Психологічні умови підвищення ефективності навчання іноземної мови у військовому навчальному закладі: Автореф. дис… канд. психол. наук / Т.Ю. Кармал

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss I?EEI?AeIIIEO A?ENUeE OE?A?IE

?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai

EA?IAE?OA Oaoyia TH???aia

OAeE 355.35:159.9

INEOIEIA?*I? OIIAE

I?AeAEUAIIss AOAEOEAIINO? IAA*AIIss

?IICAIII? IIAE O A?ENUeEIAIIO

IAA*AEUeIIIO CAEEAAe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 20.02.02

A?enueeiaa iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Caeiaoaa/ Ea?iae?oa O. TH

Oiaeueieoeueeee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie
?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo o ni?aaao ioi?iie
aea?aeaaiiai ei?aeiio Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NAA*EI Ie?ineaa Aaneeueiae/,

Ae?iaiaeoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neooao ?i. ?. O?aiea, eaoaae?a ineoieia??,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai AII Oe?a?ie ssOeAIEI
Oaia?a Naiai?aia, *a?eanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ineoieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e;

eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio AeOOEAAE* Oaoyia A?eoi??aia,
Eai’yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ineoieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

A?enueeiaee ?inoeooo i?e aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea”, eaoaae?a oaoi?/ieo cania?a ?ioi?iaoe?? oa
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o a?enueeao, I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie,
i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «30» aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 70.705.02 Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai??
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai (Oe?a?ia, i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe Oaa/aiea, 46).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai
(Oe?a?ia, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 46).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «28» ethoiai 2000 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio A. Aae?iia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. O i?ioean? ?aoi?ioaaiiy Ca?ieieo nee oa I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee
Oe?a?ie ia?aae aeuith a?enueeiaith oeieith c’yaey?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeueia
caaaeaiiy — oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? iaeaooiueiai io?oea?a, noaiiaeaiiy
eiai oai?/i? i?ioan?eii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo
iai?yi?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aeui? a?enueeiai? ina?oe ? i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?aae i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeei neeaaeii aaoco
iinoa? caaaeaiiy iiooeo iiaeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano,
?icoe?aiiy a?naiaeo aeei?enoiaoaaiiy iaoiaee/ieo cania?a ? i?eeii?a, ye?
caaacia/othoue ?ioaineai?noue, aoaeoeai?noue oa i?ioan?eio
ni?yiiaai?noue iaa/aiiy. Oea, o naith /a?ao, aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee iiaeo
iaoiaee/ieo iiaeaeae iaa/aiiy, a yeeo ?aae?cothoueny iia?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea?, ui noinothoueny i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy
?icaeoeo ? ?aae?caoe?? ?aca?aieo iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae on?o
noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaeieie c iniiaieo oiia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ?
eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe?y oa iiaeeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii?
i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/a. Ineoieia?/ii iaa?oioiaaia ae?yeuei?noue
aeeeaaea/a iio?aao? aieiae?iiy ai?iiyie eiino?othaaoe aeioe?euei? oi?ie
aca?iiae?? c? neooa/ai, o?aoiaoaaoe eiai ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? o
i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?.

I?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ia ? iica
oaaaith aeine?aeiee?a, i?i ui na?ae/eoue cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?e oa i?aoeue c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee: ineoieia?? ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/a (E. N. Aeaionueeee, I. A. Eocuei?ia, ?. Ae. Aao, ?. I.
Aaeyi, E. A. Iaeiaii); i?iaeaie aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a oa neooa/a ye
noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (A. O. Eiiia, Ae. A. Aeueeii?i, ?.
?. Iannia, I. A. *aiae?aa, A. I. Aaiiiiaa oa ?i.); aeoea?caoe??
?aca?aieo iiaeeeainoae iniaenoino? (A. Eicaiia, Aeae. Ea?ie, A. A.
Eeoaeai?iaenueea, ?. A. Ceiiy, O. N. ssoeaiei, oa ?i.); aeiaieia?/iiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino?-i?ioann?iiaea (?. A.
Cycthi, A. I. Aea?ea/, N. Ae. Iaeneiaiei, E. A. I?aai, I. A. Naa/ei, I.
Ae. Nao?i, I. O. Aieiao?aa, A. Ae. Eiiaoea oa ?i.).

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/o?, ui: a)
eiioi?eaoeaia aca?iiae?y aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/ai o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae o aoc? aena?oeaia iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii; a) a?aenooi?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? a aeicaieyee noi?ioethaaoe
ineoieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeoea?caoe?? ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o
?aca?a?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano; a) ineoieia?/iee aniaeo ae?yeueiino?
aeeeaaea/a ?iicaiii? iiae c iaoith ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
aena?oeaiee iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii; a) ia ae?iaeaiee iaoiaee/iee
?ino?oiaioa??e caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o aaoc?.

Oaeei /eiii, ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ui ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ia aoee i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? oiio aeiaaathoue naiai iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ieaio iaoeiai? ?iaioe a
I?eei?aeiiieo a?enueeao Oe?a?ie (IAe? ?297-1453 ?, ?299-2002 ?).

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiioi?eaoeaia aca?iiae?y aeeeaaea/a c?
neooa/ai o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ineoieia?/i? oiiae, ui ni?e/eiythoue
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?.

Iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy iieyaa? a c’ynoaaii? iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?? oa
oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ye i?iaeoeoeaiith
ineoieia?/iith aca?iiae??th aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/ai, yea ?aae?co?
ciai?oi? oa aioo??oi? ?aca?ae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ineoieia?/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? oa
oi?ioethaaii? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i ? cania?a
ae?yeueiino? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo, ye? ni?eythoue
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. sseui iioeiaeueii ii?aeiaoe oi?ie ? caniae
eiioi?eaoeaiiai ieaio o ineoieia?/i?e aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a c
aeoea?caoe??th iaoai?ci?a naii?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a, oi
oea i?eaaaea aei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o
aaoc?.

Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii:

1. Iaa?oiooaaoe ineoieia?/i? oiiae iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano
iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ia iniia? eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe??.

