Роль поверхні в процесах збудження фотолюмінесценції пористого кремнію: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / Л.Ю. Хоменкова, НАН України. Ін-т фізик

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO O?CEEE IAI?AI?IA?AeIEE?A

Oiiaieiaa Ea?ena TH???aia

OAeE 539.211

?IEUe IIAA?OI? A I?IOeANAO CAOAeAEAIIss

OIOIETHI?IANOeAIOe?? II?ENOIAI E?AII?TH

01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ei?noinueea Iaae?y Ian??aia

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAIO
Aeiinueeee ?aai Aaneeueiae/, ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee
aee?aeoi?a

eaiaeeaeao o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Oaaei?aiei Eaii?ae Eaii?aeiae/, ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI
Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iioeee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14“ aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 1415 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E26.199.01 a ?inoeooo? o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie (252650, ANI, Ee?a-28, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith Ee?a-28, i?iniaeo Iaoee, 45.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “13” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.199.01 ?oaeueei A.TH.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo no/anii?
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? aeaeo?ii?ee iia’ycai? c i?aeaeuaiiyi
ooieoe?iiaeueii? neeaaeiino? ? nooiaiy ?ioaa?aoe?? i?e?inoai, ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ?oiuei? oaeaeeiae?? oa ?aae?aoe?eii? no?eeino?. Oe? aeiiae
aecia/athoue iai?yiee ?ia?o ?c iiooeo iiaeo iaoa??ae?a ? iiaeo
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui iiaeooue caaacia/eoe iaiao?aei? ye?ni?
iieacieee ae?ia?a i?e aenie?e oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i?e aoaeoeaiino?
ae?iaieoeoaa.

Ia i?ioyc? aaaaoueio ?ie?a iniiaiei iaoa??aeii aeaeo?ii?ee ?
iiiie?enoae?/iee e?aii?e, a iaeiei ?c ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a a eiai
oaoiieia?? — aeei?enoaiiy iecueeioaiia?aoo?ieo aeaeo?io?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a: aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy ? o?aaeaiiy; aeaeo?io?i?/iiai
eaaoaaiiy; aiiaeiiai ieeneaiiy. Aeei?enoaiiy a i?e?iaeaeo?ii?oe?
ii?enoiai e?aii?th (IE), yeee ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao?
aeaeo?io?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy, aoei iaoiiaeaii oei, ui eiai
aeaeo?io?ce/ieie aeanoeainoyie iiaeia eaaei ea?oaaoe. Oea aeicaieeei
oi?ioaaoe a iiiie?enoae?/iiio e?aii?? oiano? (iiiaae 1 iei)
ae?aeaeo?e/i? ie?aee, ae?aeaeo?e/i? ?icae?eia? iaeano?, aeeaie? eaaiaai?
oa?e, a oaeiae caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaia aaoa?oaaiiy aeii?oie i?e caa??aaii?
ieaia?iino? ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? ieanoeie.

A?aee?eooy o 1990 ?ioe? aoaeoeaii? oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? (OE) IE o
aeaeei?e iaeano? niaeo?o i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaeaei aaee/aciee
iiooiao aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae. Iaei??th c
iniiaieo i?e/ei oeueiai noaea ia?niaeoeaa aeei?enoaiiy IE aeey noai?aiiy
??cieo iioiaeaeo?iiieo i?eeaae?a ia iniia? ?aeeii? e?aii??ai?
oaoiieia??, ui aeicaieeei a noai?eoe a?eueo aeaoaao, i?ae
a?nai?ae-aae??ao iioiaeaeo?ii?eo, ?ic?iaeoe ? noai?eoe ia e?aii??aeo
ieanoeiao noaie iiiie?oii? ?ioaa?aoe??, a oiio /ene? iioe/i? ca’ycee.

A ca’yceo c oeei iinoaea iaiao?aei?noue c’ynoaaiiy iaoai?cio OE, ui e??i
i?aeoe/iiai i?aaenoaaey? oaeiae oai?aoe/iee ?ioa?an. Aea, iacaaaeath/e
ia aaeeeo e?euee?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? oai?aoe/ieo ?ia?o, ieoaiiy
i?i i?e?iaeo aei?ii?ithaaiiy IE caeeoa?oueny aeeneon?eiei aei oeueiai
/ano.

A?aeiii, ui ciaioaiiy ?ici??o e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe
aei iiyae eaaioiai?ici??ieo aoaeo?a i?e aeineoue iaeeo ?ici??ao /anoie,
ui iaeii/anii noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi ieiu? ?oiuei?
iiaa?oi?. Oiio, ia nueiaiaei? ?nio? aea? iniiai? oi/ee ci?o ia i?e?iaeo
?aeiia?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ui iaoiiaeththoue OE IE. Aei?ii?ithaaiiy IE
iia’ycothoue: 1) c eaaioiai?ici??ieie aoaeoaie a e?aii??aeo e?enoae?oao
oa eeanoa?ao; 2) c ?a/iaeiaie ia ?o iiaa?oi? aai c aeaeo?iiieie noaiaie
ia ?ioa?oaen? Si/SiOx. Cacia/eii, ui o ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aieea iiaa?oi?
ia niaeo?e OE iiyniththoue i?enooi?noth iiaa?oiaaeo noai?a, ye? ?
oeaio?aie aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? (OeA?), a oaeiae
aaeni?aiaaieo iieaeoe, ye? iiaeooue iiaeoethaaoe ciiio no?oeoo?o
e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a caoaeaeaiiy aeaeeii? OE IE, yea i?iaiaeeeiny
oeyoii aei??thaaiiy niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE oa niaeo??a i?iioneaiiy IE,
aoei i?eae?eaii cia/ii iaioa oaaae, i?ae aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a
?aeiia?iaoe??. I?e oeueiio, ye ? o aeiaaeeo ?aeiia?iaoe??, ?nio?
iaiaeiicia/i?noue uiaei i?e?iaee ia’?eoo, a yeiio a?aeaoaa?oueny
iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeoth/iai OE na?oea. O a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a
i?eionea?oueny, ui iiaeeiaiiy ia? i?noea oai aea, aea ? ?aeiia?iaoe?y
ia??aiiaaaeieo iin??a, oi/a, a aeayeeo ?iaioao a?aei?/a?oueny, ui
i?ioeane iiaeeiaiiy na?oea ? ?aeiia?iaoe?? iiaeooue aooe iia’ycai? c
??cieie ia’?eoaie, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaea/o caoaeaeaiiy a?ae “oeaio??a”
iiaeeiaiiy aei “oeaio??a” aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Caoaeaeaiiy OE iia’ycoaaeiny c iiaeeiaiiyi na?oea ye o e?aii??aeo
e?enoae?oao, oae ? o ?a/iaeiao, ?icoaoiaaieo ia aioo??oi?e iiaa?oi? IE,
iai?eeeaae, o neeienai? oa eiai iio?aeieo.

Cacia/eii oaeiae, ui ?nio? aeayea ?ica?aei?noue ? a naieo ?acoeueoaoao
aei???a niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE.

