Просвітницька діяльність земств в Україні (кінець XIX — початок XX ст.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / О.І. Мармазова, Донец. держ. ун-т. — Донець

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia?iaciaa Ieueaa ?aai?aia

OAeE – 940.2

i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue

cainoa a oe?a?i?

(e?iaoeue O?O – ii/aoie OO no.)

07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, canooiiee aeaeaia
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo E?ai?a?i
Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?yaoeaa Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? aeey aoiai?oa?ieo
oaeoeueoao?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

O?iyi Ieeiea Iao?iae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – *a?eanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “18” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 ii i?enoaeaeaiith iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, Aie.ei?i., aoae.309.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “15” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?.Caaei?i?ianueeee

13

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?icaeoie iacaeaaeii?, aeiiii?/ii oa
iie?oe/ii naiino?eii? Oe?a?ie aenoaa? ia ia?oee ieai caaaeaiiy
oe??ieaiiy aea?aeaaiino?, ui iio?aao? ia?aaoaeiae i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ca?ac, a neeaaeiee iiiaio iaoi? ?noi???, aaaeeeai
caa?iooeny aei oaeeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye? caaacia/eee ?icaeoie a?eueoino? aaeocae i?noeaaiai
ainiiaea?noaa oa ni?eyee ye eoeueoo?iiio, oae ? aeiiii?/iiio
i?aeianaiith e?a?ie. Naia oaeeie i?aaiaie aoee cainoaa.

Caoeniooa a aaei?i?no?aoeai? eauaoa, cainoai c?iaeei na?e aianie aei
eoeueoo?iiai oa ainiiaea?nueei-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie. Cainueea
ae?yeuei?noue ioiiethaaea oe?iea eiei ieoaiue. Iaeiei c aieiaieo ??
iai?yie?a aoea i?ina?oieoeueea ?iaioa. Cainoaa aeieeaee aaaaoi coneeue
aei ?icaeoeo ina?oe, ienueiaiiino? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?.
Aacia?a/iee aianie cainueeeo a/eoae?a o ?iciianthaeaeaii? ciaiue.

Naia cainoai, ae??ooth/e ??ci? i?iaeaie ina?oe, iaeiie/eei iaaiee
aeina?ae ?iaioe ia i?noeyo, aeina?ae ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa i?noeaaeo e?e. Oiio ca?ac, eiee aeieeathoue
oneeaaeiaiiy a noa?? ina?oe, iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oeae aeina?ae.

A iao /an ia o?eueee ia?aaeeaeythoueny iiaeyaee uiaei i?noey oa ?ie?
cainueeeo onoaiia a aea?aeaaiiio ono?i? ?in??, aea e a?aeaea?oueny
iaeaaeia ?o aieeao ia ?icaeoie aeiiii?ee oa eoeueoo?e e?a?ie a
i?neyaeiaoiaaee ia??iae. Aacieaoi?noue ina?oe, oe?iea ia?aaea o/aiaeo
caeeaae?a ?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaae aoee caiice/ai? a cainoa. Ca?aene ae
aoee ia?aeiyo? e aioia? eaae?e niaoe?ae?no?a o noa?? ia?iaeii? ina?oe.
Ae?iaeai? cainoaaie i?eioeeie ono?ith oe?eueii? ni?aae
aeei?enoiaothoueny ? oaia?.

?noi??y cainoa a Oe?a?i? aena?oeea caeiiii??i?noue, yea iieyaa? a oiio,
ui oni?o ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?ai, ni?yiiaaieo ia noaa?eueiee ?icaeoie
?aa?ii?a ? e?a?ie acaaae?, ia ieaiii??ia cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueiiai,
aeiiii?/iiai, aeieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o, caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaith ae?enii?
o/ano? ianaeaiiy a naiia?yaeoaaii?, a oaeiae a?ae i?aeo?eiee oa
caoe?eaaeaiino? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a a eiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeina?ae ?noi??? aeiiiiaaa? c?icoi?oe i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
oaia??oi? /ane, oa /a?ac ?o ona?aeiieaiiy aecia/eoe iaae?eiee eo?n
aea?aeaaiiai ei?aaey. Oiio aea/aiiy ?noi??? cainoa, cie?aia ?o
i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, aeooaeueii a iaoeiaiio oa i?aeoe/iiio
?icoi?ii?.

Ia?aiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oaie, iaae yeith i?aoeth? eieaeoea
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (caoaa?aeaeaia I?i?noa?noaii
ina?oe Oe?a?ie i?ae caaaeueiith iacaith “?noi??y Aeiiaano” ca
?96-1aa/13).

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ina?oieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo onoaiia a Oe?a?i?, ai aea/aiiy ?? aeina?aeo
aaaeeeaa aeey nueiaiaeaiiy. A iaeiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyiooe on?
noa?e ae?yeueiino? cainoa ia iiaeeeai, oiio aaoi? aea?aea
i?ina?oieoeueeo aaeocue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee cainoaa a Oe?a?i?, ye? ?icai?ioee oe?ieo
ae?yeuei?noue a on?o aaeocyo i?noeaaiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui ni?eyei
oaeaeeiio ?icaeoeo oa caaacia/eei aeiiii?/ia oa eoeueoo?ia i?aeianaiiy
e?a?ie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeai? o?iiieia?/ieie ?aieaie
?nioaaiiy cainueeeo caeeaae?a (1864-1918 ??.).

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee. I?inoa?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue cainoa
?icaeyaea?oueny ia i?eeeaae? 4 aoaa?i?e E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, a naia:
Eaoa?eiineaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, *a?i?a?anueei? oa Iieoaanueei?. Ooo
cainuee? onoaiiae aoee cai?iaaaeaeai? a 1865-1866 ?ieao. Aaoi? o
aeine?aeaeaii? ia oi?ea?oueny aeaio aoaa?i?e Oa?niinueei? oa
Oaa??enueei?, aea cainuee? caeeaaee aoee noai?ai? o oeae aea /an, a
oaeiae aoaa?i?e I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie, aea cainoaa cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny
eeoa ia ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. ?icaeyioo? aoaa?i?? iaee noiae? ?ene a
aeiiii?/iiio, nioe?aeueiiio oa eoeueoo?iiio ?icaeoeo. I?ioa ?nioth/?
a?aei?iiino? iaoiiaeee aeaye? iniaeeaino? o ae??oaii? ieoaiue,
iia’ycaieo c ina?oith ia?iaeo, ui i?aee?aneth? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue
eiaeiiai cainoaa.

Iaoa aeane?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ina?oieoeueeo
ae?yeuei?noue cainoa a Oe?a?i?, aena?oeoe, c /iai neeaaeaeany oa a?ae
/iai caeaaeaea, iaaeaoe ?e ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeeeoiaai? caaaeueiith iaoith ?iaioe:

– aecia/eoe aieiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa;

– ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe cainueea ainiiaea?noai ii ina?o? ia?iaeo acaaae? oa
eiaeio c eiai aaeocae ie?aii;

– aeae?eeoe, ui caaaeueiiai oa iniaeeaiai aoei a i?ina?oieoeuee?e
ae?yeueiino? cainoa aoaa?i?e, ye? ?icaeyaea?ii;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe iane?aeee ae?yeueiino? cainoa, ?o cia/aiiy aeey
?icaeoeo ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa
iaoiae eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?noi?e/iiai iaoa??aeo, yeee ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, aeicaiey? ii?aeiaoe ??ci? caniae ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
(o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee,
eia?ei-aiae?oe/iee, oi?iaeueii-noaoenoe/iee, e?euee?niiai aiae?co), ia
ii?oooth/e i?eioeei?a ia’?eoeaiiai i?ciaiiy, oaiaeaioe?e ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo, ? ?acii c oei ia aiaaeath/e a iaeiia?/i?noue iiiioaeoi?ieo
iiaeyae?a ia ?noi?e/iee i?ioean.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e oa
ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ina?oieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? cainoa Eaoa?eiineaanueei?, Iieoaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei? oa
*a?i?a?anueei? aoaa?i?e, c?iaeaiee ?aoaeueiee aiae?c iae??ciiiai?oieo
noi??i oe??? ae?yeueiino?, iieacai? oiiae, a yeeo aiia i?ioiaeeea,
i?iaiae?ciaai? ?? iane?aeee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia iiaea noaoe
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaiai ooiaeaiaioo iie?oeee, yeo oi?io? ?
i?iaiaeeoue Oe?a?ia noiniaii i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ca?ac,
eiee ona?aeiieth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeyaeo i?aai?caoe?? onoaiia
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo cainoa
iaaiith i??ith iiaea aeiiiiiaoe o ae??oaii? ??cieo i?iaeai, cie?aia a
aaeoc? ina?oe.