2. ?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?i oa cania?a
iaa/aiiy, ye? aeoea?cothoue iaoai?cie naii?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
neooa/?a.

3. Aeae?eeoe aeai?eoie ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a, ui ni?yiiaai?
ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae.

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o
aaoc?.

Iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· ineoieia?/ia oai??y ?aeiino? ineoeee ? ae?yeueiino? (E. N.
Aeaionueeee, I. I. Eaiioue?a, A. N. Einothe, N. E. ?oa?iooaei oa ?i.).

· oai??y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (A. A. Aeaaeaeia, A. O. Eiiia, ?. ?.
Iannia, Ae. A. Aeueeii?i oa ?i.).

· oai??y iiaoaiiiai oi?ioaaiiy ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? (I. ss.
Aaeueia??i, A. Eicaiia, A. I. Ao?aeaithe oa ?i.).

· oai??y aeoea?caoe?? ?aca?aieo iiaeeeainoae iniaenoino? (A. A.
Eeoaeai?iaenueea, Aeae. Ea?ie, I. Ieinea?, O. N. ssoeaiei oa ?i.).

· oai??y iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy (I. I. Eaiioue?a, E. A. Ua?aa, ?. A.
Ceiiy, N. Ioa?ai, I. A?aen, I. Eaiae, I. Naai oa ?i.).

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue o aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaany
eiiieaen iaoiae?a: aiae?c o?einionueei?, ineoieia?/ii? oa iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e; iieooaaiiy (aieaooaaiiy, aan?aea) neooa/?a ? aeeeaaea/?a
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? IAO; aeeth/aia e iaaeeth/aia niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth neooa/?a IAIAO, aea/aiiy i?iaeoeo?a ?o
ae?yeueiino?; eiinoaooth/ee ? oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio; ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii a 1997 — 1999 ?ieao ia aac? IAIAO ?
ioiiethaaei 36 aeeeaaea/?a ?iicaiieo iia oa 216 neooa/?a oeueiai aeuiai
a?enueeiaiai caeeaaeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

· oaeineiiaeaii oi?ie ? caniae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae??
aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a ca oiiae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano;

· aeyaeaii ineoieia?/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ca
aeiiiiiaith oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth neooa/?a;

· aecia/aii aeai?eoie ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a uiaei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?;

· ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??? oa iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui
iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? o ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae, ye? caaacia/othoue
i?iaeoeoeaio ?ioaeaeooaeueio ae?yeuei?noue neooa/?a /a?ac oi?ioaaiiy o
ieo ca aeinoaoiuei ei?ioeee ia??iae iaa/aeueiiai /ano iioeiaeueiiai
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai eiai?oeaiiai noeeth. ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeeeaaea/ai oa ineoieiaii o i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio?, i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? iaeaooi?o aeeeaaea/?a i?ae /an aea/aiiy a?eiai? oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? ineoieia??, a oaeiae i?e ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie ?ioaineaiiai
iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae a?enueeiaeo niaoe?ae?no?a. Canoinoaaiiy
aeeeaaea/ai ?ic?iaeaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ni?eyoeia ?icaeoeo ?o
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??, eiiiiiaio?a ?o ineoieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e oa
aeiiiiiaea o aeai?? a?aeiia?aeii? no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee aeinyaiaiiy
aca?iiii?icoi?iiy, onoaiiaeaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo noinoie?a.

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii? oaiaoe/ieo ieai?a eo?no
aea/aiiy ?iicaiieo iia o Iaoe?iiaeuei?e aeaaeai?? I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee
Oe?a?ie (aeo ?aae?caoe?? a?ae 14.10.99). Iiaeaeue aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a
c? nooaeaioii o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ia ??ai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ai?iaaaeaeaia o Oaoiieia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Iiae?eey
(aeo ?aae?caoe?? a?ae 17.10.99). Ineoieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
?ic?iaee no?oeoo?ii-eia?/ii? iiaeae? eo?no iaaeaaia?ee oa aeai?eoi
ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a i?e ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
ai?iaaaeaeai? o A?iieoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
(aeo ?aae?caoe?? a?ae 10.10.99), aea aiie aeicaieeee a?eueo aoaeoeaii
ea?oaaoe i?ciaaaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? IAO ?i. Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai
«Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? iaeaooi?o
io?oea??a-i?eei?aeiiiee?a aei i?ioan?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o a?enueeao
ca?aeii c aeiiaaie eieaa?? Aea?aeeiiei?aeiio» (i. Oiaeueieoeueeee,
1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee e ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe??
a?aeia?aaeaii o 6 iaoeiaeo noaooyo oa iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe??.

Nooeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.

Ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 164 noi??ieao, aeiiiaith?oueny 11 aeiaeaoeaie
ia 33 noi??ieao. Iniiaiee oaeno i?i?ethno?iaaii 12 oaaeeoeyie oa 4
?enoieaie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 180 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
iaoo, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao oa iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aena?oeaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue,
i?aaenoaeaii a?iioaco oa iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?o o i?aeoeeo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «Aca?iiae?y noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ye
/eiiee ?ioaineo?eaoe?? aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae» — cae?eniaii
oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie, yea aecia/a? iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeyiooi e i?iaiae?ciaaii noai ??
?ic?iaee o o?einionuee?e, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aecia/aii
niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo «?iicaiia iiaa» oa
aeyaeaii ineoieia?/io iaoo aeeeaaea/a ?iicaiii? iiae o aca?iiae?? c?
neooa/ai a iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?ni?e eiioi?eaoe??.

Aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ia
?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, iioei?caoe?? eiai oi?i ciaeoee
nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
ineoieia?a ? iaaeaaia?a (E. N. Aeaionueeee, I. I. Aeiinueeee, N. E.
?oa?iooaei, I. I. Eaiioue?a, A. A. Aeaaeaeia, A. ?. Eo??y, I. ss.
Aaeueia??i oa ?i.). Ca e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie, caaaeueia neooaoe?y
iaa/aiiy o aoc? ia caaeia?eueiy? aeiia no/anii? iaoee, ui noaaeoue
ia?aae aeeeaaea/ai caaaeaiiy iiaeaethaaiiy iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
iiooeo iiaeo aoaeoeaieo oi?i oa iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, o oiio /ene? e
?ioaineo?eaoe?? naiiai iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o niaoe?ae?no?a.