Oaeei /eiii, neacaia na?ae/eoue i?i aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy ?ie? iiaa?oi?
o i?ioeanao OE oa ?? caoaeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe c ieaiaie iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ?inoeoooo o?ceee
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iaea?aeai? i?e aeeiiaii? ieaiiaeo oa eiieo?nieo oai
?OI IAIO:

“Aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ?aeiia?iaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie oa yaeuaie
ia?aiino iin??a a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao (A2A6, A3A5 ? Si) c iaoith
iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a
(na?oeiaei?ii?ithaa/?a, oioii?eeia/?a, niiy/ieo aeaiaio?a)”.
Caoaa?aeaeaia I?aceae??th IAIO. Iinoaiiaa Ath?i AOA I?aceae?? IAIO a?ae
20.12.1994?. I?ioieie ? 9.

“Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?aii?eiaeo iaiino?oeoo? oa iiaeeeainoae ?o oaoi?/iiai
canoinoaaiiy”. Caoaa?aeaeaia I?i?noa?noaii Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee ?
oaoiieia?e. I?ioieie can?aeaiiy ni?eueiiai Oe?a?ii-?c?a?euenueeiai
eii?oaoo iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a?ae 28.07.1997?. a i.
??onaeei? (?c?a?eue), aeiaia?? ?2I/1406 a?ae 07.10.1997?.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? c’ynoaaiiy ?ie? ?a/iaei, ?icoaoiaaieo ia
iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a, o i?ioeanao caoaeaeaiiy /a?aiii? nioae
OE IE, iaea?aeaiiai aiiaeiei o?aaeaiiyi.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe a ?iaio? ae??ooaaeeny oae?
caaea/?:

Aecia/aiiy aieeao ii?oieia?? ii?enoeo oa??a ia i?ioeane caoaeaeaiiy OE
(?ie? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a o iiaeeiaii? caoaeaeoth/iai OE na?oea).

Aecia/aiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ii?enoeo oa??a oa eiai aieeao ia i?ioeane
caoaeaeaiiy OE.

C’ynoaaiiy ?ie? OeA? o i?ioeanao ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? OE i?ae ae??th
??cieo oaeoi??a.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ i?iaiaeeeiny:

C’ynoaaiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a aeaeo?io?i?/iiai o?aaeaiiy ia no?oeoo?i? ?
ethi?ianoeaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee IE (c iaeii/aniei eiio?ieai ci?ie
e?eueeino? OeA?), a oaeiae ia neeaae ?a/iaei ia iiaa?oi? e?enoae?o?a
(o?i?/iee neeaae ii?enoeo oa??a).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie niaeo??a oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? oa ?? caoaeaeaiiy, a
oaeiae o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ii?enoeo oa??a o i?ioean? noa??iiy.

Aea/aiiy aieeao oa?i?/ieo ia?iaie ia o?i?/iee neeaae ii?enoeo oa??a, a
oaeiae ia ?o ethi?ianoeaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee ? e?euee?noue oeaio??a
aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

Iieacaii, ui an? niaeo?e caoaeaeaiiy OE, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a
aeine?aeaeaieo oa?ao, neeaaeathoueny c 3 nioa (aeaio a oeueo?ao?ieaoia?e
iaeano? c iaeneioiaie i?e symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 4,4 aA oa
symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA
oa iaei??? o aeaeei?e — c iaeneioiii i?e symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~
2,8 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,0 aA), ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ioaineaiinoae yeeo iaoiiaeth? caaaeueio oi?io niaeo?a oa caeaaeeoue
a?ae ?aaeei?a aeaioiaeaiiy, i?e/iio oeei nioaai a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ci?
eiiiiiaioe nioae OE.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaieo c?ace?a IE c yne?aaith
/a?aiiith nioaith OE ?ici??e e?enoae?o?a cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue ?ici??e,
iaiao?aei? aeey niinoa?aaeaiiy eaaioiai?ici??ieo aoaeo?a, oiaoi,
iayai?noue eaaioiaeo e?enoae?o?a ia ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy OE
IE. I?e oeueiio c?acee c eaaioiaeie iaiie?enoae?oaie oa aac ieo iathoue
iiae?ai? OE oa?aeoa?enoeee oa iaeiaeiaee oa?aeoa? ?o ci?i c /anii o
i?ioean? noa??iiy.

Aeyaeaii caeiiii??iino? o o?ainoi?iaoe?? niaeo??a OE oa ?? caoaeaeaiiy o
i?ioean? noa??iiy ia iia?o??. Iieacaii, ui o?ae ci?i ?ioaineaiino? OE
a?ae /ano noa??iiy caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee? na?oea caoaeaeaiiy:
i?e caoaeaeaii? na?oeii c? nioae 2,8 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,0
aA ?ioaineai?noue OE ciaioo?oueny, a i?e caoaeaeaii? na?oeii c iaeano?
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa — c?inoa?, ui iia’ycaia c i?ioeanaie aeani?aoe??
oa ieeneaiiy, a?aeiia?aeii.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE a?ae ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy oa ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?y a i?ioean? noa??iiy iaoiiaeaia ci?iith
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ?a/iaei ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a, ye?
aa?ooue o/anoue o i?ioeanao iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeoth/iai OE na?oea,
cie?aia, ca?eueoaiiy aianeo oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa iia’ycaia ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo ieneae?a oa aaeni?aiaaii? aiaee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e:

C’yniaaii caeiiii??iino? ? i?e/eie ci?ie niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy /a?aiii?
nioae OE o i?ioean? noa??iiy.

Anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa? aieeao ia OE oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy oa
oa?iiia?iaie IE.

Iaea?aeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?e?iaeo ?a/iaei, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o
iiaeeiaii? na?oea, ui caoaeaeo? /a?aiio nioao OE IE i?e e?iiaoi?e
oaiia?aoo??.

