, eiaeii? noao?, noaio, oa?aeoa?o e aeooiaii?
a?aei?iiino? aeaiiai ieaiai?, aiane?aeie oiai, ui ia?iaee iai?iththoueny
neiaaie e iiaaie, noai?thth/e a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo ethaenueeee ??ae o
oe?eiio» (Aoiaieueaeo A. Eca?aiiua o?oaeu ii ycueiciaieth,- I.,1984.- N.
318).

Aei noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei, ui ni?eyee aeieeiaiith ia?oeo eiaeeo?eiaaieo
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’ce?a, aeena?oaio a?aeiineoue:

1. I?e?iaeiee e?iaa?noe/iee oaeaio Yiiaece — yiiinueeiai oeii/eea, yeee
iio?aiea aei ?in?? a 11-??/iiio a?oe? e iiia? aeanyoue ?ie?a ii oiio. Ca
nai? ei?ioea aeeooy a?i onoea aeineiiaei iiaioaaoe ia eeoa ?in?enueeo,
aea e oea?eiaiineia’yinueeo iiao, caeeoeaoe i?ney naaa oe?eo ieceo
aeaiiiaieo neiaiee?a oa iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, ui a?aaeathoue
aeine?aeiee?a nai?i ianyaii;

2. Oaiiiai Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath — iaaecae/aeii ina?/aiiai e ia iaio
oaeaiiaeoiai yiiinueeiai ii?yea, yeee ia?oei na?aae yiiioe?a ni?ii?any
iiaa?iooeny ia. aaouee?aueio, c?iaeaoe aeey oeueiai ana iiaeeeaa. sseae
ia oea iaiioeoia (iaoooth/e iaa?oue caa?icith nia?oii? ea?e, ui iiaea
/aeaoe eiai a ssiii??) i?aaiaiiy Eiaeath — aaoi?a iaaecae/aeii oe?eaaeo
oa ci?noiaieo niiaaae?a i?i ?in?th e aeae?eueeio neiaiee?a, iaienaieo o
ssiii??, — i?ioean ia’?eoeaiiai i?ciaiiy yiiioeyie ?in?? oa ii/aoie
aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? iiae a oe?e e?a?i? cao?eiaany a, ye i?i?ioi, ia
e?eueea aeanyoee?oue.

3. «O?eieia?/iee iiaeaea» I.I.??caiiaa — ?in?enueeiai ii?nueeiai
io?oea?a, yeee i?ae /an ia?oiai a ?noi??? ?in?? e?oaina?oiueiai ieaaaiiy
ca aeiiiiiaith Oeoaeath, Y?oay, Naoay e Oaaecth?i, ui iiaa?oaeeny ia
eiai ei?aae? aeiaeiio, ci?a ia o?eueee /oaeiai iaieiae?oe yiiinueeith
iiaith; aea e iaienaa aea? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? e?iaa?noe/i? i?aoe?, ye?
iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oeie iaoeiaeie iienaie yiiinueei? iiae, c?iaeaieie
?in?yiaie.

Caaa?oo? ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? ei?ioeee aiae?c iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo ?onenoeee a ssiii?? oa yiii?noeee a ?in??.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe «E?iaaii?aaiaoe/iee aiae?c
?oeiienii? niaaeueie yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a ? ioe?iea ??aiy ?o
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? a ?in?enuee?e iia?» iiai?noth i?enay/aii
eiiieaeniiio e?iaaii?aaiaoe/iiio oa e?iaa?noe/iiio aiae?co ?ae?ieaeo?a
Aeaiaay, Yiiaece, Eiaeath, Oeoaeath, Y?oay, Naoay, Oaaecth?i, Noaeay
Oueiaa, a oaeiae ?in?yieia I.I.??caiiaa. A?i aoaeo?oueny ia?o ca ana ia.
aeaoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaii? eaeneeia?ao?/ii? niaaeueie yiiinueeeo
ii?aieaaoe?a, ?acoeueoaoe yeiai aeei?enoiaothoueny aeena?oaioii ye aeey
caaaeueii? ioe?iee ??aiy ciaiiy ?in?enueei? oa yiiinueei? iia ie?aieie
a?e?iaaaie, oae ? aeey ioe?iee eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? aeaieo
a?e?iaa?a o ??cieo aeaeao iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?.

?icaeyaeath/e e?iaaii?aaiaoeeo ye iaeei ?c i?iaeoeoeaieo iai?yie?a
no/aniiai iiaiciaanoaa, ui caeia?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiyi iiae «a ??
a?aeiioaii? aei oeo, ooi iath ei?enoo?oueny» (Noieiaeea? ?.N.
I?aaiaoeea//Iiaia a ca?oaaaeiie eeiaaenoeea.-Aui.XVI: Eeiaaenoe/aneay
i?aaiaoeea.- I.,1985.-N. 423), aeena?oaio canoiniao? e?iaaii?aaia-oe/iee
iaoiae aiae?co ?oeiienieo aeaea?ae aeey c’ynoaaiiy oe?ei? iecee ieoaiue;
ye? iathoue, ia eiai aeoieo, eiioeaiooaeueia cia/aiiy aeey aeena?oaoe??
a oe?eiio: a) iayai?noue (a?aenooi?noue) aca?iica’yceo
(aca?iicaeaaeiino?) i?ae iiaith/iiaeaiiyi ?iaeea?aea ? eiie?aoieie
oiiaaie

iiaioaaiiy iei oe??? iiae; a) iaoai?cie oa nooi?iue aieeao iiaiiai
na?aaeiaeua ia i?ioean naiino?eiiai aa?enoe/iiai iaieiae?iiy a?e?ia-aii
ia??aeiith iiaith acaaae? e ??cieie aeaeaie iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?
cie?aia: a) caeaaei?noue e?euee?nieo ? ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?ae?ieaeoo
a?e?iaaa (ianaiia?aae — eiai neiaieeiaiai caiano) a?ae noa? ni?eeoaaiiy,
eiie?aoieo eiioi?eaoeaieo neooaoe?e, a oaeiae eiioi?eaoeaieo ?ieae, a
yeeo aenooia? ?iaeea?ae o i?ioean? nai?? ?aaeueii? iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? a ?ioiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu? oa ?ioeo.

Acaaae? a no/ani?e e?iaa?noeoe? (ianaiia?aae — o e?iaaiaeeaeaeoeoe?)
neeaeany ia?aaeienaeueia neooaoe?y: ? aace?/ aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo
oiio, ye aeeeaaeaoe /e aea/aoe ?iicaiio iiao, aea i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?
i?aoe?, a yeeo aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ye naia oey iiaa aea/a?oueny
a?e?iaaii.

E?iaaii?aaiaoe/iee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co ?ae?ieaeo?a yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a,
yeiai iine?aeiaii aeio?eio?oueny aaoi? o oeueiio ?icae?e?
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, o oe?eiio iia’ycaiee c eiioeaiooaeueiith
i?iaeaiith aieeao ?ioiiiaiiai ioi/aiiy ia ?iaeea?aea, ui naiino?eii
iiaiiao? ?iicaiio iiao a iiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Aaoi?nueeee aenia?eiaio c ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
?in?enueeiiiaiiai neiaieeiaiai caiano Aeaiaay, ui cae?enith?oueny ia
iaoa??ae? oaenoo (i?ioieieo) aeiieoo yiiinueeiai ii?aieaaoey a
Nea??nueeiio i?eeac? Iineae (a?oaeaiue 1701 ?.), ? ia?oith a ?noi???
a?o/eciyiiai iiaiciaanoaa ni?iaith ?aeiino?oeoe?? eaeneeiio a?e?iaaa,
yeee aeea iaeaea 300 ?ie?a oiio. O ia?oee ? inoaii?e ?ac «Neanea
Aeaiaay» — a naia oae iaceaaany oaeno oeueiai i?ioieieo aeiieoo — aoea
iioae?eiaaia a?aeiiei ?in?enueeei ?noi?eeii I.I.Iaeiae?iei o 1891
?.(Iaeiaeei I.I. Ia?aue yiiiaoe a ?innee, 1701-1705 // ?onneay
noa?eia.-18491-?X.-N.11-24) ?, ye iai a?aeiii, c e?iaa?noe/ieo iiceoe?e
ua i?eiee ia aiae?coaaeany. Aaaeeea?noue caaaeueii? ioe?iee ??aiy
aieiae?iiy ?in?enueeith iiaith ia?oiai, ye aaaaeaaony, aeeeaaea/a
yiiinueei? iiae a ?in?? (a a?aeiia?aeii, a?aoiaoth/e oiai/ani? iaoiaee
aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia, ? eiai ni?iiiaeiino? aeeeaaeaoe oeth iiao
?in?yiai) aeena?oaio aaa/a? a iiaeeeaino? oa iaiao?aeiino? oaeei /eiii
iieeanoe e?ae aeeneon?yi i?ae noiaeiciaaoeyie noiniaii aeaoe a?aee?eooy
oeiee yiiinueei? iiae a ?in?? oa caii/aoeoaaiiy nenoaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy
ia?oi? no?aeii? iiae ?in?yiaie.

Cia/ia oaaaa a oeueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaaea?oueny eaeneeia?ao?/i?e niaaeuei? Yiiaece, o ia?oo /a?ao — aiae?co
eiai «Iiaiai eaeneeiia neaaaii-yiiineiai», «Aieaaoe» ? «I?aaeaa?ey
?acaiai?ia yiiineiai ycuea». Naia oe? i?aoe? yiiinueeiai thiaea
iaeyne?aa?oa a?aeaeca?eaeththoue eiai ?in?enueeee,
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeee ? yiiinueeee ?ae?ieaeoe, a oaeiae oiai/anio
aeeaein?th — iiaio neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany a ?in?? o XVI-XVIII no.

sse oea ia aeeaii, aea e aeioaia? ni??iei ? ieoaiiy i?i aaoi?noai
(a??i?oa — ?aeeiiaaoi?noai) ?oeiienieo i?aoeue Yiiaece. Ii-ia?oa,
aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a caeaaee c iaioaeeeo iaiene ia oeooeueieo a?eooao
aeayeeo c oeeo ?oeiien?a: «Iienaia 1736 ?ieo yiiioeai i?ae iaaeyaeii
oeueiai iaa/aiiy Aiae??y Aiaaeaiiaa»; «Ienaia yiiioeai i ? ae iaaeyaeii
? iaa/aiiyi ?in?enueei? iiae Aiae??y Aiaaeaiiaa» (aeae?eaii iaie.- ?.A)
oa ?i. A ii-ae?oaa, oaeno noie?ee A.?.Aiaaeaiiaa — aieiaiiai
a?ae?ioaea?y ?in?enueei? aeaaeai?? ? aee?aeoi?a oeiee yiiinueei? iiae, o
ye?e a?i, caa?oath» /enue ca iaoa??aeueiith aeiiiiiaith aei ea??aieoeoaa
Aeaaeai?? oa iaaaaeoth/e i?i nai? caneoae, ienaa: «… yiiinueeo oeieo
oa?eioaaa ? aei o iai ae 5 eiea a?aiaoe/ieo o/eiea aeey yiiinueei? iiae,
ui a a?ae?ioaoe? caa??aathoueny» (aeae?eaii iaie.- ?.A.) (Eiaeaioe E.I.
Aiae?ae Eaaiiae/ Aiaaeaiia (1692-1766). Ec i?ioeiai ?onneie enoi?e/aneii
iaoee e eieaiaaaeaiiy.- I.,1958.- N. 38).

I?iaeaia aaoi?noaa aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? canaaeie/ith. A?ae
inoaoi/ii? a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy: ooi iani?aaae? aoa aaoi?ii
?oeiienieo eiea, cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaea ? iaoa ioe?iea ??aiy
aieiae?iiy ?in?enueeith iiaith Yiiaece, aaeaea eeoa ca oeeie ?oeiienaie
(ca ?o ?in?enueeiiiaieie /anoeiaie) ie iiaee ?iaeoe aeniiaee uiaei
?in?enueei? iiae oeueiai yiiioey. Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co
oaeno?a ?oeiien?a (ianaiia?aae — ia ooiaeaiaioaeueiee ca nai?i ianyaii
(12 000 ne?a) «Iiaue eaeneeii neaaaii-yiiineee»), ie ae?eoee
iaeiicia/iiai aeniiaeo: on? aac aeiyoeo ?oeiieni? aeaiiiai? neiaieee oa
iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee, noai?ai? a ia??iae ooieoe?iioaaiiy a Iaoa?ao?c?
yiiinueei? oeiee, iaeaaeaee ia?o Yiiaece ? ? aeeeth/iith caneoaith
oeueiai yiiinueeiai thiaea.

Ii-ia?oa, aaoi?noai Yiiaece i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue i?oia?ao?/i? iiieeee, ui
aeineoue /anoi cono??/athoueny a «Iiaii eaeneeiia» oa ?ioeo ?oeiienao,
ye? ua iiaeia aeaa/eoe ?iicaioeaa? Yiiaec?, aea iaiiaeeeai eieaeieeo
A.Aiaaeaiiao: aeaaineiano(a)oth, aae[?]eae, aaoo[a}ue, aica?[e]aeath,
aini(?)?aieeeu, aunieiau(e)iue, aee[?]y, a?aaaoeue o neoa[y]xa,
aoe(ue)aa, aeaiii[i]u, Aeienpue, aeiaao[ae]ea, aeinoe[a]u, aepy6poaa,
ceieice[i]aiiue, eca(i)ai?a, e.ce(e)eoeath, eciaiaaa[ey]th,
enoe[ea]aath, en/a[a]cath, eetho[/]ieeu oa ?i.

