Рефракційні властивості кристалів сульфатів і селенатів в області фазових переходів: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / О.Я. Мищишин, Львів. держ.

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAeE 535.343.2,535.548:537.226.4

IEUEOEI I?ANO ssEIAE*

?AO?AEOe?EI? AEANOEAINO? E?ENOAE?A NOEUeOAO?A ? NAEAIAO?A A IAEANO?
OACIAEO IA?AOIAe?A

01.04.10 — o?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa ae?aeaeo?ee?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

EUeA?A -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?ceee iaoae?a Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaioAIAe???ANUeEEE AIAAeAI A?EOI?IAE*Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a o?ceee iaoae?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IIEIAEIEI
?AI? ?AAIIAE* Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o?ceeeaeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe,IEOeEE AIAAeAI A?EAI?IAE* ?inoeooo eini?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie i.Ee?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo o?ceee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e ?aciiiinieo
yaeu, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 13 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 15aiae. 30oa. ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.09 i?e Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith:

290005, i.Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 50.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (i.Euea?a,
aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 8 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? E.O.AEAAEE?ANUeEEE

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a aeioaia? ?
ooiaeaiaioaeueiei iai?yiii o?ceee, iia’ycaiei c aea/aiiyi i?e?iaee
no?oeoo?ieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a o oaa?aeiio o?e?. C oi/ee ci?o
i?e?ineii?/ieo iaoai?ci?a oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a o e?enoaeao aaaeeeaei ?
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae aeaeo?iiii? i?aenenoaie, yea oi?io? o?i?/iee
ca’ycie i?ae aoiiaie oa aeaeo?ii-oiiiiio aca?iiae?th ? aecia/a? iniiai?
o?ce/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?a. Oi/a a?aeiii, ui aeaeo?iiia i?aenenoaia
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai e?enoaea aaciina?aaeiuei ia aiineoue cia/iiai
aeeaaeo o aaee/eio niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe??, iaeiae naia a?ae ??
iniaeeainoae caeaaeeoue aeieeiaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ianoaa?eueiino? ?
ianooiiee oaciaee ia?ao?ae. ?ao?aeoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?enoae?a
ae?aeaeo?ee?a a iaeano? ?o i?ici?ino?, cie?aia iieacieee caeiieaiiy,
ianooue iniiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?o aeaeo?iiio i?aenenoaio, a
?ioa?oa?aioe?ei? iaoiaee aeathoue ciiao ?a?no?oaaoe oiie? ci?ie i?e
oaciaeo ia?aoiaeao, ui e aecia/eei iai?yi aeine?aeaeaiue o aeai?e
?iaio?.

Ia’?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee e?enoaee o?eae?oeeinoeueoaoo (OAN),
(CH2NH2COOH)3*H2SO4, ? aeeiaoeeaiii?eaethi?i?enoeueoaoo (AeIAAN),
(CH3)2NH2Al(SO4)2*6H2O, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny o?eueee ia?aaeaeo?e/ieie ?
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieie oacaie, oa e?enoaee aiii?y a?ae?inaeaiaoo (AAN),
NH4HSeO4, ? eae?y naeaiaoo (EN), K2SeO4, o yeeo iayai? ua e ianoi??i?
oace. Iacaaaeath/e ia aaea a?aeiiee aii??e/iee iaoa??ae i?i iioe/i? oa
aeaeo?io?ce/i? aeanoeaino? oeeo e?enoae?a, iiaaae?iea ?o aeaeo?iiieo
i?aenenoai a iaeano? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a aeine?aeaeaia ua iaaeinoaoiuei.
Cie?aia, a?aenooi? nenoaiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui a?oioothoueny ia
?aoaeueiiio ii??aiyii? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioe/ieo oa
aeaeo?io?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a oeeo e?enoae?a. O iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo
iioe/ieo aeanoeainoae naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a aaea aeneiaethaaeanue aeoiea i?i
iiaeeea?noue aeaui ??cieo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ia?aiao??a ??cieo
i?aenenoai e?enoaea a iaeano? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. ?icaeoeia? oe??? ?aea?
i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ao?aeoe?eieo aeanoeainoae ia?ae?/aieo aeua
ia’?eo?a o oaiia?aoo?ieo iaeanoyo no?oeoo?ieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a o
aeai?e ?iaio?.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie ooiaeaiaioaeueieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, ye? aaaeooueny a eaai?aoi??? e?enoaeiiioeee eaoaae?e
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea ca i?iaeoii I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie «Aiiiaeueia iioe/ia
ai?cio?ii?y a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oa iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo e?enoaeao» (? ae.?.
0197V018121, oaia Oa-284 A).

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee ii??aiyeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o
oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae (oaiia?aoo?ii? e?oeee) iioe/ieo,
ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ? aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iecee naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo
e?enoae?a a iaeano? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a. Aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe aeiaaaei
ae??oaiiy ianooiieo iniiaieo caaaeaiue:

1.Iiioaae ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ii? onoaiiaee aeey i?aoeec?eieo aei??thaaiue
oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo i?iiai?a ca iieacieeii
caeiieaiiy e?enoaea oa ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?icae?eaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo
caeaaeiinoae iieacieea caeiieaiiy ? oiaueie c?acea.

2.Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? e?iaoeee iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo i?iiai?a
ca iieacieeii caeiieaiiy e?enoae?a a iaeanoyo naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a oa ia?aoiae?a o ianoi??io oaco.

3.Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?iiioe/ieo aeanoeainoae e?enoae?a a oaiia?aoo?i?e
iaeano? naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo.

4.Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? e?iaoeee e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy
naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo e?enoae?a a iaeano? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a iaoiaeii
aenieioi/ii? aeeeaoiiao???.

5.Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? ae?aeaeo?e/ii?
i?iieeiino? e?enoae?a a iaeano? ianoi??ii? oace.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

· cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeay oa ?aae?ciaaia iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ia iaoiaeeea
aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa
aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie i?ici?eo ieineiia?aeaeueieo c?ace?a a iaeiiio
oaiia?aoo?iiio aenia?eiaio?;

· cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeay oa ?aae?ciaaia iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ia iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa
aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie iecueeineiao?e/ieo e?enoae?a ia iniia? aei??thaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo i?iiai?a o ??cieo aaiiao??yo
e?enoaeiiioe/iiai aenia?eiaioo;

· aeyaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?enoe/i? iieacieee noaiaiaaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo
caeaaeiinoae eaaae?aoa niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe??, iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy oa
a?aeiiniiai e?i?eiiai aeaeiaaeaiiy a iaeano? naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a e?enoae?a OAN oa AeIAAN ia ni?aiaaeathoue, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
??ci? oaeaeeino? oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i a?aeiia?aeieo i?ioean?a o oeeo
e?enoaeao;

· iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??ioe eaaae?aoe/iiai aeaeo?iiioe/iiai aoaeoo oa
aeaeo?ino?eeoe?? e?enoae?a OAN ? AeIAAN ciaioothoueny i?e iaaeeaeaii?
aei oaiia?aoo?e On naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo, ui na?ae/eoue
i?i ??ci? oaeaeeino? ci?ie niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? oa i?aenenoai
e?enoaea, ui aecia/athoue oaiia?aoo?io iiaaae?ieo iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy
oa e?i?eiiai aeaeiaaeaiiy;

