Проблеми музичного виховання школярів у діяльності західноукраїнських композиторів (друга половина ХІХ — початок ХХ сторіччя): Автореф. дис… канд. п

I?EEA?IAONUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i. AANEEss NOAOAIEEA

O?aeo ?aai Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 37(091)(477.8)

I?IAEAIE IOCE*IIAI AEOIAAIIss OEIEss??A

O Ae?ssEUeIINO? CAO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEO EIIIICEOI??A

(Ae?OAA IIEIAEIA O?O  – II*AOIE OO NOI??**ss)

13.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

?aaii-O?aie?anuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eea?iaonueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Aaneey Noaoaieea,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe‚ i?ioani? *a?i?inueeee
Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Uoieea,
caa?aeoaa/ eo?no iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe –

–aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe‚ i?ioani?‚ /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie‚
ae?eniee /eai I?aeia?iaeii? Aeaaeai?? Ethaeeie

Aooaiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao‚aieiaa
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai eiiieaeno

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe‚ noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ianie Ethaeieea Ieoaee?aia

?inoeooo i?iaeai aeoiaaiiy AII Oe?a?ie‚

caa. eaai?aoi???th anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –I?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo
?i.I.A.Aiaiey

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «28» a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.20.051.01 o I?eea?iaonueeiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i.A.Noaoaieea ca aae?anith: i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee‚
aoe.Oaa/aiea‚57.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Noaoaieea‚ i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee‚ aoe.Oaa/aiea‚57.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «28» eeoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?aaa I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie oa nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. ?icaoaeiaa
oe?a?inueei? oeiee‚ aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai ? aeooiaii
aaaaoiai i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy iaiiaeeeaa aac ii?aoethaaiiy
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo aniaeo?a iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie aeoiaaiiy ?
iaa/aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo ieioeiai‚ eiai
a?oioiaiiai ? ia’?eoeaiiai aea/aiiy.

Aac ciaiiy oiai, ye ?icaeaaeanue oai??y ? i?aeoeea aeoiaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy
a ieioeiio, iaiiaeeeai caaaiooe no/ania e ia?aaeaa/eoe iaeaooi?, a
oaeiae caaacia/eoe ?aei?noue, ianooii?noue ? niaaeei?ii?noue iieie?iue.
sse cacia/aii a Aea?aeaai?e iaoe?iiaeuei?e i?ia?ai? «Ina?oa» («Oe?a?ia
OO? noie?ooy»), iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiee i?ioean iiaeiai cae?enithaaoeny o
iaa?aeae?eueiino? ina?oe a?ae «iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?oioo, ?? i?aai?/iiio
ii?aeiaii? c iaoe?iiaeueiith ?noi???th ? ia?iaeieie o?aaeeoe?yie,
caa?aaeaii? oa caaaa/aii? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo» Aea?aeaaia
iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia «Ina?oa»(«Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy»). – E.‚1994. –
N.9..

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an o oeueiio ieai? aeeeeea? ?noi??y ioce/ii? ina?oe a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ aea a ??ci? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee‚ a oiiaao ?iicaiii?
ieoiaoe??‚ aoei iaa?iiaaeaeaii iiceoeaiee aeina?ae ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy ?
aeoiaaiiy. Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia, ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO
noi??//y‚ eiee ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo‚ ui ia?aaoaaee ia oie /an
i?ae aeaaeith Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???, a?aeaoaaeeny aeoeai? i?ioeane
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ye? coiiaeee iiyao aaeeei?
e?eueeino? eiiiiceoi??a. Naia a oeae ?noi?e/iee ia??iae‚ o neeaaeieo
oiiaao /oaeicaiiiai iaioaaiiy ieie aoee aeinyaioo? iii?oi? oni?oe a
i?aai?caoe?? ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy.

A?oioiaia aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueieo iaoa??ae?a iieaco?, ui a iniiao
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? eiiiiceoi?e noaaeee
i?eioeei ia?iaeiino?, yeee i?iieco? anth iaaeaaia?/io niaaeueio ieooe?a.