Ii-ae?oaa, aeaye? c oeeo iiieeie, aacia?a/ii, coiiaeai? ?ioa?oa?aioe??th
ia oiiaoe/iiio ??ai? — aieeaii ia ?in?enueeo iiao Yiiaece yiiinueei?
oiiaoe/ii? nenoaie, o ye?e, cie?aia, a?aenooiy ei?aeyoe?y i?eaieinieo ca
i’ye?noth-oaa?ae?noth ? ia ?ic??ciythoueny caoee [?] oa [e], eio?? aeey
yiiioe?a n oiiaiaoe/ii oioiaeieie:

a) aae(ue)ie, aoe(ue)aa, Aeiai?ue, ei?enoue, ei?eooea, iie(ue)aa,
ioce?u, ?acaee?aoae(ue), oiuneue, oiio?aaeoae(ue)iue,
oi?aaeoae(ue)ieoea;

a) aaeeae, aica?aeath, aeey. caeeeaeaiea, caeeeaeyth, iici?ue,
iaeaiaeea, ?acaeaaeyth, ?acnoe?ath.

Aeineoue iieaciaeie ? iiieeee, ye? iaaiith i??ith a?aeaeaathoue aeiiao
Yiiaece, cana?ae/oth/e aacnoii?aiee aieea ia eiai ?in?enueeo iiao
iiaiiai na?aaeiaeua oa iiaeaii?ai? noeo??:

a) aeaiiy: eaia?u, eaiai?a,, eiiaoue, naeaeaoue;

a) ?aaeoeoe?? iaiaaieioaieo aieinieo: eaoeath, eeiaoieue, ianaoeu,
iie/aeeaue, iiaeiuee?e, ianeiea, ni/eoaie?;

a) iaeooaiiy e?ioeaaeo aeca?ieeo i?eaieinieo ? anei?eyoe?? ca aeoo?noth:
aaooue, aeinoeu, aeiaaoea, aeyoueea, ieioaoea, iiaeaynea, naynea,
niiiuath, niiioieeu, niiiuai??;,

a) ni?iuaiiy a?oi i?eaieinieo: i?ac(.ae)iue, ?aaein(o)ii,
neaaeino?an(o)iue, ni?ac(ae)ioth;,

ae) on?/aiiy cae?i/aiue ne?a: aeae(o)th, ?iaeiu(e) a?aou, in(o)ue,
naiiaea?aeaaie(e), naiiaeaeaeiu(e).

Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe e oaeo caeiiii??i?noue: ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue oeeo
iiieeie o?aiey?oueny ia a ??aeei aaeeaaieo o iianyeaeaii?e iia?
oea?eiaiineia’yi?ciao, a a aeineoue /anoioieo ?iciiaieo ?in?enueeeo
neiaao. Iacaaaeath/e ia naith iacao, «Iiaue eaeneeii neaaaii-yiiineee»
aeeth/aa ia??ai? c oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith oa ni?eueiith aeey iaio iia
eaeneeith cia/io e?euee?noue ?in?enueeeo ia?iaeii?iciiaieo ne?a
(10-15%), o oiio /ene?, ? i?inoi??/ieo: acaethoue, aeyaeoiue, a?thcaa,
a?thoaoue, a?thoei, aa?aai/ea, aoeyeu, eey/a, eiaoe/aeu, iaoa/eeu,
iieiaeea ? o.?i.

Aiae?c yiiinueei? /anoeie «Iiaiai eaeneeiia», cie?aia, ia?aeeaaeo
oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? oa ?in?enueei? eaeneee yiiinueeith iiaith,
aeicaiey? ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui ia aeaaaeoeyoiio ?ioe? aeeooy Yiiaeca
cia/ii e?aua aieiae?a ?in?enueeith ? oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith iiaaie,
i?ae nai?th ??aeiith, ei?enooaaoeny yeith a?i i?eieiea, eiee eiio
aeiiaieeiny 11 ?ie?a. Naia oiio «Iiaee eaeneeii» ia? iaaecae/aeii aaeeeo
oe?ii?noue aeey ineoie?iaa?no?a, ui caeiathoueny i?iaeaiaie iioiaaiaco
iiae ae?oae, ine?eueee aeicaiey? oi/ii aecia/eoe ianya ? ye?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee neiaieeiaiai caiano aeeoeie (10-11 ?ie?a) o ?? ??aei?e
iia?. Aaeaea Yiiaeca, eio?ee ci?a aac aoaeue-yeeo neiaiee?a oa
noi?iiiuei? aeiiiiiae ia?aeeanoe ??aeiith iiaith iaeaea 12 000
?ioiiiaieo ne?a; ae/a?iaa na?e yiiinueeee (ye aeoeaiee, oae ? ianeaiee)
eaene/iee caian i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth. Eiai yiiinueeee eaeneeii ia oie /an
aoa iaeaea aaea?/? iaioei eiai noeoiiiai
?in?enueei-oea?eiaiineia’yinueeiai oacao?ona. ? oi/a aeaeaei ia an? c 12
oeny/ ne?a, ui neeaaeathoue ?a?no? «Iiaiai eaeneeiia», aoiaeeee aei
neiaieeiaiai caiano Yiiaece, a?i aeoeaii iiiiaithaaa eiai a i?ioean?
nai?? ?iaioe. Iiaeeeai, naia ooo ? i?iyaeeany «iaaeyaeieoeueea» ?ieue
A.I Aiaaeaiiaa, yeee ?ic’ynithaaa yiiioeaa? naiaioeeo iiaeo aeey iueiai
ne?a.

Aeoaea oe?eaa? niinoa?aaeaiiy aea? aiae?c ia?aeeaaeo yiiinueeith iiaith
naia o??? ?in?enueei? ? oea?eiaiineia’yinueei? eaeneee, ui aeoiaeeea ca
iaae? neiaieeiaiai caiano yiiioey a eiai ??aei?e iia?. O oeeo aeiaaeeao
nooi?iue aaeaeaaoiino? ?? naiaioecaoe?? yiiinueeith iiaith (ye ? oeyoe
aeoiaeo Yiiaece c? «ne?ooieo» neooaoe?e) aoee ??cieie.

Iae/ano?oa a?i coieiyany ia yiiinueeiio eaene/iiio aea?aaeaio?, yeee
i?eaeecii ia?aaeaaaa ocaaaeueiaio naiaioeeo a?aeiia?aeiiai ?in?enueeiai
/e oea?eiaiineia’yineiai neiaa aai a?oie ne?a. Oae, iai?eeeaae, neiaa:
ainoaea?noai, aea?aeaaa, iiia?oey, no?aia, oea?noai Yiiaeca ia?aeeaaea?
iaeiei neiaii «eoi?» — «e?a?ia», ui, o i?eioeei?, aeiionoeii, aea eeoa
ye iaeia ?c cia/aiue iaaaaeaieo ne?a-

?iiae? oaeee «ocaaaeueithth/ee» ia?aeeaae aoa caiaaeoi i?eaeeciei:

a) Aeeaethny — iio — «ieneeoe»

Iaaeaaeaea — iioeiou — «ieneaiiy»

Iaia?aiea — iioeiou — «ieneaiiy» Iaiuaaa/ea — iioeiou — «ieneaiiy»
Iieuneue — iioeiou — «ieneaiiy» *ayiea — iioeiou — «ieneaiiy»;

a) Aeoaeu — aa?oeeiou — «iiaaia ni?aaa»

A?aou — aa?oeeiou — «iiaaia ni?aaa»

Iaenoianoai — aa?oeaeiou — «iiaaia ni?aaa»

Iceiaeaiea — aa?oeaeiou — «iiaaia ni?aaa»

Iaeinoue — ea?oeaeiou — «iiaaia ni?aaa»

I?eaeo?ue — oueiooiaa?oeaou — «o?ioe iiaaia ni?aaa».

sse iane?aeie, yiiinueea /anoeia «Iiaiai eaeneeiia» Yiiaece aeyaeeany
cia/ii a?aei?oith ?in?enueei-oea?eiaiineia’yinueei?. Aea yiiinueeee
thiae, ui ciaa naith ??aeio iiao ia ??ai? iaeeiaaeoeyoe??/ii? aeeoeie,
ia i?a ?iaeoe ?iaeoa. Aaeaea naiaioeeo aaaaoueio ne?a (iniaeeai —
aano?aeoieo, iaoeiaeo, ?ae?a?eii-o?einionueeeo oa?i?i?a) a?i acaaae?
aia?oa a aeeoo? i?ciaa ?iicaiiith iiaith. Eiio iio??aii aoei aeyaeyoe
/oaeana iaenoa?iino?, aeieeaaeaoe /eiaei coneeue, uia ia?aeeanoe oeth
eaeneeo ??aeiith iiaith. I?e oeueiio yiiiaoeue canoiniaoaaa iaa?oue
oaeee niin?a, ye «iniaenoa neiaioai?aiiy»:

AEae/ue — eeeaieaaea — «aeiaoa a??eioa»

I?ai?aaeaaeue — ?aece — «/aoaa?oee ae?ae»

*oanoai — eeeeioue iaith?oeioue — «neooaiiy /?/ caiai’yoiaoaaiiy»

sscu/ieeu — ?niioooi — «/oaea ethaeeia».

Aea iniiaiei niiniaii aeoiaeo c iiae?aieo neeaaeieo eaeneeia?ao?/ieo
neooaoe?e aeey Yiiaece aoei iieniaa (?iiae? — aeoaea i?eaeecia)
oeoia/aiiy cia/aiue ?ioiiiaieo ne?a, iai?eeeaae: aia[a]iiu — «aeniea
i?noea», aeaaiecia?aoaiea — «aa?ia ??/», aeaaii?aaea — «ni?aae /oaeiaiai
na?oey», aeoaeeua — «i?noea ?icaaa», aeanoue — «ae?ea aaeeeiai
ai?ia/aeueieea», anaeaiiay — «i?aeiaaanny», a?aoieeu — «ethaeeia, u,o
?iaeoue iiaai? a/eieee», ecnooeeaiea — «aooe iaaanaeei, canio/aiei»,
e?aieii?aaiue — «ioaeiy ethaeeia», icaeieiaoeu — «oie, ooi ethaeoue
a?io?», iaaa?iue — «oie, oai ia cia? Aoaeaeo», ieiaei?iaeea -»iiyaa
ia?inoe?a», iioioue — «aaaeaia ni?aaa, aaaeaiiy» ? o.?i.

Ia??aeei oe? naiaioe/i? «ocaaaeueiaiiy» i?ecaiaeeee aei nieneiaeo
iaoi/iinoae ? iaa?oue iiieeie:

Enoiia — aeaeaieiou — «iaiiaeeea?noue»

Ia/anoeaue — eo?aiiaiou — «oie, ooi ia ia? iinaaee»

Io/ayiea — iiiaaieiou- «ianiiae?aai?noue»

Ii/oaiea — eo?ay?oeiou — «i?ecia/aiiy ia iinaaeo»

Oaaaeaeath — o?aeue — «iini?oaoe».

O aeayeeo neeaaeieo aeiaaeeao Yiiaeca ciooaiee ?iaeoe i?yi? eaene/i?
caiice/aiiy c ?in?enueei?:

?aeieineoaeaiea — ?aei?o eiaaiueaou — «?aeieiiie?iiy»

Ieaiaoa — ieaiaoa/u — «eiee eaeaoueny i?i ieaiaoo» .

Ui ae noino?oueny aecioeci?a, oi i?aeoe/ii aeey eiaeiiai oaeiai neiaa
yiiiaoeue iaiieaaeeai ooeaa a?aeiia?aeiee aea?aaeaio, oa?aeoa?iee aeey
yiiinueei? ae?eniino?:

Aaeaeaeea — «oyi?naiu» (/yi. ioc. ?ino?oiaio: nyi?nai/)

Aaiaeo?a — «a?aa» (/yi. ioc. ?ino?oiaio : a?aa/)

Aiey?uiue — «aeaith» (/yi. ?no . : «eiycue»/)

Aa?noa — «e/e?ue» (/yi. i??a aeiaae. : i?eae. 4 ei/)

Aai?oieu — «ennoiu» (/yi. i??a aeiaae. : i?eae. 3 ei/)

Eaoa — «iaoue» (/yi.: «?en» /i?i no?aao/)

Ieai — «aeacaeu» (/yi. nieiaeea ?eniaa, aeii/)

Iiiue — «Aicue» (/yi. aoaeae?enueeee /a?iaoeue/).

Aeaoaaaeeii, ui o an?o aeiaaeeao, eiee eaeaoueny i?i naiaioe/i?
iaoi/iino? /e iiieeee a ia?aeeaaeao Yiiaece (oa ?ioeo yiiioe?a),
ia?oueny ia oaac? ia no?eueee ii?iaoeaiee aniaeo oe??? i?iaeaie, oiaoi
i??a a?aeiia?aeiino? ia?aeeaaeo ?in?enueei? aai oea?eiaiineia’yinueei?
eaeneee eiaeeo?eiaai?e e?oa?aoo?i?e yiiinuee?e iia?, ne?eueee ??aaiue
aaeaeaaoiino? ia?aaea/? naiaioeee ?ioiiiaiiai neiaa eaene/ieie caniaaie,
ui ia? o nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? a?e?iaa, eaeneeii yeiai iaiaaeaiee
?aieaie eiai neiaieeiaiai caiano a ??aei?e iia?.

Aiaeia?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ?in?enueeei ? yiiinueeei ?ae?ieaeoaie
Yiiaece cae?eniththoueny oaeie aeena?oaioii o i?ioean? e?iaa?noe/iiai oa
e?iaaii?aaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ?ioeo eaeneeia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o oeueiai
yiiinueeiai thiaea (ianaiia?aae, «Aieaaoe» — ia?oiai
?in?enueei-yiiinueeiai neiaieea oa «I?aaeaa?iy ?acaiai?ia yiiineiai
ycuea» — ia?oiai yiiinueei-?in?enueeiai ?iciiaieea). Oe? ?oeiiene oaae
i?noyoue iaaecae/aeii oe?eaaee iiaiee iaoa??ae, aea nai?ie ianyaaie aiie
cia/ii iinooiathoueny «Iiaiio eaeneeiio neaaaii yiiinueeiio».