O ieai? aea/aiiy i?iaeai ineoieia?? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae
aeine?aeieeaie aeineoue aeeaiei ?icaeyiooi: iniaeeaino? i?ciaaaeueieo
ineo?/ieo i?ioean?a (I. A. Aniieia, A. A. Aaey?a, Aeae. A?oia?, AE.
Aiaeo?oa, A. I. Aaiiiiaa, A. Ae. Eiiaoea oa ?i.); oaeoi? iioeaaoe?? a
aniaeo? oni?oiiai canai?iiy ?iicaiii? iiae (A. A. A?oaiia, ?. A. Ea?iia,
A. A. Aaiaaeeeoia, A. N. A?aaaithe, A. O. ?naoeia, O. A. Oeoiiiaa oa
?i.); eiioi?eaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aei iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae, ui
a?oioo?oueny ia oai??? iiaeaii?aiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ui noi?ioeueiaaia
I. I. Eaiioue?aei (A. I. Iaiouei?ia, ?. A. Ceiiy, A. A.
Eeoaeai?iaenueea, A. A. Eieoainueeee, I. I. Eioeue, I. O. Aieiao?aa, A.
Eanaaee, Aeae. I?eea? oa ?i.).

I?iaeaia aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a oa neooa/a ye noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ?icaeyaea?oueny inoaii?i /anii ineoieiaaie ia iaoa??ae?
iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae (O. E. Oeaaoeiaa, E. A. Ea?iaiei, ss. A.
Aieueaeooaei oa ?i.). Aeine?aeieee i?eoiaeyoue aei aeniiaeo, ui
iaea?eueo oni?oii oea caaaeaiiy ae??oo?oueny oiae?, eiee a?aoiaothoueny
ineoieia?/i? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano ni?eeoaaiiy, iaa/aiiy
i?aai?ciao?oueny ia ??ai? ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a. Iaeiae,
iniaeeaino? oa oa?aeoa? oeueiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa ia aea/athoueny.

Iniiaiei i?eioeeiii iioeiaeueii? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae
iiaea aooe eiioi?eaoeaiee i?aeo?ae ca oiiae aeeth/aiiy eiai a nenoaio
iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?nii? eiioi?eaoe??. Aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii oeyoe
?ai?aai?caoe?? nenoaie aca?iiae?? «aeeeaaea/ — neooa/» o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? a iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?nio eiioi?eaoe?th i?e?iaei?i /eiii.
Aeaiee oei aca?iiae?? iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia iioeaaoe?th iaa/aiiy,
?icaeaa? oai?/ee iioaioe?ae neooa/a o i?ioean? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Eiioi?eaoeaiee noeeue ni?eeoaaiiy i?ae aeeeaaea/ai ?
neooa/ai ia ??ai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa iioei?co?,
?ioaineo?eo? iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

Eiioi?eaoeaiee i?aeo?ae a?oioo?oueny ia iiaea?ei?e noa’?eo-noa’?eoi?e
noa?? ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a, aoaeoii yei? ?
aca?iia ni?eeoaaiiy ?iicaiiith iiaith. Eiioi?eaoeaiee i?aeo?ae
aecia/a?oueny eiao?oe??ioii eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??, yeee ii?aeio? a
nia? eiao?oe??io iioeaaoe?? oa eiao?oe?aio oacao?ona, a oaeiae iieaciee
i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe??.

Eiao?oe??io eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? (Eee) o?aeoo?oueny ye /eneiaa
aaee/eia, ui ae?aaea? caeaoi?noue aeeiioaaoe iiaeaii?ao ae?yeuei?noue,
?aae?ciaoaaoe iiaeaii?ao iiaaae?ieo, yea aaeaeaaoia iao?, caniaai ?
i?eeiiai, caaaeaiiyi ? neooaoe?yi ni?eeoaaiiy. A?i iaaoaa? cia/aiiy a?ae
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oa iine?aeiaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai
i?aeoiaeo a iiaea?eio noa’?eo-noa’?eoio iioeaaoe?eii-naini?io noa?o
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Eiao?oe??io iioeaaoe?? (Eiio) o?aeoo?oueny ye /eneiaa aaee/eia, ui
ae?aaea? aoaeo a?ae aieeao noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, ye? niiioeathoue aei
?ioaeaeooaeueieo ae?e.

??aaiue ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ye caeaoi?noue aaeaiooaaoeny aei
na?aaeiaeua caaaeyee ieneaiith oa eiioi?eaoeaiei ae?yi aecia/a?oueny
eiao?oe??ioii oacao?ona (Eoac). A?i iaaoaa? cia/aiiy a?ae aeooae?caoe??
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai iioaioe?aeo neooa/?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy.

Iieaciee i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? (III) iniaenoino? ineo?/ii a?aeaeaa?
iiaeeeaino? iaeneiaeueii? aeooae?caoe?? oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo
iniaenoino? o i?ioean? i?ioan?eii ci???ioiaaiiai aea/aiiy ?iicaiii?
iiae. O?ce/ii oea ? eoo, yeee iieaco? aaee/eio a?aeoeeaiiy aaeoi?a
oacao?ona a?ae iai?aaeaiiy aaeoi?a iioeaaoe?? noa’?eoa (?en. 1).
A?ae eiai aaee/eie caeaaeeoue oni?oi?noue aeinyaiaiiy iiae?? ye
eiioi?eaoe??.

?en. 1. Aecia/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo

a eiai ineoieia?/iiio aniaeo?

aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

. (1)

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? eiioi?eaoeaiee i?aeo?ae ye aaaeeeaee /eiiee i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioa?ano aei aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ca aeiiiiiaith ?icoe?aiiy iiaii?
cae?aiino? ye eiiiaoaioiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano i?e aea/aii? ?iicaiii? iiae» — aeaia caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, aecia/ai? ??
ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? uiaei iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?, a oaeiae
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oeueiai iaa/aiiy.