· ia i?eeeaae? e?enoae?a OAN ? AeIAAN aia?oa iieacaii, ui i?e
oaiia?aoo?? On naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ia? i?noea
a?aeiinia ciaioaiiy na?aaeiueiai ca iiey?ecaoe?yie na?oea iieacieea
caeiieaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiinia iineaaeaiiy aoaeoeaieo o?i?/ieo
ca’yce?a;

· ia i?eeeaae? e?enoae?a OAN ? AeIAAN aia?oa iieacaii, ui i?e
oaiia?aoo?? On naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ia? i?noea
a?aeiinia ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??io?a ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy ?
e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i a?aeiinio aii?o?caoe?th
e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e;

· aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?enoe/io ia??iaee/i?noue oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino?
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? e?enoaea AAN a iaeano? ianoi??ii? oace, yea
na?ae/eoue i?i neaaeino?eaeiiiae?aio (eaac?iaia?a?aio) oaiia?aoo?io
caeaaei?noue oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?a e?enoaea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa?:

· o ?ic?iaoe? iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ii? iaoiaeeee aei??thaaiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie i?ici?eo
ieineiia?aeaeueieo c?ace?a a iaeiiio aenia?eiaio?;

· o ?ic?iaoe? iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ii? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy
oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie
iecueeineiao?e/ieo e?enoae?a ia iniia? aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i
iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo i?iiai?a;

· a iaa?oiooaaii? aeniiaeo i?i iiaeeea?noue ??cieo iieaciee?a noaiaiaaeo
oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo ia?aiao??a ??cieo i?aenenoai
e?enoaea i?e naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiio oaciaiio ia?aoiae? 2-ai ?iaeo;

· o aaaaeaii? eiao?oe??io?a ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy ? e?i?eiiai
oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy e?enoaea oa aeei?enoaii? ?o aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
no?oeoo?ieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a;

· o canoinoaaii? ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae
ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? e(O) aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaaae?iee
oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?a e?enoaea o ianoi??i?e oac?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iinoaiiaea caaea/?, c’ynoaaiiy iai?yi?a
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
aeeiiai? ?acii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii, i?ioani?ii eaoaae?e
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
?aaia O?aiea, aeieoi?ii o?c.-iao. iaoe A.A.Aiae???anueeei. A iaaiai?aii?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue a?aa o/anoue i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aenia?eiaioaeueii? o?ceee oeueiai ae aoco, aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe
I.I.?iiaithe. O i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caeiaoaa/
c?a?aa ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/io onoaiiaeo aeey aei??thaaiiy ?iaeoeiaaieo ci?i
iioe/ieo ??cieoeue oiaeo ca iieacieeii caeiieaiiy, i?aeaiooaaa e?enoaee
aeey aeine?aeaeaiue, iaea?aeaa aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeiiaa ?o
eiii’thoa?io ia?iaeo, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th oa c?iaea aeniiaee. O ioae?eaoe?yo
?c ni?aaaoi?aie aianie caeiaoaa/a aea?aaeaioiee a?aeiia?aei?e /anooe?
a?ae e?eueeino? aaoi??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia:

· ? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiio neiiic?oi? c o?ceee naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a ?
nii??aeiaieo iaoa??ae?a (Eoaeiaa Cae?oe, Iieueua, 1996 ?.);

· ?V oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiio neiiic?oi? c o?ceee naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a ?
nii??aeiaieo iaoa??ae?a (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, Oe?a?ia, 1998 ?.);

· iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? ?c noaoenoe/ii? oai??? eiiaeainiaaieo nenoai
(Euea?a, 1997 ?.);

· ?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? Caea?iaonueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy
oiiaeo i?ae?eiee iaoee (Oaeai?iae, 1998 ?.);

· nai?ia?? INTAS-UKRAINE c o?ceee eiiaeainiaaieo neneoai (Euea?a, 1998
?.);

· ia?o?e oe?a?inuee?e oeie?-nai?ia?? c o?ceee naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a oa
nii??aeiaieo iaoa??ae?a (Euea?a, 1999 ?.);

· ui??/ieo ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo EAeO
?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (Euea?a, 1996-1999 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 15 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, na?aae yeeo 7 noaoae o i?io?eueieo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? 8 oac
aeiiia?aeae o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, /ioe?ueio iniiaieo ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae. ?iaioa i?noeoue 148 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, 68 ?enoie?a,
10 oaaeeoeue oa ia?ae?e e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?c 141 iaeiaioaaiiy.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 156 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ei?ioeee aeeeaae oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iieno
no?oeoo?ieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a 1-ai oa 2-ai ?iae?a o e?enoaeao, a oiio
/ene? c ianoi??iith oacith, oa e?oa?aoo?iee iaeyae o?ce/ieo aeanoeainoae
ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aaenoaaeaii aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?io iiaaae?ieo i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?
o?ce/ieo ia?aiao??a e?enoaea OAN, ye i?aaenoaaieea aeanieo
naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a, oa e?enoaea EN, ye naaiaoiaeaeo?eea c ianoi??iith
oacith. Cie?aia, i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue niiioaiii?
iiey?ecaoe?? Ps, ye ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo h a e?enoae? OAN. Iieacaii, ui a
ia?oeo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo [1], aea aeyaeaii caeaaei?noue
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oeio h ~ (Tc — T)b, b ” 0,5, oai??y
Eaiaeao aeia?a i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeany. Iaeiae, o iiaeaeueoeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?iaioao [2] noaiaiaaee iieaciee b aeyaeany iaioei
i?ae 0,5 (0,38), ui noia?a/eei oa?iiaeeiai?/i?e oai??? ? na?ae/eei i?i
iae?i?ei?noue oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? eaaae?aoa niiioaiii?
iiey?ecaoe?? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, iniaeeai a?ae/ooio a iaeano? oaciaiai
ia?aoiaeo. Oe? noia?a/eea? e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?io iiaaae?ieo
ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo, yeee aecia/a? ci?io ?ao?aeoe?eieo ? aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoaea OAN, niiioeaee i?iaanoe o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
a?aeiia?aei? oaiia?aoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iioeei-?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo oa
aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Aeiaeaoeiaith i?e/eiith aeai?o e?enoae?a OAN ye ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaea iecea a?aeiieo c e?oa?aoo?e oaiia?aoo?ii-?ao?aeoiiao?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?c iaicia/aiith aeeeaoiiao?e/iith neeaaeiaith.

A?aecia/aii, ui aeey e?enoae?a EN ?c ianoi??iith oacith a?aenooi?
e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue iieacieea caeiieaiiy
n(T), a ?acoeueoaoe oaiia?aoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaii?iiaiacaeiieaiiy
Dn(T) iaiaeiicia/i?, cie?aia c oi/ee ci?o oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai noaiaiaaiai
iieacieea b.

Aeey ?ioeo aeaio ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, e?enoae?a AeIAAN oa AAN,
oaeiae a?aenooi? aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? iieaciee?a
caeiieaiiy n(T), oi/a a?aeiia?aei? aei??thaaiiy aeaii?iiaiacaeiieaiiy
Dn(T) i?iaiaeeeeny, iaeiae aac /?oeiai ?icae?eaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii
aei??thaaii? iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo D = Dn*l ia ?ao?aeoe?eio (Dn) ?
aeeeaoiiao?e/io (l) /anoeie oa aac aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?enoe/iiai
iieacieea b a?aeiia?aeieo noaiaiaaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae.