Oe? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii? ??cieo
aaeni?aoe?eieo aeao/ee?a oa naini??a a?io?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e ia iiaa?oi?
IE.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoa??aee ?iaioe aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c ethi?ianoeaioe?? eiiaeainiaaieo nenoai
ICL’96 (I?aaa, *anueea ?anioae?ea, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
ia?aaeiaeo iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo i?eeaae?a oa i?e?inenoai ASDAM’96
(A?aoeneaaa, Neiaa//eia, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c
ai?oaen?eieo aaoa?ino?oeoo? oa i?eeaae?a HEAD’97 (Niieai?oea,
Neiaa//eia, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoa??ae?a (MRS’97, MRS’98) (Ainoii, NOA, 1997, 1998), I?aeia?iaeia
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaa eiioa?aioe?y (CAS’97, CAS’98) (N?iaey, ?oioi?y, 1997,
1998), I?aeia?iaei?e oeie? aeey iieiaeeo a/aieo “O?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea”
(SSPFA’97) (Eaoe?aae?, E?ei, Oe?a?ia, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
c iecueei?ici??ieo nenoai oa i?eno?i?a (LDSD’97) (E?naaii, Ii?ooaae?y,
1997), Ana?in?enueeiio neiiic?oi? ca o/anoth a/aieo e?a?i NIAe “Aii?oi?
oa i?e?ie?enoae?/i? iai?ai?ia?aeieee” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, ?in?y, 1998),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c oaa?aeio?eueieo e?enoae?a (ICSSC’98)
(Caeiiaia, Iieueua, 1998), a oaeiae ia nai?ia?ao a ?OI IAI Oe?a?ie oa a
?inoeooo? o?ceee Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. Aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?? naiino?eii iaea?aeaia
iniiaia /anoeia aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a, iaaaaeaieo o ?iaio?,
cie?aia, i?iaaaeaii aei??e niaeo??a OE, niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE oa
niaeo??a ?io?a/a?aiiiai iiaeeiaiiy, a oaeiae ?acii c? ni?a?ia?oieeaie
?inoeoooo aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oieia?? oa??a oa niaeo??a AI?. O oai?/?e
ni?aae?oaeiino? c? ni?aaaoi?aie a?aeiia?aeieo iaoeiaeo ?ia?o i?iaaaeaii
o?ce/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th on?o ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o 8 ?iaioao: 3 noaoyo o
iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo oa 5 aeiiia?aeyo, iaae?oeiaaieo o iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c
anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa nieneo oeeoiaaii?
e?oa?aoo?e. Aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 138 noi??ieao ? i?noeoue 51 ?enoiie oa 9
oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo ? caaea/? ?iaioe; aecia/ai? i??i?eoao, iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ca’ycie ?iaioe c ieaiiaeie
caaaeaiiyie; iaaaaeaii a?aeiiino?, ui noinothoueny ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe,
ioae?eaoe?e, no?oeoo?e oa ei?ioeiai ci?noo aeena?oaoe?? ii ?icae?eao.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e. Iienai? ??ci? iaoiaee
iaea?aeaiiy IE, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?o ia?aaaae oa iaaeie?ee. Iieacaii, ui
aiiaeoaaiiy e?aii?th i?e aaeueaaiinoaoe/ieo oiiaao (iino?eia aonoeia
no?oio) aeicaiey? eaaei eiio?iethaaoe i?ioean ooai?aiiy ii?enoiai oa?o,
a oaeiae aeinyaoe iaiao?aeieo ii?enoinoae oa oiauei oa??a, ui coiiaeei
cia/io iioe?ai?noue oeueiai iaoiaeo aeaioiaeaiiy IE.

Iaaaaeai? aeaeo?io?i?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy IE oa oaeoi?e, yeeie
aecia/a?oueny ooai?aiiy ii?enoiai oa?o, a oaeiae aeaeo?io?i?/i?
?aaeoe??, ui aeieeathoue i?e ?ic/eiaii? e?aii?th. Cacia/a?oueny, ui i?e
iaeeo cia/aiiyo no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy oa aaeeeeo cia/aiiyo eiioeaio?aoe??
ieaaeeiai? eeneioe a?aeaoaa?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ii?enoiai oa?o, oiae? ye
i?e aaeeeeo cia/aiiyo no?oio oa iecueei? eiioeaio?aoe?? ieaaeeiai?
eeneioe ia? i?noea i?ioean aeaeo?iiie??oaaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaaii aieea oeeo
?aaeoe?e ia o?i?/iee neeaae ii?enoeo oa??a.

?icaeyiooi no?oeoo?o oa ii?oieia?th ii?enoeo oa??a, a oaeiae iaoai?cie
?o oi?ioaaiiy i?e aiiaeoaaii?.

Iaaaaeaii ?yae ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oioiethi?ianoeaioieo oa?aeoa?enoee IE. Iienaii ?yae
?nioth/eo iiaeaeae OE, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ye ca aeaea?aeii
aei?ii?ithaaiiy (iaiie?enoae?oe e?aii?th, a yeeo iathoue i?noea
eaaioiai?ici??i? aoaeoe, ?a/iaeie ia ?o iiaa?oi?, ?ioa?oaen Si/SiOx),
oae ? i?e?iaeith iioe/ieo ia?aoiae?a (aeneoiie o e?aii??aeo
iaiie?enoae?oao, ?aeiia?iaoe?y /a?ac eieaeuei? oeaio?e ia ?ioa?oaen?,
aeneoiie ia ?ioa?oaen?, oiui). Aiae?cothoueny ?nioth/? iiaeae?
caoaeaeaiiy OE c oi/ee ci?o i?e?iaee oeaio??a iiaeeiaiiy caoaeaeoth/iai
na?oea, a oaeiae iiaeeeaino? ia?aaea/? aia?a?? i?ae oeaio?aie iiaeeiaiiy
oa ?aeiia?iaoe??. Iieacaii, ui a?eueo?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
oioiethi?ianoeaioieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia iathoue iaeiicia/ii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy ia oioiethi?ianoeaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee (niaeo?e OE oa ??
caoaeaeaiiy) na?aeiaeaioiaeaieo oa??a oa e?euee?noue OeA?. Eiio?ieue
e?eueeino? OeA? i?iaiaeeany iaoiaeii AI?, ine?eueee ?o ?ieue
a?ae?a?athoue oeaio?e ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a, ye?
i?iyaeythoueny o niaeo?ao AI? (ia??aai? ca’ycee e?aii?th, Pb-oeaio?e).

Iieacaii, ui a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?nio? caeaaei?noue niaeo?aeueiiai
iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio OE ( symbol 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l OE) a?ae
aeiaaeeie oaee? na?oea caoaeaeaiiy ( symbol 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l ca),
ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeaiaioa?i?noue nioae OE. Ia oe?e caeaaeiino?
aeyaeaii aea? ae?eyiee (270(300 ii oa 450(500 ii), ia yeeo iieiaeaiiy
symbol 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l OE ia ci?ith?oueny, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue
aeae?eeoe, i?eiaei?, aea? eiiiiiaioe (ei?ioeioaeeueiao, EO, oa
aeiaaioaeeueiao, AeO) nioae OE. Aeyaeeiny, ui ae?eyioe? 270 symbol 184
\f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 300 ii a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo ei?ioeioaeeueiaa
iieiaeaiiy iaeneioio OE, i?ae ae?eyioe? 450 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14
? 500 ii.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE na?aeiaeaioiaeaieo c?ace?a:
ni?anoaaeaiiy oi?ie niaeo??a c?ace?a, aeaioiaeaieo i?e ??ci?e aonoei?
no?oio ?a oa ??ciiio /an? aiiaeoaaiiy ta, a oaeiae ?o ?iceeaae ia
eiiiiiaioe. Aeyaeeiny, ui an? niaeo?e i?noyoue nioao i?e (280 ii
(h(1=4,4 aA), iieiaeaiiy yei? ia ci?ith?oueny c? ci?iith ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy. Oiio ?? aoei aeae?eaii a on?o niaeo?ao, a iio?i c?iaeaii ?o
?iceeaae ia iaeiaioo e?euee?noue nioa.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE iieacaii, ui an?
niaeo?e neeaaeathoueny c o?ueio nioa: aeaio oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo c
iaeneioiaie i?e symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 280 ii (h(1=4,4 aA) oa
symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 350 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 365 ii
(h(2=3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA) oa aeaeeii? c iaeneioiii
i?e ~410 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 440 ii (h(3=2,8 symbol 184 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,0 aA). I?e oeueiio oi?ia niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE
aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ioaineaiinoae oeeo nioa, yea caeaaeeoue
a?ae ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy oa aeiaaeeie oaee? ?a?no?aoe??. Iieacaii, ui
na?oei c aeaeeii? nioae caoaeaeo? ia?aaaaeii AeO eiiiiiaioo OE, a na?oei
c oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa caoaeaeaiiy — EO eiiiiiaioo OE, ui
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie caeaaeiino? symbol 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l OE
( symbol 108 \f «Symbol» \s 14 l ca).