C?a?aiee oa i?iaiae?ciaaiee iaoa??ae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee a
i?aeaioiaoe? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie e?ioey O?O –
ii/aoeo OO noie?oue, ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, o iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao aeey aeueo oa na?aaei?o
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ??ciiiai?oieo aeia?aeeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, a
niaoeeo?n? “I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue cainoa a Oe?a?i?”.

Ai?iaaoe?y oaie. Iieiaeaiiy oa iaai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a noaooyo, a oaeiae aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e. Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?aia ia can?aeaii?
eaoaae?e ?noi??? ia?iae?a ?in?? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
oa ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

NO?OEOO?A ? CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a (n?i
i?ae?icae?e?a), aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e
(200 iaca.), aeiaeaoe?a (18 oaaeeoeue, neeaaeaieo aaoi?ii).

O anooi? iaa?oioiaia aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai
i?aaeiao, iniaeeaino?, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, aeacaii ia iaoeiao iiaecio oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae oa oa?aeoa?enoeea aeaea?ae”
aena?oeth?oueny noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie ca
o?iiieia?/ii-i?iaeaiiei i?eioeeiii, iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia aaca
aeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai aeaea?aeueia aaca.

?noi??ia?ao?th i?iaeaie aaoi?ea oiiaii ?icae?eeea ia o?e ia??iaee.
Ia?oee – c iiiaioo cai?iaaaeaeaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia aei 1917 ?ieo.
I?ney ?aaiethoe?? aei na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a OO no. aea/aiiyi i?iaeai
cainueeeo caeeaae?a i?aeoe/ii ia caeiaeeny, oiio ae?oaee ia??iae – c
na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a aei 90-o ?ie?a, ? o?ao?e ia??iae – oea no/ania
oe?a?inueea oa ca?oa?aeia (ia?aaaaeii ?in?enueea) e?oa?aoo?a.

Iaeyae ?ia?o aei?aaiethoe?eieo aeine?aeiee?a, a oaeiae ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a c aeaii? i?iaeaie ?ice?eoi a noaooyo A.Aa?i?ce, ?.Ei?i?eiaa,
I.Ooi?eiaa Aa?ieca A.A. Caineay ?aoi?ia e cainoai a enoi?e/aneie
eeoa?aoo?a // Enoi?ey NNN?. – 1960. – ?5. – N.82-107; Ei?ieeia A.A.
I?iaeaiu enoi?ee cainoaa a enoi?e/aneie eeoa?aoo?a // Enoi?eia?aoe/aneee
nai?iee. – Na?aoia, 1978. – Aui.4(7). – N.52-71. Ooieeia I.I. Enoi?ey
cainoaa aoi?ay iieiaeia XIX aaea a o?oaeao niaaoneeo enoi?eeia //
Enoi?eia?aoey enoi?ee NNN?: i?iaeaiu i?aiiaeaaaiey e eco/aiey. –
Eaeeiei, 1985. – N.82-89. oa ?ioeo.

Ia?o? ?iaioe, i?enay/ai? cainoaai, c’yaeeeny c naiiai ii/aoeo ?o
ae?yeueiino?. Oea aoee iiiia?ao??, aeo?iaeuei? oa aacaoi? noaoo?. I?ioa
?ieiee aiie iineee eeoa ioae?oeenoe/iee oa aa?oaoe?eiee oa?aeoa? aai
iaee ca iaoo i?eaa?iooe oaaao noni?euenoaa aei cainoa. Aaoi?aie ?ia?o
aoee, aieiaiei /eiii, aeoeai? cainuee? ae?y/?.

Iaea?eueoa aeieeaaeii a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aea/ai? ia?o?
o?e aeanyoe??//y cainueei? ?noi???. Cia/ii iaioa niaoe?aeueii?
e?oa?aoo?e c ?noi??? inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y ?nioaaiiy cainoaa
(1905-1917 ??.).

Ae?yeuei?noue cainoa ii ina?o/aiith ia?iaeo a ie?aieo aoaa?i?yo a
aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ia ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy. Iaia? oaeiae
?ia?o, i?enay/aieo eiiieaeniiio aea/aiith ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo onoaiia
ca anth ?o ?noi??th. Oiio aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeieea ?noi???
cainoa ia? 4-o oiiia i?aoey A.A.Aanaeianueeiai. A ia?oiio oii? ?iaioe
a?aeia?aaeai? iaeaea an? aiee ae?yeueiino? cainoa a aaeoc? ia?iaeii?
ina?oe, iaaea?oueny aeoaea aaaaoi oaeoe/iiai, iniaeeai noaoenoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo Aanaeianeee A.A. Enoi?ey cainoaa ca ni?ie eao. – Nia., 1909. –
O.?. – 724 n..

Aaoi?e ?ia?o oeueiai ia??iaeo aeine?aeeee ??ci? iai?yiee
i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa a ?in?? a oe?eiio. Oae,
A.I.Aaooa?ia o nai?o i?aoeyo ?ic?iaethaaa ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? ?c
caaaeueiith oa iicaoe?eueiith ina?oith Iai?.: Aaooa?ia A.I. Anaiauaa
iao/aiea. – I., 1897. – 216 n.. A?i iaaaoeaii noaaeany aei o?yaeiai?
iie?oeee ?oneo?eaoe?? ie?a?i.

Iaeaea on? aiee cainueei? ae?yeueiino? ii ina?o? ia?iaeo ciaeoee
aena?oeaiiy a ?iaioao A.?.*a?iieonueeiai oa A.A.Oaeueai?ea Iai?.:
Oaeueai?e A.A. Anaiauaa ia?aciaaiea a ?innee. – I., 1908. – 212 n..
Oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae iathoue i?aoe? I.A.*aoiaa Iai?.: *aoia I.A.
Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea a ?innee a 60-o aa. O?O aaea. – I., 1912. – 224
n.. A iacaaieo i?aoeyo ?icaeyaea?oueny oaeiae cainueea ae?yeuei?noue a
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo.

?noi??ia?ao?y cainueeeo caeeaae?a nooo?ai iiiiaithaaeany a tha?eaei?
?iee Iai?.: Iyoeaeanyoeeaoea Aeaoa?eiineaaneiai aoaa?ineiai cainoaa
1866-1916 aa. – Aeaoa?eiineaa., 1916. – 31 n.. I?ioa oe? aeaeaiiy
no?aaeaeaee iaeiia?/i?noth.

I?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie aea/aiith a aei?aaiethoe?ei?e ?noi??ia?ao??
i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui a oeae
ia??iae a?aeaoeiny ca?iaeaeaiiy e noaiiaeaiiy ?ic?iaee oeueiai
aaaeeeaiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo. A ?noi?e/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aoei c?iaeaii
ni?iao iaaeaoe ioe?ieo, i?aaaea ia caaaeaee ia’?eoeaio, ?ie? cainoa a
ina?/aii? ia?iaeo. ? oi/a ia aoei ?ia?o, ye? ?ice?eaaee i?ina?oieoeueeo
ae?yeuei?noue cainoa ie?aieo aoaa?i?e, cie?aia oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e,
aea aeo?aeia aaca aeey aeeaiei? ?ic?iaee aeaiiai ieoaiiy aaea aoea
noai?aia.

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaiaie cainueeeo caeeaae?a i?aeoe/ii ia
caeiaeeny aei na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a. Ia?oith aeeoea ?iaioa A.A.Aa?i?ce
Aa?ieca A.A. – Iiaeaioiaea caineie ?aoi?iu. – I., 1957. – 236 n..
I?ci?oa aeoiaeeoue iiiia?ao?y E.A.Caoa?iai? Caoa?iaa E.A. Caineay
eiio??aoi?ia 1890 a. – I., 1968. – 156 n.. Oe? aeaeaiiy aoee i?enay/ai?
i?iaeaiai oaaaeaiiy cainoa, ?oi?i aca?iia?aeiioaiiyi c o?yaeii,
i?aaiaiiyi inoaiiueiai iaiaaeeoe iiaeeeaino? i?aai?a i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?ina?oieoeueeith ae?yeuei?noth
cainoa eeoa ii?oooaaeeny.