O ineoieia?/iiio ieai? ?ioaineo?eaoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ui caaacia/o?
aenieee ??aaiue canai?iiy neooa/ai ciaiue, ae?iaeaiiy a ieo oi?iue oa
iaae/ie. Aiia aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ye?nieo ci?i o iaa/aii? eiee
caaacia/o?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae ?acoeueoaoii, ui ieaio?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi eiie?aoieo oiia, aeiia i?ia?aie oa ?aaeueii io?eiaieie
?acoeueoaoaie. Aieiaiith noooth ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaa/aiiy ? aeoea?caoe?y
iiaeeeainoae iaa/aeueii? a?oie /a?ac aeoea?caoe?th iiaeeeainoae
iniaenoino? aeeeaaea/a e neooa/a. Aeoea?caoe?y iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
aeinyaa?oueny niaoe?aeueiith i?aai?caoe??th iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, eiai
eiioeaio?aoe??th oa ?iciiae?eii, iia?e?caoe??th oa a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiei
aeei?enoaiiyi iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae aeeeaaea/a e neooa/a a ?o
aca?iiae?? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?. O i?ioean? ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iioeaaoe?y iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae ? aiaeii/an ia?aaeoiiaith, iaoith,
caniaii oa ?acoeueoaoii iaa/aiiy.

Iaoai?ci ooieoe?iioaaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a
c? neooa/ai aoa caeeaaeaiee a iniiao aenia?eiaioa, i?iaaaeaiiai ia aac?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? IAO o 1997 — 1999 ??. Eiai iaoith aoea
ai?iaaoe?y aeei?enoaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo ia ??cieo eo?nao o
ii?aeiaii? c o?aaeeoe?eiei i?aeoiaeii aei iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o
aaoc?. Ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui oe?eani?yiiaaia e iine?aeiaia aeei?enoiaoaaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo ye caniao i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? ia caiyooyo c
?iicaiii? iiae a ?aieao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy aeoea?co? oi?ioaaiiy oa
?icaeoie ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a. I?iaeoeoeaia aca?iiae?y a
oiiaao ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ni?aoai?/ino? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
iioeaaoe?? neooa/a, iaeaaeiiai iaieiae?iiy niaoe?aeuei?noth oa ?aiith
i?ioan?eio i???ioaoe?th, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ??aiy
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??. O ?acoeueoao? i?aeaeueeanue aoaeoeai?noue
iaa/aiiy.

A aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oiao ia?aaeaa/aeany aeeiai?ea oacao?oniiai ??aiy
neooa/?a, iiceoeai? ci?ie i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a. O/anoue a
aenia?eiaio? a?oi c a?aeiinii iaeiaeiaei ??aiai ciaiue c ?iicaiii? iiae
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe oa a?aeie?aieoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o oi?ioaaii? oa
?icaeoeo oacao?ona ia ??cieo aoaiao iaa/aiiy, a ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a
caeaaeii a?ae eo?no iaaeaei iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe aeeiai?eo iieacieea
i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? oa c?iaeoe aeniiaee noiniaii aoaeoeaiino?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? nenoaie acaaae?.

Caiyooy o an?o aenia?eiaioaeueieo (AA) oa eiio?ieueieo (EA) a?oiao,
i?iaiaeea iaeei aeeeaaea/, ui caaacia/eei ?aei?noue aeiia aei o/aniee?a
aenia?eiaioo. Ia ianooiieo aoaiao aei o/ano? a aenia?eiaio? o ?ie?
eiiiaoaioieo noaeae?a caeo/aeeny aeeeaaea/? eaoaae? aiae?enueei? iiae ?
i?iaoeueei? oa ae?oai? ?iicaiii? iia (c iaaeaaia?/iei noaaeai ?iaioe
a?ae 5 aei 15 ?ie?a), ui caaacia/eei ia’?eoeai?noue ioe?iee ciaiue,
oi?iue oa iaae/ie neooa/?a. Ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo a on?o a?oiao aoee
i?iaaaeai? oanooaaiiy oa ia?aaeaenia?eiaioaeueiee c??c, a yeiio
aeyaeyeeny ineoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee neooa/?a, ?o oai?/ee iioaioe?ae.
E?euee?niei ae?aaeaiiyi ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae
aoa eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy, yeee aecia/aany ca oi?ioeith

, (2)

aea Aoi – eiao?oe??io aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy — iieaciee oni?oiino?;

W? – ?iia??i?noue cae?eniaiiy ?-i? iiae?? ye oiiae oni?oiiai

iaa/aiiy;

pi — aaaiaee eiao?oe?aio ?-i? iiae??;

Eee – eiao?oe??io eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? neooa/a, yeee

? aaeoi?iith noiith eiao?oe??io?a iioeaaoe?? oa oacao?ona

(?en. 1, oi?ioea (1).

Ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy aeaieo iioi/iiai c??co oa c??co, i?iaaaeaiiai ia
ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo aoei aeyaeaii oaeo oaeineiiaeaiiy ciaiue, oi?iue oa
iaae/ie neooa/a uiaei aea/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae. O oiae? aenia?eiaioo c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aiiy a AA
i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue neooa/?a aoea iioeaiaaia aeiai?ii oaeno?a ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth.

I?ney ia?oiai eo?no iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae i?iaiaeeeinue eiio?ieueia
caiyooy (/eoaiiy oa ia?aeeaae i?ioan?eii ni?yiiaaiiai oaenoo ianyaii 600
ciae?a ca eiio?ieueiee /an 15 oaeeei) ? aoee io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
na?ae/eee i?i iiceoeaio aeeiai?eo oacao?oniiai ??aiy neooa/?a AA i?e
iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?ni?e eiioi?eaoe?? a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy.