Aeyaeeiny, ui c?inoaiiy no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy
?ioaineaiino? OE oa cnoao ?? iaeneioio o ei?ioeioaeeueiaee a?e, a
c?inoaiiy /ano aiiaeoaaiiy aei i?ioeeaaeieo ci?i.

sse iieacaee i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy AI? niaeo??a, niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? AI? oeaio??a c ?inoii no?oio
aiiaeoaaiiy ?a (eiee ?ioaineai?noue OE iaaea?) oa aei ca?eueoaiiy i?e
c?inoaii? /ano aiiaeoaaiiy ta (eiee ?ioaineai?noue OE c?inoa?). Oea
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE i?e c?inoaii?
?a oa ciaioaiiy ta ia ? iane?aeeii ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? OeA?. C
ae?oaiai aieo, ci?ia e?eueeino? AI? oeaio??a i?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia ci?iith aaee/eie ieiu? aioo??oiuei?
iiaa?oi? ii?enoiai oa?o. Oea iiaei ae aooe i?e/eiith ci?ie ?ioaineaiino?
OE, yeui OE aai ?? caoaeaeaiiy iia’ycai? c iiaa?oiath e?enoae?o?a.
I?ioa, ye iieacaea caeaaei?noue niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE a?ae ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy oey i?e/eia ia ? ?aeeiith, oiio ui ?ioaineai?noue on?o nioa
caoaeaeaiiy ci?ith?oueny ii ??ciiio.

Aeyaeeiny, ui ca?eueoaiiy ta i?ecaiaeeoue ia?aaaaeii aei c?inoaiiy
?ioaineaiino? aeaeeii? nioae caoaeaeaiiy ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aiie?ooaee AeO
eiiiiiaioe nioae OE, ui ni?e/eiy? niaeo?aeueiee cnoa iaeneioio nioae OE
o aeiaaioaeeueiaee a?e. I?e ca?eueoaii? ?a c?inoa? a?aeiiniee aianie
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa o niaeo? caoaeaeaiiy OE, i?e/iio ia?aaaaeii nioae
~4,4 aA ? i?e ?a=200 iA/ni2 o niaeo?? caoaeaeaiiy OE i?enooiy o?eueee
oey nioaa.

Aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy ia ii?oieia?th oa no?oeoo?i?
aeanoeaino?, a oaeiae ia o?i?/iee neeaae ii?enoeo oa??a i?enay/aiee
o?ao?e ?icae?e. Aea/aiiy ii?oieia?? oa no?oeoo?ieo aeanoeainoae IE
i?iaiaeeeiny iaoiaeaie neaioth/i? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? oa i?e?ineii??
aoiiieo nee, a oaeiae iaoiaeii eiia?iaoe?eiiai ?icn?yiiy na?oea (E?N).
Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?i?/iiai neeaaeo IE aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee
aoi?eiii? ?iiii? ian-niaeo?iiao??? (A?IN), ?aioaai?anueei?
oioiaeaeo?iiii? niaeo?ineii?? (?OAN) oa ?io?a/a?aiiiai (?*) iiaeeiaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ii?oieia?? ii?enoeo oa??a a?ae ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy iieaco?, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? ?a ?ici??e ii? ca?eueoothoueny,
a no?iee i?ae ieie noathoue a?eueo oiieeie, i?e/iio iiaa?oiy oa?o
i?io?aaeth?oueny iaiaeii??aeii: ?niothoue iai?io?aaeai? ae?eyiee
(e?aii??a? naaiaioe, ?icoaoiaai? a iaaiiio iai?yieo), i?ae yeeie
ciaoiaeyoueny ii?e c e?aii??aeie no?ieaie. C aeine?aeaeaiue ia?a??c?a
c?ace?a IE aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui c?inoaiiy ye ta, oae ? ?a i?ecaiaeeoue
aei c?inoaiiy oiaueie IE.

Iieacaii, ui e?aii??a? no?iee (i?ae ii?aie) ia ? nooe?eueieie, a iathoue
no?oeoo?o, yea neeaaea?oueny c iaaaeeeeo iaai?a?a, aenioa yeeo aeecueea
aei ?o ae?aiao?a. Iiae?aia no?oeoo?a ?nio? ? a aeeaei? aaeeeeo ii?. E??i
oiai, ia iiaa?oi? ii?enoiai oa?o niinoa??aathoueny oa?ane, ye?,
i/aaeaeii, oi?iothoueny aiane?aeie o?aaeaiiy acaeiaae aeeneieaoe?e, ui
eaaeaoue a ieiuei? c?acea. Aeyaeeiny, ui ?ici??e e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a
ciaioothoueny c? ciaioaiiyi aonoeie no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy ? i?e ?a=25
iA/ni2 aeey iniiaii? /anoeie e?enoae?o?a aiie eaaeaoue o iaaeao d symbol
126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 20 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 60ii i?e ?o
aenio? symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 25 ii, a e?euee?noue e?enoae?o?a
?ici??aie iaioeie ca 10 ii, ye? iaoiiaeththoue eaaioiai?ici??i? aoaeoe,
? iacia/iith. I?e ?a=100 iA/ni2 d~200 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ?
400ii, i?e/iio ?ici??e iaeiaioeo e?enoae?o?a neeaaeathoue ~80 ii. Ioaea,
OE iiaea niinoa??aaoeny o IE ? ca a?aenooiino? eaaioiaeo
iaiie?enoae?o?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?? ca’ycie c ?a/iaeiaie ia iiaa?oi?
e?aii?th.