A ?yae? ocaaaeueithth/eo ?ia?o ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ina?oe a
oe?eiio a ?in??, a oaeiae ? a Oe?a?i? Iai?.: I/a?ee enoi?ee oeieu e
iaaeaaiae/aneie iunee ia?iaeia NNN? aoi?. iie. XIX aaea. – I., 1976. –
600 n.. I?ioa oe? ?iaioe iaee ca iaoo eeoa iaaeaoe caaaeueiee ia?en
i?iaeaie, aeoeaiooaaoe ?? cia/aiiy oa i?eaa?iooe aei ia? oaaao
aeine?aeiee?a.

Nooo?aei aianeii a ?aaeyinueeo ?noi??ia?ao?th cainoa noaee ?iaioe
I.I.I??oiiai?, aea aena?oeththoueny oeyoe oa oiiae noai?aiiy cainueei?
oeiee, cainuee? eo?ne oa c’?caee aeey i?aeaioiaee cainueeeo o/eoae?a,
neeaae o/eoae?a ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O no., ?o noaiiaeua,
a?iiaaenueea ae?yeuei?nouea ?in?? a oe?eiio, ? cie?aia a oe?a?inueeeo
aoaa?i?yo Ie?oiiaa I.I. Caineay eioaeeeaaioeey e aa ?ieue a iauanoaaiiie
ai?ueaa aei ia/aea OO a. – I., 1985 – 269 n..

Caoe?eaaeaii?noue aeeeeea? noaooy Iaeeaeiai? ?.TH., yea i?enay/aia
cainueeei eeiiioaiiyi ye aeaea?aea c ?noi??? oeiee oa
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee Iaeeaeeiaa E.TH. Caineea oiaeaoaenoaa
eae enoi/iee ii enoi?ee oeieu e iauanoaaiii-iaaeaaiae/aneiai aeaeaeaiey
a ?innee ao. iie. XIX – ia/aea OO aa. (ii iaoa?eaeai OeAEA NNN?) //
Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea e iaaeaaiae/aneay iuneue ?innee eaioia e ia/aea
eiia?eaeecia. – I., 1980. – N.239-276..

C ?ia?o inoaii?o ?ie?a aacoiiaiee ?ioa?an iathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy
A.I.Aa?aneiaiea, ye? oe?ii? ia eeoa i?iaiae?ciaaiei iaoa??aeii c ?noi???
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aea ? a?aeia?aaeaiiyi oeo ci?i, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a iiaeyaeao ia i?iaeaio cainoaa a no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao??
Aa?aneiaiei A.A. Caineia naiioi?aaeaiea a ?innee. – I., 1990. – 170 n..

A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia ?iaioai caaaeaieo aaoi??a, ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui
aiie eeoa ii?ooothoue ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?ina?oieoeueeith
ae?yeuei?noth ie?aieo cainoa.

A inoaii?e /an ii/aeiny aea/aiiy oiai, /ei aeania aoee cainoaa. O ?yae?
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue c’yaeeeny noaoo? I.I.I??oiiai?, O.A.Iao?iaa
Ie?oiiaa I.I. “Aeueoa?iaoeaa”. Ia enoi?ee iiyaeaiey cainoa a ?innee, eo
aeaeao e aiciiaeiinoyo // ?iaeeia. – 1992. – ?8-9. – N.24-26.

Iao?ia O.A. Cainei-eeaa?aeueiua i?iaeou ia?aono?ienoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
o/?aaeaeaiee a ?innee a eiioea 70-o – ia/aea 80-o aa. XIX aaea //
Ioa/anoaaiiay enoi?ey. – 1993. – ?4. – N.32-37.. A 1995 ?ioe? aeeoea
?iaioa I.A.Ei?ieueiai?, aea ? ?icae?e, i?enay/aiee ae?yeueiino? cainoa
ii ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe a ?in??, a oaeiae a oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo
Ei?ieaaa A.A. Cainoai ia ia?aeiia (1905-1907). – I., 1995. – 236 n..

Ia Oe?a?i? aoei i?iaaaeaii eeoa aeae?eueea aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi???
cainoaa, aea a?aeia?aaeaii nioe?aeueiee noai, aea/aii athaeaeao ?
i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue cainoa Iai?.: Nanae E.A. Caineea o/?aaeaeaiey
i?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeiu (1904-1917): Aaoi?ao. aeen. … eaiae. eno. iaoe. –
Eueaia, 1987.

Eaoiaoiaa A.E. Aeaoa?eiineaaneia cainoai: nioeeaeueiue ninoaa,
athaeaeao e i?aeoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue (1866-1913): Aaoi?ao. aeen. …
eaiae. eno. iaoe. – Caii?iaeuea, 1994.. Iaiao?aeii aeae?eeoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.I.Aoca, i?enay/aia eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ae?yeueiino?
cainoa a Oe?a?i? (E?aiaa?aaeaey) Aoc A.I. Eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiy
ae?yeuei?noue cainoa a Oe?a?i?: Aaoi?ao. aeen. … eaiae. eno. iaoe. –
Eeaa, 1997.. Ooo i?inoaaeaia e?euee?nia oa ye?nia c?inoaiiy cainueeeo
ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, aiae?co?oueny ?iaioa cainueeeo onoaiia iica oeieith, a
naia, noai?aiiy eieaeeiaeo neeaae?a, a?ae?ioae-/eoaeaiue, ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue, iieaco?oueny cia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? cainoa o i?ioean?
eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?. I?ioa ia ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy
cainueea ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia iie?auaiiy neeaaeo a/eoae?a
cainueeeo oe?e, ia ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ina?oe, ia iaaeaia iiaia ea?oeia iicaoe?eueii?
ae?yeueiino? cainoa, e??i oiai, ia aena?oeai? iniaeeaino? ae?yeueiino?
eiaeii? cainueei? oi?aae aoaa?i?e, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny.

Caneoaiao? oaaae aeine?aeaeaiiy I.Eaeeie/aiea oa AE.?.?eue/aiea
Eaeeie/aiei I., ?eue/aiei AE. ?ieue cainoa o ai?iaaaeaeaii? iaa/aiiy
??aeiith iiaith a ia?iaei?e oeie? Oe?a?ie// Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee
aeo?iae. – 1994. – ?1. – N.72-82.. O nai?e noaoo? aiie iaiaaathoueny
aecia/eoe ?ieue cainoa o ai?iaaaeaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iiae a ii/aoeiaeo
oeieao Oe?a?ie.

Ioaea, ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?iaeaia i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
cainoa aea/aia yaii iaaeinoaoiuei. Aei iaoiai /ano iaia? a?oioiaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo ae?yeueiino? cainoa ii ina?o/aiith ia?iaeo a
Oe?a?i?, a iniaeeai a ie?aieo aoaa?i?yo.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea
a?oi.

*anoeia cainueeeo aeieoiaio?a ia aeaeaaaeany, oiio aeena?oaioea
aeei?enoaea iaoa??aee aeae?eueeio a?oea?a. Aoee ii?aoeueiaai? iaoa??aee
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao, oiiae 110 Ia??oiieuenueei? iia?oiai?
oi?aae, aea i?noyoueny a?aeiiino? i?i ae?yeuei?noue oi?aae a
i?aai?caoe?? ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, i?i ?o aca?iia?aeiioaiiy c naeyinueeeie
noiaeaie oa o.?.

O Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Iieoaanueei? iaeano? ?icaeyioo? oiiaee:
aoaa?inueei? cainueei? oi?aae (O.723) oa aeayeeo ?ioeo iia?oiaeo oi?aa
(Ie?ai?iaenueei? iia?oiai? cainueei? oi?aae (O.610) oa Ie?yoeinueei?
iia?oiai? cainueei? oi?aae (O.828)).