Ine?eueee ia ii/aoeo aenia?eiaioo a?oie iaee a?aeiinii iaeiaeia?
oaiii?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee: na?aaei?e /an ia?iaee oaenoo neeaaeaa 32,6
oaeeeie, na?aaei? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy
(Aoi=0,46), oi ia ae?oaiio eo?n? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae iiaeia aiai?eoe
i?i oi?ioaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy a AA,
i?ae o EA, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ii??aiyiiyi oaiii?aeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee:

na?aaei?e /an ia?iaee oaenoo — 9,8 oa a AA; — 11,8 oa o EA;

aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aiiy — 1,53 a AA; — 1,27 o EA.

Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1) Oe?eani?yiiaaia oa iine?aeiaia aeei?enoaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo
ye caniao iioeaaoe?? iaa?oue o iaaeao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy aeoea?co?
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a.
I?iaeoeoeaia iaa/aeueia aca?iiae?y a oiiaao ni?aoai?/ino? caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iioeaaoe?? ae?yeueiino? neooa/a, a ?aiiy i?ioan?eia
i???ioaoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiioi?eaoeaii?
eiiiaoaioe??. sse iane?aeie oeueiai i?aeaeuo?oueny eiao?oe??io
aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

2) O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aoei aeyaeaii iniiai? oaeoi?e
i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?. Oae o neooa/?a,
ye? aeinyaathoue aeniei? oni?oiino?, aeii?iothoue i???ioaoe?? ye ia
i?ioean, oae ? ia ?acoeueoao iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?. Oiio a i?ioean?
iaa/aiiy iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aioo??oi? iioeaaoe?ei? ?aca?ae,
oi?ioaaoe iiceoeaia noaaeaiiy neooa/a aei i?aaeiaoo «?iicaiia iiaa». O
nai?e ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/ ?iicaiii? iiae iiaeiai oi?oe ia?aeiioaaoe
neooa/?a, noai?thaaoe iaiao?aeiee aiioe?eiee iano??e, aooe oe?eaaei
ni?a?iciiaieeii, iin??i ?ioi?iaoe??. A?i iiaeiai aenooiaoe a ?ie?
i?aai?caoi?a nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo a iaa/aeuei?e a?oi? oa
ea??aieeii i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a. Ae?yeuei?noue aeeeaaea/a ia? aooe
ni?yiiaaia ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai o eiioi?eaoe??, ui aenooia? aaaeeeaei
iioeaii ae?yeueiino? a ieai? canai?iiy ?iicaiii? iiae.

3) Iniiaiei iai?yiii ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a a nenoai? aca?iiae??
«aeeeaaea/ — neooa/» ? aeia?? oaeeo iaoiae?a oa cania?a aieeao, ye? ia
ia?oiio aoai? ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo oacao?onieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa
i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy iioeaaoe?eii? i???ioaoe?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, a
oaeiae ??aiy i?ioan?eii? i???ioaoe?? ia ae?oaiio aoai? iaa/aiiy.

4) Aeei?enoaiiy aeeeaaea/ai niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aieeao ia aeoeaio
?icoiiao ae?yeuei?noue neooa/a (nenoaie aca?iiae??, ia?oia?noaa,
ni?aoai?/ino?, oaao?ae?caoe?? iaa/aeueieo caiyoue, aeei?enoaiiy ?ai? ye
caniao noai?aiiy iiceoeaiiai iano?ith, i?aeai?o aeooaeueieo oaeno?a,
noai?aiiy eiioi?eaoeaieo neooaoe?e ni?eeoaaiiy, ?aiiuei? i?ioan?eii?
i???ioaoe?? oa ?i.) i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy aaee/eie eiao?oe??ioa
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??, a oaeiae i??e caaeiaieaiino? neooa/a
aeaniith ?ioaeaeooaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth.

5) ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue i?i noi?iiaai?noue ia
caaa?oaeueiiio aoai? iaa/aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo oa eiioi?eaoeaieo oi?iue
?, ye iane?aeie, i?i ?icaeoie eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe?? ia ??ai?
niaoe?aeueiino?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — «Iniiai? iai?yie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ?iicaii?e iia?» — ?ice?eaathoueny i?ioean iioei?caoe??
no?oeoo?e iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nenoaie «aeeeaaea/ — neooa/» oa oeyoe
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeai?eoi?a aca?iiae?? a aeai?e nenoai? i?e ea?oaaii?
iaa/aeueiei i?ioeanii.

Iioei?caoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano — oea iaa?oiooaaiee aea?? oa
?aae?caoe?y nenoaie caoiae?a, ye? aeicaieythoue aeeeaaea/aa? io?eiaoe
iaee?au? ca aeaieo eiie?aoieo oiia ?acoeueoaoe. Oea ia?aaeaa/a? anaa?/ia
a?aooaaiiy ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae oa noaio neooa/?a ? ?aae?caoe?th
iia?oi?o ?aeae ineoieia?? oa iaaeaaia?ee. I?e iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? o aaoc? ci?no iaa/aiiy aecia/a?oueny iaoith aaeineiiaeaiiy
??aiy i?aeaioiaee a?enueeiaeo niaoe?ae?no?a oa aa?iii?eiei ?icaeoeii ?o
iniaenoino? c iaoith iiaii? naii?aae?caoe?? ye a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy, oae
? a iaeaooi?e i?ioan?ei?e ae?yeueiino?. Uia ?ioaineo?eoaaoe i?ciaaaeueio
ae?yeuei?noue neooa/?a, ?ice?eoe ?? oai?/ee oa?aeoa?, aeeeaaea/ iiaeiai
ciaoe caeiiii??iino? ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ? eiai ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y oa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y. ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?y iaa/aiiy iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoeny
aeeeaaea/ai ye iiaeeea?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? aeiiiiiae neooa/ai c
??ciei ??aiai i?aeaioiaee. Aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano
caaacia/o? ei?aeyoe?th ??cieo ??ai?a ciaiue, aeoea?co? ?icoiiao
ae?yeuei?noue, oaeineiiaeth? canai?iiy ciaiue, ?ioaineo?eoth/e, oei
naiei, iaa/aeueiee i?ioean.