Aea/aiiy niaeo??a E?N IE i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oeae aeniiaie. A on?o niaeo?ao
niinoa??aaeany neiao?e/ia e?i?y, iieiaeaiiy yei? aoei aeecueeei aei
iieiaeaiiy e?i??, iia’ycaii? c e?aii??aith i?aeeeaaeeieith, ? o?ioe
cnoaaeiny o iecueeiaia?aaoe/iee a?e c ?inoii aonoeie no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy.
Iaeii/anii ?iiae? iaei i?noea iacia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ?? iai?aoe?eie. Cnoa
oe??? e?i?? ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?i?? i?aeeeaaeeiee oa eiai c?inoaiiy c?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?a aeaei i?aenoaae i?eienaoe ?? ii?enoiio oa?o. Nooo?ai, ui
i?yei? iniaeeaino? (iea/a aai iaeneioio) c iecueeiaia?aaoe/ii? noi?iie,
iia’ycaii? c iayai?noth eaaioiai-?ici??ieo e?enoae?o?a, ia
niinoa??aaeiny.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy aianeo neaiaeo a?ae IE o niaeo?e E?N aoei aeine?aeaeaii
caeaaei?noue inoaii?o a?ae oiaueie ii?enoiai oa?o, yea aa??thaaeany
oeyoii ca?eueoaiiy /ano aiiaeoaaiiy. Aeyaeeiny, ui c ?inoii oiaueie oa?o
?ioaineai?noue e?i?? c?inoa? i?e caa?aaeaii? ?? neiao?e/ii? oi?ie ?
iai?aoe?eie oa iacia/iiio cnoa? iaeneioio o iecueeiaia?aaoe/iee a?e,
oiaoi ii?enoee oa? ae?enii aea? cia/iee aianie o niaeo? E?N.

Cacia/eii, ui iieiaeaiiy oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa caoaeaeaiiy ? aeecueeeie
aei iieiaeaiiy iaeneioi?a oyaii? /anoeie inaaaeiae?aeaeo?e/ii? ooieoe??
e?enoae?/iiai e?aii?th. I?ioa, a?aenooi?noue nioae 3,4 symbol 184 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA o c?aceao, aeaioiaeaieo i?e aaeeeeo cia/aiiyo
no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy, ia aeicaiey?, i?eiaei? ??, i?eienaoe iiaeeiaiith
na?oea o e?aii??aeo e?enoae?oao.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy OE oa?aeoa?enoee iienaieo c?ace?a oa c?ace?a, ui
i?noeee e?enoae?oe, a yeeo i?iyaeyeeny eaaioiai?ici??i? aoaeoe o
niaeo?ao E?N. Aeyaeeiny, ui oe? oa?aeoa?enoeee (niaeo?e OE oa ??
caoaeaeaiiy oa ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?y c /anii) iiae?ai?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
ni?eueio i?e?iaeo oeaio??a iiaeeiaiiy na?oea caoaeaeaiiy oa oeaio??a
aei?ii?ithaaiiy o oeeo aeaio aeiaaeeao. Ioaea, i?ioeane aei?ii?ithaaiiy
na?oea o aeine?aeaeaieo c?aceao iaoiiaeai?, i/aaeaeii, ?a/iaeiaie ia
iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a, aai iia’ycai? c ?ioa?oaenii Si/SiOx, ui
aeia?a iiynith? iienaio aeua iiaaae?ieo ?ioaineaiino? OE oa e?eueeino?
OeA? i?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy caeaaeiino? neeaaeo ?a/iaei ia iiaa?oi? IE oa ana?aaeei?
ii?enoiai oa?o iaoiaeii A?IN iieacaee, ui iiaa?oiy an?o c?ace?a
caaaa/aia ?iiaie H, O, OH, SiH, SiO2, ? a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? IE (
symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 400 ii) a?aeaoaa?oueny ?o ??cea
ciaioaiiy. I?e oeueiio ?iciiae?e ?ii?a SiO a oeueiio oa?? ia?
i?ioeeaaeiee o?ae: ?o e?euee?noue c?inoa? o aeeaeio. Caaaa/aiiy
i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o IE ?iiaie H, O, OH, SiH, SiO2 iaoiiaeaia,
i/aaeaeii, ye e?auei aeinooiii aeaeo?ie?oo aei iiaa?oi? IE, oae ?
eiioaeoii iiaa?oi? c iia?o?yi, a i?ioeeaaeiee o?ae ?iciiae?eo ?ii?a SiO
oa SiO2 ii oiauei? oeueiai oa?o na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueoee nooi?iue
ieeneaiiy (ia?aaaaeiee aianie SiO2 o neeaae ieneaeo) iiaeeco iiaa?oi?.

Aeyaeeiny, ui c?inoaiiy ?a oa ta i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy
a?aeiiniiai aianeo eiiieaen?a SiO2 (oiaoi aei a?eueoiai ieeneaiiy). I?e
ca?eueoaii? ?a ia? i?noea oaeiae ciaioaiiy nooiaiy a?ae?iaai?caoe??. A
oie aea /an i?e c?inoaii? ta ni?eueii? caeiiii??iino? uiaei nooiaiy
a?ae?iaai?caoe?? i?e ??cieo ?a ia niinoa??aaeiny.

Aiae?c caeaaeiino? neeaaeo ieeniiai oa?o ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo
e?enoae?o?a iaoiaeii ?OAN a?ae ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy iieacaei, ui ieeniee
oa? IE, aeaioiaeaiiai i?e iaioiio cia/aii? aonoeie no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy,
i?noeoue a?eueoo e?euee?noue noaieneae?a, oiae? ye i?e ca?eueoaii?
aonoeie no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoaiiy aianeo a ieenae
aeeieneaeo e?aii?th.

Iaea?aeaio caeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e oa o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ii?enoeo oa??a
a?ae ?aaeei?a aeaioiaeaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe, aeoiaey/e c aeaeo?io?i?/ieo
?aaeoe?e oa ?o caeaaeiino? a?ae aonoeie no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy oa neeaaeo
o?aaieea, a naia: eiieo?aioe??th i?ioean?a ooai?aiiy ii? oa
aeaeo?iiie??oaaiiy. Cie?aia, ca?eueoaiiy no?oio aiiaeoaaiiy i?ecaiaeeoue
aei c?inoaiiy ?ie? i?ioean?a aeaeo?iiie??oaaiiy, ui aeeeeea? ca?eueoaiiy
aianeo aeeieneaeo o neeaae IE oa c?inoaiiy ?ici???a e?enoae?o?a ca
?aooiie ?ic/eiaiiy ae??aieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy ia niaeo?e ?*-iiaeeiaiiy IE
aeyaeei c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae on?o nioa eieeaaiue i?e ca?eueoaii? ta
oa ?o ciaioaiiy i?e ca?eueoaii? ?a, ui iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c? ci?iith
ieiu? aioo??oiuei? iiaa?oi? IE. I?e oeueiio ia?aaaaeia c?inoaiiy
?ioaineaiino? Si-Ho nioa i?e c?inoaii? ta na?ae/eoue i?i ca?eueoaiiy
nooiaiy a?ae?iaai?caoe?? c?ace?a. A oie aea /an, ?ioaineai?noue
eieeaaiue Ox-Si-H oa Si-O ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioaineaiino? Si-Hx nioa
i?e c?inoaii? ?a icia/a? ca?eueoaiiy aianeo ieneae?a.