Ca iiae?aiith noaiith o ianooiiiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
?icaeyaea?oueny ?in?enueeee ?ae?ieaeo Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath. C oe??th iaoith
aeena?oaio aeei?enoiao? aeaiiiai? neiaieee ?c ?oeiien?a «?in?y ?a?o?»,
«?in?y aai?i» oa «Oieona aoi?yeo» c iniaeeaith oaaaith aei
?in?enueei-yiiinueeiai neiaieea, ui i?noeoueny naia a inoaiiueiio c oeeo
?oeiien?a — «Oieona aoi?yeo», ye iaea?eueo ia’?iiiai, ci?noiaiiai oa
oe?eaaiai c oi/ee ci?o eiiieaeniiai e?iaaii?aaiaoe/iiai aa
e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co.

Oae naii, ye ? o aeiaaeeao c Aeaiaani oa Yiiaecith, o i?ae?icae?e?,
i?enay/aiiio ?ae?ieaeoo Eiaeath, c’yniaothoueny e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni?
oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai ?in?enueeiiiaiiai eaene/iiai caiano, aeae?eythoueny,
aiae?cothoueny e eeaneo?eothoueny naiaioe/i? iaoi/iino? oa iiieeee, ye?
a?i aeiioneaa o nai?o aeaiiiaieo neiaieeao, ia?aeeaaeath/e ?in?enuee?
neiaa yiiinueeith iiaith ? iaaiaee, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa anoaiiaeoe
e?iaa?noe/i? e aeno?ae?iaa?noe/i? i?e/eie oeeo iiieeie, aecia/a?oueny
??aaiue eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? Eiaeath a ??cieo aeaeao iiaeaii?ai?
ae?yeueiino? oa ?i.

Aea aeaye? iniaeeaino? eaeneeia?ao?/ii? niaaeueie Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath, a
oaeiae iayai?noue ?ioeo iiaieo oa ? noi?e/i?o iaoa??ae?a, ye? iathoue
aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei oeueiai yiiinueeiai ii?aieaaoey,
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe ua oe?eo ieceo oe?eaaeo niinoa?aaeaiue noiniaii
aeaiiiaiiai ?ae?ieaeoo Eiaeath ? eiai eiioi?eaoeaii? ae?yeueiino? a
?in?enueeiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?, cie?aia:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean aeei?enoaiiy ia?aae?iaa?noe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ni?eeoaaiiy yiiineeo ii?ye?a c ?in?yiaie oa
aai?eaaiaie Eai/aoee, Eo?eeuenueeeo ? Aeaoonueeeo ino?ia?a;

— c’ynoaaoe iaoai?cie oa aeeiai?eo i?ioeano naiino?eiiai iiaioaaiiy
yiiinueeeie ii?aieaaoeyie ia?oeaioeaieie (ni?eeiaiiy ia neoo, /eoaiiy)
oa ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie (iiaeaiiy, ienueii) aeaeaie eiioi?eaoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? a ?in?enuee?e iia?;

— ooi/ieoe caaaeueio niaoeeo?eo oa aeaye? eiie?aoi? niiniae aa?enoe/iiai
iaieiae?iiy yiiioeyie ?ioiiiaiei eaene/iei iaoa??aeii;

— aecia/eoe ianyae oa oeyoe iaiiina?aaeeiaaiiai iaieiae?iiy ieie
a?aiaoe/iith nenoaiith ?in?enueei? iiae;

— ioe?ieoe noee?noe/io ??ciiiai?oi?noue ?in?enueei? iiae Eiaeath.

Eiaeiiio c oeeo ieoaiue i?enay/aia a?aeiia?aeia no?oeoo?ia /anoeia
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae Yiiaece, yeee e?eueea ?ie?a aea/aa ?in?enueeo oa
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeo iiae a Aeaenaiae?i-Iaanuee?e nai?ia??? ? a
i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae neiaieeaie ei?enooaaany ??cieie c?aceaie, Aeaeeieo
Eiaeath iaieiae?aaa ?in?enueeith iiaith naiino?eii: oaaaeii
i?eneooiaoaaany aei iiaeaiiy ?? i?e?iaeieo iin??a, noa?aiii eii?thaaa ?o
aeiiao, iaeiie/oaaa ?in?enueeo eaeneeo aaciina?aaeiuei c iiaiiai
na?aaeiaeua, a nai? eaeneeia?ao?/i? ?iaioe ienaa ii iai’yo?. Naia oiio
eiai ?oeiieni? neiaieee aeoaea yne?aai a?aeaeee ?iciiaio noeo?th o???
?noi?e/ii? aiioe. Aiie iaiiaiai? ia eeoa caaaeueiiaaeeaaiith
?in?enueeith eaeneeith, aea e i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue:

a) i?inoi??/ieo eiino?oeoe?e: «yoi o?aa» (yoi /aai); «yneoy ioioa»
(anoue ioioa); «neoi oy» (/oi ou!); «en? oioa» (eue ioioa);

«oi?ini iineiiy?a» (oi?ioi iiniaea /i?i ?aeo/); «yy enn?» (y an?!) /y
cae?i/ea/); «eaia?ey, aeceeie» (eaiaeuey, aeeeie)) oa ?i.;

a) aeaoe?a: «ane» (anue?); «0oi, aecyoei» (ox, aeaeei); «oi, oinoea?eo»
(ao, oineeeai) oa ?i.;

a) /anoie: «iy iineii ?y» (ia iiaeii ee?); «aea-aea» (aea, aea); «oaoa
oaoa» (oi-oi, oi-oi /ioi ae oi, ioi/); «oaeono» (oae-n) oa ?i.

a) ae?aeaeoeci?a (ia?aaaaeii nea??nueeeo): «oeeneea» (/eoea /»aaeeea
iio?aaa»/); « eoaoi» (e/ao /aeea?, ?ea?/); «iynnyoea» (inyaea
/ei?inoa/); «oneeai» (ooeai /ca?oeue/); « niioea» (niiea); « iaaecy»
(iaaeue /caiaaeeia; aieioi/); «aa?aaa?a» (aa?aaa?a /caieyiea/);
«ieaecoae?e» (iecae?ue /iaaoe/) oa ?i.

I?i oa, ui Eiaeath iiiiaithaaa na?e neiaieeiaee caian, aaciina?aaeiuei
ni?eeoth/enue c ?in?enueeeie iiaoeyie; na?ae/eoue oaeiae cia/ia
e?euee?noue cao?eniaaieo o eiai neiaieeao i?eeiaoiee?a, ?iaiiee?a,
i?ene?aiee?a c ianoeeaeie oa ciaiooaaeueieie noo?enaie, ye? oa?aeoa?i?
ianaiia?aae aeey ?iciiaii? iiae: «oiieieie» (oiiaiueeie), «??aeieeie»
(e?aiiueeee); «ao?oaone» (aieoa/ie ), «aaiiyneei» (aaaeiyaeea);
«ia??nyiei aoi?iaecoiae» (iae?naiueei oieiaeiue), «iyiiiineea iaaecy?i»
(iaiiiaeei, iiaeaeoe), «oi?inyieea iyneoa ?ioii» (oi?ioaiueei, aianoa,
?iaii) oa ?i.; ye ? oa; ui i?aeoe/ii an? ae??neiaa iaaaaeai? a eiai
neiaieeao aai a iniaiaeo oi?iao oaia??oiueiai oa i?inoiai iaeaooiueiai
/ano: «io?ao?oi» (iea/ao), «eoiie??» (eoieth), aai o oi?i? ?iia?aoeaa:
«noiio??y» (niio?e), «noonye» (neooae), «i?iaiaeae» (?aaioae ), «eonye»
(eooae) oa ?i.

Aeoaea oe?eaaei aeaiaioii ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo neiaiee?a Aeaeeieoy
Eiaeath n aeeth/aiiy aei ?o ?a?no??a iaaii? e?eueeino? oe?a?inueei?
eaeneee: iiaaiie (iiaaiee) — [e?oaia] (a?oaeiee, iaioaeiee); aeia?y
(aeia?a) — [eieo] (aeia?a); oeoi ie?en? (ooi i?eeoia?) — [aea?a-ea e?oa]
(ooi i?eeoia?); oyaecoiae? (oa ciath!) — [?aooai] (c?icoi?a; caiaeai);
iniae?eaae (iniaeeaee) — [oiea-ii iiii] (?ioa ??/, ?ioa ni?aaa);
ny?aaa?e (oa?iaa?e) — [oaeaia] (ooaie) oa ?i. Oea iiaea, ciiao ae oaee,
na?ae/eoe aai i?i ana ?aea no?eeee aieea ia ?in?enueeo oe?a?inueei? iiae
a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVIII no., aai i?i oa, ui na?aae «o/eoae?a» Eiaeath
aoee aeo?aeoe? c Oe?a?ie.

A?aiaoe/iee aiae?c ?in?enueeeo ?iciiaieo eiino?oeoe?e oa o?ac, ye?
aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aeayeeo neiaiee?a Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath, cana?ae/o?,
ui oeae yiiiaoeue ci?a naiino?eii (? aeineoue aeia?a!) iaieiae?oe
/aniaith nenoaiith ?in?enueeeo ae??ne?a, ?o aeaeii, ae??a?aei?ithaaiiyi,
a oaeiae nenoaiith a?aei?ithaaiiy, ?iaeii ? /eneii ?iaiiee?a,
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui inoaii? aea? a?aiaoe/i? eaoaai??? (ye ?
ae??a?aei?ithaaiiy oa aeae ae??ne?a) o yiiinuee?e iia? a?aenooi?.
Neioaene/i? no?oeoo?e eiai ?in?enueei? iiae ia aoee neeaaeieie ca nai?th
aoaeiaith. Aea aeey ?iciiaii? iiae neeaaeiino?yaei? oa
neeaaeiii?ae?yaei? ?a/aiiy ia oae? oa?aeoa?i?, ye i?ino?, yeeie
Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath, noaey/e c eiai neiaiee?a, iia?oaaa aeoaea oni?oii,
ia?aai?iaoe aaeeeee aieea neioaeneno ??aeii? iiae, aea ii?yaeie ne?a o
neeaae? ?a/aiue cia/ii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?in?enueei? iiae.

Iaai? oni?oe, a oaeiae iaaaea/? i?inoeo ? iaina?/aieo (ia a?aei?io a?ae
Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath) yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a Oeoaeath, Y?oay, Naoay ?
Oaaecth?i, ye? iio?aieee aei ?in?? /a?ac aeaa ?iee i?ney iiaa?iaiiy
aeiaeiio Eiaeath, a?aeaea yiiinueei-?in?enueeee neiaiee c ?oeiieno
«Eaieae ?aoi». E?iaa?noe/iiio aiae?cia? oeueiai eaeneeia?ao?/iiai
aeaea?aea e c’ynoaaiith ia aac? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a naiino?eii
aeinyaiooiai eiai aaoi?aie ??aiy eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? a
?in?enuee?e iia? i?enay/aii ianooiiee i?ae?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?eioeeiiaith iniaeea?noth neiaieea «Eaieae ?aoi» o
ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aeaiiiaieie eaeneeiiaie yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a ? oa, ui
a?i a?aeaeca?eaethaaa ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee, a «eieaeoeaiee» neiaieeiaee
caian a?e?iaa?a, ine?eueee a i?ioean? eiai iaienaiiy a?aee o/anoue on?
cacia/ai? yiiioe?.

Iii?e oa, ui oeae neiaiee aaea aea?/? aeaeaaaany (ye o ssiii??, oae ? a
?in??), iaeaea 3% ?in?enueeeo ne?a, caienaieo a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie,
caeeoathoueny a iueiio ia ?icoeo?iaaieie. Aeena?oaio i?iiiio? aeaniee
aa??aio ?icoeo?oaaiiy aeayeeo c oeeo eaenai.

Ni?iaa ae c’ynoaaoe ??aaiue naiino?eiiai iiaioaaiiy oeeie yiiioeyie
a?aiaoe/ii? nenoaie ?in?enueei? iiae ia iaoa??ae? ia?ic/eaiiaaieo
?iciiaieo eiino?oeoe?e oa ?a/aiue, ui i?noyoueny a caeeth/i?e /anoei? ?o
neiaieea, ne?i/eeanue aac?acoeueoaoii. Iacaaaeath/e ia aeanyoe??/iee
oa?i?i ia?aaoaaiiy oe??? a?oie yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a o ?in?enueeiiiaiiio
na?aaeiaeu?, ?i (ia a?aei?io a?ae ?o ina?/aiiai iiia?aaeieea) oae ? ia
aaeaeiny iaieiae?oe ?in?enueeith a?aiaoeeith iaa?oue ia aeaiaioa?iiio
??ai?. Aiie ?iciiaeyee ?in?enueeith, aea i?e oeueiio iaoai?/ii
i?aeaaiyee ?in?enueeo eaeneeo i?ae no?oeoo?i? noaie iiaoaeiae
aeneiaeaiiy a nai?e ??aei?e iia?, iine?aeiaii i?eienoth/e ?in?enueeei
neiaai a?aiaoe/i?, neioaene/i? oa ?io? aeanoeaino?, ye? iathoue
a?aeiia?aei? eaene/i? iaeeieoe? a yiiinuee?e iia?. Ca?aene eiino?oeoe??
oeio: «ceaa? caacaea», «oi?ioi aeaiue», «oi?ioi ai?iae», «ia oi?ioi
aeaiue», «noaeei ieioei», «ieoe aoiaaa», «aeaiueia aaaeea», «einoe
ea?ae», «aieiaa aieueii», «oaee ieoee», «/aou?a oaie», «o?a oaie», «aeon
oi?ioi», «iiaeii ee aeaeaaoa?», «/aai aeaeae?» ? o.i.