Aeey iioei?caoe?? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano iaiao?aeii canoinoaaoe iia?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy, ye? a noai?thaaee oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo oai?/iai
iioaioe?aeo oeo, ooi iaa/a?oueny. Oaoiieia?y iaa/aiiy — oea eiiieaen
niaoe?aeueieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?eeii?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
aeinyaiaiiy iioeiaeueii? aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano ca
i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiee /an, i?aai?caoe?y coneeue noa’?eo?a iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano, ui ni?yiiaai? ia aeia?? iniaeno?nii-oe?ii?nieo i???ioe??a oa
aa??aio?a ?icoiiaeo ae?e. Aiia aecia/a? oei ea?oaaiiy, a oaeiae
iniaeno?ni? ianoaiiae noa’?eo?a iaa/aiiy. O i?e ?aae?co?oueny iiaeaeue
aca?iiae?? «aeeeaaea/ — neooa/», yea ia iniia? iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?nii?
eiioi?eaoe?? aecia/a? ci?no oa oi?io iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, i?noea
neooa/a oa aeeeaaea/a a iueiio, ?o aca?iiae?th a i?aeiniaeno?niiio
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiio ni?eeoaaii?. Aeaia iiaeaeue coiiaeth? iiceoeaio
iioeaaoe?th a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy oa aoaeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueieo
ae?e neooa/?a. Aiia caaacia/o? oe?eani?yiiaaia ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
iaa/aiiy ia an?o ??aiyo i?ia?ai. Iiaeaeue caaea? aeai?eoi ae?yeueiino?,
iia’ycaiee c oi?ioaaiiyi o neooa/?a oi?iue naii?aaoethaaiiy iaa/aeueieie
ae?yie. Nai aeai?eoi /?oeino? oa iine?aeiaiino? aeeiiaiiy ae?e caaea?
nia? noa’?eo ae?yeueiino?, ?ioaineo?eoth/e oei naiei i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
ai?iue oa iaae/ie, noai?thth/e ia?niaeoeao iiaeaeueoiai iiooeo a iaaeao
eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy eiinoaooth/iai oa oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaio?a
cai?iiiiiaaii iioeiaeuei? aeai?eoie ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a
uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?
(?en. 2, 3).

Aeai?eoi aca?iiae?? «aeeeaaea/ — neooa/» caaea? no?aoaa?th
naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? caaaeii oa
i?iaeoeoeaio i?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue cie?aia. Iaoith neooa/a, ui
?aae?co? aeai?eoi, ? na?aeiia iia?oaaiiy ciaiiyie oa ai?iiyie ca?aeii
iiaeae? c ianooiiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th oa oai?/ei ia?aoai?aiiyi ?o o
aeanio ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-iniaeno?nio noa?o ae?yeueiino? (?en. 3).

?en. 2. Aeai?eoi ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy

aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano

?en. 3. Aeai?eoi ae?yeueiino? neooa/a i?e ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano

AENIIAEE

Aeinyaiaiiy ye?nii iiaiai ??aiy i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a aaoco iiaeeeaa
i?e iioeiaeueiiio ii?aeiaii? oi?i ? cania?a eiioi?eaoeaiiai ieaio a
ineoieia?/i?e aca?iiae?? aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/ai c aeoea?caoe??th
iaoai?ci?a naii?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a.

1. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui
oe?eani?yiiaaia e iine?aeiaia aeei?enoiaoaaiiy eiioi?eaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo
ye caniao i?aeaeuaiiy iioeaaoe?? ia caiyooyo c ?iicaiii? iiae a ?aieao
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy aeoea?co? oi?ioaaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a. I?iaeoeoeaia aca?iiae?y a oiiaao
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ni?aoai?/ino? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iioeaaoe??
neooa/a, iaeaaeiiai iaieiae?iiy niaoe?aeuei?noth oa ?aiith i?ioan?eio
i???ioaoe?th, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy ??aiy eiioi?eaoeaii?
eiiiaoaioe??.

2. Ineoieia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano
iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc? iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

— iaiao?aeii aeyaeoe nooue oe?ii?nii? i???ioaoe?? noa’?eoa iaa/aiiy, yea
iia’ycaia c ?ice?eooyi on?o iniaeno?nii-ia?nii?o?eiaaieo ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo iaoai?ci?a iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, aeey
aeyaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae neooa/a uiaei canai?iiy iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo;

— o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy aca?iiae?y aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/ai iiaeiia aooe
i?aai?ciaaia ia ??ai? ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, ui noai?th? iiceoeaio
iioeaaoe?th naii?aae?caoe?? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae neooa/?a;

— iaiao?aeiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe??, yea caaacia/o? aoaeoeaia canai?iiy
ciaiue oa aeoea?co? iiaeeeaino? iaa/aeueii? a?oie /a?ac aeoea?caoe?th
iiaeeeainoae aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a ? eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe?y;

— ci?no oa ianya iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie iaiao?aeii aaeaiooaaoe aei
ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae neooa/a;

— aeeeaaea/o iaiao?aeii oi?aaeyoe i?ioeanii canai?iiy neooa/ai aeai?eoio
aca?iiae?? a nenoai? «aeeeaaea/ — neooa/» oa ae?iaeaiiy aeaniiai
eiai?oeaiiai noeeth ae?yeueiino?.

3. Ineoieia?/ieie oiiaaie iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy
?iicaiii? iiae ia iniia? eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ?: ?icoe?aiiy ooieoe?e
aeeeaaea/a; i?aai?caoe?y aeeeaaea/ai a?aeiia?aeiiai
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo a iaa/aeuei?e a?oi?; iayai?noue
aenieiai ??aiy iioeaaoe?? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a;
iane/ai?noue ni?eeoaaiiy aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/aie; aeoea?caoe?y
ineoieia?/ieo ?aca?a?a iniaenoino? ye aeeeaaea/a, oae ? neooa/a o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?.

4. Caniaaie aeoea?caoe?? iaoai?ci?a naii?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino?
neooa/?a ? canai?iiy aeai?eoi?a aca?iiae?? a nenoai? «aeeeaaea/ —
neooa/» oa i?aai?caoe?y aeanii? eiai?oeaii? ae?yeueiino?. Iaoith
neooa/a, ui ?aae?co? aeai?eoi, ? na?aeiia iia?oaaiiy ciaiiyie oa
ai?iiyie ca?aeii iiaeae? c ianooiiith o?ainoi?iaoe??th oa oai?/ei
ia?aoai?aiiyi o aeanio eiai?oeaio ae?yeuei?noue. Aeeeaaea/o iaiao?aeii
caaacia/eoe oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth neooa/?a,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae.

5. Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae, yea
?ic?iaeaia o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaaea? iiaeeea?noue:

— ca aeaieo oiia aecia/eoe aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aiiy a nenoai? «aeeeaaea/ —
neooa/»;

— ca aeiiiiiaith oano?a ioe?ieoe, a oaeiae aoanooaaoe ina?oi?e ??aaiue
i?ia?aie, nooi?iue i?aeaioiaee neooa/a, aaeaiooaaoe ci?no oa ianya
iaa/aeueii? i?ia?aie aei ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae neooa/a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea cai?iiiiiaaii? aaoi?ii iaoiaeeee ioe?iee
aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy, i?iaaaeaia o aeaeyae? eiinoaooth/iai oa
oi?ioth/iai aeia?eiaio?a, aeinoaiuei aiaaiaii aeiaiaeeoue ??
aoaeoeai?noue.

Ioe?iea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii?
iiae aea? iiaeeea?noue noai?eoe iniiae iiaiai niiniao i?ioan?eii
i???ioiaaiiai ieneaiiy, ?icaeaa? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiee oai?/ee iioaioe?ae
neooa/a, nei?i/o? /an iaieiae?iiy iaiao?aeiei ia’?iii iaa/aeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith aeai?eoio aeoeaiiai iaa/aiiy ye iiaeae?
i?iaeooaaiiy iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano.

Aeinoia??i?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaa?oioiaai?noue
aeniiae?a caaacia/oaaeeny nenoaiiei oai?aoe/iei aiae?cii ieoaiiy,
a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iao? oa caaaeaiith;
aeei?enoaiiyi noaiaea?oeciaaieo iaoiaeee ineoiae?aaiinoeee, aae?aei?noue
? iaae?ei?noue yeeo aeiaaaeai?; ?aei?noth e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a ia?iaee.

Ia?niaeoeae aeine?aeaeaiiy a iaaeao nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeaie
i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? aeeeaaea/a ?iicaiii? iiae aaoco iieyaathoue o
iiooeo oeyo?a aei: i?aeaeuaiiy iaoiaee/iiai iioaioe?aeo aeeeaaea/a a
iiaeaethaaii? eo?no iaa/aeueii? aeenoeeie?ie; ?ice?eooy aioo??oi?o
ineoieia?/ieo ?aca?a?a iniaenoino? neooa/a ia ??ai? naiii?aai?caoe??;
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oa noai?aiiy ?
i?aaeiaoii-i???ioiaaieo ia?nii?o?eiaaieo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai,
?aae?caoe?y yeeo ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?ii? oaoi?ee,
aoae?i-a?coaeueieo cania?a; iaa?oiooaaiiy ye?nii iiaeo e?eoa???a oa
ia?aiao??a aoanoaoe?? neooa/a aaoco.

NIENIE IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. I?ioan?eii-iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue oa ??
ineoieia?/iee aniaeo//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 7, /. 2. —
Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1998. – N. 154-156.

2. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Ineoieia?/i? iniiae i?aeaioiaee oa i?iaaaeaiiy
caiyooy //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? 8, /. 2. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai
Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1999. – N. 166-168.

3. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Aioo??oi? ineoieia?/i? oaeoi?e ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa
aeeeaaea/a ? neooa/a o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
? 9, /. 2. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai Aeaaeai?? IAO, 1999. – N. 185-189.

4. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Aieea ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo
i?ioan?eii? iioeaaoe?? iaeaooiueiai niaoe?ae?noa ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano // A?niee Oaoiieia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Iiae?eey.
— 1999. — ? 4, /. 2. – N. 148-150.

5. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Aeoea?caoe?y ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? neooa/?a i?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio i?aeoiae? aei iaa/aiiy ?iicaii?e
iia?//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A. N.
Noaoaieea. – 1999. — ? 4. – N. 119-125.

6. Ea?iae?oa O. TH. I?aai?caoe?y oa oi?aae?iiy eieaeoeaieie oi?iaie
ae?yeueiino? ye oaeoi? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae
//Ineoieia?y: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — 2000. — ? 1. — N. 117-121.

Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Oeyoe iineeaiiy a?enueeiai-i?ioan?eii? ni?yiiaaiino?
iaa/aiiy neooa/?a o aaoc? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
«Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy aioiaiino? iaeaooi?o
io?oea??a-i?eei?aeiiiee?a aei i?ioan?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? o a?enueeao
ca?aeii c aeiiaaie eieaa?? Aea?aeeiiei?aeiio a?ae 09.07.98». —
Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai AIAO, 1998. — N. 45-46.

AIIOAOe??

Ea?iae?oa O. TH. Ineoieia?/i? oiiae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy
?iicaii?e iia? o a?enueeiaiio iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 20.02.02 — a?enueeiaa iaaeaaia?ea oa
ineoieia?y. — Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y I?eei?aeiiieo a?enuee Oe?a?ie ?i.
Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith ineoieia?/ieo oiia, ui ni?ythoue
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o a?enueeiaiio
iaa/aeueiiio caeeaae?. O aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyaea?oueny eiioi?eaoeaia
aca?iiae?y aeeeaaea/a c? neooa/ai ia ??ai? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa, yea noai?th? iiceoeaio iioeaaoe?th oa noeioeth?
?ioaeaeooaeueio aeoeai?noue neooa/?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? iaa?oioiaai?
eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioeano iaa/aiiy ia aac? eiai
?ioaineo?eaoe??, ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo i?aeaeuo?
aoaeoeai?noue iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??? oa
iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iaa/aiiy ?iicaiii? iiae o aaoc?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiioi?eaoeaia aca?iiae?y, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai, iioeaaoe?y,
?ioaeaeooaeueia aeoeai?noue, ?ioaineo?eaoe?y, aoaeoeai?noue

Karmalita T. Y. Psychological conditions of rise in effectiveness of
foreign language teaching at the higher military educational
establishment. — Manuscript.