A?aei?/aii, ui aeey on?o ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
a?aenooi? ocaaaeueiaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?ao?aeoiiao?e/ieo
aeanoeainoae e?enoae?a uiaei iiaaae?iee a?aeiia?aeieo aeaeo?iiieo
i?aenenoai a iaeano? ia?aoiae?a o naaiaoiaeaeo?e/io oa ianoi??io oace.
Aeaoaeueii ia aeine?aeaeai? oaeiae iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?ieo
caeaaeiinoae neeaaeiaeo eiiieaenii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? e?enoae?a
AAN o ianoi??i?e oac?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a o e?enoaeao, ye? canoiniaoaaeeny a ?iaio?.

Aeaoaeueii i?aaenoaaeai? i?ea?iaeuei? iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/i?
iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioe/ieo oa
aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a e?enoae?a. A ?iaio? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii
aea? iaoiaeeee iaea?aeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae a?aeiinieo ci?i
iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy dn/(n — 1) oa oiaueie dl/l i?ici?eo
ieineiia?aeaeueieo c?ace?a ia iniia? ?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue
a?aeiia?aeieo a?aeiinieo ci?i iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo i?iiai?a dD/D.
Iaoiaeeee ?aae?ciaai? ia iiaeeo?eiaaiiio ?ioa?oa?iiao?? oeio AEaiaia.

C aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo iaoiaeee aeine?aeaeoaaeeny c?acee
ii??aiyii aaeeeeo ?ici???a o iai?yi? i?ina?/oaaiiy (aei 14 ii), ui aeaei
ciiao caaacia/eoe a?aeiinio oi/i?noue aei??thaaiiy oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo
aaee/ei dD/D, dn/(n — 1) oa dl/l ia ??ai? 10-4.

Iaoiaeeea iaeii/aniiai aecia/aiiy a?aeiinieo oaiaia?aoo?ieo ci?i dn/(n
— 1) oa dl/l aaco?oueny ia aei??thaaii? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae
a?aeiinieo ci?i dD/D aeey aeaio ?ioa?oa?aioe?eieo iie?a. Iaeia oaea iiea
oi?io?oueny aeaiia ?ioa?oa?oth/eie i?iiaiyie, iaeei c yeeo i?ioiaeeoue
/a?ac e?enoae, a ?ioee — ?aeaioe/iei oeyoii iica e?enoaeii. O oae?e
aaiiao??? aenia?eiaioo oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo dD1
aecia/athoueny ca ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

dD1 = d(l* (n — 1)) , (1)

aea l — oiaueia e?enoaea o iai?yi? i?ioiaeaeaiiy i?iiaiy, n — iieaciee
caeiieaiiy aeey a?aeiia?aeii? iiey?ecaoe?? i?iiaiy. ?ioa
?ioa?oa?aioe?eia iiea ooai?th?oueny ia iniia? aeaio i?iiai?a, iaeei c
yeeo a?aeaeany a?ae o?iioaeueii? a?ai? e?enoaea, a ?ioee — a?ae
oeeueii?. Ci?ia iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo oeeo i?iiai?a aecia/a?oueny ca
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi

dD2 = d(2l* n) . (2)

Ia iniia? ni?aa?aeiioaiue (1) oa (2) iaea?aeo?ii ae?ace aeey
a?aeiia?aeieo oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i oiaueie c?acea ? iieacieea caeiieaiiy:

dl = (dD2 — 2D1)/2, (3)

dn = (dD2 — 2n* dl)/2l . (4)

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aea? ciiao aecia/aoe iaeii/anii oaiia?aoo?i?
caeaaeiino? iieacieea caeiieaiiy ? oiaueie ieineiia?aeaeueiiai c?acea.

Ae?oaa iaoiaeeea iaea?aeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iieacieea
caeiieaiiy oa oiaueie c?ace?a aaco?oueny o?eueee ia aeine?aeaeaii?
?ioa?oa?aioe?eiiai iiey, ooai?aiiai aeaiia ?ioa?oa?oth/eie i?iiaiyie,
iaeei c yeeo i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac e?enoae, a ?ioee — ?aeaioe/iei
aaiiao?e/iei oeyoii iica e?enoaeii. Oey iaoiaeeea canoiniao?oueny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iecueeineiao?e/ieo e?enoae?a. Iine?aeiaii i?ina?/oth/e
e?enoae e?i?eii-iiey?eciaaiei na?oeii o o?ueio aca?iiiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo
e?enoaeio?ce/ieo iai?yiao, aeey eiaeiiai c ieo o aeaio
aca?iiiia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo iai?yiao iiey?ecaoe?? na?oea, oa aei??thth/e
a?aeiia?aei? oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo dDij/Dij, iiaeia
aecia/eoe oaiia?aoo?i? ci?ie eiai ?ici???a dli/li oa iieaciee?a
caeiieaiiy dnj/(nj — 1), ?ica’ycaaoe nenoaio oanoe e?i?eieo ??aiyiue ?c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a:

wmetafile8? ??U??????????? ??????? Va???

????Va??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay«y@k ???&? ?MathType??P
???u?????????»????-?????1/2@????1/2Q???1/2???1/2?
???1/2u ???1/2-???u@th?????? Ie?aiei i?ae?icae?eii a ?iaio?
iiaeaii iien iaoiaeeee aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae e?i?eieo
?ici???a c?ace?a oa iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o oaiia?aoo?ii? ?
/anoioii? caeaaeiinoae eiiieaenii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a o naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo e?enoaeao OAN oa AeIAAN ? i?iaaaeaii
ii??aiyiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?o ?ao?aeoe?eieo ?
aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee a ?aeii? a?aeiia?aeieo oaciaeo
ia?aoiae?a.