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue A?IN, ?OAN oa ?*-iiaeeiaiiy,
c?inoaiiy a?aeiiniiai aianeo oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa i?e symbol 126 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 ~ 4,4 aA oa 3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA a
niaeo?e caoaeaeaiiy OE ei?aeth? c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy ieeneaiiy
c?ace?a, i?e/iio ?ioaineai?noue ia?oi? oeueo?ao?ieaoiai? nioae ei?aeth?
c aianeii aeeieneaeo e?aii?th, a ae?oai? — c aianeii noaieneae?a o
neeaae IE.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioean?a noa??iiy IE.
Aeyaeeiny, ui o?ae e?eai? ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? OE a i?ioean? noa??iiy ia
iia?o?? i?e 300 E caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaeeie oaee? na?oea caoaeaeaiiy.
I?e caoaeaeaii? na?oeii c aeaeeii? nioae caoaeaeaiiy ?ioaineai?noue OE
ciaioo?oueny, oiae? ye i?e caoaeaeaii? na?oeii c oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa
iacia/ia iaae?iiy ?ioaineaiino? OE ci?ith?oueny ?? cia/iei c?inoaiiyi.
I?e oeueiio a niaeo?ao caoaeaeaiiy a i?ioean? noa??iiy a?aeaoaa?oueny
ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaeeii? nioae oa ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo, i?e/iio oaii c?inoaiiy aiie?ooaee nioae caoaeaeaiiy c
iaeneioiii i?e symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 4,4 aA ia?aaeuo? oeth
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeey nioae c iaeneioiii i?e 3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol»
\s 14 ? 3,5 aA.

I?e noa??ii? c?ace?a a aaeooi? i?e 300 E niinoa??aa?oueny o?eueee
i?ioean ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE. I?e caoaeaeaii? oeueo?ao?ieaoiaei
na?oeii oea ciaioaiiy iacia/ia, a i?e caoaeaeaii? na?oeii c aeaeeii?
nioae — nooo?aa. Cacia/eii, ui ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE a i?ioean?
noa??iiy ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? OeA?.
Iayai?noue i?ioeano ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE ye ia iia?o?? oae ? o
aaeooi? aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui a?i iaoiiaeaiee aeani?aoe??th
yeeoinue ?a/iaei c iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a.

Iaoiaeii ?*-iiaeeiaiiy aoei aeine?aeaeaii ci?io o?i?/iiai neeaaeo IE a
i?ioean? noa??iiy. Aeyaeeiny, ui ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaeeii? nioae
niaeo?o caoaeaeaiiy OE noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ciaioaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? Si-H
eieeaaiue, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i ?? ca’ycie c Si-H eiiieaenaie. Oea
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c caeaaei?noth niaeo??a ?*-iiaeeiaiiy a?ae ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy, i?ioa, ia i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie A?IN
aeine?aeaeaiue c?ace?a, aeaioiaeaieo i?e ??cieo ta. Ioaea, inoaoi/iee
aeniiaie i?i i?e?iaeo aeaeeii? nioae caoaeaeaiiy ia iiaeia c?iaeoe
o?eueee ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ine?eueee i?ioean c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? OE niinoa??aa?oueny o?eueee
ia iia?o?? (a oiio /ene? ? i?ney aeo?eioaaiiy c?ace?a o aaeooi?), oi
eiai iiaeia iia’ycaoe c ieeneaiiyi. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ei?aeyoe??th
i?ae c?inoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? OE oa ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? Si-O
eieeaaiue o niaeo?ao ?*-iiaeeiaiiy, oiaoi ei?aeyoe?y ?ioaineaiino?
oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa caoaeaeaiiy c aianeii ieneae?a o o?i?/iee neeaae
IE niinoa??aa?oueny ia o?eueee i?e ci?i? ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy, a ? i?e
noa??ii?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy niaeo??a ?*-iiaeeiaiiy iieacaei oaeiae, ui o
i?ioean? noa??iiy ii??ae c? c?inoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? Si-O eieeaaiue ia?
i?noea ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae Si-I oa Oo-Si-H eieeaaiue.

Ei?aeyoe?y ?ioaineaiino? oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa caoaeaeaiiy c aianeii
ieneae?a o neeaae IE (nioae 4,4 aA — c aeeieneaeii e?aii?th, a nioae 3,4
symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA — c noaieneaeaie), a oaeiae c
?ioaineai?noth Si-H oa Ox-Si-H eieeaaiue aeaei i?aenoaae i?eienaoe ?o
iiaeeiaiith na?oea a eaaiaaieo aiaeiai oa II a?oiaie ieeneao, aai o
??ciiai oeio ienea?ae?eaeao.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ?a/iaeie ia
iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a a?ae?a?athoue nooo?ao ?ieue o i?ioeanao
caoaeaeaiiy OE oa i?ioeanao aei?ii?ithaaiiy. I?e oeueiio caeaaei?noue
niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE a?ae ?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy oa /ano aeo?eioaaiiy
c?ace?a ia iia?o?? /e o aaeooi? iaoiiaeaia ci?iith o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
oeeo ?a/iaei.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea oa?i?/ieo ia?iaie i?e oaiia?aoo?ao 250-420 E ia
oioiethi?ianoeaioi? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa niaeo?e AI? ii?enoeo oa??a. O
niaeo?ao AI? na?aeiaeaioiaeaieo c?ace?a niinoa??aaany neaaeee neaiae,
iaoiiaeaiee Pb-oeaio?aie. A i?ioean? aeo?eioaaiiy c?ace?a i?e oeeo
oaiia?aoo?ao c’yaeyeany aeiaeaoeiaa oe?iea ?cio?iiia e?i?y,
?ioaineai?noue yei? c?inoaea c /anii. Aeyaeeiny, ui oey e?i?y ?
iaaeaiaioa?iith. ?? eiii’thoa?iee ?iceeaae iieacaa, ui aiia iiaea aooe
ai?ieneiiaaia, ye i?i?ioi, aeaiia eiiiiiaioaie c g-oaeoi?aie g1=2,0025
oa g2=2,0061. I?e oeueiio ?ioaineai?noue eiiiiiaioe c oaeoi?ii g1 cia/ii
a?eueoa, i?ae ?ioaineai?noue eiiiiiaioe c oaeoi?ii g2. Cia/aiiy g1
aeineoue neeueii a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae g-oaeoi?o ia??aaieo ca’yce?a
e?aii?th (2,0055). Aeey g2 oey ??cieoey cia/ii iaioa, iaeiae ia?aaeuo?
iiieeeo aenia?eiaioo. I?iaaaeaia aei??thaaiiy niaeo??a AI? ciaeaiiai
e?enoae?/iiai eaa?oeo aeyaeei neaiaee, iiae?ai? oei, ui c’yaeythoueny a
i?ioean? a?aeiaeo. Oiio c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui AI? e?i??, ye? aeieeathoue
i?e oa?iiia?iaeao, iia’ycai? c iiaa?oiaaeie oeaio?aie ieeneo e?aii?th.
Iieacaii, ui c?inoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? neaiaeo AI? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
ciaioaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? iacaeaaeii a?ae aeiaaeeie
oaee? na?oea caoaeaeaiiy. Ioaea, oeaio?e, ye? aeieeathoue i?e a?aeiaeao
? coiiaeththoue neaiae AI?, ? oeaio?aie oaeaeei? ?aeiia?iaoe??. Ioe?iea
aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? ooai?aiiy AI?-oeaio??a neeaaea? symbol 126 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 ~ 0.5 aA.