Aaoi?ea ii?aoethaaea iaoa??aee Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?:
oiiae 304 – Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainueea oi?aaa, aea ? a?aeiiino? ii
a?aeae?eo ia?iaeii? ina?oe oi?aae c 1904 ii 1918 ??.; oiiae 266 –
Eaioeaey??y aee?aeoi?a ia?iaeieo o/eeeu, aea ? ??ciiiai?oia ?ioi?iaoe?y
noiniaii a/eoae?a cainueeeo o/eeeu, eieeaaiiy /enaeueiino? cainueeeo
oe?e, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii? ina?oe oa aaaaoi ?ioiai, oiiae 635 –
Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea o/eeeuia ?aaea.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie aeei?enoai?
oiiaee: 442 – Eaioeaey??y Ee?anueeiai, Iiaeieuenueeiai oa Aieeinueeiai
aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a, 707 – Oi?aae?iiy iiia/eoaey Ee?anueeiai o/aiaiai
ie?oao, 1439 – *a?i?a?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aeaiaea?inueeiai oi?aae?iiy,
1680 – Eaioeaey??y Oa?e?anueeiai ?iniaeoi?a o ni?aaao ae?oeo. Aeieoiaioe
oeeo oiiae?a i?noyoue ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei ieai?a aeayeeo aoaa?inueeeo
cainoa a ni?aa? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, uiaei noai?aiiy ??cieo ath?i a?ey
oi?aa, ni?yiiaaieo ia ciaioaiiy aieeao cainoa oa o.?.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? ?in?? aeei?enoaiee
oiiae 733 Aeaia?oaiaioa ia?iaeii? ina?oe, o yeiio i?noyoueny cainuee?
eeiiioaiiy, ye?, ye aeaea?aei c ?noi??? oeiee oa
a?iiaaenueei-iaaeaaia?/ii? aeoiee, aeicaieythoue iiaeeaeoe oyaeaiiy
noiniaii ae?yeueiino? cainoa, oeo ii/eiaiue, ye? ia aoee cae?eniai?
/a?ac iaiaaeaiiy ?o ae?yeueiino? o?yaeii.

Aaaeeeao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaee io?oe?ei? aeieoiaioe, oee?eoey?e,
?icii?yaeaeaiiy aei ieo.

Ua iaeio, ia iaio aaaeeeao a?oio ia?oiaeaea?ae noaiiaeyoue aeo?iaee
aoaa?inueeeo oa iia?oiaeo cainueeeo c?a?aiue, ca?oe, iinoaiiae,
aeiiia?ae? oa o.?. O aeo?iaeao cainueeeo c?a?aiue ae?oeoaaeeny
noaiia?aie i?aeoe/ii aac nei?i/aiue. Aiie i?noyoue o nia? caien aenooi?a
aieinieo, o?enothoue i?ioean ae?iaeaiiy ??oaiue, ia?aaeathoue aiioe?eia
iai?oaeaiiy cainueeeo c?a?aiue. Oea aeoaea o?oaeii?noea, aea aeeaa oa
ia’?eoeaia aeaea?aei, yea a?aeia?aaea? oaanue niaeo? noia?a/ie ia
c?a?aiiyo. Ca?oe cainueeeo cai??a – iaeaea iaaea/aiee eiiieaen
aeieoiaio?a, iciaeiieaiiy c yeeie aea? iiaeeea?noue oieeiooe aano?aeoieo
i??eoaaiue oa aeniiae?a noiniaii cainoaa acaaae?. Aiie a?aeia?aaeathoue
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue eiaeiiai cainoaa o ae??oaii? ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c
ina?oith ia?iaeo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoai? ??ciiiai?oi? noaoenoe/i? aeaea?aea. Oae,
“Iaeiiaeiaaiay ia?aienue ia/aeueiuo oeie a eiia?ee, i?iecaaaeaiiay 18
yiaa?y 1911 aiaea”, aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe ?icaeoie nenoaie ii/aoeiai?
ia?iaeii? ina?oe o aoaa?i?yo, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny, oa i?noeoue
??ciiiai?ooy a?aeiiinoae uiaei e?eueeino? oa ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo
oe?e. Aiae?cothoueny ??ci? noaoenoe/i? aeia?aeieee, ye? aeaeaaaeeny
aoaa?inueeeie noaoenoe/ieie eii?oaoaie, eio?? aeieeathoue a
*a?i?a?anuee?e aoaa?i?? a 1876 ?ioe?, a Oa?e?anuee?e – 1880, a
Iieoaanuee?e – 1882, a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e – 1883.

Oaeiae aeena?oaioea iciaeiieeany c iaoa??aeaie cainueeeo ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue, ye? a ??ci? ?iee ae?oeoaaee cainoaa, a naia: aacaoa “Cainoai”,
“Ca??ieee *a?i?a?anueeiai ? Oa?niinueeiai cainoa”, “A?niee
Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai oa Oaa??enueeiai cainoa” oa ?io?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?oiaeaea?ae aeicaieeee ??ciia?/ii i?ae?eoe aei aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie cainueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ? a iaai?e i??? c?icoi?oe o? /e
?io? e?iee, c?iaeai? cainoaaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “?icaeoie cainoaaie nenoaie ii/aoeiai?, i?ioan?eii?
oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ina?oe” aeae?eaii /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ee.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Ae?yeuei?noue cainueeeo oi?aa a aaeoc?
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe” ?icaeyiooi, ye ?icai?oaeany oa ye? nai???aei? aoaie o
nai?io ?icaeoeo i?ioiaeeea cainueea ?iaioa ii cai?iaaaeaeaiith
ii/aoeiai? ina?oe a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, ye? ia?aoeiaee aiia
cono??/aea ia nai?io oeyoo, i?iaiae?ciaai? cainuee? aeo?aoe ia ia?iaeio
ina?oo, c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? cainueeeo oe?e oa o/i?a a ieo, aena?oeaia
i?aaiaiiy cainoa uiaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy caaaeueii? ina?oe, ?o eeiiioaiiy
noiniaii aeica?eo ia canoinoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a oeieao.

O oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui c ii/aoeo ?nioaaiiy i?aai?a
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy aoaa?inuee? cainoaa a?ae?a?aaaee iacia/io
?ieue a ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe. ?i?oe?aoeao acyee ia naaa iia?oia?
cainoaa. ? eeoa c 90-o ??. O?O no. ?icaeyioo? aoaa?inuee? cainoaa
ii/eiathoue aae?ania aeae?eaiiy eioo ia ia?iaeio ina?oo.

Aeo?aoe ia ina?o/aiiy ia?iaeo c?inee, ca i?ae?aooieaie aaoi?a, a
Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? c 1871 ii 1911 ??. ia 88%, a Oa?e?anuee?e –
c 1871 ii 1903 – ia 93%, a *a?i?a?anuee?e – c 1871 ii 1903 – ia 90%, a
Iieoaanuee?e – c 1871 ii 1908 – ia 96%.

A aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeyiooi, eoaee aeo?a/eeeny eiooe, ye? aeae?eyee
cainoaa ia ia?iaeio ina?oo.

E?euee?noue cainueeeo oe?e o na?aaeiueiio ui??/ii c?inoaea, ca
i?ae?aooieaie aaoi?a, a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? c 1877 ii 1912 ??.
ia 30 oe?e, a Oa?e?anuee?e – c 1865 ii 1911 ia 18, a Iieoaanuee?e – c
1868 ii 1907 ia 17, a *a?i?a?anuee?e – c 1869 ii 1911 ia 37. A?eueo?noue
oe?e aoee c o?ueio??/iei no?ieii iaa/aiiy oa iaee aeani? i?ei?uaiiy.

*enaeuei?noue o/i?a a cainueeeo oeieao, ca i?ae?aooieaie aaoi?a, c?inea
a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? c 1896 ii 1911 ??. ia 73%, a Iieoaanuee?e
– c 1868 ii 1907 ia 85%, a Oa?e?anuee?e – c 1865 ii 1911 ia 84%, a
*a?i?a?anuee?e – c 1869 ii 1911 ia 93%. *anoea ae?a/ao na?aae o/i?a
caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? cainoa c?inoaea, aea caeeoaeany iaaeinoaoiueith ?
neeaaeaea a 1911 ?ioe? a na?aaeiueiio 30%.