This thesis is for taking a scientific degree of the Candidate of
Psychological Sciences on the speciality 20.02.02 — Military Pedagogics
and Psychology. The National Academy of the Borderguard Troops of
Ukraine named by Bohdan Khmelnitsky, Khmelnitsky, 2000.

The thesis is dedicated to the investigation of psychological
conditions influenced the rise in effectiveness of foreign language
teaching at the higher military educational establishment. Communicative
interaction between teacher and student on the psychological and
pedagogical cooperation level is analysed. This communicative
interaction creates positive motivation and stimulates students’
intellectual activity. Conceptual principles of teaching process
improvement on the basis of its intensification are substantiated.
Recommendations on the effectiveness of teaching process, criteria and
estimation methodology of teaching foreign language effectiveness at the
higher military educational establishment are worked out.

Key words: communicative interaction, cooperation, motivation,
intellectual activity, intensification, effectiveness.

Ea?iaeeoa O. TH. Ineoieiae/aneea oneiaey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo a aiaiiii o/aaiii caaaaeaiee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 20.02.02 — aiaiiay iaaeaaiaeea e ineoieiaey. —
Iaoeeiiaeueiay aeaaeaiey Iia?aie/iuo aiene Oe?aeiu ei. Aiaaeaia
Oiaeueieoeeiai, Oiaeueieoeeee, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth ineoieiae/aneeo oneiaee iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo a aaoca. A enneaaeiaaiee
?anniao?eaaaony ee/iinoii-aeayoaeueiinoiay eiiioieeaoeey i?aiiaeaaaoaey
e neooaoaey ia o?iaia ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa.

Aeaiiue oei acaeiiaeaenoaey iaeaaeaao aunieei noeioee?othuei niuneii, n
oi/ee c?aiey iioeaaoeee iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo, ?acaeaaao e
iai?aaeyao eioaeaeooaeueioth aeoeaiinoue iao/aaiiai ia nianoaaiioth
i?iaeoeoeaioth iiciaaaoaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue. I?ioeann oai?/aneie
naiiiai?aaeaiiinoe ee/iinoe iao/aaiiai aeieaeai oi?ie?iaaoueny ia iniiaa
niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiuo oaoiieiaee iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo,
ii?aaeaeythueo ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u iioeiecaoeee o/aaiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa, aaaeiaeoeie ec eioi?uo yaeythony o?iaaiue iioeaaoeee,
o?iaaiue oacao?ona e iieacaoaeue ineoieiai-i?ioanneiiaeueiie i?eaioaoeee
ee/iinoe.

Nooue iioeiaeueiie oaoiieiaee o/aaiiai i?ioeanna eiiioieeaoeaiie
iai?aaeaiiinoe ninoieo a i?eaioaoeee iao/aaiiai a i?eaiao e niiniaao
auiieiaiey oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee, aeey /aai e i?aaeiacia/ai aeai?eoi
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ii noaiiaeony yooaeoeaiui n?aaenoaii naiii?aaiecaoeee
iao/aaiiai, iaiaoiaeeiui eiiiiiaioii aai i?iaeoeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Iiaeaeue ineoieiae/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey «i?aiiaeaaaoaeue — neooaoaeue»
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeae i?iaeoeoeaiiai ni/aoaiey aeaoo oeiia
i?aaiecaoee i?ioeanna iao/aiey: onaiaiey aeai?eoia, caaeathuaai i?eaiu e
niiniau i?aaiecaoeee oinoaaiiuo aeaenoaee e iaoiaeaeaiey nianoaaiiiai
eiaieoeaiiai noeey aeayoaeueiinoe.

Inouanoaeaiea ea/anoaaiii iiaiai o?iaiy iiaeaioiaee niaoeeaeenoia aaoca
aiciiaeia i?e eioaineoeeaoeee i?ioeanna iao/aiey, aaea iioeaaoeey
yaeyaony iaeiia?aiaiii e oeaeueth, e niiniaii e ?acoeueoaoii iao/aiey.
?acoiiia ni/aoaiea aeai?eoie/aneeo e ya?enoe/aneeo aeaenoaee,
i?aaiecaoeey i?iaeoeoeaiiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iiaeaee «i?aiiaeaaaoaeue —
neooaoaeue» e oi?aaeaiea i?ioeannii iao/aiey yaeythony oeaeaiieaaathueie
oaeoi?aie iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe iao/aiey eiino?aiiiio ycueo, /oi
iiaeoaa?aeaeaaony ?acoeueoaoaie enneaaeiaaiey ia iniiaa iaoiaeeee
ioeaiee yooaeoeaiinoe o/aaiiai i?ioeanna, /oi eanaaony iao/aiey
eiino?aiiiio ycueo.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiay i?iaa?ea ?ac?aaioaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo e
iaoiaee/aneeo iieiaeaiee naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia eo aeinoaoi/ii aunieie
yooaeoeaiinoe i?e niaethaeaiee ninoaaeythueo ia?aiao?ia: ?anoe?aiea
ooieoeee i?aiiaeaaaoaey; i?aaiecaoeey i?aiiaeaaaoaeai niioaaonoaothuaai
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneiai eeeiaoa a o/aaiie a?oiia; iaee/ea aunieiai
o?iaiy iioeaaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe i?aiiaeaaaoaey e neooaoaey;
ianuuaiiinoue iauaiey i?aiiaeaaaoaey ni neooaoaeyie; aeoeaecaoeey
ineoieiae/aneeo ?aca?aia ee/iinoe eae i?aiiaeaaaoaey, oae e neooaoaey.

?aaeecaoeey aeaiiuo iieiaeaiee ii?aaeaeyao yooaeoeaiinoue i?ioeanna
iao/aiey, aai eioaineoeeaoeeth.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiioieeaoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea, nio?oaeie/anoai,
iioeaaoeey, eioaeeaeooaeueiay aeoeaiinoue, eioaineoeeaoeey,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

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