Oaeei /eiii, ei?aeyoe?y i?ae c?inoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? neaiaeo AI? oa
ciaioaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? OE niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa i?e oa?iiia?iaeao
c?ace?a ? ooai?aiiy oeaio??a aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??
(iiaa?oiaaeo oeaio??a ieene?a e?aii?th) a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ? iniiaiei
iaoai?ciii aieeao iiaa?oi? ia OE oa?aeoa?enoeee IE.

O aeniiaeao noenei i?iaiae?ciaaiee noai ieoaiiy, ?ice?eo? iaoiaee
ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie, aeeeaaeai? iaea?eueo
aaaeeea? iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe.

AENIIAEE

Aeyaeaii, ui o IE, iaea?aeaiiio aiiaeiei o?aaeaiiyi, i?enooi? o?e nioae
caoaeaeaiiy OE c iaeneioiaie i?e h(1(4,4 aA, h(2(3,4 symbol 184 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA oa h(3(2,8 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,0
aA, yeei a?aeiia?aeathoue ??ci? eiiiiiaioe nioae OE.

Iieacaii, ui OE i?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? iiaea niinoa??aaoeny o
c?aceao, ye? ia i?noyoue e?enoae?o?a c ?ici??aie, iaioeie ca 10 ii, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i a?aenooi?noue ca’yceo oe??? OE c eaaioiai?ici??ieie
aoaeoaie o e?aii??.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o c?aceao, ye? i?noyoue eaaioia? e?enoae?oe, niaeo?e OE
oa ?? caoaeaeaiiy oa caeiiii??iino? ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?? o i?ioean?
noa??iiy iiae?ai? oei, ui iathoue i?noea o c?aceao, a yeeo e?enoae?oe c
eaaioiai?ici??ieie aoaeoaie a?aenooi?. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ni?eueio
i?e?iaeo OE oa ?? caoaeaeaiiy a iaio aeiaaeeao.

Iieacaii, ui aieea iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a ia OE oa?aeoa?enoeee
ii?enoeo oa??a ia ae/a?io?oueny eeoa aieeaii oeaio??a
aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?a/iaeie,
?icoaoiaai? ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a, a?ae?a?athoue nooo?ao
?ieue o i?ioeanao iiaeeiaiiy na?oea caoaeaeaiiy oa i?ioeanao
aei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??.

Iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue niaeo??a caoaeaeaiiy OE a?ae ?aaeei?a
aiiaeoaaiiy (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae nioa caoaeaeaiiy) oa ?o
o?ainoi?iaoe?y c /anii a i?ioean? noa??iiy (ia iia?o?? oa o aaeooi?)
iia’ycai? c? ci?iith neeaaeo ?a/iaei ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a:
ca?eueoaiiy aianeo oeueo?ao?ieaoiaeo nioa ( symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14
~ 4,4 aA oa 3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 aA) o niaeo?
caoaeaeaiiy OE iaoiiaeaii ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo ieneae?a e?aii?th, a
ca?eueoaiiy aianeo aeaeeii? nioae (2,8 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ?
3,0 aA) — c?inoaiiyi ai?noo ?a/iaeie, yea aeani?ao?oueny a i?ioean?
noa??iiy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co caeaaeiino? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ii?enoeo oa??a a?ae
?aaeei?a aiiaeoaaiiy oa eiai o?ainoi?iaoe?? o i?ioean? noa??iiy c?iaeaii
i?eiouaiiy, ui oeueo?ao?ieaoia? nioae caoaeaeaiiy iia’ycai? c
i?enooi?noth ??cieo ienea?ae?eae?a ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ooai?aiiy oeaio??a aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe??
(iiaa?oiaaeo oeaio??a ieene?a e?aii?th) ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith iaae?iiy
?ioaineaiino? ethi?ianoeaioe?? eeoa i?e oa?iiia?iaeao c?ace?a.

Nienie ioae?eaoe?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Ei?noineay I.A., Oi?/eineay O.A., Aeaeoiaaa A.?., Aoeao A.I., Oiiaieiaa
E.TH., Nieyi I.Ae. Aeaa enoi/ieea aicaoaeaeaiey oioiethieianoeaioeee
ii?enoiai e?aiiey. // OOI. — 1997. – o.31, ?8.- N.908-911.

Torchinskaya T.V., Korsunskaya N.E., Khomenkova L.Yu., Dzhumaev B.R.,
Many A., Goldstein Y., Savir E. Effect of the desorption process on
photoluminescence excitation spectra of porous silicon. //
Semicond.Phys.,Quantum and Optoel. — 1998. – v.1, N1. — P.61-65.

Aa?ai I.I., Aoeao A.I., Aeaeoiaaa A.?., Ei?noineay I.A., Oi?/eineay
O.A., Iieenneee A., Oiiaieiaa E.TH. Iaoaieci oiaiueoaiey eioaineaiinoe
oioiethieianoeaioeee ii?enoiai e?aiiey ni a?aiaiai. //OOAE. — 1999. –
o.44, ?3. — N.394-398.

Torchinskaya T.V., Baran N.P., Korsunskaya N.E., Dzhumaev B.R.,
Khomenkova L.Yu., Sheinkman M.K. Photoluminescence and EPR studies of
porous silicon. // Journal of Luminescence. — 1997. – v.72-74. —
?.400-402.

Khomenkova L.Yu., Baran N.P., Dzhumaev B.R., Korsunskaya N.E.,
Torchinskaya T.V., Goldstein Y., Savir E., Many A. Role of surface
substances in excitation of porous silicon photoluminescence //
Opto-Electronic Reviews.- 1999.- v.7, N2.- P.135-138.

Korsunskaya N.E., Torchinskaya T.V., Dzhumaev B.R., Khomenkova L.Yu.,
Bulakh B.M., Baran N.P. Excitation Mechanism of Porous Si
Photoluminescence. // Proc. International Conf. on Adv. Semicond.Dev.
and Microsyst.( ASDAM’96) — Smolenice (Slovakia). -1996. — ?.41-44.

Torchinskaya T.V., Korsunskaya N.E., Khomenkova L.Yu., Sheinkman M.K.,
Baran N.P., Misiuk A., Surma B. Complex Studies of Porous Silicon Aging
Phenomena. // Proc. 20th International Semicond. Conf. (CAS’97) — Sinaia
(Romania). — 1997. — ?.173-176.

Torchinskaya T.V., Korsunskaya N.E., Sheinkman M.K., Khomenkova L.Yu.,
Goldstein Y., Savir E., Many A. Oxidation process effects on porous
silicon photolumienscence// Proc. 21th International Semicond. Conf.
(CAS’98) — Sinaia (Romania). -1998. — ?.474-477.