Oaeiae a i?ae?icae?e? ?icayeaaea?oueny o/anoue cainoa o iaaiai?thaaii?
ieoaiiy noiniaii aaaaeaiiy caaaeueii? ina?oe. A eiaei?e aoaa?i??
?ic?iaethaaeeny ieaie oe?eueii? ia?aae?. E??i oiai, cainoaa eeiiioaee
i?i aaaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae a oeiee, oi/a o?yae ia aeaa ia oea
aeicaieo.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?eeoaaiiy cainoa i?i o/eoaeuenuee? eaae?e”
aena?oeth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue cainoa, ni?yiiaaia ia ca?eueoaiiy
e?eueeino? o/eoae?a, ia i?aeaeuaiiy ?o i?ioan?eiiai oa
caaaeueiiina?oiueiai ??aiy, ia iie?auaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua. E??i
oiai, ?icaeyaeathoueny ae?? o?yaeo, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeaee oe?e ae?yeueiino?
cainoa.

E?euee?noue o/eoae?a, ca i?ae?aooieaie aaoi?a, c 1896 ii 1911 ??. c?inea
a *a?i?a?anuee?e aoaa?i?? a 1,7 ?aco, a Oa?e?anuee?e – a 2,2 ?aco, a
Iieoaanuee?e – 1,8, a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e – 3,5. Ieoaiiy i?i
oeiiieaeooaaiiy oe?e o/eoaeuenueeeie eaae?aie ciaoiaeeeiny o aaaeai?
cainoa. Caneoaa caeo/aiiy aei ni?aae o/eoaeuenoaa a ia?iaei?e oeie?
ae?iie iaeaaeaea cainoaai, ai aei?aoi?iaia oeiea o/eoaeueie iaeaea ia
ciaea. A 90-o? ??. O?O no. a aoaa?i?yo, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny, /anoea
o/eoaeueie na?aae aeeeaaea/?a a na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea 43,5%, a 1911 –
58%.

A i?ae?icae?e? iaaea?oueny aeaoaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea neeaaeo o/eoae?a
cainueeeo oe?e ii aoaa?i?yo. A na?aaeiueiio a?eueo?noue o/eoae?a oa
o/eoaeueie iaeaaeaea aei iieiae? (a?ae 20 aei 30 ?ie?a – i?eaeecii 50%).
Ca nioe?aeueiei iioiaeaeaiiyi aiie aoee aeo?aeoeyie c ae?oae naeyi oa
aeoo?aieoeoaa. Na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? noaiiaeea
8-11 ?ie?a o a/eoae?a, 7-8 ?ie?a o a/eoaeueie.

I?aeaioiaea a/eoae?a cae?enithaaeany cainoaaie a cainueeeo
o/eoaeuenueeeo nai?ia??yo oa oeieao, iaaeaiiyi eioo ia oo?eiaiiy
noeiaiae?ao?a, ye aoaa?inueeeo, oae ? iia?oiaeo oi?aa, a o?yaeiaeo
o/eoaeuenueeeo nai?ia??yo, a o/eoaeuenueeeo ?inoeoooao.

Aeae? aaoi?ea coieiy?oueny ia ae?yeueiino? cainoa, ni?yiiaai?e ia
i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueiiai oa i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy o/eoae?a. C oe??th iaoith
i?iaiaeeeeny o/eoaeuenuee? c’?caee oa eo?ne (nii/aoeo iaaeaaia?/i?,
iio?i caaaeueiiina?oi?). O/eoaeuenuee? c’?caee a?aeaoaaeeny c 1867 ii
1874 ??., ciiao ?o ae?yeuei?noue iiiiaeth?oueny a na?aaeei? 90-o ??.
Iaaeaaia?/i? eo?ne a?aeaoaaeeny c 1875 ?ieo a Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i??
(ui??/ii a o?ueio iia?oao) oa *a?i?a?anuee?e (ui??/ii a i’yoe iia?oao),
c 1867 – a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e, c 1878 – Oa?e?anuee?e. Ia ii/aoeo OO no.
?o cai?iththoue caaaeueiiina?oi? eo?ne.

A i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny ae?yeuei?noue iaaeaaia?/ieo a?ae?ioae
aeey o/eoae?a.

Caaaeyee ae?yeueiino? cainoa, ye cacia/a?oueny aaoi?ii, ye?nii
iie?aueany iaaeaaia?/iee neeaae oe?e. Aeinoaoith i?aeaioiaeo aeey ?iaioe
a oeie? iaee a/eoae?: a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? – 66% a?ae
caaaeueii? e?eueeino?, a Iieoaanuee?e – 47%, a Oa?e?anuee?e – 47%, a
*a?i?a?anuee?e – 44,5% (ca i?ae?aooieaie aaoi?a).

Inoaii?i ieoaiiyi, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny a aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e?, aoea
oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa??aeueiiai noaiiaeua o/eoae?a oa aena?oeaiiy ??cieo
caoiae?a cainoa, ni?yiiaaieo ia eiai iie?auaiiy.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?y cainoaaie ieae/iai ?ai?nie/iai
iaa/aiiy” aena?oeth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue cainoa, a eiaei?e c ?icaeyaeaieo
aoaa?i?e ie?aii, ui aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe. Aiia aeyaeeany o a?aee?eoo? ieae/eo oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu, ?ai?nie/eo
a?aeae?eaiue oa eean?a a?ey ii/aoeiaeo oe?e, a oaeiae ieae/eo ?ai?nie/eo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ii/eiathoue a?aee?eaaoeny oe? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee c 80-o ??. O?O no. Ii
aoaa?i?yo aiie ?iciiae?eyeeny oaeei /eiii (ia ii/aoie 1911 ?ieo): a
Oa?e?anuee?e – 12 (?ai?nie/? o/eeeua), a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e – 7 (3 –
?ai?nie/? o/eeeua, 2 ?ai?nie/? oeiee oa 1 ae?ii/a i?io. oeiea), a
*a?i?a?anuee?e – (2 ?ai?nie/eo o/eeeua oa 5 ?ai?nie/eo oe?e), a
Iieoaanuee?e – 10 (na?aae ieo 1 ieae/a oaoi?/ia o/eeaua, 1 ?ai?nie/a
oeiea, Iieoaanueea ?ai?nie/a o/eeeua). Onueiai ia?aoiaoaaeiny aei 1910
?ieo 28 ieae/eo ?ai?nie/eo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. E??i oiai, iaea?eueoa
eioo?a ia i?ioan?eio ina?oo aeo?a/aee Iieoaanueea oa Eaoa?eiineaanueea
cainoaa.

A i?ae?icae?e? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?ai?nie/? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee a
aoaa?i?yo. Iaa/aiiy ooo aoei, caeaa?eueoa, aaceiooiaiei. Eeoa a aeayeeo
o/eeeuao cae?aeany ieaoiy a ?ici??? a?ae 5 aei 20 ea?a. Aeeeaaeaiiy
caaaeueiiina?oi?o i?aaeiao?a ia ia?aaeuoaaei eo?n aeaieeanieo ia?iaeieo
o/eeeu, aea/aiiy ?aianea caiaeeeiny aei i?aeoe/iiai canai?iiy niinia?a
oa iaaee?a a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa.

Cia/ia /anoeia aeioneiee?a cainueeeo ?ai?nie/eo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
i?aoethaaea a i?iieneiaino?.

Ua iaeiei ieoaiiyi, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?ae?icae?e?, ? a?aee?eooy
cainoaaie ?ai?nie/eo a?aeae?eaiue oa eean?a. Aei 1911 ?ieo ?o /enei a
aoaa?i?yo aoei oaeei: a Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i?? cainoai i?aai?coaaei
aeeeaaeaiiy ?aianea a 6 ii/aoeiaeo oeieao, o?iee ?oeiae?eey – a?ey 246,
a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e – ?o/ia i?aoey oa ?oeiae?eey aeeeaaeaeiny a 146
ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeuao, a Oa?e?anuee?e – ?aianei aeeeaaeaeiny a 33 oeieao,
?oeiae?eey a 339, a *a?i?a?anuee?e – a?aeiia?aeii, a 12 oa 94. Ooai?ai?
?ai?nie/? a?aeae?eaiiy oa eeane caeo/aee ae?oae aei ??cieo ?aianae, aei
?iaioe a i?iieneiaino?.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “?iciianthaeaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
ciaiue na?aae ianaeaiiy cainueeeie oi?aaaie” oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?iaioa
aoaa?inueeeo oa aeayeeo iia?oiaeo cainoa ii a?aee?eooth
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oe?e oa o/eeeu, i?aai?caoe?y caiyoue ii
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noao a?ey ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu, aeine?aeieo naae?a oa
ai?iae?a, i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eo?n?a, a?aee?eooy oe?e naae?aieoeoaa oa
ai?iaeieoeoaa, oeaoooaaiiy ??cieo aenoaaie ii n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noao, ooai?aiiy neeaae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo cia?yaeue.