Ia iniia? i?aaenoaaeaiiy niiioaiieo oaiia?aoo?ieo i?e?ino?a oiaueie
dls/l oa iieacieea caeiieaiiy dns/(n — 1) a iaeano? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo
OAN (T < Tc) ye iane?aeeo aeaeo?ino?eeoe?? oa eaaae?aoe/iiai aeaeo?iiioe/iiai aoaeoo, dls/l ~ Ps2 ~ (Tn - T)2b , (6) dns/(n - 1) ~ Ps2 ~ (Tn - T)2b , (7) aia?oa ?ic?aoiaai? a?aeiia?aei? noaiaiaa? iieacieee 2b, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaeaee?noue oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i a?aeiia?aeieo ia?aiao??a e?enoaea i?e a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e Tn a naaiaoiaeaeo?e/i?e oac?. Oe? cia/aiiy 2b, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?enoae a ?ioa?aae? 49-39 °N, aeyaeeeny a?aei?iieie a?ae iaeeieoe? ? a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith a iaaeao (0,87-0,95) (aeea. oaaeeoeth 1) (ca aeaieie ia?oeo aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? Ps ~ (Tn - T)b [1] e?eoe/iee ?iaeaen aei??aithaaa b = 0,5 c oi/i?noth aei 10-2). O a a e e oe y 1 Noaiaiaa? iieacieee 2b, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? niiioaiieo i?e?ino?a dDs/D, dls/l oa dns/(n - 1) aeey ??cieo e?enoaeio?ce/ieo iai?yi?a OAN 2b12(D)2b13(D)2b21(D)2b23(D)2b31(D)2b32(D)0,900,900,890,890,950,922b1(l) 2b2(l)2b3(l)2b1(n)2b2(n)2b3(n)0,910,900,920,880,930,88 A ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? i?e?ino?a iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo a e?enoae? OAN, ?iaeoeiaaieo aeaeo?e/iei iieai iai?oaeai?noth 3,5 eA/ni. C'yniaaii, ui a oe?ie?e iaeano? iaaeiei oaiia?aoo?e Tc naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo a e?enoae? OAN aeaeo?iiioe/i? eiao?oe??ioe, eiao?oe??ioe iaa?iaiiai i'?ciaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo oa aeaeo?ino?eeoe??, ?ic?aoiaai? ia iino?eia cia/aiiy aaeoi?a aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaeoeoe?? a e?enoae?, ia caeaaeaoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. O ii??aiyii aocuee?e iaeano? Tc ± 2 E niinoa??aa?oueny aiiiaeueia ciaioaiiy oeeo eiao?oe??io?a ? aeinyaiaiiy ?o i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?? Tc. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy o OAN aeineoue aaeeei? oaiia?aoo?ii? iaeano? (Tc ± 2 E) nooo?aeo i?iya?a iae?i?eieo aeanoeainoae e?enoaea uiaei aieeao ciai?oi?o o?ce/ieo iie?a. A ?iaio? aaaaeaiee e?euee?niee eiao?oe??io An-1 aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee nooiaiy ai?cio?ii?? ci?iii? /anoeie iieacieea caeiieaiiy e?enoaea, (n - 1), yeee a?aeia?aaea? ai?cio?ii?th eiai aeaeo?iiii? i?aenenoaie: wmetafile8? ????????????? ??????? thv??? ????thv??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? @`??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay!y a ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????_?±????±???_?e????e???y ‰???y???u?th??????Ooo ?iaeaene i oa j ci?iththoueny ca oeeee?/iei i?aaeeii: i = 1®2®3; j = 2®3®1. Eiao?oe??io An-1 aei??aith? ioeaa? o aeiaaeeo ?cio?iiieo iaoa??ae?a oa aenieineiao?e/ieo e?enoae?a eoa?/ii? neiaii??. ?ic?aoiaaia ca oi?ioeith (8) oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue ai?cio?ii?? An-1(O) iieacieea caeiieaiiy e?enoaea OAN oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iniaeea?noth i?e oaiia?aoo?? Tc o aeaeyae? oaiaeaioe?? aei i?i?ioia (i?i?ioia iio?aeii? dAn-1/dT). Oeth caeaaei?noue iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ye iaeeaaeaiiy aeaio oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae. Iaeia c ieo, iiiioiiia, iiaea aooe iia'ycaia c iiiioiiiith ci?iith ia?aiao??a e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee aac aiiiae?? i?e On, a ae?oaa, c i?i?ioiii i?e On, a?aeia?aaea? aeno?aioiiiiae?aio ci?io aeanoeainoae e?enoaea i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?. Iii?oia ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ai?cio?ii?? An-1 a ?aeii? Tc na?ae/eoue i?i aeno?aioiiiiae?aia iaaeeaeaiiy nenoaie o?i?/ieo ca'yce?a e?enoaea aei ?cio?iiiiai noaio ? iiaea aooe ?ioa?i?aoiaaii ye a?aeiinia aii?o?caoe?y e?enoaea i?e eiai iaaeeaeaii? aei oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. Aiaeia?/iee eiao?oe??io Aa aaaaeaiee aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee nooiaiy ai?cio?ii?? eiao?oe??ioa oa?i?/iiai e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy e?enoaea: wmetafile8? ??r??????????? ??????? Ux??? ????Ux??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????   ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay1/4ya Ue ???&? ?MathType??? ???u?????????"????-?????D?G???¤G???D?x ???¤x ???d???*???di???*i???†???w†???® ???w® ???Ye???YY ???u?th??????I?e oaiia?aoo?? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tc niinoa??aa?oueny i?i?ioi ia caeaaeiino? Aa(T), iiae?aii aei oaiaeaioe?? i?i?ioia ia aiaeia?/i?e caeaaeiino? An-1(O) , yeee oaeiae iiaeia iia'ycoaaoe c a?aeiiniith aiio?caoe??th e?enoaea i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo aei??thaaiue oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae niiioaiiiai aeaeiaaeaiiy dlsi/li (i = 1,2,3) e?enoaea AeIAAN a iaeano? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo (On ” 147 E) cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai noaiaiaaiai iieacieea 2b2(l) aeey (Tc - T) F 0,1 E aei??aith? iaeeieoe?, 2b2(l) = 1,0, ui a?aeiia?aea? e?i?ei?e caeaaeiino? dl2s/l2 a?ae (Tc - T). Iaeiae, a ?ioa?aae? (Tc - T) F 4 E aaee/eia 2b2(l) ciaioo?oueny c? ca?eueoaiiyi (Tc - T) ? aeey (Tc - T) = 4 E 2b2(l) = 0,5. Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? Ps(T) e?enoae?a AeIAAN [2] ? io?eiai? iaie oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? a?aeiinieo aeaeiaaeaiue dlsi/li(T), ie ia/eneeee oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a aeaeo?ino?eeoe?? g?(T), ?ic?aoiaai? ia iino?eia cia/aiiy aaeoi?a niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? a e?enoae?, ? aeyaeee ?o ciaioaiiy i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tn. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eaaae?ao niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? Ps2, ye ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo, iiaeeco oaiia?aoo?e Tn c?inoa? oaeaeoa, i?ae a?aeiinia aeaeiaaeaiiy dlsi/l?. I?e a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tn oaeaeeino? ci?ie dls1/l1 oa Ps2 iaaeeaeathoueny iaeia aei iaeii?. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa ai?cio?ii?? An-1 aeey e?enoaea AeIAAN oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeeaieei i?i?ioiii i?e oaiia?aoo?? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tc. Iiae?aii aei e?enoaea OAN oaea ciaioaiiy oeueiai eiao?oe??ioa iiaea ni?e/eiyoeny a?aeiiniith aii?o?caoe??th e?enoaea AeIAAN i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. Aeey e?enoaea AeIAAN oaea aii?o?caoe?y, i/aaeaeii, i?iyaey?oueny cia/ii neeuei?oa, i?ae aeey e?enoaea OAN. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiyniaiiy i?i?ioia ia oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??ioa An-1 e?enoaea AeIAAN ca ?aooiie a?aeiinii? aii?o?caoe?? e?enoaea ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iiyniaiiyi i?i?ioia ia a?aeiia?aei?e oaiia?aoo?i?e caeaaeiino? na?aaeiueiai iieacieea caeiieaiiy oeueiai e?enoaea ca ?aooiie iineaaeaiiy a oe?eiio o?i?/ieo ca'yce?a. Iiae?aii aei aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a e?enoaea OAN, aeey aiae?co oaiia?aoo?ii? e?iaoeee ai?cio?ii?? eiao?oe??ioa e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy a e?enoae?a AeIAAN aeei?enoaii eiao?oe??io Aa. Aeyaeaii, ui ai?cio?ii?y oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy AeIAAN oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaaaaoi a?eueoei ia?aiao?ii Aa, i?ae ia?aiao? An-1 ai?cio?ii?? ci?iii? /anoeie iieacieea caeiieaiiy. Iiae?aii aei e?enoae?a OAN, o e?enoae? AeIAAN i?e oaiia?aoo?? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tc oaae niinoa??aa?oueny i?i?ioi ia caeaaeiino? Aa(T), yeee ocaiaeaeo?oueny c i?i?ioiii ia aiaeia?/i?e caeaaeiino? ia?aiao?a ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy An-1(O). I/aaeaeii, ui i?i?ioi caeaaeiino? Aa(T) iiaeia oaeiae iia'ycoaaoe c a?aeiiniith aiio?caoe??th e?enoaea AeIAAN i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo e?enoae?a c ianoi??iith oacith, EN oa AAN, cie?aia, oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? ?o ?ao?aeoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee o ?aeii? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a o ianoi??io (O?) oa naaiaoiaeaeo?e/io (On) oace. Aeine?aeaeaiiy e?enoaea EN iieacaee, ui naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iee oaciaee ia?ao?ae i?e Oc = 93 E iaeaea ia aeyaey?oueny ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo D = l*(n - 1). Iaeiae, ia?ao?ae ianoi??ia-ia?aaeaeo?e/ia oaca a iaeano? Oi = 130 E aeyaey?oueny o aeaeyae?, oa?aeoa?iiio aeey iaia?a?aieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a 2-ai ?iaeo. Oaeo iiaaae?iea iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo (a oaeiae iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie) iiaeia iiynieoe oae. O ?ie? aoi?eiiiai ia?aiao?a ii?yaeeo i?e ia?aoiae? ianoi??ia - naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ia oaca o e?enoae? EN c'yaey?oueny iaeii??aeia niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y o O-iai?yi?. I?e?ineii?/ia niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y ?nio? oaeiae ? o ianoi??i?e oac?, aea o aeaeyae? oaee?, yea noi?iaiaeaeo? oaeeth ci?uaiiy. I?e oeueiio noia?ia niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y iae?ineii?/iiai c?acea aei??aith? ioeaa?. Aiiiae?? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo, iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aeaeiaaeaiiy, ui aeieeathoue i?e oaiia?aoo?? O? ia?aoiaeo c ia?aaeaeo?e/ii? o ianoi??io oaco, ni?e/eiai? iiyaith naia niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? ia i?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai?. Ine?eueee, i?e oaiia?aoo?? On ia?aoiaeo o naaiaoiaeaeo?e/io oaco e?enoaea EN i?e?ineii?/ia niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y ca aaniethoiith aaee/eiith nooo?ai ia ci?ith?oueny, oi aiiiae?? iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo, iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aeaeiaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aathoueny. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue e?enoaea AAN aeyaeaii, ui oa?aeoa? ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy ei?aeth? c iniaeeainoyie eiai e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae. Cie?aia a?aeiii, ui iniiao no?oeoo?e e?enoaea noaiiaeyoue ?cieueiaai? oao?aaae?e SeO4, coeo? aiaeiaaeie ca'yceaie a eaioethaeee acaeiaae b-in?. Oeueiio iai?yio a?aeiia?aeathoue iaeei?ioo? a?aenoai? Se-Se. Aiii?ei? ?iie ca'ycothoue eaioethaeee a iai?yi? inae a oa n. Neeuei?oee ca'ycie acaeiaae a-in? (a?aenoaiue Se-Se a oeueiio iai?yi? iaioa, i?ae o iai?yi? acaeiaae n-in?), i/aaeaeii, ni?e/eiaiee a?aeiia?aeiei ?ici?uaiiyi aoii?a aiaeith NH4-a?oie, yea aea? ciiao aeae?eeoe a no?oeoo?? oa?e, ia?aeaeuei? aei ieiueie (001) (ieiueia neiethaaiino?). Ioaea, iaea?eueoee iieaciee caeiieaiiy nb a?aeiia?aea? iaeei?ioo?e a?aenoai? Se-Se, a iaeiaioee nc - iaeneaae?oei o?i?/iei ca'yceai o iai?yi?, ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio aei ieiueie neiethaaiino?. Aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo ca aeaii?iiaiacaeiieaiiyi DDn = Dn·l oa iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo ca ci?iiith /anoeiith iieacieea caeiieaiiy Dn-1 = (n - 1)·l ia aeyaeee iii?oieo aiiiae?e a iaeanoyo a?aeiieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a i?e Tc = 250 K oa Ti = 262 K. Aiae?c oa?i?/iiai e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy AAN oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui oe? aiiiae?? iano?eueee neaae?, ui ?o aaaeei iii?oeoe ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo dD/D. Iaai? iniaeeaino?, iia'ycai? c oeei oaciaei ia?aoiaeii, aeyaeaii ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo iio?aeii? d/dT(dD/D), yea ia? iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy a ?aeii? O? = 262 E oa ceai i?e oaiia?aoo?? On = 250 E. A?aenooi?noue aiiiae?e o?ce/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?enoaea AAN i?e On oeio oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo 1-ai ?iaeo iiynith?oueny, ye ? a e?enoae? EN, a?aenooi?noth aiiiae?? i?e?ineii?/ii? niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe??. I?e oaiia?aoo?? Ti = 262 K oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo 2-ai ?iaeo AAN ia aeyaeaii oa?aeoa?iiai ceaio oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo D(T) ? no?eaea oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? a?aeiia?aeii? iio?aeii? d/dT(D(T)). Iaea?aeaiee ?acoeueoao ocaiaeaeo?oueny c ii??aiyii neaaeith oa?aeoa?iith aiiiae??th oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy i?e Ti ? na?ae/eoue i?i ii??aiyii iae? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a eaaae?aoe/iiai aeaeo?iiioe/iiai aoaeoo oa aeaeo?ino?eeoe?? e?enoaea AAN. O ii??aiyii? c e?enoaeii EN oe? eiao?oe??ioe aeey AAN iaio? ia iaeei ii?yaeie aaee/eie. Aeey iiai?oiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ianoi??ii? oace e?enoaea AAN a ?iaio? aei??yii eiai oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? ae?enii? oa oyaii? /anoei ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? e'(T) oa e''(T) ia o?eaeoeyoe ??cieo /anoioao a iaeano? 200 Aoe - 1 IAoe. Oe?eaaith iniaeea?noth oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae e'(T) oa e''(T) ia /anoio? 