Caaaeii oe? yiiinuee? ii?yee iaieiae?ee ?in?enueeith iiaith naia a o?e
i???, a ye?e aiia aoea iaiao?aeia ?i aeey aeaiaioa?iiai ni?eeoaaiiy c
?in?yiaie ia iiaooiaiio ??ai?, ? oeueiai aoei aeinoaoiuei aeey o?ce/iiai
aeaeeaaiiy a ?ioiiiaiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ia i?aaio/e aei a?eueoiai,
Oeoaeath, Y?oae, Naoae ? Oaaecth?i iiaioaaee eeoa oo eaeneeo; ui aoea
iaiao?aeia ?i aeey aeeiiaiiy iaei?ino?oeo iio?aa ethaeeie: oa?/oaaiiy,
?iaioe, a?aeii/eieo. Ia /oaeei?, ye ? a naaa aaeiia, oe? i?ino?
o?oae?aieee caeeoaeeny a??ieie nai?io aeeoo?aiio i?aaiaoecio — ana, ui
aeoiaeeei ca iaae? iianyeaeaiieo i?aeoe/ieo iio?aa, ?o iaei oe?eaaeei. O
naia a oeueiio, ia iao iiaeyae, iieyaa? aieiaia e?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue neiaieea ?oeiieno «Eaieai ?aoi»: eiai ?in?enueeiiiaio eaeneeo
(c a?aeiia?aeiith iii?aaeith ia ?noi?e/io aiioo oa nioe?aeueiee noaoon
a?e?iaa?a, ui iath iaieiae?ee) iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oei ?, iane?eueee iai
a?aeiii, ?aeeiei ia ?ac? aenia?eiaioaeueii (a ia eeoa oai?aoe/ii, ye oea
cacae/ae ?iaeoueny) onoaiiaeaiei ? i?aeoe/ii ia??oioiaaiei
neiaieeii-i?i?ioiii, iaiao?aeiei ?iicaioeaa? aeey iiaooiaiai ni?eeoaaiiy
?in?enueei? iiaith c ?? iin?yie.

Caaa?oo? ae?oaee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiieaeniee
aiae?c «Neiaa?y ssiiineiai ycuea ii ?inneeneiio Aeoaaeoo nia?aiiiai»
I.I.??caiiaa — ia?oiai ?in?yieia, yeee nai?th ooiaeaiaioaeueiith
eaeneeia?ao?/iith i?aoeath (a?eueoa C 50I ?a?no?iaeo ne?a) oa iaienaiei
iei aiaeii/an c cacia/aiei neiaieeii «?oeiaiaenoaii e iiciaieth
ssiiineiai ycuea, niaea?aeauai Acaoeo, ia?aiia/aeueiay A?aiiaoe/aneey
i?aaeea / ?acaiai?u» c?iaea aaaiiee (ia a?aei?io a?ae nai?o yiiinueeeo
iiia?aaeiee?a — ia eeoa i?aeoe/iee, aea e oai?aoe/iee) aianie o ?icaeoie
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a. Naia i? ?iaioe ?in?enueeiai
ii?nueeiai io?oea?a, yeee ca aeiiiiiaith Oeoaeath, Y?oay, Naoay e
Oaaecth?i oni?oii iaieiae?a yiiinueeith iiaith, a?aeii caaa?ooaaee
i?iian noaiiaeaiiy iiaieo noinoie?a i?ae ?in?yiaie oa yiiioeyie i?ioyaii
XVIII no.

I?e?iaeaeaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oaeaio ? /oaeiaa ciaiiy e?eueeio
?a?iiaenueeeo iia i?eioooaaee I.I.??caiiaa ia i?inoi iaoai?/ii
i?aeooeoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith yiiinueeeo iii?/iee?a a?aeiia?aei? eaene/i?
aea?aaeaioe a?ae?a?aiei ?in?enueeei neiaai, aea e ?aoaeueii ooi/ithaaoe
naiaioeeo eiaeiiai yiiinueeiai neiaa, aecia/aoe naiaioe/i? iiey
a?aeiia?aeieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue a iaio iiaao oa ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
(iniaeeai i?e ia?aeeaae? aaaaoicia/ieo ne?a, iiii?i?a oa neiii?i?a),
c’yniaoaaoe ??cieoeth i?ae cia/aiiyie ie?aieo eaenai o neeaae? noaeeo
neiainiieo/aiue, iioaioe?eio iiaeeea?noue ?o neioaene/ii? niieo/oaaiino?
c ?ioeie neiaaie, neiaioa??i? ai?caea, noee?noe/i? a?aeo?iee oiui. I?e
oeueiio I.I.??caiiaei o?aoiaoaaeeny ia o?eueee iiai? a?aei?iiino?, aea e
aeaye? iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueiiai iiaooo, niaoeeo?/i? ?ene eoeueoo?
aeaio ia?iae?a ? iaa?oue i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae ?in?? oa ssiii??,
ye? a?i iinooiiai i?ciaaaa o i?ioean? ni?eeoaaiiy c yiiioeyie. Ona oea
/oaeiai aeaeii ia i?eeeaae? oeo neiainiieo/aiue, ui aaoi? «Neiaa?y
ssiiineiai ycuea» ae??oea aeeth/eoe aei ?a?no?o naiai neiaieea ia??ai? c
ie?aieie ?in?enueeeie neiaaie:

Aaoiaee o?aayiuy — Oeooa, Aaoiaee nieiiaiiuy — Aeaeei?e, Aeoueny ia
caeeaae — Eaeei oaiaooaii, Aieoaoue aeeaeeinoue — Oo?eoaii, Aieoaoue
ionoyee — Iaiieii iae eioii theiaooaii, A?ao aieueoie — Aie, A?ao
iaiueoie — Ioiio, A?ycue ia oeeoea -Ie/eiaa aa?ieo aiaeca?o, A?ycue ia
oaea — aaa, eiaa, Aeaoue ae?oaiio — ss?eiaooaii, Aeaoue naaa —
Eioeiaooaii, Ea?oioaeue neaaeeie — Naaecoiaeii, Eeaaaoue ioeoea —
Oi?eiaa oeoeeiaooaii, Eeaaaoue ?uaa — Naeaia oeeeiaooaii oa ?i. Caaaeii,
ca iaoeie i?ae?aooieaie, o neiaieeo iae?/o?oueny aeecueei CII iiae?aieo
neiainiieo/aiue.

Oi/a e oeae oi?eaeueiee aeey naiai /ano aeaiiiaiee neiaiee iaa iaai?
aaaee, ye? ie a?eueoa noeeuei? a?aeianoe ia ?aooiie yiiinueeeo
iii?/iee?a I.I.?ycaiiaa, i?ae ia eiai aeaniee ?aooiie. Na?aae ieo: a)
iieniaa oeoia/aiiy, a ia i?yiee ia?aeeaae aaaaoueio ne?a (Aaniieacii —
Iaieii ooaii ?eo aiaeca?ai — «ui ia ?iae — ana iaaa?acae»; a) naiaioe/i?
iaoi/iino?: Aacioeai/ii — Aaoiae eioii oeiaoaiaea -»ia ?iaey/e
iaaacia/ieo ni?aa», Aaciooiee — Iaiieii iaaioiie ia?eiaoai — «iani?aaae?
/a ae?eniino?/ i?/iai ia aeoiaeeoue»; a) iiieeee: Aacii?a/iue — Iaiieii
?eo oeiaoai — «i?/iai aeia?a ia ?iaeoe».

Aaaiiei aianeii I.I.??caiiaa a i?ioean eiaeeo?eaoe??
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei noaea ?ic?iaeaia iei nenoaia
i?aeoe/ii? o?aine?eioe?? yiiinueeeo ne?a e?oa?aie ee?eeeoe?. Aaoi?ia?
«Neiaa?y ssiiineiai ycuea» aaeaeiny ia eeoa aaeaeaaoii (oi/a e ia
caaaeaee iine?aeiaii) ia?aaeaoe caniaaie ?in?enueei? a?ao?ee oiiieia?/io
? oiiaoe/io nenoaie yiiinueei? iiae, aea e aeaye? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
aeiiae oa aeoeaiooaaiiy ne?a o naiaeaenueeiio aa??aio? oioienueeiai
ae?aeaeoo yiiinueei? iiae, iin?yie yeiai aoee «a/eoae?» I.I.??caiiaa.
Oea ieoaiiy naiai /ano ?icaeyaeaea I.I.Iao?iaa a i?aeoe/ii ?aeei?e
aeiiei? iaoeia?e ?iaio?, i?enay/ai?e aiae?co aeaiiai neiaieea (Iao?iaa
I.I. Neiaa?ue yiiineiai yceea I-I. ?acaiiaa (Iao/oaiiue ?acoeueoao
yeniaaeeoeee r ssiiieth r JSfl3-f805 aa.).- XXVI Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
eiia?ann ainaieie?.??ia. Aeieeaaeu aeaeaaaoeee NNN?.- M.,1963.-15 n.).
Naia aiia aia?oa aeae?eeea oe?eo ieceo iniaeeainoae naiaeaenueeiai
aiai?o ia oiiaoe/iiio oa eaene/iiio ??aiyo. Aea iica oaaaith a?aeiiiai
noiaeiciaaoey caeeoeeeny oae? oa?aeoa?i? oiiaoe/i? ?ene iueiai
oioienueeiai ae?aeaeoo, ye iai?eeeaae:

/a?aoaaiiy (i?aei?ia) aieinieo caoe?a [?] oa [i]: Aiaea — Ieco, I?co
(yi. e?o.: [i?aeco]); Iooiay aiaea — Ieiai?eoa i?co (yi. e?o.: [i?aiooa
i?aeco]); Iaiiiai — *eooi (yi. e?o.: [oueiooi]); ?aaeoaa — Ieaeaee,
Iiaeaee (yi. e?o.: [i?aec?]);

ia?ao?ae aeca?ieiai i?eaieiniiai [dz] a aei?naeueiue [s]: Ia/aei —
Oaoeia (yi. e?o.: [oaaec?ia]); Iaeeiaeiai — Iiaoeeioi (yi. e?o.:
[iiaaec?-eioi]);

iiaeai?iiy a ?ioa?aieaeuei?e iiceoe?? i?eaieinieo [k]-[kk], [m] -[mm],
[n]-[nn], [s]-[s] e [t]-[tt]: Aeii — Naeea. (yi. e?o.:[naea]); Ai?a —
ssiia (yi. e?o.: [yia]); A/a?aoiee — Eeiiiii (yi. e?o.: [e?ii-ii]);
Aaoiaee o?aayiuy — Oeooa (yi. e?o.: [n?oa]) oa ? i.

Aei ?a/?, I.I.Iao?iaa aeiyoeiaith caneoaith I.I.??caiiaa aaaaea? oa, ui
a?i ia?oei na?aae ?a?iiaeoe?a caa?ioa oaaao ia niaoeeo?eo iaaieino a
yiiinuee?e iia?, a naia — iicia/ea iaaiein o 25 yiiinueeeo neiaao.
Ae?enii, a eiai neiaieeo o?aieythoueny neiaa c iicia/aiei iaaieinii.
Aea, ii-ia?oa, iaaiein iicia/aii ia?aaaaeii a oeo neiaao, caoeiaee /e
a?ao?/iee neeaae yeeo aeiaaeeiai ca?aaany c aeiiaith aai ae iaienaiiyi
aeayeeo ?in?enueeeo ne?a: Aeeaaie — Iie, Eeoee — Aaoa, Ei?iiaay eathoa —
ssaaaea, Ooyc, Ao?ae — Aeo?a, Oo?i -Ana, Oeaa o aeai?oea — Oaoa,
Oa?/aaiy — Ie/ay oa ?i. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui iii?oeaoe oea, I.I.??caiia
oio?a aeiaeaoeiaeie a?ao?/ieie caniaaie eeoa i?aee?aneeoe nai oaeo
iueiai aeiaaeeiaiai ca?ao ? aeacaoe ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino? o aeiia?
a?aeiia?aeieo yiiinueeeo ne?a o ii??aiyii? c ?in?enueeeie. A ii-ae?oaa,
?aaeoa iaaiaee, caneoaa I.I.??caiiaa naia a oiio e iieyaa?, ui a?i, ia
a?aei?io a?ae yiiioey Yiiaece, ia noaa iicia/aoe iaaiein o yiiinueeeo
neiaao, na?aeiii /e ?ioo?oeaii a?ae/oaoe, ?aei neeiaee iaaiein; ye
oaeee, aeey yiiinueei? iiae ia oa?aeoa?iee (aieiaio aeoeaiooaoe?eio
?ieue o i?e aeeiiothoue oiioaaiiy ? aeiaaioa caoe?a). Inoaii? ?c
cacia/aieo oiiaoe/ieo yaeu I.I.??caiia aeineoue iine?aeiaii a?aeaea o
nai?io neiaieeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe «Eaeneeia?ao?/i? ?iaioe
yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a ye aeaea?aei aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? ? yiiinueei?
iia XVIII noie?ooy» aaoi? ?icaeyaea? oe?eo ieceo iiaieo yaeu, ui
a?aeaeeeny a neiaieeao yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a, yeei oaeaeiny
iiaa?iooeny ia aaouee?aueio (Eiaeath, Oeoaeath, Y?oae oa ?i.).
Eiiieaeniee aiae?c eaene/iiai iaoa??aeo, ui i?noeoueny a iaienaieo oeeie
ii?yeaie neiaieeao, aeicaiey? ii-iiaiio ioe?ieoe ie?ai? aniaeoe
?in?enueei? ? yiiinueei? iia XVIII no. Aea a ia?oo /a?ao aeena?oaioii
?iaeoueny ni?iaa a?aeiia?noe ia aeaye? eiioeaiooaeueii aaaeeea? aeey
anueiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiiy, a naia:

— iane?eueee iiaii oa aaeaeaaoii eaeneeia?ao?/i? ?iaioe yiiinueeeo
ii?ye?a a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ?in?enueeo ? yiiinueeo iiae o??? aeiae;

— /e i?eionoeii ?icaeyaeaoe noai?ai? yiiioeyie aeaiiiai? neiaieee,
iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee, ?iciiaieee ye aeaea?aei aea/aiiy ?in?enueei? oa
yiiinueei? ?iciiaieo iia XVIII no., a oaeiae ?in?enueeeo ? yiiinueeeo
ae?aeaeo?a oiai /ano;

— ye? ua iiai? aniaeoe iiaeia aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia iaoa??ae?
eaeneeia?ao?/ii? niaaeueie yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe?a.