A i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny noai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ina?oe a
eiaei?e aoaa?i??. Eaoa?eiineaanueea aoaa?inueea cainoai iaaeaaaei eiooe
aeey Aa?oi?aei?i?ianueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai o/eeeua.
Iieoaanueea aoaa?inueea cainoai ?acii c iia?oiaeie aei 1910 ?ieo
a?aee?eei 5 n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oe?e. *a?a?i?anueea aoaa?inueea
cainoai, yea nii/aoeo iaaaoeaii a?aeiineeiny aei ?aea? a?aee?eooy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oe?e, c 90-o ??. O?O no. iaaea? eiooe aeey 2
ae?th/eo oe?e. Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainoai, ?acii c iia?oiaeie
oaeiae aeae?eyei aneaioaaiiy aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oe?e
aoaa?i??.

Aeae? a i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei i?aai?caoe??
cainoaaie caiyoue c n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a?ey ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu. A
1911 ?ioe? oae? caiyooy a?aeaoaaeeny a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? i?e
80 ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeuao, a Iieoaanuee?e – i?i 37, a *a?i?a?anuee?e – i?e
32, a Oa?e?anuee?e – i?e 67. A?eueo?noue cainueeeo oe?e iaee aeine?aei?
naaee oa ai?iaee.

Aaoi? coieiy?oueny oaeiae ia ?ioeo caoiaeao cainoa, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ciaiue na?aae ianaeaiiy.
Oae, a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? eiei aeae?eueeio o/eeeu aoee
i?aai?ciaai? niaoe?aeuei? a?aeae?eaiiy c n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.
I?iaiaeeeeny ei?ioeioa?i?iia? eo?ne. A Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i?? aei 1910
?ieo aoei a?aee?eoi 3 oeiee naae?aieoeoaa oa ai?iaeieoeoaa. A
Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i?? i?iaiaeeeeny eo?ne aeey o/eoae?a ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu
c naae?aieoeoaa, ai?iaeieoeoaa oa aaeae?eueieoeoaa. *a?i?a?anueea
aoaa?inueea oi?aaa iaaeneeaea aei oeeo eo?n?a nai?o i?aaenoaaiee?a. A
aoaa?i?yo aneaioaaiiy a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo ina?oo neeaaeaee
i?eaeecii iieiaeio on?o aeo?ao ia i?ioan?eio ina?oo.

Ie?aia i?noea a i?ae?icae?e? a?aeaaaeaii i?aai?caoe?? cainoaaie neeaae?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai cia?yaeaey, ?o ae?yeueiino? oa cia/aiith.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Ae?yeuei?noue cainoa a noa?? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe”
o?e i?ae?icae?ee.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Cainueea a?ae?ioa/ia ni?aaa oa eieaeeia?
neeaaee” ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ?icaeoeii cainueei?
a?ae?ioa/ii? ni?aae a aoaa?i?yo, ae?yie o?yaeo, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeaee
?iaio? cainoa, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ae?yeuei?noue naieo a?ae?ioae, ?o noai,
i?iaeaie, a oaeiae i?aai?caoe?y cainueeeo eieaeeiaeo neeaae?a, ?o
cia/aiiy.

Nii/aoeo a i?ae?icae?e? aena?oeth?oueny oa, ye ?icai?oaeany cainueea
a?ae?ioa/ia ni?aaa. Aoaa?inuee? oi?aae aei 90-o ??. O?O no. iaaeaaaee
eiooe a ?icii?yaeaeaiiy ??cieo i?noeaaeo oiaa?enoa, ia i?eeiath/e
aaciina?aaeiuei? o/ano? a i?aai?caoe?? ia?iaeieo a?ae?ioae.
Eaoa?eiineaanueea aoaa?inueea cainoai aeae?ey? a 1897 ?ieo ii 500 ea?a.
ia eiaeiee iia?o ui??/ii aeey a?aee?eooy aeaio iiaeo
a?ae?ioae-/eoaeaiue. Iieoaanueea c 1896 ?ieo aneaio? ii 125 ea?a.
ui??/ii aeey iia?o?a ca oiiaith iaaeaiiy ieie oaei? ae noie aeey
a?aee?eooy a?a?e?ioae. *a?i?a?anueea c 1894 ?ieo ooai?th? oiiae aeaea/e
aeiiiiiae aeey i?aai?caoe?? ia?iaeieo a?ae?ioae ? an? iia?oia? cainoaa
iaee ciiao ei?enooaaoeny iei ii 1 oen. ia ??e (aiie iiaeii? aoee
aneaioaaoe iaeiaeiao noio). Oey aeiiiiiaa iaaeaaaeany aei 1910 ?ieo. ?
eeoa a 1916 ?ioe? *a?i?a?anueea cainoai ?ic?iaeth? ieai ia?aae?
a?ae?ioae a on?e aoaa?i??. Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea cainoai c?iaeei
ia?oee e?ie o ?icaeoeo a?ae?ioa/ii? ni?aae a 1905 ?ioe?,
cai?iaaaeaeoth/e iinaaeo caa?aeoth/iai iicaoe?eueiith ina?oith a
aoaa?i??. A c 1906 ii 1908 ?iee ?ic?iaeth?oueny ieai ei??iii?
?ai?aai?caoe?? a?ae?ioa/ii? ia?aae? a aoaa?i??.

Ie?aia i?noea a i?ae?icae?e? caeia? oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?yeueiino? naieo
a?ae?ioae, ?o noaio, i?iaeai.

Cainoaa oaeiae aeiiiiaaaee a i?aai?caoe?? ioae?/ieo a?ae?ioae,
a?aee?eaaee a?ey o/eeeu a?ae?ioaee aeey o/i?a ? a/eoae?a. A na?aaeiueiio
i?eaeecii 70% oe?e iaee o/i?anuee? oa 45-50% a?ae?ioaee aeey
aeeeaaea/?a. Aoaa?inuee? cainuee? oi?aae i?aaioee noai?eoe ia?aaeo
oeaio?aeueieo ?aeiiieo a?ae?ioae aeey a/eoae?a.

Inoaii?i ieoaiiyi, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?ae?icae?e?, ? i?aai?caoe?y
cainoaaie eieaeeiaeo neeaae?a, ye? ?iaeee aeia?o eieao aeinooiiith,
caaeiaieueiyee c?inoath/o iio?aao a iicaoe?eueiiio /eoaii?. A
Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e oa *a?i?a?anuee?e aoaa?i?yo eieaeeia?
neeaaee iaeaaeaee aei oae caaii? oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie –
oeaio?aeueiee eieaeeiaee neeaae a?ey aoaa?inueei? oi?aae oa a?aeae?eaiiy
a iia?oao. A Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i?? ia ?nioaaei aieiaiiai oeaio?aeueiiai
aoaa?inueeiai eieaeeiaiai neeaaeo, a aoee aaeee? oa naiino?ei? neeaaee a
iia?oao.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “Oeiee oa eo?ne aeey aei?ineeo oeaooiaai?
cainoaaie” ?icaeyaea?oueny a?aee?eooy cainoaaie a eiaei?e aoaa?i??
iaae?eueieo oe?e aeey aei?ineeo, iiaoi?thaaeueii-aeiaeaoeiaeo caiyoue,
iaaeaiiy o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee oeieai aeey aei?ineeo, ye? i?aai?ciaoaaee
a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe?? oa i?eaaoi? iniae, o?yaeiaa iie?oeea noiniaii
ina?oe aei?ineiai ianaeaiiy.

Ia?o ca ana, a i?ae?icae?e? aaoi? coieiy?oueny ia i?aai?caoe?? cainoaaie
iaae?eueieo oe?e. A 1896 ?ioe? a ?icaeyiooeo aoaa?i?yo, ca i?ae?aooieaie
aeena?oaioee, aoei 38 iaae?eueieo oe?e. A?eueo ca ana ?o aoei a
Iieoaanuee?e aoaa?i?? – 15, iaio ca ana a Eaoa?eiieaanuee?e – 3, a
*a?iea?anuee?e oa Oa?e?anuee?e ii 10. A 1911 ?ioe? ?o ia?aoiaoaaeiny 25.
I?ioa ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue i?aoethth/eo o/eoae?a oa o/i?a, ye? oai
iaa/aeeny.