1 IAoe ? ?o ia??iaee/iiiiae?aia iiaaae?iea a iaeano? oaiia?aoo? 265-255 E.Ia ia?oee iiaeyae, i?eaaaeeaei iiyniaiiyi oeueiai iiaea a aooe a?aeiia o o?ceoe? ianoi??ieo oac iiaeoeueiaaia nie?oiiia iaaea?aoea. Iaeiae, aeaoaeuei?oee aiae?c iieacaa, ui oaiia?aoo?i? iieiaeaiiy oeeo aeno?aioi?a ci?iththoueny c? ci?iith /anoioe aei??thaaeueiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ?aciiainiee oa?aeoa? niinoa?aaeoaaii? ia??iaee/ii? no?oeoo?e, yeo iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye i?iya iine?aeiaiino? ?aciiain?a i?e ooai?aii? noiy/eo oaeeue acaeiaae oiaueie c?acea l caaaeyee oaeaee?e oaiia?aoo?i?e ci?i? iiaeoey i?oaeii? aei?noeino? N e?enoaea o ianoi??i?e oac?. Aeaoaeueiee aiae?c iieacaa, ui ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo e'(O) aeey ??cieo /anoio f iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?ioo eaac?ia??iaee/io no?oeoo?o, yea noa? iii?oiith i?ney ?o iiaea?eiiai aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy, (d2(e')/dT2)/e'. Iieiaeaiiy aeno?aioi?a ooieoe?? -(d2(e')/dT2)/e' i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeaoue a?ae /anoioe ciai?oiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. Iienai? iniaeeaino? eaac?ia??iaee/ii? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? -(d2(e')/dT2)/e' e?enoaea AAN ocaiaeaeothoueny c oa?aeoa?ieie i?iyaaie iiaeoeueiaaii? nie?oiiii? iaaea?aoee, ye? iaee i?noea a ?ioeo e?enoaeao c ianoi??iith oacith. Ae?aiacii (O? - On) i?inoaaeoaaii? iaie ianoi??ii? oace iiaeia o ca'yceo c oeei ?icae?eeoe ia i?eaeecii ??ai?, aocuee? iaeano? noi??ieo oac, ?icae?eaieo aeania ianoi??ieie noaoacaie. Ia??iae oaei? no?oeoo?e i?eaeecii aei??aith? 0,4 E. Ia?aoiaee i?ae oaeeie aocueeeie noaoacaie noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ii??aiyii neaaeeie aiiiae?yie ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? e'(O), ye? aeyaeythoueny ia oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoyo ae?oai? iio?aeii? d2/dT2(e'(O)). I/aaeaeii, ui aaee/eie a?aeiia?aeieo iaeneioi?a oe??? ae??aii? no?oeoo?e e'(O) (aai Y1(O) = - d2(e'b)/dT2/(e'b)) i?iii?oe?ei? aei ci?i oaeeueiaiai aaeoi?a dk e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee i?e ia?aoiaeao i?ae noaoacaie, ye?, ii noo?, coiiaeththoue oe? iaeneioie. C oaeiai i?eiouaiiy aeieeaa?, ui oaeeueiaee aaeoi? ianoi??ii? oace e?enoaea AAN ci?ith?oueny eaac?iaia?a?aii. Oeae aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie ?aioaaiino?oeoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ianoi??ii? oace oeueiai e?enoaea [3]. Oeeoiaai? e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea [1] J. A. Gonzalo // Phys. Rev.- 1966.- V. 144.- P. 662. [2] R. Cach, S. Dacko, and Z. Czapla // Phys. Stat. Sol. -1989. -V. 116.- P. 827. [3] F. Denoyer, A. Rozycki, K. Parlinski, and M. More // Phys. Rev. B- 1989.-V. 39.- P. 405. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee A ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii iia? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa??i?e?a oa c'yniaaii, ui a e?enoaeao OAN, AeIAAN, EN ? AAN ia? i?noea iecea iiaeo i?iya?a naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a 2-ai ?iaeo oa ianoi??ieo oac: 1.?aae?ciaaii iaoiaeeee aeae?eaiiy c aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ieo ??cieoeue oiaeo i?iiai?a a?aeiia?aeieo caeaaeiinoae iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aaiiao?e/ii? oiaueie i?ici?eo ieineiia?aeaeueieo c?ace?a. ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee na?ae/aoue i?i iaia'yceia?noue o?aooaaiiy oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy e?enoae?a aeey ei?aeoiiai aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy oa//e aeaii?iiaiacaeiieaiiy ca aeaieie a?aeiia?aeieo iioeei-?ioa?oa?iiao?e/ieo ??cieoeue oiaeo. 2.A oe?ie?e iaeano? iaaeiei oaiia?aoo?e naaiaoiaeaeo?e/iiai oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo a e?enoae? OAN (Tc ± 15 E) ca aeiyoeii iaeano? Tc ± 2 E, aeaeo?iiioe/i? eiao?oe??ioe, eiao?oe??ioe iaa?iaiiai i'?ciaeaeo?e/iiai aoaeoo oa aeaeo?ino?eeoe??, ?ic?aoiaai? ia iino?eia cia/aiiy aaeoi?a aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaeoeoe?? a e?enoae?, ia caeaaeaoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e. I?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oaiia?aoo?e Tc a iaeano? Tc ± 2 E niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy oeeo eiao?oe??io?a ? aeinyaiaiiy i?i?iaeueiiai ?o cia/aiiy i?e Tc. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiia?aeia iineaaeaiiy ca'yceo i?ae ie?aieie nenoaiaie /anoeiie e?enoaea, ye? oi?iothoue ie?aii aeaeo?e/io iiey?ecaoe?th, iieaciee caeiieaiiy oa eiai e?i?ei? ?ici??e. 3.I?i?ioi oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? na?aaeiueiai ca e?enoaeio?ce/ieie iai?yiaie iieacieea caeiieaiiy dn/(n - 1) e?enoaea OAN i?e On oa a?aeiiniee iaeneioi eiao?oe??ioa ia'?iiiai oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy a(On) na?ae/eoue i?i iineaaeaiiy o?i?/ieo ca'yce?a iiaeeco oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. Oa?aeoa?enoe/iee i?i?ioi oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae eiao?oe??io?a ai?cio?ii?? An-1(On) oa Aa(On) iiaea ni?e/eiyoeny a?aeiiniith aii?o?caoe??th e?enoaea OAN iiaeeco oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. 4.Eiao?oe??ioe aeaeo?ino?eeoe?? g (dlsi/li = g*Ps2) e?enoaea AeIAAN ca?eueoothoueny i?e a?aeaeaeaii? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo Tc o naaiaoiaeaeo?e/i?e oac?. Ca?eueoaiiy oeeo eiao?oe??io?a na?ae/eoue i?i "a?aenoaaaiiy" oaiia?aoo?ii? e?iaoeee ?icoe?aiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo?ii? e?iaoeee niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? e?enoaea. Inoaii? aeyaey?oueny o oiio, ui iieaciee noaiaiaai? oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? eaaae?aoa niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? 2b(Ps) iaioee, i?ae iieaciee a?aeiia?aeii? caeaaeiino? a?aeiiniiai oa?i?/iiai aeaeiaaeaiiy 2b(l). 5.Ae?aciee i?i?ioi oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? a?aeiinieo ci?i na?aaeiueiai iieacieea caeiieaiiy dn/(n - 1) = S(dni/(ni - 1))/3 i?e Tc iia'yco?oueny c iineaaeaiiyi a oe?eiio o?i?/ieo ca'yce?a o e?enoae? AeIAAN i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?. Ae?aci? i?i?ioie oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae i?e Tc eiao?oe??io?a ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy An-1 oa oa?i?/iiai e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy Aa, iia'ycai? c a?aeiiniith aii?o?caoe??th e?enoaea AeIAAN i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. A?eueoa ae?aci?noue oeeo i?i?ioi?a o e?enoae? AeIAAN, i?ae o e?enoae? OAN, iiynith?oueny a?eueoith iaaeeaeai?noth e?enoaea AeIAAN aei o?ee?eoe/ii? oi/ee, i?ae e?enoaea OAN. 6.Aiiiae?? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae iioe/ii? ??cieoe? oiaeo, iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa aeaeiaaeaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?ao O? ia?aoiaeo c ia?aaeaeo?e/ii? o ianoi??io oaco e?enoae?a EN oa AAN ni?e/eiai? iiyaith i?e?ineii?/ii iiaeoeueiaaii? niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? i?e O < O? (iae?ineii?/ia niiioaiia iiey?ecaoe?y a iaeano? O? - On aei??aith? ioeaa?). A?aenooi?noue aiiiae?e oeeo aaee/ei i?e On ni?e/eiaia a?aenooi?noth cia/ieo ci?i i?e?ineii?