Ia’?eoeai? a?aeiia?ae? ia oe? caieoaiiy ia eeoa caeaee ?ac
i?aee?aneththoue iaoeiaa cia/aiiy oa oe?ii?noue ?oeiienieo ?ia?o
yiiinueeeo ii?aieaaoe? a, aea e iaaiith i??ith aecia/athoue iai?yiee
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai iaaecae/aeii oe?eaaiai
e?iaa?noe/iiai iaoa??aeo.

Ine?eueee naia a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oae? aaaeeea? o?einionuee? iiiyooy; ye
oi?ia ? ci?no ia?anoathoue aooe aano?aeoieie iaoeiaeie eaoaai??yie,
iaaoaath/e oe?eeii eiie?aoiiai cia/aiiy, iniaeeaa oaaaa a oeueiio
?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaea?oueny ieoaiiyi
o?aine?eioe?? a aeaiiiaieo neiaieeao XVIII no. ?in?enueeeo ne?a
a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie oa yiiinueei? eaeneee e?oa?aie ee?eeeoe?.

Aeey aiae?co ee?eee/ii? o?aine?eioe?? yiiinueei? eaeneee aeena?oaio
a?aeae?a? e?eueea neiaiee?a, eiaeiee c yeeo, ia eiai aeoieo,
aeei?enoiaoaaany (aai ae i?a aeei?enoiaoaaoeny) o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy
yiiinueei? iiae a ?in??, ? ca nai?ie ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, a oaeiae
/anii noai?aiiy noaiiaea iaaiee aoai ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueei?
iaa/aeueii? eaeneeia?ao?? oa eiaeeo?eaoe?? ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iica’yce?a: «Aieaaoeu» (1736) Yiiaece, «Eaeneeii» (1782)
A.Oaoa?eiiaa, ?in?enueei-yiiinueeee neiaiee Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath c
«N?aaieoaeueiiai neiaa?y anao ycueia e ia?a/ee» (1791-1792)
O.?.ssieiae/a , «Neiaa?ue ssiiineiai ycuea»’ (1804) I.I.??caiiaa.

Iaiine?aeiai?noue aaoi??a neiaiee?a o i?ioean? o?aine?eaoaaiiy ieie
yiiinueei? eaeneee ee?eeeoeath, ae?aeaeoi? iniaeeaino? (ianaiia?aae —
oiiaoe/i?) ?o yiiinueei? iiae, a oaeiae ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? niaoeeo?/i?
?ene aeiiae aeayeeo a?e?iaa?a, ye? oaae aeineoue /anoi
a?aeaeca?eaethaaeeny a ?oeiienieo eaeneeiiao XVIII no., cia/ii
oneeaaeithaaee ioe?ieo aaeaeaaoiino? ia?aaea/? caniaaie ?in?enueei?
a?ao?ee oiiaoe/ii? oa oiiieia?/ii? nenoai yiiinueei? iiae. Naia oiio
aeey aiae?co ?c neiaiee?a a?aeae?aeany aaea eaeneea; yea, c iaeiiai
aieo, iiaeiia aoea iaia’yceiai aoiaeeoe aei neeaaeo caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai
neiaieeiaiai oiiaeo yiiinueei? iiae o??? aiioe (oae caai? oeoeo?i —
«caaaeueiiaaeeaai? neiaa»), a c ?ioiai, caciaaaea a i?i?iaeueii
iiaeeeaiai ae?aeaeoiiai aieeao ia oiiaoe/iiio ??ai? (? ia .eeoa a
yiiinuee?e iia? a oe?eiio, aea e a ?ae?ieaeoao ie?aieo a?e?iaa?a).

Oaeith eaeneeith, ia aeoieo aaoi?a aeena?oaoe??, aoee neiaa, ye?
icia/aee: ?iaeeii? noinoiee (aaoueei, iaoe, nei, aei/ea, a?ao, nano?a);
/anoeie o?ea (aieiaa, iaee//y, i/?, aooa, i?n, ?io); i?e?iaei? yaeua
(ceia, aania, e?oi, in?iue; ?aiie, aeaiue, aa/??, i?/; aiaea, aiaiiue,
aeiu, ni?a, a?oa?); ioi/oth/o i?e?iaeo (caiey, iaai, i?nyoeue, niioea,
??ea, ii?a); a oaeiae iacae i?nyoe?a, yiiinuee? /ene?aieee, iaea?eueo
/anoioi? ae??neiaa, i?eeiaoieee ? o.?i.

sseui ia a?aoe aei oaaae aeaye? niaoeeo?/i? ae?aeaeoi? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? oiiaoe/i? ?ene, ui ana oaee a?aeaeeeny a ee?eee/i?e
o?aine?eioe?? iaa?oue niaoe?aeueii a?ae?a?aieo aeey aiae?co yiiinueeeo
ne?a, iiaeia ae?eoe aeniiaeo: aaoi?ai i?aeoe/ii an?o cacia/aieo
neiaiee?a oaeaeiny aeineoue i?aaeeueii o?aine?eaoaaoe ee?eeeoeath
yiiinuee? neiaa, ui aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? yiiinueei?
eaeneee. I?eiaeii?, ie aiaaiai?, ui aoaeo/e aeiiaeaieie ?in?yiaie o o?e
oiiaoe/i?e oi?i?, o ye?e aiie aoee cao?eniaai? a neiaieeao, oe? eaenaie,
aac noii?ao, iiaee aaeaeaaoii ?aeaioeo?eoaaoeny yiiinueeeie iiaoeyie.

Aeineoue aaeaeith aoea ee?eee/ia o?aine?eioe?y yiiinueeeo ne?a Eiaeath,
yeiio, aei ?a/?, iaeaaeeoue oaeiae ia?o?noue a ii?aoethaaii? i?aaee
o?aine?eioe?? ?in?enueei? eaeneee ciaeaie eaoaeaie. Iacia/ieie
iaaeie?eaie eiai nenoaie ee?eee/ii? o?aine?eioe?? aoee: a?aenooi?noue
iicia/aiiy aeiaaioe yiiinueeeo aieinieo caoe?a [i:] oa [e:]: nui -*i
(yi.: [ouei:] — «aeeiano?y»), a?ao — E?aeae (yi.: [euei:aea?]), eooaoue
— Eo, eoa (yi.: [eo:]), aeanyoue — Aecth (yi.: [aecth:]); a oaeiae
aeei?enoaiiy aoeainiieo/aiue «aeoee» ? «oee» aeey ia?aaea/? a
o?aine?eioe?? yiiinueeiai caoeiniieo/aiiy [ti]: ?io — Eoaeoee (yi.
[eco?]), caiey — oeooee (yi.: [oeco?]), 1 (iaeei) — Eoee (yi.: [eo?]), 8
(ainaiue) — Oaoee (yi.: [oao?]). Oi/a ca?aaee ia’?eoeaiino? ne?ae
caoaaaeeoe, ui aeei?enoaiiy e?oa?e «oe» ia?aae aieiniei «?» a i?aeoe/i?e
o?aine?eioe?? yiiinueei? eaeneee oe?eeii aeiionoeia e iaa?oue
i?iiiioaaeiny aeayeeie a?aeiieie e?iaa?noaie ye c?aceiaa.

Ee?eee/io o?aine?eioe?th I.I.?acaiiaa oaeiae iiaeia aaaaeaoe aaeueie
aaeaeith. Ia a?aei?io a?ae Eiaeath, a?i oaea iine?aeiai?oa ia?aaea? ia
eeoa aeiaaioo a?aeiia?aeieo yiiinueeeo aieinieo caoe?a: yiaa?ue
Oiieaaoeo (yi.: [nuei:?aoeo]), a?ao ieaaeoee — Ioiioi (yi.: [ioi:-oi]),
nano?a ieaaeoay — Eiiioi (yi.: [?ii:oi]), ieoya?ue — Aeaeooeaaoeo (yi.:
[aecth:?aoeo]), aea e iiaeai?i? i?eaieini?: iaei — /eooi (yi.:
[oueiooi]), eeioa — Oaeeo?e (yi.: [nyeeo??]) oa ?i.

Ui ae noino?oueny o?aine?eioe?e Yiiaece ? A.Oaoa?eiiaa, ne?ae
caoaaaeeoe, ui aiie aoee iaea?eueo iaiine?aeiaieie oa iaaeineiiaeeie.
Iaeiae oea aeiaeiei /eiii ia ciaioo? e?iaa?noe/ii? oe?iiino? oa iaoeiai?
i?eaaaeeaino? neiaiee?a oeeo aaoi??a, ine?eueee naia a ?o neiaieeao
yne?aai a?aeaeeeny oiiaoe/i? e eaene/i? iniaeeaino? yiiinueeeo
ae?aeaeo?a XVIII no., cie?aia — ea?aneinueeiai oa inuinueeiai.

Aeey a?eueoi? ia’?eoeaiino? e iiaiioe aeniiae?a noiniaii aaeaeaaoiino?
ia?aaea/? a ?oeiienieo neiaieeao e?oa?aie ee?eeeoe? oiiieia?/ii? oa
oiiaoe/ii? nenoai yiiinueei? iiae, a oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiiy aeayeeo
aaoi?nueeeo niinoa?aaeaiue o oeueiio ieai?, aeena?oaio o a?aeiia?aei?e
oaaeeoe? ii??aith? niiniae o?aine?eaoaaiiy ie?aieo caoe?a oa
caoeiniieo/aiue yiiinueei? iiae aaoi?aie cacia/aieo neiaiee?a c
iaienaiiyie a?aeiia?aeieo caoe?a oa caoeiniieo/aiue a?aoaiaie
yiiinueeiai neeaa?/iiai (a ii noo? — oiiaoe/iiai) aeoaa?oo eaia.

O caeeth/i?e /anoei? aeaiiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaoi?, aiae?coth/e o?aine?eioe?th ?in?enueei? eaeneee a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie
a ia?oeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo ? yiiinueei-?in?enueeeo neiaieeao,
noai?aieo oaea a nai?e ssiii?? («Oieona aoi?yeo» /1794/, «?in?a aai?i»
/?/, «Eaieae ?aoi» /1807/ oa ?i.), ?icaeyaea? a?oio iiaieo oaeo?a, ui
a?aeaeeeny a oeeo neiaieeao ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaee ?in?enueeo ?iciiaio iiao
ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII no. (ianaiia?aae — nea??nueeee i?nueeee aia?? ?
i?noeaa? ae?aeaeoe), a oaeiae aeaye? oiiaoe/i? oa aeoeaiooaoe?ei? yaeua
a ?in?enuee?e iia? a oe?eiio.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa a i?ioean? aiae?co o?aine?eioe?eieo caien?a
?in?enueeiiiaii? eaeneee ciaeaie eaoa eaii i?eae?ey?oueny oaeei
oiiaoe/iei yaeuai, ye iaaiein, ieaiiy, aeaiiy,. iaeaoae?caoe?y,
anei?eyoe?y, ni?iuaiiy a?oi i?eaieinieo, iaeooaiiy e?ioeaaeo aeca?ieeo
i?eaieinieo, on?/aiiy oa ?i., eiaeia c yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ia iaoa??ae?
/eneaiieo i?eeeaae?a, aeaeiaooeo ?c cacia/aieo yiiinueei-?in?enueeeo oa
?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo neiaiee?a. Oea aeicaiey?, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa,
?iaeoe a?aeiia?aei? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? aeniiaee noiniaii ?o ?ai?acaioaoe??
oa iniaeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? ye a ?ae?ieaeoao ie?aieo a?e?iaa?a —
aaciina?aaei?o aaoi??a oeeo neiaiee?a, oae ? a ?in?enuee?e ?iciiai?e
iia? ae?oai? iieiaeie XVIII no. a oe?eiio.

Oae, iai?eeeaae, i?aeoe/ii a on?o neiaieeao Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath (?
cia/iith i??ith a neiaieeo «Eaieae ?aoi») ?in?enuee? i?eeiaoieee
/ieia?/iai ?iaeo a iaceaiiio a?aei?ieo iathoue cae?i/aiiy «-oe» («-ae»):

a) «Oieona aoi?yeo»: [ea?anoiie] — «e?aniue», [iyoeie] — «iaeeee»,
[?yieaie] — «eaieaue», [oinooi?ie] — «ino?ue»; «?in?a aai?i»: [aeiiaie]
— «aeieaee», [oenooie] — «/enoue», [o??oiie] — «/a?iue»; a)»Eaieae
?aoi»: [aaeaoi?] — «aiaaoue», [e?yaecoii] — «aeaeaciue» oa ?i.; ui iiaea
aeacoaaoe ia i?ci?oee o ii??aiyii? c e?oa?aoo?iith iiaith ia?ao?ae oeeo
cae?i/aiue a «-ue» («-ee») o ?iciiai?e ?in?enuee?e iia? aai, i?eiaeii?,
o ?? nea??nueeeo aiai?ao.