Aiioaoe?y

Oiiaieiaa E.TH. ?ieue iiaa?oi? a i?ioeanao caoaeaeaiiy
oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? ii?enoiai e?aii?th. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.07 — o?ceea oaa?aeiai
o?ea.- ?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia c’ynoaaiith ?ie? iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a
o i?ioeanao caoaeaeaiiy /a?aiii? nioae oioiethi?ianoeaioe?? ii?enoiai
e?aii?th, iaea?aeaiiai aiiaeiei o?aaeaiiyi. Iieacaii, ui ?nio? aea?
oeueo?ao?ieaoia? oa aeaeeia nioae caoaeaeaiiy, yeei a?aeiia?aeathoue
??ci? eiiiiiaioe nioae ethi?ianoeaioe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei?ii?ithaaiiy
iiaea iaoe i?noea ca a?aenooiino? eaaioiai?ici??ieo e?enoae?o?a.
Iieacaii, ui ?a/iaeie, ?icoaoiaai? ia iiaa?oi? e?aii??aeo e?enoae?o?a
(ieenee oa ienea?ae?eaee), aa?ooue o/anoue o i?ioeanao iiaeeiaiiy
na?oea caoaeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ooai?aiiy oeaio??a
aacaei?ii?ithaaeueii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? (iiaa?oiaa? oeaio?e e?aii??aeo
ieene?a) ? iniiaiith i?e/eiith iaae?iiy ?ioaineaiino? ethi?ianoeaioe??
i?e oa?iiia?iaeao c?ace?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ii?enoee e?aii?e, iiaa?oiy e?enoae?o?a, caoaeaeaiiy
oioiethi?ianoeaioe??, noa??iiy.

Aiiioaoeey

Oiiaieiaa E.TH. ?ieue iiaa?oiinoe a i?ioeannao aicaoaeaeaiey
oioiethieianoeaioeee ii?enoiai e?aiiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.07 — oeceea
oaa?aeiai oaea.- Einoeooo oeceee iieoi?iaiaeieeia IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia auyniaieth ?iee iiaa?oiinoe e?aiieaauo
e?enoaeeeoia a i?ioeannao aicaoaeaeaiey e?aniie iieinu
oioiethieianoeaioeee (OE) ii?enoiai e?aiiey, iieo/aiiiai aiiaeiui
o?aaeaieai. I?iaaaeaiu enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey ?aaeeiia aiiaee?iaaiey, a
oaeaea i?ioeanna noa?aiey e oa?iiia?aaioie ia ethieianoeaioiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee (niaeo?ia OE e aa aicaoaeaeaiey), eiee/anoai oeaio?ia
aacuceo/aoaeueiie ?aeiiaeiaoeee (OeA?), a oaeaea ia no?oeoo?o e
oeie/aneee ninoaa ii?enouo neiaa.

Iieacaii, /oi niaeo?u aicaoaeaeaiey ethieianoeaioeee ninoiyo ec aeaoo
oeueo?aoeieaoiauo (h(1=4,4 yA, h(2=3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ?
3,5yA) e aeaeeiie (h(3=2,8 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,0 yA) iiein,
eaaeaeie ec eioi?uo niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay eiiiiiaioa iieinu
ethieianoeaioeee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi e?aniay iieina OE i?e eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?a iiaeao
iaaethaeaoueny a ia?acoeao, eioi?ua ia niaea?aeao e?enoaeeeou,
iaoneaaeeaathuea eaaioiai?acia?iua yooaeou (eaaioiaua e?enoaeeeou).
Iieacaii, /oi a oaeeo neiyo niaeo?u OE e aa aicaoaeaeaiey, a oaeaea
caeiiiia?iinoe eo o?ainoi?iaoeee iiaeiaiu oai, eioi?ua iaaethaeathony a
ia?acoeao, niaea?aeaueo eaaioiaua e?enoaeeeou, /oi oeacuaaao ia iauoth
i?e?iaeo OE e aa aicaoaeaeaiey a iaieo neo/ayo.

Iieacaii, /oi aeeyiea iiaa?oiinoe e?aiieaauo e?enoaeeeoia ia OE
oa?aeoa?enoeee ii?enouo neiaa ia naiaeeony oieueei e aeeyieth OeA?.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aauanoaa ia iiaa?oiinoe e?aiieaauo e?enoaeeeoia (ieeneu
e ieneaeae?eaeu) ea?atho nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a i?ioeannao iiaeiuaiey e
eceo/aiey naaoa.

Iieacaii, /oi caaeneiinoue niaeo?ia aicaoaeaeaiey OE io ?aaeeiia
aiiaee?iaaiey (niioiioaiey eioaineaiinoae iiein aicaoaeaeaiey), a oaeaea
eo o?ainoi?iaoeey a i?ioeanna noa?aiey (ia aicaeooa e a aaeooia)
iaoneiaeaia eciaiaieai ninoaaa aauanoa ia iiaa?oiinoe e?aiieaauo
e?enoaeeeoia, i?e yoii oaaee/aiea aeeaaea oeueo?aoeieaoiauo iiein (
symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~ 4,4 yA e symbol 126 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ~
3,4 symbol 184 \f «Symbol» \s 14 ? 3,5 yA) a niaeo? aicaoaeaeaiey
ei??aee?oao n oaaee/aieai niaea?aeaiey ieeneia e?aiiey e a?oii II, /oi
i?icaieeei naycaoue eo n i?enoonoaeai ia iiaa?oiinoe e?aiieaauo
e?enoaeeeoia ?acee/iuo ieneaeae?eaeia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?aciaaiea oeaio?ia aacuceo/aoaeueiie ?aeiiaeiaoeee
yaeyaony iniiaiith i?e/eiith iaaeaiey eioaineaiinoe ethieianoeaioeee
oieueei i?e oa?iiia?aaioeao ia?acoeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ii?enoue e?aiiee, iiaa?oiinoue e?enoaeeeoia,
aicaoaeaeaiea oioiethieianoeaioeee, noa?aiea.

Abstract

Khomekova L.Yu. The role of surface in the excitation processes of
porous silicon photoluminescence. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in physics and mathematics by speciality
01.04.07 — physics of solid state.- Institute of Semiconductor Physics
of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to elucidation of the role of silicon crystallite
surface in the excitation of porous silicon red photoluminescence band.
It is shown that two ultraviolet and visible excitation bands which
correspond to different components of luminescence band are present. It
is found that the light emission can be observed in the samples without
quantum confinement silicon crystallites. It is shown that surface
substances (oxides and silicon-based oxyhydrides) take part in
excitation (light absorption) processes. It is found that the main
reason of decrease of photoluminescence intensity during thermal
treatment is appearance of non-radiative recombination center which are
the silicon oxide surface centers.

Key words: porous silicon, silicon crystallite surface,
photoluminescence excitation, aging process.

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