/ii? niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe??. 7.Ia iniia? i?aoeec?eieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue aia?oa ca?a?no?iaaii neaaeo ia??iaee/iiiiae?aio oaiia?aoo?io caeaaei?noue ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeiino? a iaeano? ianoi??ii? oace e?enoaea AAN, oa?aeoa?io aeey i?iya?a iiaeoeueiaaii? nie?oiiii? iaaea?aoee. C aiae?co oe??? caeaaeiino? aeieeaa?, ui oaeeueiaee aaeoi? e?enoaea AAN o ianoi??i?e oac? ci?ith?oueny c oaiia?aoo?ith iaeaea iiiioiiii. NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?? 1.A.A.Aiae???anueeee, I.I.?iiaithe, I.ss.Ieueoei. I?i aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo ci?i oiaueie ? iieacieea caeiieaiiy iaoa??aeo a iioeei-o?ce/iiio aenia?eiaio? // A?niee EAeO, na??y o?ce/ia.- 1995.- ? 27.- N. 130-134. 2.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn, M.Romanyuk. Interferometric investigation of phase transition in TGS crystal // Physica Status Solidi (b).- 1997.- V. 203, No 2.- P. 549-555. 3.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn. Optical and dilatometric manifestation of phase transitions in K2SeO4 crystal // Acta Physica Polonica A.- 1997.- V. 92, No 3.- P. 557-562. 4.A.Aiae???anueeee, I.Ieueoei, I.?iiaithe, A.Eo?eye. Iioe/i? aeanoeaino? e?enoaea OAN a iaeano? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo // Oe?a?inueeee o?ce/iee aeo?iae.- 1997.- O. 42, ? 11.- N. 1393-1397. 5.B.Andriyevsky, Z.Czapla, O.Myshchyshyn. Optical properties and phase transitions in NH4HSeO4 crystals // Physica Status Solidi (a).- 1998.- V. 165, No 2.- P. 495-502. 6.A.A.Aiae?eaaneee, I.ss.Iuueoei, A.TH.Eo?eye, I.I.?iiaithe Iniaaiiinoe iioeei-oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e?enoaeea OAN i?e oaciaii ia?aoiaea // E?enoaeeia?aoey.- 1999.- O.44, ? 3.- N. 516-520. 7.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn, Z. Czapla, and S.Dacko. Manifestation of incommensurate phase in the dielectric properties of NH4HSeO4 Crystals // Physica Status Solidi (b).-1999.-V.214, No 2.-P.471-478. 8.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn, M.Romanyuk. Interferometric investigation of phase transition in TGS crystal //Abstracts of 3rd Polish-Ukrainian and 22nd East Europian School on Ferrroelectrics and Related Materials, Kudowa-Wroclaw, 16-20 September 1996, P. P40. 9.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn, Z.Czapla. Optical and dilatometric manifestation of phase transition in K2SeO4 crystal //Abstracts of 3rd Polish-Ukrainian and 22nd East Europian School on Ferrroelectrics and Related Materials, Kudowa-Wroclaw, 16-20 September 1996, P. P15. 10.A.A.Aiae???anueeee, I.ss.Ieueoei, I.I.?iiaithe. Iniaeeaino? oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?ao?aeoiiao?e/ieo oa aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a e?enoae?a OAN a naaiaoiaeaeo?e/i?e oac?.- Oace iaeiaiai nai?ia?o c noaoenoe/ii? oai??? eiiaeainiaaieo nenoai, Euea?a, 14-15 aa?aciy 1997 ?., N. 141. 11.I.ss.Ieueoei, A.A.Aiae???anueeee, ?.N.A??iee. Iioe/i? oa aeeeaoiiao?e/i? i?iyae oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a a e?enoaeao NH4HSeO4 // ?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y Caea?iaonueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy oiiaeo i?ae?eiee iaoee, 23 n?/iy 1998 ?., Oaeai?iae, N. 72. 12.O.Myshchyshyn, B.Andriyevsky, M.Romanyuk. Critical indices of the ferroelectric phase transition in TGS crystals // Abstracts of the INTAS-UKRAINE Workshop on Condensed Matter Physic, Lviv, 21-24 May 1998, P. 53. 13.B.Andriyevsky, O.Myshchyshyn, M.Romanyuk. Anisotropy of crytical indices of ferroelectric phase transition in TGS crystals by the optical interference measurements // Abstracts of the 4th Ukrainian-Polish Meeting on Phase Transitions and Ferroelectric Physics, Dniepropetrovsk, 15-19 June 1998, P. 19 14.B.Andriyevsky, Z.Czapla, S.Dacko, O.Myshchyshyn. Optical and electrical manifestation of incommensurate phase in NH4HSeO4 crystals // Abstracts of the 4th Ukrainian-Polish Meeting on Phase Transitions and Ferroelectric Physics, Dniepropetrovsk, 15-19 June 1998, P. 70. 15.A.Aiae???anueeee, I.Ieueoei, I.?iiaithe, A.Eo?eye, C.*aiey, Ae.Iiaenyaeea. Oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? iieaciee?a caeiieaiiy ? oa?i?/ia ?icoe?aiiy e?enoae?a aeiaan a iaeano? oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo // Ia?oa oe?a?inueea oeiea-nai?ia? c o?ceee naaiaoiaeaeo?ee?a oa nii??aeiaieo iaoa??ae?a, 26-28 na?iiy, 1999 ?., Euea?a, N.63. AIIOAOe?? Ieueoei I?ano sseiae/. ?ao?aeoe?ei? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?a noeueoao?a ? naeaiao?a a iaeano? oaciaeo ia?aoiae?a.— ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.10 - o?ceea iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a oa ae?aeaeo?ee?a. — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea .Caoeua?oueny 15 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, o yeeo i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae ?ao?aeoe?eieo, aeeeaoiiao?e/ieo oa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoae naaiaoiaeaeo?e/ieo e?enoae?a o?eae?oeeinoeueoaoo (OAN), aeeiaoeeaiii?eaethi?i?enoeueoaoo (AeIAAN), eae?y naeaiaoo (EN) oa aiii?y a?ae?inaeaiaoo (AAN). Aeey e?enoae?a OAN oa AeIAAN c'yniaaii, ui iieacieee noaiaiaaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae niiioaiieo i?e?ino?a iieacieea caeiieaiiy 2b(n) oa aeaeiaaeaiiy 2b(l) a?eueo? i?ae aiaeia?/iee iieaciee 2b(Ps) aeey eaaae?aoa niiioaiii? iiey?ecaoe?? Ps2, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ciaioaiiy eiao?oe??io?a aeaeo?iiioe/iiai aoaeoo oa aeaeo?ino?eeoe??, ?ic?aoiaaieo ia iino?eia cia/aiiy aaeoi?a aeaeo?e/ii? ?iaeoeoe?? a e?enoae?, i?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oaiia?aoo?e oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo. I?e oeueiio aeyaeaii oaeiae a?aeiia?aeia ciaioaiiy nooiaiy ai?cio?ii?? iieacieea caeiieaiiy oa eiao?oe??ioa e?i?eiiai ?icoe?aiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i a?aeiinio aii?o?caoe?th e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e i?e oaciaiio ia?aoiae?. I?e iaaeeaeaii? aei oi/ee oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo ia? i?noea oaeiae a?aeiinia ciaioaiiy na?aaeiueiai ca o?ueiia e?enoaeio?ce/ieie iai?yiaie iieacieea caeiieaiiy, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i iineaaeaiiy a oe?eiio o?i?/ieo ca'yce?a i?ae no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie e?enoae?a. Iiyniai? iia? i?iyae ianoi??iino? e?enoae?a EN oa AAN o ?o iioe/ieo oa ae?aeaeo?e/ieo aeanoeainoyo. .Eeth/ia? neiaa : - naaiaoiaeaeo?eee, oacia? ia?aoiaee, ianoi??ia oaca, iieaciee caeiieaiiy, oa?i?/ia e?i?eia ?icoe?aiiy, eiiieaenia ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?iieei?noue, iieacieee noaiaiaaeo oaiia?aoo?ieo caeaaeiinoae Ieueoei I.ss. ?ao?aeoeeiiiua naienoaa e?enoaeeia noeueoaoia e naeaiaoia a iaeanoe oaciauo ia?aoiaeia.— ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.10 - oeceea iieoi?iaiaeieeia e aeeyeaeo?eeia. — Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiea Caueuaaony 15 iao/iuo ?aaio, a eioi?uo i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee oaiia?aoo?iuo caaeneiinoae ?ao?aeoeeiiiuo, aeeeaoiiao?e/aneeo e aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo naienoa naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneeo e?enoaeeia o?eaeeoeeinoeueoaoa (OAN), aeeiaoeeaiiieeaethieieenoeueoaoa (AeIAAN), eaeey naeaiaoa (EN) e aiiiey aeae?inaeaiaoa (AAN). Aeey e?enoaeeia OAN e AeIAAN onoaiiaeaii, /oi iieacaoaee noaiaiiuo oaiia?aoo?iuo caaeneiinoae niiioaiiuo i?e?inoia iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey e oaeeeiaiey aieueoea /ai aiaeiae/iue iieacaoaeue aeey eaaae?aoa niiioaiiie iiey?ecaoeee, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia oiaiueoaiee eiyooeoeeaioia yeaeo?iiioe/aneiai yooaeoa e yeaeo?ino?eeoeee, ?ann/eoaiiuo ia iinoiyiiia cia/aiea aaeoi?a yeaeo?e/aneie eiaeoeoeee a e?enoaeea, i?e i?eaeeaeaiee e oaiia?aoo?a oaciaiai ia?aoiaea. I?e yoii ioia/aii oaeaea niioaaonoaaiiia oiaiueoaiea noaiaie aiecio?iiee iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey e eiyooeoeeaioa eeiaeiiai ?anoe?aiey, /oi iiaeao naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaoue ia ioiineoaeueiie aii?oecaoeee e?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u i?e oaciaii ia?aoiaea. I?e i?eaeeaeaiee e oi/ea oaciaiai ia?aoiaea eiaao ianoi oaeaea ioiineoaeueiia oiaiueoaiea n?aaeiaai ii o?ai e?enoaeeioece/aneei iai?aaeaieyi iieacaoaey i?aeiieaiey, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ineaaeaiee a oeaeii oeie/aneeo naycae iaaeaeo no?oeoo?iuie yeaiaioaie e?enoaeeia. Iauyniaiu iiaua i?iyaeaiey iani?acia?iinoe e?enoaeeia EN e AAN a eo iioe/aneeo e aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo naienoaao. Eeth/ia? neiaa : - naaiaoiyeaeo?eee, oaciaua ia?aoiaeu, iani?acia?iay oaca, iieacaoaeue i?aeiieaiey, oa?ie/aneia eeiaeiia ?anoe?aiea, eiiieaeniay aeeyeaeo?e/aneay i?iieoeaaiinoue, iieacaoaee noaiaiiuo oaiia?aoo?iuo caaeneiinoae Myshchyshyn O.Ya. Refractiv properties of the sulphate and selenetes crystals in the range of phase transition.-Manuscript. Thesis on search of hte scintific degree of ”Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences “ on speciality 01.04.10 - Physics of semiconductors and insulators. The Ivan Franco State University of L’viv, 1999. 15 scientific papers presenting the results of investigation of temperature dependences of refractive, dilatometric and dielectric properties of triglycine sulphate, (CH2NH2COOH)3*H2SO4, (TGS), dimethyl ammonium aluminium sulphate (CH3)2NH2Al(SO4)2*6H2O, (DMAAS), potassium selenate, K2SeO4, (PSe), and ammonium hydroselenate, NH4HSeO4, (AHSe) crystals, characterizing by ferroelectric phase transitions of 2nd order, are defended. Principal experimental measurements have been conducted using the optical arrangement on the basis of Jamen type interferometer. Two methods have been offered for separating the temperature dependences of refractive indices and thickness of sample studied from the temperature dependences of its optical path differences. First method is based on the measuring two temperature dependences of optical path difference: from the reflectance and from the transmitance of light. Second one is based on the measuring six temperature dependences of optical path difference from the transmitance for three crystalphysical directions and two mitually perpendicular directions of light polarizations. Temperature dependences of spontaneous increments of refractive index and lengthening the crystals are analysed in the dissertation on the basis of its comparison with temperature dependences of square of spontaneous polarization and determination of the characteristic indices of corresponding power-like temperature dependences. Characteristic indices of power-like temperature dependences of spontaneous increments of refractive index 2bi(n) and linear expansion 2bi(l) of TGS crystal are determined to be closed one to another, but they differ noticeably (0,88 - 0,95) for three different crystal physical directions (i = 1,2,3), that signifies for the complexity of the nature of corresponding ferroelectric phase transition. Characteristic indices for the spontaneous increments of refractive index 2bi(n) and lengthening 2bi(l) of TGS and DMAAS are shown to be greater than analogous one for the square of spontaneous polarization Ps2. The latter one signifies, that the coefficients of electrooptic effect and electrostriction, calculated for constant electric displacement vector, diminish at approching the ferroelectric phase transition points Tc in these crystals. The degree of anisotropy of refractive index and coefficient of linear thermal expansion of TGS and DMAAS crystals is established to be deminishing at the approach of corresponding phase transition points, that can be interpreted like the amorphization of crystal structure at phase transition. Besides, relative decrease of the refractive index, averaged by three crystalphysical direction takes place, that signifies corresponding relaxation of the averaged chemical bonds between structure elements of crystals. The anomalies of temperature dependences of the anisotropy coefficients mentioned and averaged refractive index in DMAAS crystal are significantly greater than those observed in TGS crystal, that can be explained by relative placing the characteristic parameters of DMAAS crystal close to the tricritical point. Investigations of PSe and AHSe crystal with incommensurate phases show that anomalies of temperature dependences of the optical path difference take place only at the temperatures O? of transition from paraelectric to incommensurate phases, but similar anomalies for the temperatures Oc of transition from incommensurate to ferroelectric phases are practically absent. This is explained by the fact that at Tc temperature the microscopic spontaneous polarization, causing electrooptic effect and electrostriction, no changes essentially. The coefficients of electrooptic effect and electrostriction in AHSe crystal are found to be one order of magnitude smaller than those in PSe crystal. Peculiarities of the incommensurate phase in AHSe crystal are studied also on the temperature dependences of the real e'(T) and imaginary e''(T) parts of complex dielectric permittivity in the range of frequency 200 Hz - 1 MHz. It was revealed on the basis of these data that at the decreasing temperature in the incommensurate phase the coefficient of elastic stiffness of AHSe diminishes three times, approaching minimal magnitude at On temperature. The greatest degree of this diminishing takes place for the middle of incommensurate phase. Characteristic periodic anomalies of the temperature dependence of e'(T) (period DO ” 0,4 E) are revealed in the incommensurate phase of AHSe crystal, which signify for delicate jump-like (quasi continuous) changes of wave vector of crystal structure, found earlier by direct X-ray study of crystal structure of AHSe. Key words: - ferroelectrics, phase transitions, incommensurate phase, refractive index, thermal linear expansion, complex dielectric permittivity, indices of power-like temperature dependences.

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