Ie?aia i?noea caeia? ieoaiiy noiniaii i?aai?caoe??
iiaoi?thaaeueii-aeiaeaoeiaeo caiyoue c aei?ineeie a?ey ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeu
aeey in?a, ye? cae?i/eee eieenue o/eeeua /e ia cae?i/eee iiaiiai eo?no
iaa/aiiy. Ia?o? oae? caiyooy a?aeaoeeny a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? ca
?i?oe?aoeaith I.A.Ei?oa. E?euee?noue caiyoue a 1911 ?ioe? ii??aiyii c
1896 ?ieii ciaioeeany a *a?i?a?anuee?e aoaa?i?? (c 26 aei 14), a aeaa
?ace ca?eueoeeany a a Iieoaanuee?e (c 9 aei 18). A Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??
iiaoi?thaaeuei? caiyooy a?aeaoaaeeny a?ey 2 o/eeeu. Cia/ii ciaioeeany
e?euee?noue oaeeo caiyoue a Eaoa?eiineaanuee?e aoaa?i?? a 1911 ?ioe?
ii??aiyii c ?ioeie ?ieaie (a 1905 – 49, 1911 – 13). Aaoi? oaeiae
aena?oeth? i?iaeaie, ye? cono??/aee cainoaa i?aai?ciaoth/e
iiaoi?thaaeueii-aeiaeaoeia? caiyooy.

Iai?ee?ioe? i?ae?icae?eo ?icaeyaea?oueny ieoaiiy noiniaii o?iainiai?
aeiiiiiae ??ciei a?iiaaenueeei i?aai?caoe?yi oa i?eaaoiei iniaai a
i?iaaaeaii? caiyoue c aei?ineeie.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e “I?aai?caoe?y cainoaaie ia?iaeieo /eoaiue, aenoaaie,
oeaoooaaiiy ioca?a, ia?iaeieo aeii?a”.

Nii/aoeo aaoi?ii ?icaeyaea?oueny ?iaioa cainoa c i?iaaaeaiiy ia?iaeieo
/eoaiue, iaea?eueo aeinooiiiai caniao a nenoai? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe.
*eoaiiy i?aai?ciaoaaeeny i?e ii/aoeiaeo oeieao ? i?iaiaeeeeny ?o
aeeeaaea/aie. I?ioa, aiie ia aoee nenoaiaoe/ieie, iaee aeiaaeeiaee
oa?aeoa?. Eeoa a 1916 ?ioe? cainoaa ?ic?iaeththoue noaie i?aai?caoe??
nenoaiaoe/ieo ia?iaeieo /eoaiue. I?ioa, oey i?ina?oieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue cainoa ia io?eiaea aeinoaoiueiai ?icaeoeo.

Ae?oaei ieoaiiyi a i?ae?icae?e? ? i?aai?caoe?y cainoaaie ioca?a oa
aenoaaie a aoaa?i?yo. Ooo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a?aee?eo? cainoaaie ioca?
oa aenoaaee, ?o ae?yeuei?noue, iaaeie?ee. I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui cainoaa
?icoi?ee cia/aiiy ioca?a oa aenoaaie a ni?aa? iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe.

?aeay eiiieaeniiai ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe, yea aeieeea
a cainueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, ciaeoea nai? i?aeoe/ia ao?eaiiy a ooai?aii?
ia?iaeieo aeii?a – eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo caeeaae?a, ye?
ia’?aeiothoue on? aeaee eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ?iaioe. Oea inoaii?
ieoaiiy, yea ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?ae?icae?e?.

Iaeiei c iaee?aueo aoa ia?iaeiee ae?i a Oa?e?anuee?e aoaa?i??, a
ae?yeueiino? yeiai aeoeaio o/anoue i?eeiaei ? cainoai. Iieoaanueea
aoaa?inueea cainoai iaaeaaaei noaneae?? iia?oai caaeey a?aee?eooy
ia?iaeieo aeii?a. Eaoa?eiineaanueea aoaa?inueea cainoai a 1915 ?ioe?
?ic?iaeei i?iaeo ooai?aiiy ia?aae? ia?iaeieo aeii?a ii 2 a eiaeiiio
iia?o?. A 1916 ?ioe? *a?i?a?anueea aoaa?inueea oi?aaa ?icii/aea
ooai?aiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iia?oiaeo cainoa iniaeeaeo oiiae?a aeey
ia?iaeieo aeii?a. I?ioa cainoaa ia anoeaee cae?enieoe nai? ieaie. ?o
?aea? ciaeoee nai? ao?eaiiy a ?aaeyinueeeo aoaeeieao eoeueoo?e.

O Aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai,
Oa?e?anueeiai, Iieoaanueeiai oa *a?i?a?anueeiai cainoa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa,ui ca?aeii c “Iieiaeaieai i ia/aeueiuo o/eeeuao” 1864
?ieo cainoao aeicaieyeiny i?eeoaaiiy noiniaii ia?iaeii? ina?oe eeoa o
ainiiaea?nueeiio a?aeiioaii?, a aeo?aoe ia oeieo aoee aeciai?
“iaiaia’yceiaeie”, cainuee? oi?aae iinooiiai aa?ooue aei naaa eeiiioaiiy
uiaei ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ina?oe na?aae ianaeaiiy aoaa?i?e.

Caeaa?eueoa cainoaa ?icii/eiaee naith i?ina?oieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue c
ioey, ai cia/ia e?euee?noue aei?aoi?iaieo oe?e oa o/i?a ?nioaaea eeoa ia
iaia??, ia ioeueia?e iicia/oe? ciaoiaeeeany ony aaca oe?eueii? ni?aae.

Nii/aoeo ?nioaaiiy cainoa, iia?oia? cainoaa ocyee ia naaa ?i?oe?aoeao
noiniaii ?icaeoeo ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ? eeoa c 90-o ??. O?O no.
aoaa?inuee? oi?aae iinooiiai ?icii/eiathoue iaaeaaaoe aneaioaaiiy ia
a?aee?eooy, oo?eiaiiy oa caaacia/aiiy on?i iaiao?aeiei ii/aoeiaeo
o/eeeu.

Cainoaa ia iaiaaeoaaee nai?o caaaeaiue a aaeoc? ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ina?oe
i?yeeie iaaeaie, aeeth/ath/e a naith ae?yeuei?noue on? eiai aeaee.
Iaea?eueoa oaaae aiie i?eae?eyee i?iaeaiai ii/aoeiai? ina?oe, iaaeath/e
cia/i? aneaioaaiiy aeey iioe?aiiy ia?aae? cainueeeo ii/aoeiaeo oe?e oa
?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aacia?a/ia caneoaa cainoa a i?aeaioiaoe?
o/eoaeuenueeiai ia?niiaeo, a i?aeaeuaii? eiai caaaeueiiai oa
i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy. A?aee?eaa?i? cainoaaie ?ai?ni? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee,
?ai?nie/? a?aeae?eaiiy oa eeane i?e ii/aoeiaeo o/eeeuao, ieae/?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oeiee oa aaaaoi ?ioeo caoiae?a, ni?eyee
iie?auaiith i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a aeey ?icaeaath/i?ny aeiiii?ee
e?a?ie, ?iciianthaeaeaiith n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ciaiue na?aae
ianaeaiiy.

Iicaoe?eueia ?iaioa aeciaaaeany cainoaaie iaeiaeiai aaaeeeaith oa
iaiao?aeiith ii?yae c oe?eueiith, ? iaa?oue a?eueo ae?th/ei caniaii aeey
c?inoaiiy ienueiaiiino?. Ae?yeuei?noue cainoa o ae??oaii? caaaeaiue
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe aeyaeeany a ooai?aii? ia?aae? a?ae?ioae, eieaeeiaeo
neeaae?a, i?aai?caoe?? iaae?eueieo eean?a oa
iiaoi?thaaeueii-aeiaeaoeiaeo caiyoue, a i?iaaaeaii? ia?iaeieo /eoaiue,
aenoaaie, o a?aee?eoo? ioca?a oa ia?iaeieo aeii?a. Naia cainoaa ae?iaeee
aaaaoi o?aaeeoe?e ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aei iaoiai /ano.