A o?aine?eioe?y ciaeaie eaoaeaie iaiaaieioaieo aieinieo caoe?a [a] oa
[i] a ?in?enueeeo neiaao («Oieona aoi?yeo»: o 10% aeiaaee?a cao?eniaaia
aeaiiy, a a 90% — ieaiiy; «Eaieai ?aoi», a?aeiia?aeii 30% ? 70%), o
naith /a?ao, iiaeooue a?aeaeca?eaethaaoe nooi?iue iioe?aiiy iaio oeeo
oiiaoe/ieo yaeu o iia? i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy Nea??o e?ioey XVIII no.

Aeineoue oe?eaaei c oi/ee ci?o aeoeaiooaoe?? ?in?enueei? ?iciiaii? iiae
oe??? aiioe ? caa?aaeaiiy i?ene?aieeaie ia «-i» iaaieino, aeanoeaiai
i?eeiaoieeai, a?ae yeeo aiie aoee ooai?ai?:

a) «Oieona aoi?yeo»: [eni:ei] — «auniei», [ao?eai:ei] — «aeoaiei»,
[oaaec?:?i] — «oyaeaei»;

a) «?in?a aai?i»: [aea??iea] — «aeaeaei», [noayoeo?a] — «naaoei»,
[??oei] — «eaaei» oa ?i., ui oaeiae aea? an? i?aenoaae ?iaeoe
a?aeiia?aei? aeniiaee noiniaii /ano ia?ai?uaiiy iaaieino a oeeo neiaao
ia e?ioeaaee aieiniee caoe a ?in?enuee?e iia?. ? oaeeo niinoa?aaeaiue
?oeiieni? neiaieee, iaienai? yiiinueeeie ii?aieaaoeyie, aeicaieythoue
c?iaeoe aaaaoi.

AENIIAEE

I?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iica’yce?a XVIII no., ii/aoie ‘?o nenoaiii? eiaeeo?eaoe??
(ianaiia?aae — c iiceoe?e e?iaaiaeeaeaeoeee) aeoeeiao?oueny a aeineoue
no?oieo oa eia?/io noaio, yea cia/iith i??ith coiiaeea no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1. Ii/eiath/e c XVIII no. yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe? (ia?aaaaeii ii?yee
oi?aiaaeueiiai oeioo) aiane?aeie ieaainueeeo ooi?i?a oa ei?aaaeueieo
aaa??e iio?aieyee ia aeaeaeino?aeio oa?eoi??th ?in?? — Eai/aoeo,
Eo?eeuenuee? e Aeaoonuee? ino?iae, ui oa?eoee ia oie /an aei neeaaeo
?in?enueei? ?iia???. Ia iath/e ciiae iiaa?iooeny ia aaouee?aueio, aiie
ciooai? aoee iacaaaeaee caeeoaoeny a ?in?? e naiino?eii iiaiiaoaaoe
?in?enueeo iiao.

2. A?eueo-iaio oni?oia iaieiae?iiy ?in?enueeith iiaith aeicaieyei oeei
ii?yeai aeeeaaeaoe naith ??aeio iiao ?in?yiai o yiiinuee?e oeie?,
caniiaai?e 1705 ?. o Iaoa?ao?c? ca ?icii?yaeaeaiiyi Iao?a ?, yeee c
iaeyaeo ia aeaye? ?noi?e/i? ianoaaeie ? i?e/eie aoa aeoaea caoe?eaaeaiee
o oie ia??iae onoaiiaeoe c ssiii??th i?oei? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa
iie?oe/i? noinoiee.

3. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy a ?in?? (nii/aoeo a Iaoa?ao?c?, a iio?i o ??eoonueeo)
i?ioyaii iiiaae noie?ooy (1705-1816 pp.) i?eiee yiiinueei? iiae,
noai?aiiy ?? aeeeaaea/aie — aeo?aeoeyie c ssiii?? —
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? aace, ui caii/aoeoaaea eiaeeo?eiaai? i?aeiiai?
ca’ycee, aeaee ciiao aeoiaoaaoe a ?in?? aeani? iaoe?iiaeuei? eaae?e
yiii?no?a, ye? a?aeii i?iaeiaaeoaaee ni?aao nai?o yiiinueeeo o/eoae?a ?
noai?thaaee aaea ia o?eueee i?aeoe/i? (Aiae??e Oaoa?eiia), aea e
oai?aoe/i? (I.I.??caiia) iin?aieee c yiiinueei? iiae.

4. Ii/eiath/e c e?ioey XVIII no., aeaye? yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe?
(Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath, Oeoaeath, Y?oae oa ?i.) noaee iiaa?oaoeny ia
aaouee?aueio. Naia aiie noiyee a?ey aeoie?a ?onenoeee a oe?e e?a?i?.
Noai?ai? ieie aia?oa a ?noi??? ssiii?? ?in?enueei-yiiinuee? oa
yiiinueei-?in?enuee? neiaieee, ?iciiaieee, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee
a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ia o?eueee ?ae?ieaeoe ?o aaoi??a, aea e ?in?enueeo
?iciiaio iiao o??? aiioe.

5. Caii/aoeoaaiiy nenoaiiiai aea/aiiy yiiinueei? iiae a ?in??, a oaeiae
?in?enueei? iiae a ssiii?? a naith /a?ao ni?eyei aca?iii?ciaiith aeaio
ia?iae?a, aca?iicaaaa/aiith ?o eoeueoo?, a oaeiae iineoaoaaei
nai???aeiei iiooiaoii aeey i?iiano ?icaeoeo i?aeiiaieo aca?iei oaea
aeuiai ???a?o?/iiai ?aiao — ia eeoa ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio e i?aeoe/iiio,
aea e caaaeueiiiiaiciaa/iio oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?.

6. Aieiaia ?noi?e/ia i?n?y yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a iieyaaea ia o?eueee a
oiio, ui ieie aoee caeeaaeai? i?aeaaeeie ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo
aca?iei: naia a?ae ieo ?in?yie io?eiaee ia?o? a??ia?aei? na?ae/aiiy
uiaei nai?o aeaeaeino?aeieo non?ae?a, naia aiie ia?oeie aeiianee aei
nai?o ni?aa?o/eciee?a ia’?eoeaio ?ioi?iaoe?th noiniaii ?in??.

7. A?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaii? eiioeaioe?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?aaoey?i? ? nenoaii? aca?iica’ycee i?ae aeaiia iiaaie oa ia?iaeaie
caaaeaee ii/eiathoueny ia ??ai? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo eiioi?eaoeaieo
eiioaeo?a, eiee iin?e iaei??? iiae aiane?aeie oeo /e ?ioeo i?e/ei aia?oa
iiaiiao? ?iicaiio iiao e aeoeaii aeei?enoiao? ?? ye can?a ni?eeoaaiiy c
iin?yie oe??? iiae. O iaoiio aeiaaeeo iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeieeiaiiy
ia?oeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei aoei naiino?eia iaieiae?iiy
yiiinueeeie ii?aieaaoeyie ?in?enueeith iiaith.

8. ?iiae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiaa a?e?iaaa, iacaaaeath/e ia an? ?? aaaee
oa iaaeie?ee, aeey i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioiai ia?iaeo ia aeayeee /an iiaea
noaoe nai???aeiei aoaeiiii — i?aaeiaoii aea/aiiy ? ac??oeai aeey
iane?aeoaaiiy, ye ia noaeiny a ?in?? i?ney noai?aiiy Yiiaecith ia?oeo
aeaiiiaieo neiaiee?a ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c yiiinueei? iiae, a
oaeiae o ssiii?? i?ney iiyae a i?e e?a?i? ia?oeo neiaiee?a Aeaeeieoy
Eiaeath.

9. Noai?ai? ia?oeie a?e?iaaaie aeaiiiai? eaeneeia?ao?/i? iaoa??aee,
iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee oiui a?aeaeca?eaeththoue ia eeoa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee
??aaiue aieiae?iiy iaaiei a?e?iaaii ??aeiith oa ?iicaiiith iiaaie, aea e
iathoue aaeeeo e?iaa?noe/io oe?ii?noue aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeo?a iaio ieo iia.

10. Ia ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio iiaiiio ??ai? iiai?noth i?iyaeythoueny an?
no?oeoo?i? iaoai?cie iiae ye oi?aa?naeueii? eiioi?eaoeaii? nenoaie ?
aieiaiiai caniao ethaenueeiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ?aae?cothoueny i?aeoe/ii an?
iiai? ooieoe??, cae?eniththoueny aoaeue-ye? iiai? aca?iica’ycee; ye?
iio?i eeoa oi?o?eothoueny e ocaaaeueiththoueny iiaith; ui ianeoaiao? oie
/e ?ioee iiaiee eieaeoea, aeciathoueny oa ni?eeiathoueny aai ae
iaooothoueny oa a?aeeeaeathoueny iei iiaiei eieaeoeaii o i?ioean? eiai
iiaii? i?aeoeee.

NIENIE

IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE:

Iiiia?ao?y

1. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onneee ycue yiiineeo ii?aieaaaoaeae (XVIII a.)
(Iao/iay iiiia?aoey).- Ia?a (ssiiiey): Oyi?e aeae?aeo,- 1996.- 235 n.

?aoe.: Avakiants G. // Acta slavica laponica.- 1996.- Tomus XIV.-
Sapporo (Japan): The Slavic Research Center (Hokkaido University).- P.
221-223.

Noaoo?

2. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay aeiaaaeea e eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeneea a
i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey ?onneiai ycuea//L’enseignement du russe
(Aeeeaaeaiiy ?in?enueei? iiae.).-1987.-?.33.-Ia?eae.- N.43-48.

3. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay n?aaea e aa ooieoeee a i?ioeanna
e?aoein?i/iiai iao/aiey ?onneiio ycueo // E?aoein?i/iia iao/aiea
?onneiio ycueo eiino?aioeaa: Aniaeou ?aaiou.-E.:EAO,1987.- N.66-72.

4. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Ooieoeee ycueiaie n?aaeu e aeeiaieea aa aicaeaenoaey
ia o/aueony // ?onneee ycue aeey nooaeaioia-eiino?aioeaa: Nai?iee
iaoiaee/aneeo noaoae ?26.- I.:?on.yc.-1988.- N.86-95.

5. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay n?aaea eae enoi/iee iaeiieaiey
iiiianoe/aneie eaeneee e iniaaiiinoe aa onaiaiey eiino?aiiuie o/aueieny
// Aeooaeueiua aii?inu ?onneie iiiianoeee: Nai?iee iao/iuo
o?oaeia.-E.:OIE AI.-1988.- N.61-65.

6. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Iiiiuiee o/eoaey e nithciee o/aieea (Eniieueciaaiea
ycueiaie n?aaeu a o/aaiii i?ioeanna) // ?onneee ycue a iaoeeiiaeueiie
oeiea.-I.,1989.- ?2.- N.13-17.

7. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?aaeecaoeey iao/athuaai iioaioeeaea ycueiaie n?aaeu
i?e aeeth/aiiii iao/aiee (eaene/aneee aniaeo)// ?onneee ycue ca
?oaaaeii.- I.,1989.- ?1.- N.81-87.

8. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Aicueiai ycueiaoth n?aaeo a nithcieee! // ?onneee
ycue e eeoa?aoo?a a oeiea.- O?oica.- 1990.- ?2.- N. 55-63.

9. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I-, Ieaaayne X. ?acaiai?iay,
iaeoiaeii-auoiaay e i?inoi?a/iay eaeneea a eo?na i?aiiaeaaaiey ?onneiai
ycuea eae eiino?aiiiai // Aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iaa.-1991.-?17.-Ia?a
(ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.- C.1-7.

10. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I., Ieaaayne O. ?onnei-yiiineea eaene/aneea
aiaeiae e eo eniieueciaaiea a i?aeoeea i?aiiaeaaaiey ?onneiai ycuea //
Tenri University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo
Oai??).-1991.-?168.-Ia?a (ssiii?y):Oai?? aeae?aeo.- N.214-228.

11. Bondarenko I.P. Novi oblici u organiziranju ucenja ruskog jezika na
kratkim tecajevima u jezicnoj sredini (izvorni znanstveni clanak) //
Strani jezici.-1991.- ? 1-2.-Zagreb.- S.16-23 (na?aoxi?a. iiaith).

12. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I. Niaoeeoeea annioeeaoeaiuo naycae i?e
naiaioecaoeee ?onnei-yiiineeo eaene/aneeo aiaeiaia o yiiineeo o/aueony
// Aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia).-1992.-?18.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai??
aeae?aeo.- C.9-25.

13. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Aeaeu naiaioe/aneie aeiaaaeee e niiniau aa
oi?ie?iaaiey o yiiineeo o/aueony // Tenri University Journal (Iaoeiaee
a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).- 1992.-?169.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai??
aeae?aeo.- N.87-102.

14. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I., Oeii O. Ei??aeoe?iaea e ?anoe?aiea
neiaa?y yiiineeie o/aueiny ia e?aoein?i/iuo eo?nao a ?onneiycu/iie
n?aaea// Tenri University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo
Oai??).-1992.-?171.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.-N-95-126.

15. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I. I?ioeana ya?enoe/aneie naiaioecaoeee e
iaeiieaiey eaeneee a oneiaeyo yiiineie ycueiaie n?aaeu // Tenri
University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).- 1993.-?172.-
Ia?a (ssiii?y):Oai?? aeae?aeo.- N.333-398.

16. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onnei-yiiineee neiaa?ue Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath eae
iauaeo eeiaaiaeeaeaeoe/aneiai aiaeeca (ii iaoa?eaeai eieae Eaoeo?aaaau
Ointh «Oieona aoi?yeo») // Tenri University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee
oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).- 1994.- ?175.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.-
N.41-51.

17. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Iaaoa I. Eiioaenooaeueii-naiaioe/aneay aeiaaaeea e
iniaaiiinoe i?ioeanna aa ?aaeecaoeee o yiiineeo o/aueony // Aeeeaaeaiiy
?iicaiieo iia.-1994.- ?.20.- Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.- N.13-28.

18. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Ciae ee Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath ?onneee ycue?
(Eeiaaii?aaiaoe/aneee aiaeec eieae Eaoeo?aaaau Ointh «Oieona aoi?yeo»)
// Acta slavica Japonica.-1994.- Tomus XII.- Sapporo (Japan): The Slavic
Research Center (Hokkaido University).- P.205-228.

19. Aiiaea?aiei ?.I. ?nieo /a?ac 200 ?ie?a’? (?in?enueea iiaa Eiaeath)
// Iaaei.-1994.- ?6(89).- Oie?i: Iaoea.- N.24-32 (yi. iiaith).

20. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. E aii?ino i a?aiiaoe/aneie i?aaeeueiinoe ?onneie
?a/e Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath // Tenri University Journal (Hayeiaee a?niee
oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).-1994.-?177.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai??
aeae?aeo.-N.91-109.

21. Aiiaea?aiei ?., O?ii O. Ia?oee oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeee neiaiee //
Iiaiciaanoai.- 1994.- ?.2-3.- N.20-29.

22. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Eeiaaii?aaiaoe/aneee aiaeec yiiinei-?onneiai
neiaa?y «Eaieae eaoi» // Tenri University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee
oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).-1995.- ? 178.- Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.-
N-29-48.

Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay n?aaea e neiaa?ue aeeeiaaa // Aeeeaaeaiiy
?iicaiieo iia.- 1995.- ?.21.- Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.- N.35-52.

24. Aiiaea?aiei O.I. sseith iiaith ?iciiaeya Aeaiaae c Iao?ii Ia?oei?//
Iaaei.-1995.- ?9 (94).- Oie?i: Iaoea.- N.44-48 (yi. iiaith).

25. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onneee ycue Aeyiayy // Tenri University Journal
(Iaoeiaee a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).- 1995.-?180.- Ia?a (ssiii?y):
Oai?? aeae?aeo.- N.55-72.

26. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Io?aaeaiea ?onneiai neiaa?iiai caiana Aiiaecu a aai
?oeiieniii ianeaaeee// The Bulletin of International Institute for
Linguistic Sciences Kyoto Sangyo University.- Vol.XVII.-
No.1(December).- 1995.-Kyoto (Japan).- P.143-183.

27. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Oyio?a N. Aeyiaye — ia?aue yiiineee ?oneno e
ia?aue ?onneee yiiieno (?onneee ycue yiiineeo ii?aieaaaoaeae XVIII a.)
// The Bulletin of International Institute for Linguistic Sciences Kyoto
Sangyo University.- Vol.XVII.- No.1(December).- 1995.- Kyoto (Japan).-
P.97-141.

28. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onneee ycue Aiiaecu (ii iaoa?eaeai ?oeiiene
«Iiaiai eaeneeiia neaaaii-yiaineiai») // Aeeeaaeaiiy ?iicaiieo iia.-
1996.- ?.22.-Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo,- N.97-112.

29. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Naiaeiue ?onneee neiaa?ue Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath (ii
iaoa?eaeai ?oeiiene Eaoeo?aaaau Ointh «Oieona aoi?yeo») // Tenri
University Journal (Iaoeiaee a?niee oi?aa?neoaoo Oai??).- 1996.- ? l81.-
Ia?a (ssiii?y): Oai?? aeae?aeo.-N.105-126.

30. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?in?enueea iiaa ae?iaaeo noaeia «Aaeai?y ia?o» //
Iaaei.-1996.- ? 3 (96).- Oie?i: Iaoea.- N-44-50 (yi. iiaith).

31. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. O?aine?eioe?y yiiinueei? eaeneee e?oa?aie
oe?a?inueeiai aeoaa?oo // Caienee c oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa (Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue).-1999.- Aei-7.- Iaeana: «Ano?ii?eio».-N-77-88.

Oace aeiiia?aeae

32. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onneiycu/iay n?aaea eae iao/athuee oaeoi? //
Aeooaeueiua aii?inu oeeieiae/aneeo e enoi?e/aneeo iaoe a aoca (Oac.
aeiee. iao/iie eiioa?aioeee).- Naia?eaiae, 1988.- N.10-11.

33. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Ooieoeeiiaeueii-noeeenoe/aneee aiaeec ya?enoe/anee
onaaeaaaiie eaeneee // I?iaeaiu iao/aiey ?onneie eaeneea eiino?aiiuo
nooaeaioia (Oac. aeiee. ?anioa. iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee).-
Ieine: AIE,-1988.- N-33-35.

34..Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Iooe ?aaeecaoeee iao/athuaai iioaioeeaea ycueiaie
n?aaeu ia ia/aeueiii yoaia iao/aiey // Eioaineoeeaoeey o/aaiiai
i?ioeanna e eioaineaiua eo?nu iao/aiey ?onneiio ycueo eiino?aiiuo
nooaeaioia iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo oaeoeueoaoia (Oac. aeiee. Ananithciie
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee).-Iaeanna: IIE.-1989.- N.56-57.

35. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Eiiiiiaiou ycueiaie n?aaeu e eo ?ieue a
oi?ie?iaaiee ?a/aaie eiiiaoaioeee o/aueony // Ineoieeiaaenoe/aneea e
iaaeaaiae/aneea iniiau iao/aiey ?onneiio ycueo a oneiaeyo ia?onneie
ycueiaie n?aaeu (Oac. aeieeaaeia).- Oaeeene.-1989.- N-39-40.

36. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Iiaua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeanna naiiiao/aiey
ycueo a ?onneiycu/iie n?aaea // I?iaeaiu iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia
niaoeeaeenoia aeey ca?oaaaeieo no?ai (Oac. aeiee. e niiao,.).- *.2.-
Iaeanna: IAO.- 1989.- N. 16-17.

37. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay n?aaea e i?ioeann naiiiao/aiey ycueo //
VII Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiia?ann i?aiiaeaaaoaeae ?onneiai ycuea e
eeoa?aoo?u. ?onneee ycue e eeoa?aoo?a a iauaiee ia?iaeia ie?a: i?iaeaiu
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e i?aiiaeaaaiey (Oac. aeiee. e niiau. ).-T.I.-I: ?on.
yc.-1990.- N.15-16.

38. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. sscueiaay n?aaea e eiiioieeaoeaiue iaoiae //
Yooaeoeaiua oi?iu ?aaiou ii ycueo e eeoa?aoo?a a o/aaiie aoaeeoi?ee
(Iaoa?eaeu ia?aie iaeanoiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee 29-31 ia?oa
1990 a.).-Iaeanna.- 1991.- N.119-122.

39. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Naiaioe/aneay aeiaaaeea e iaoiaeeea aa oi?ie?iaaiey
o yiiineeo o/aueony (oacenu aeieeaaea) // Aanoiee Eainaeneiai iauanoaa
?onenoia.-1991.- ?5— Oai?e (ssiiiey): Oyi?e aeaeaaeo.- N. 2-4.

40. Aiiaea?aiei E.I. Eeiaaiaeeaeaeoe/aneee aiaeec naiaioe/aneeo
iaoi/iinoae a neiaa?a Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath (oacenu aeieeaaea) // Aanoiee
Eainaeneiai iauanoaa ?onenoia.- 1993.- ?.7.- Eeioi (ssiiiey).- N. 1-3.

41. Aiiaea?aiei ?.I. I?i ?in?enueeo iiao Yiiaece (oace oa oaeno
aeiiia?ae?) // «Yiiaeca».- 1999.- ?30.- Ea?in?ia (ssiii?y).- N.2-9 (yi.
iiaith).

42. Aiiaea?aiei ?.I. E?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c ia?oiai
oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeiai neiaieea // III noiaeiciaa/? /eoaiiy
A.E?einueeiai. Oace i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.- E.,1999.-
N.43-44.

I?ae?o/ieee, iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee oa neiaieee c canoinoaaiiyi
?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Oeii Oaeai Ya?eea! (O/aaiia iiniaea ii ?acaeoeth
iaaueia naiaioe/aneie aeiaiaeee ia o?ieao ?a/aaie i?aeoeee).- Ia?a
(ssiiiey):

Oyi?e aeaeaaeo,1994.- 45 n.

2. Aiiaea?aiei E.I., Oyio?a Nonoio, «Ia?on — 1» (O/aaiee ?onneiai ycuea
aeey yiiineeo nooaeaioia: ia?aue yoai).- Eeioi (ssiiiey): Naia?
aeaeaaeo,1995.-85 n. (Ecae. aoi?ia, eni?. e aeiiie.: Eeioi: Naia?
aeaeaaeo,1996.- 87 n.).

3. Aiiaea?aiei ?., O?ii O. Oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeee
neiaiee.-E.:Aeueoa?iaoeae,1997.- 250 n.

?aoe.: ?acaiaiei A. // Iiaiciaanoai.- 1997.- ?6.- N.68-69.

4. Aiiaea?aiei ?., O?ii O. Oe?a?inueei-yiiinueeee,
yiiinueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee. Iaa/aeueiee neiaiee yiiinueeeo
???iae?o?a.- E.:Aeueoa?iaoeae,1998.-592 n.

Aiiaea?aiei ?.I. ?in?enueei-yiiinuee? iiai? aca?iica’ycee XVIII no.
(?noi?eei-e?iaa?noe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.13 — iiae ia?iae?a Ac??, Ao?eee, aai?eaai?a
Aia?eee oa Aano?ae??: 10.02.02 — ?in?enueea iiaa.- ?inoeooo
noiaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia i?iaeai? ii/aoeiaeo i?aeiiaieo
eiioaeo?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iica’yce?a XVIII no.,
ooiaeaoi?aie yeiai aoee yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe?, ui i?ioyaii noie?ooy
aeiaaeeiai iio?aieyee ia oa?eoi??th aeaeaeino?aeii? ?in??. Noai?ai?
oeeie ii?yeaie ia?o? aeaiiiai? neiaieee, ?iciiaieee, a?aiaoeee oa
iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaeeny a i?ioean? aea/aiiy
yiiinueei? iiae ?in?yiaie, a oaeiae ?in?enueei? iiae yiiioeyie,
caii/aoeoaaee eiaeeo?eaoe?th ?in?enueei-yiiinueeeo iiaieo aca?iei —
e?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/iee nenoaiiee iien aeaio iia. Oe? aeaea?aea
a?aeaeca?eaethaaee ia eeoa ?ae?ieaeoe ?o aaoi??a (??aaiue aieiae?iiy
ie?aieie a?e?iaaaie ?in?enueeith oa yiiinueeith iiaaie, eiiiaoaioi?noue
yiiinueeeo ii?ye?a o ??cieo aeaeao iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?, ?o
?iaeea?aeoaeueie eaene/iee caian oiui), aea e ?in?enueeo oa yiiinueeo
iiae o??? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe, iiaio neooaoe?th a oeeo aeaio e?a?iao o
XVIII no. a oe?eiio.

?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? iia? iaoiaee ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?ieaeo?a a?e?iaa?a, e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?ie? ?iaeea?aea a
noaiiaeaii? iiaieo eiioaeo?a i?ae aeaiia ia?iaeaie, a oaeiae canoiniaaia
iei iaoiaeeea aiae?co iiaiiai iaoa??aeo, noai?aiiai oeeie a?e?iaaaie,
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey eiiieaeniiai aiae?co ii/aoeiaiai aoaio
aoaeue-yeeo i?aeiiaieo aca?iica’yce?a, a?ae yeeo caeeoeeeny iaai?
aeieoiaioaeuei? na?aeioeoaa — neiaieee; ?iciiaieee, a?aiaoe/i? iiene ?
o.?i.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiai? aca?iica’ycee, ?ae?ieaeo, a?e?iaa?ci, ?iciiaia
iiaa, ae?aeaeo, eiioi?eaoeaia eiiiaoaioe?y, iiaeaii?aa ae?yeuei?noue,
iiaia na?aaeiaeua, yiiinueea iiaa, yiiinuee? ii?aieaaoe?.

Aiiaea?aiei E.I. ?onnei-yiiineea ycueiaua acaeiinayce XVIII a,
(Enoi?eei-eeiaaenoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.1.3 — ycuee ia?iaeia Acee, Ao?eee, aai?eaaiia
Aia?eee e Aano?aeee; 10.02.02 — ?onneee ycue. — Einoeooo ainoieiaaaeaiey
IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeeiiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia i?iaeaia ia/aeueiuo iaaeuycueiauo
eiioaeoia. A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?ioeann ca?iaeaeaiey e ?acaeoey
?onnei-yiiineeo ycueiauo acaeiinaycae XVIII a., o enoieia eioi?uo noiyee
yiiineea ii?aieaaaoaee. Iiiaaeay a ?acoeueoaoa ei?aaeae?ooaiee ia
oa??eoi?eth aeaeueiaainoi/iie ?innee (Eai/aoea, Eo?eeueneea e Aeaooneea
ino?iaa) e ia eiay aiciiaeiinoe aa?iooueny aeiiie, iie auee auioaeaeaiu
naiinoiyoaeueii iaeaaeaaaoue ?onneei ycueii e caoai i?aiiaeaaaoue naie
?iaeiie ycue a yiiineie oeiea, iniiaaiiie ii ?anii?yaeaieth Iao?a I a
1705 a. a Iaoa?ao?aa. Eeoue a eiioea XVIII a. iaeioi?ui ec ieo aia?aua
oaeaeinue aica?aoeoueny a ssiiieth. Nicaeaiiua yoeie ii?aieaaaoaeyie eae
a ?innee, oae e a ssiiiee ia?aua aeaoycu/iua neiaa?e, ?acaiai?ieee,
a?aiiaoeee e o/aaiua iiniaey; eioi?ua eniieueciaaeenue a i?ioeanna
eco/aiey yiiineiai ycuea ?inneyiaie e ?onneiai ycuea yiiioeaie,
iieiaeeee ia/aei ii?aaeaeaiiie eiaeeoeeaoeee ?onnei-yiiineeo ycueiauo
acaeiinaycae — nenoaiiiio eeiaaiaeeaeaeoe/aneiio iienaieth aeaoo ycueia.
Aeaiiua ycueiaua enoi/ieee io?aaeaee ia oieueei eaeeieaeou eo aaoi?ia
(o?iaaiue aeaaeaiey ioaeaeueiuie aeeeiaaaie ?onneei e yiiineei ycueaie,
eiiiaoaioiinoue yiiineeo ii?yeia a ?acee/iuo aeaeao ?a/aaie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eo eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue eaene/aneee caian e o.i.), ii
oaeaea ?onneee e yiiineee ycuee oie enoi?e/aneie yiioe, ycueiaoth
neooaoeeth a yoeo aeaoo no?aiao a XVIII a. a oeaeii.

Oieeaeueiinoue ?onnei-yiiineeo ycueiauo acaeiinaycae a enoi?ee ie?iaiai
ycueiciaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa eeiaaenou iiaoo n
aeieoiaioaeueiie oi/iinoueth i?ineaaeeoue i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey ia?auo
ycueiauo eiioaeoia iaaeaeo aeaoiy ninaaeieie ia?iaeaie, ii?aaeaeeoue
iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua i?e/eiu ca?iaeaeaiey yoeo eiioaeoia, eco/eoue
eo aeeiaieeo ia i?ioyaeaiee oeaeiai noieaoey. Ioiineoaeueiay iieiioa e
aeinoiaa?iinoue naaaeaiee i ia?auo yiiioeao, iaeaaeaaoeo ?onneei ycueii
(Aeyiaye, Aiiaeci, Niaeca, Aeaeeieoy Eiaeath), e ia?auo ?inneyiao,
eioi?ua eco/eee yiiineee (Oaiaa, Oaiaiueei, A.Oaoa?eiia, I.I.?acaiia),
iicaieytho ia?niieoeoee?iaaoue i?ioeann aicieeiiaaiey e ?acaeoey
?onnei-yiiineeo ycueiauo acaeiinaycae, ioeaieoue eiie?aoiue aeeaae oie
eee eiie enoi?e/aneie ee/iinoe a yoio i?ioeann. Aeaaiie iao/iie oeaeueth
aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyaony ?ao?iniaeoeaiia enneaaeiaaiea ?a/aaie
(?onneiycu/iie) aeayoaeueiinoe aeeeiaaia (yiiineeo ii?aieaaaoaeae XVIII
a.) a eiiycu/iie n?aaea, a oaeaea aiaeec eiie?aoiuo eeiaaenoe/aneeo
?acoeueoaoia eo aeayoaeueiinoe — ?oeiieniuo aeaoycu/iuo neiaa?ae,
?acaiai?ieeia e o/aaiuo iiniaee ii ?onneiio e yiiineiio ycueo.

Eeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec eaeneeia?aoe/aneiai ianeaaeey yiiineeo
ii?aieaaaoaeae iicaieyao iieo/eoue iiaua aanueia oeaiiua naaaeaiey ia
yoeo aeaoo ycueao a enoi?e/aneii ieaia. E i?eia?o, «Iiaue eaeneeii
neaaaii-yiiineee» Aiiaecu, eae iaeioi?ua ae?oaea ?oeiieniua neiaa?e e
?acaiai?ieee yoiai yiiineiai thiioe, aeatho iaaeyaeiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
aeeaeinnee — ycueiaie neooaoeee, /oi neiaeeeanue a ?innee e eiioeo
ia?aie iieiaeiu XVIII aaea e oa?aeoa?eciaaeanue iieiui niaoaieai ycueia,
ia?a/ee e noeeae. A aeaoycu/iua neiaa?e ae?oaiai yiiioea — Aeaeeieoy
Eiaeath («Oieona aoi?yeo», «?inea ayi?i’«, «?iney ai?oe» e ae?.), a
oaeaea «eieeaeoeaiue» yiiinei-?onneee neiaa?ue Oeoaeath, Aeoyy, Naoyy e
Oaaecth?i ec ?oeiiene «Eiieae eaoi» i?aaenoaaeytho aieueoie eioa?an aeey
?onneie enoi?e/aneie oiiaoeee, aeoeaioieiaee, aeeaeaeoieiaee e
noeeenoeee, iineieueeo a ieo io?aaeaia i?aeiouanoaaiii ?onneay
?acaiai?iay ?a/ue oie yiioe (a /anoiinoe, ai?iaeneia i?inoi?a/ea
Neae?e).

*oi aea eanaaony yiiineiai ycuea, oi aeaoycu/iua ?oeiieniua neiaa?e,
ninoaaeaiiua yiiioeaie — auoiaeoeaie ec ?acee/iuo ?aaeiiia ssiiiee, eae
e ooiaeaiaioaeueiue «Neiaapue ssiiineiai ycuea ii ?inneeneiio aeoaaeoo
nia?aiiue» ?inneyieia I.I.?acaiiaa, iaienaiiue ei i?e iiiiue yiiineeo
ii?yeia, aica?auaaoeony ia aai ei?aaea aeiiie, iicaieytho onoaiiaeoue
oa?aeoa?iua oiiaoe/aneea e .eaene/aneea iniaaiiinoe iaeioi?uo yiiineeo
aeeaeaeoia XVIII a. — eaaineineiai, nyiaeaeneiai e ae?.

Eeiaaii?aaiaoe/aneee aiaeec yoeo aea enoi/ieeia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ii?aaeaeeoue eiee/anoaaiiua e ea/anoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee neiaa?iiai
caiana oiai eee eiiai aeeeiaaa a ?iaeiii e eiino?aiiii ycueao,
onoaiiaeoue o?iaaiue aai eiiioieeaoeaiie eiiiaoaioeee a ?acee/iuo aeaeao
?a/aaie aeayoaeueiinoe, ?aeiino?oe?iaaoue iaeioi?ua iaoaieciu
ya?enoe/aneiai iaeaaeaiey eaene/aneei ninoaaii e a?aiiaoe/aneie nenoaiie
eiino?aiiiai ycuea a n?aaea aai ?aaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ae?., /oi
a naith i/a?aaeue i?aaenoaaeyao ianiiiaiiue eioa?an aeey
eeiaaiaeeaeaeoeee, ineoieeiaaenoeee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo niaaeiuo
aeenoeeieei.

?ac?aaioaiiua aaoi?ai aeenna?oaoeee iiaua iaoiaeu ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai
enneaaeiaaiey eaeeieaeoia aeeeiaaia, e?eoa?ee ioeaiee ?iee eiaeeaeaea a
noaiiaeaiee ia?auo ycueiauo eiioaeoia iaaeaeo aeaoiy ia?iaeaie, a oaeaea
i?eiaiyaiay ei iaoiaeeea aiaeeca ycueiaiai iaoa?eaea, nicaeaiiiai yoeie
aeeeiaaaie, iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny i?e eiiieaeniii aiaeeca ia/aeueiiai
yoaia ethauo iaaeuycueiauo eiioaeoia, io eioi?uo nio?aieeenue eaeea-eeai
aeieoiaioaeueiua naeaeaoaeuenoaa -neiaa?e, ?acaiai?ieee, a?aiiaoe/aneea
iienaiey e o.i.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ycueiaua acaeiinayce, eaeeieaeo, aeeeiaaeci,
?acaiai?iue ycue, aeeaeaeo, eiiioieeaoeaiay eiiiaoaioeey, ?a/aaay
aeayoaeueiinoue, ycueiaay n?aaea, yiiineee ycue, yiiineea ii?aieaaaoaee.

Bondarenko I.P. Russian-Japanese language correlations in the XVIII c.
(Histor?ni-linguist?n research).- Manuscript.

Thesis for a Doctor’s degree in Philological Sciences for speciality
10.12.13 — languages of Asiatic, African, American and Australian
natives;10.02.02 — Russian language.-Institute of Oriental Studies of
the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to problem of the first interlanguage contacts.
The dissertation studies the rise and development of Russian-Japanese
language correlations of the XVIII century, which were formed by
Japanese sailors, who accidentally visited the territory of the Far East
Russia.

The first bilingual dictionaries, phrase-books and grammar books,
compiled by these sailors, which were used by Russians for the study of
Japanese and by Japaneses for the study of Russian, were the beginning
of Russian-Japanese linguistic correlations codification — linguistic
and didactic system definition of the two languages. The sources
reflected not only idiolects of their authors (knowledge of the Russian
and Japanese languages by some bilinguals, competence of Japanese
sailors In different kinds of speech activity, their individual
vocabularies, etc.), but also the Russian and Japanese languages of that
historical epoch, the linguistic situation In these two countries In
XVIII c. on the whole.

The new methods of retrospective research of bilingual’s Idiolects,
elaborated by the author of the thesis, criteria of Individual’s
Importance in the formation of language contacts between the two
nations, together with the methods of analysis of language material
created by these bilinguals can be used for complex analysis of the
initial stage of any inter-language contacts, which can be proved by
some documents — dictionaries, phrase-books, grammar descriptions, etc.

Key words: language correlations, Idiolect, billnguism, spoken language,
dialect, communicative competence, speech activity, language
environment, Japanese language, Japanese sailors.

Oa?i?i «ii?aieaaoe?» ia aeineoue oi/ii ia?aaea? naiaioeeo yiiinueeiai
neiaa «ouei?thi?i» — «ethaeeia, ui ae?aeoo? oaeeyie», yeei iaceaathoue o
ssiii?? ii?ye?a, ui aiane?aeie ei?aaaeueieo aaa??e iieiyeeny ia
oa?eoi??? ?in??. Aea a no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iiaao iaeii/eaiiiai
naiaioe/iiai aiaeiaa yiiinueeiio neiao ouei?thi?i iaia?, ?, uia oieeiooe
iieniaeo eiino?oeoe?e, ie ciooai? aeei?enoiaoaaoe naiaioe/ia aeecuee?,
aea ia aaeaeaaoi? ca nai?i cia/aiiyi neiaa ii?aieaaoe? /e i?inoi ii?yee.

Ii/eiath/e c ae?oai? iieiaeie XVII no. a iineianuee?e eieaei?e iia?
i?ae aieeaii oe?a?inueei? aeooiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ca
oea?eiaiineia’yinueeith iiaith, yea eiaioaaeany aei iueiai /ano oi
«neiaaineie», oi «neiaaii-?inn?eneie», cae??iethnoueny iacaa,
«neaaaineay» (aeea.:

Ia??iei ?.?. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae.-
E.,1995.-N.116-117). Oea a?aeaeeiny ? a iaca? a?aeiia?aeiiai neiaieea
Yiiaece.

AEe?iei o?eooii aeae?eai? iiieeee Yiiaece, a eaaae?aoieo aeoaeeao
iaaiaeyoueny i?aaeeuei? iaienaiiy, a a e?oaeeo — i?iiouai? aoeae.

Ie caa?aaee a iaaaaeaieo i?eeeaaeao iaienaiiy « ? « ye iaeio c
iniaeeainoae ?in?enueeiai ienueia Yiiaece ? o??? aiioe a oe?eiio.

«Iiaue eaeneeii neaaaii-yiiineee» aoa iiai?noth iaienaiee ee?eeeoeath,
aeeth/ath/e ? eiai yiiinueeo /anoeio. «?aeiino?oeiaai?» iaienaiiy
yiiinueeeo ne?a a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie iaaiaeyoueny iaie ii aeaeaiith
«Iiaiai eaeneeiia», cae?eniaiiio a 1985 p. yiiinueeei e?iaa?noii
N.Io?ayiith.

Iaaiaeeoueny eeoa cai?ioiee ia?aeeaae c yiiinueei?.

Naia oae (oeooee, eoee, oaoee) ?aeiiaiaeoaaa o?aine?eaoaaoe oe? oa ?io?
a?aeiia?aei? yiiinuee? neiaa Ae.I.Iicaeia?a a iaei?e ?c nai?o ?ia?o
(aeea.: «Iaoa?eaeu ii aii?ino i iinoaiiaea ia/aeueiiai eco/aiey
yiiineiai ycuea».- Eieiaaia,1908.- N.162). Ie?ai? i?ae?icae?ee oe???
/anoeie ?iaioe i?enay/ai? aiae?co ia?aaea/? a yiiinuee?e o?aine?eioe? ?
aeeoa?aioe? eieo ?in?enueeeo aieinieo oa i?eaieinieo caoe?a, cie?aia:
[u], [ae], [c], [e], [/], [o], iaienaiiy yeeo a?aoaiaie eaoaeaie,
noai?aii? naiai /ano aeeeth/ii aeey «aioo??oiuo iio?aa» yiiinueei? iiae;
aeeeeeaei a aaoi??a neiaiee?a iaea?eueo? o?oaeiiu?.

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