Oe?eueia oa iicaoe?eueia ae?yeuei?noue cainoa aoea aeoaea aaaaoia?aiia.

Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? cainoa o ?icaeyaeaieo aoaa?i?yo aeiaiaeeoue, ui ia
aoei cia/ii? ??cieoe? o ?o i?ina?oieoeuee?e ?iaio?. Cainuee? c?a?aiiy
aoaa?i?e iaaiai?thaaee ieoaiiy, ye? oaeethaaee onth cainueeo ?in?th.
?ieiee oeyoe aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe iae?aeeny ??ci?. Noai ia?iaeii?
ina?oe aoa o?ioe e?auei oa a?eueoa iiaeeeainoae aeey ae??oaiiy ??cieo
i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ia?iaeiith ina?oith, iaee, aacia?a/ii,
Eaoa?eiineaanueea oa Oa?e?anueea cainoaa, ui iiynith?oueny ?o e?auei
aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii.

Aea iaiao?aeii iicia/aoe, ui i?e aaaaoueio iiceoeaieo aoee aeaa
iaaaoeaieo oaeoi?e, ye? na?eicii ciaioeee iiaeeeaino? oa aoaeoeai?noue
cainueeeo onoaiia a oe?eiio, o aaeoc? ia?iaeii? ina?oe cie?aia. Oea aoea
ianoa/a eioo?a, ui a naith /a?ao aoei iane?aeeii caeiiiaeaa/iai
iaiaaeaiiy, eeaniaiai ci???ioiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o cainueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Oni?oia i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Eaoa?eiineaanueeiai,
Iieoaanueeiai, *a?i?a?anueeiai oa Oa?e?anueeiai cainoa caaacia/oaaeany
ii?aeiaiiyi ieie i?noeaaeo ?ioa?an?a c i?noeaaeie iiaeeeainoyie.

I?aoeacaeaoi?noue aoea aa?aioiaaia oiio, ui aiie aoee naiia?yaeiaaiei
iaoai?ciii.

Cainoaa, ye ?inoeooo i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ia??aeei aei?aaeyee
oeae caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo onoaiia a aaeoc? ina?oe, caaacia/oth/e o? ??
noa?e, ye? aeyaeeeny iaiineeueieie oeaio?aeuei?e aeaae?.

Ia ia?aa?eueooth/e, aea ? ia ciaiooth/e cia/aiiy cainoa, iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe, ui naia aiie iaea?eueoa aieeioee ia ?icaeoie ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?oue, ae?iaeee aeeoo?caeaoi?
o?aaeeoe?? o oe?euei?e oa iicaoe?euei?e ni?aa?.

IOAE?EAOe?? AAOI?A

1. O/eoaeueneea eaae?u Aeiiaanna a eiioea XIX – ia/aea OO aaea / Iiaua
no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna: No. Ei.4. – Aeiiaoee, 1995. – N.46-58
(0,8 ae?. a?e.).

2. Aeayoaeueiinoue caineeo o/?aaeaeaiee ii ?ani?ino?aiaieth
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo ciaiee n?aaee ianaeaiey Aeiiaanna / Iiaua
no?aieoeu a enoi?ee Aeiiaanna: No. Ei.5. – Aeiiaoee, 1997. – N.47-53
(0,6 ae?. a?e.).

3. Aei ieoaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i? // No?ae. – 1998. – ?5(22). – N.40-42
(0,5 ae?. a?e.).

4. ?acaeoea aeaeeioa/iiai aeaea cainoaaie Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee /
Iaoa??aee aoc?anueei? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ca i?aenoieaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe: ?noi?e/i?
iaoee, iie?oieia?y. – Eieaa 1. – Aeiiaoeuee, ea?oaiue, 1997. – N.79-82
(0,5 ae?. a?e.).

5. ?acaeoea e oe?aieaiea cainoaaie naoe ia/aeueiuo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee a
Aeiiaanna / Aeiiaann: i?ioeia, ianoiyuaa, aoaeouaa: e 160-eaoeth
ecaanoiiai iaaeaaiaa e iuneeoaey I.A.Ei?oa: aeieeaaeu e niiau. III
?aaeiiaeueiie iao/i.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioeee (22 aeaeaa?y 1994). – Aeiiaoee,
1994. – N.29 (0,1 ae?. a?e.).

6. I?aaiecaoeey cainoaaie aine?aniuo eeannia e
iiaoi?eoaeueii-aeiiieieoaeueiuo caiyoee a Aeiiaanna / Eco/aiea enoi?ee
Oe?aeiu a o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo. – Aeieeaaeu ?aaeiiaeueiie
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee, 22-23 iiya?y 1994 a. – Aeiiaoee, 1994.
– N.79-80 (0,2 ae?. a?e.)

7. Caineea ia?iaeiua aeiia e iocae a Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee /
Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee: aeeciue, aeayoaeueiinoue, enoi?ey e
nia?aiaiiinoue. Aeieeaaeu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee 14-15.12.95. – Aeiiaoee,
1995. – N.29-31 (0,4 ae?. a?e.).

8. Iiaeaioiaea o/eoaeueneeo eaae?ia a Aeaoa?eiineaaneie aoaa?iee a
eiioea XIX aaea – ia/aea OO. – Aeiiaoee, 1994. – Aeaeeia?.: 59 iaca. –
?on. – Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 17.10.94, ?2042. – Oe.94. – 22 n.

AIIOAOe??

Ia?iaciaa I.?. I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue cainoa a Oe?a?i?. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y ?icaeyaea? ieoaiiy i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? cainoa
Eaoa?eiineaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, Iieoaanueei? oa *a?i?a?anueei?
aoaa?i?e, ye? aeieeaaeaee aaaaoi coneeue caaeey ?icaeoeo oe?eueii? oa
iicaoe?eueii? ina?oe. A aeine?aeaeaii? ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui naia
cainoaa iaea?eueoa aieeioee ia iie?auaiiy noaio ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO noie?oue. Cainoaa aoee iaea?eueo
aoaeoeaiith nenoaiith i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy. Aiae?cothoueny
iaaaoeai? oaeoi?e, ye? ciaioeee iiaeeeaino? oa aoaeoeai?noue cainueeeo
caeeaae?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: cainoai, aoaa?i?y, i?ina?oieoeueeee, naiia?yaeoaaiiy,
aiae?c, oaeoi?e.

Ia?iaciaa I.E. I?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue cainoa ia Oe?aeia. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao. Aeiiaoee, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey ?anniao?eaaao aii?inu i?inaaoeoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe
cainoa Aeaoa?eiineaaneie, Oa?ueeianeie, Iieoaaneie e *a?ieaianeie
aoaa?iee, eioi?ua noaaeee naiae caaea/ae ?acaeoea oeieueiiai e
aiaoeieueiiai ia?aciaaiey. A ?aaioa aeaeaaony auaiae, /oi eiaiii cainoaa
aieaa anaai iiaeeyee ia oeo/oaiea ninoiyiey ia?aciaaiey ia Oe?aeia a
eiioea XIX – ia/aea OO aaea. Cainoaa yaeyeenue iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie
nenoaiie ianoiiai naiioi?aaeaiey. Aiaeece?othony iaaaoeaiua oaeoi?u,
oiaiueoeaoea aiciiaeiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoue caineeo o/?aaeaeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: cainoai, aoaa?iey, i?inaaoeoaeueiue, naiioi?aaeaiea,
aiaeec, oaeoi?u.

Marmazova O.I. Educational activities of Zemstvo institutions in
Ukraine. Manyscript.

Thesis for receiving the candidat’s degree in historical sciences,
speciality 07.00.01 – History of Ukraine, Donetsk State University,
Donetsk, 1998.

Thesis examine the questions of educational activities of Zemstvo
institutions in Ukraine. Their aim is a progress of school and unschool
education. We can draw a conclusion that zemstvo institutions there were
that influenced on improvement of educational condition in Ukraine of
XIX-XX most of all.

Zemstvo institutions were the most effective system of local bodies of
power. The negative factors decreased possibility and effectiveness of
county institutions are analyses.

The key-words: Zemstvo, educational, local body of power, factor,
analysies.

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