Eiiiiceoi?e ?iaeee ana aeey oiai, uia ioce/ia aeoiaaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny ia
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?, a oae? i?iaeaie‚ ye c’?aeiaiiy iaa/aiiy c
aeeooyi, ?icaeoie ioce/ieo ? oai?/eo cae?aiinoae, ?aeiino? ?aeaeiiai e
anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy a ae?oae caeaoiino? aei aiioeieiiai
ni?eeiaiiy ioceee, cae??ieaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ia i?aeoeoe? oa ?io?‚
iiceoeaii ae??ooaaeeny ieie ? ciaeoee nai? i?iaeiaaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie o
iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO noi??//y.

Aiie ? nueiaiaei? ia ao?aoeee nai?? oe?iiino?. Aaeoieeai aiae?coth/e ?o,
noaa?aeaeo?ii, ui iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia eiiiiceoi??a, ?o aeina?ae
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? caeaoi? ? ia no/aniiio aoai? caaacia/eoe
??ciiiai?oi?noue i?eeii?a‚ oi?i ? iaoiae?a ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?th i?ioeano iaa/aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi ineoieia?/ieo
iniaeeainoae ? a?iaeaeaieo cae?aiinoae o/i?a, a oaeiae aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a ia e?aueo caeiaooeao iaoiai ia?iaeo.

Aea/aiiy i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a o
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaie ia??iaeo aoei i?aaeiaoii
aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. A Aano?i-Oai?nueeee ia??iae‚ cie?aia o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O noi??//y, oey i?iaeaia ?ic?iaeyeany oaeeie
eiiiiceoi?aie ? ioce/ieie ae?y/aie: A.Aaoiyieiii‚ I.Aa?aeoeueeei‚
N.Ai?iaeaae/ai‚ I.Eiieii‚ E.Eaaeoeueeei‚ A.Iaotheii‚ ?.N?ieaae/ai. Naia
aiie, ona?aeiiethth/e aaaeeea?noue ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa o aeoiaaii?
i?ae?inoath/iai iieie?iiy, ? c?iaeee aaaiiee aianie o ?icaeoie oai???
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚ yea a?oiooaaeany ia ?acoeueoaoao aeeaieiai aea/aiiy
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue iaoiai ia?iaeo, ui caaacia/oaaei
aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?oio?.

Ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth ? oai?/ei aei?iaeii eiiiiceoi??a
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO noi??//y‚ ciaeoee iii?oia i?noea ? a
iaoeiai-ioae?oeenoe/ieo i?aoeyo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO noi??//y (aei 1939 ?ieo).

?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue noaoo?, aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaienai? ?.A?eeeianueeei‚
A.Aaoiyieiii‚ A.Aeoaeoeueeei‚ I.Aieioeiii‚ I.Caeanueeei‚ ?.Ca?eoeueeei‚
O.Eieannith‚ A.Eoae?eeii‚ ?.Eaaeoeueeei‚ C.Eenueeii‚ N.Ethaeeaae/ai‚
A.Naaeianueeei‚ E.Nooaeeinueeei‚ N.*a?iaoeueeei oa ?ioeie, a yeeo
?ice?eo? /anoeiai ie?ai? ieoaiiy ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a. O ca’yceo c oeei ?iaioe caaaeaieo
aaoi??a i?noyoue oe?iiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae ? neoaeaoue aaaiiei
aeaea?aeii iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A oe?a?inuee?e iaooe? ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo i?iaeaia ioce/ii?
ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO noi??//y ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo I.A?eeinueei?‚
?.A?eiaaaoeueeiai‚ I.Caaaeeaae/‚ N.Iaaeeoei, a iaoeiaeo noaooyo
E.Aieeinueeiai, ?.Ai?aea‚ E.Iacaie‚ N.I?ioeeea, E.Oaiee, a
aeena?oaoe?eieo ?iaioao I.A?eeinueei?‚ E.Aieeinueeiai‚ E.Iacaie‚
N.Iaaeeoei‚ O.Noa?oo‚ E.Oaiee‚ ?.Ooaeiaa?a, o i?ae?o/ieeao c ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? ioceee oa ?io?e ioceeiciaa/?e e?oa?aoo??. Iaeiae aiia
ienaeany a oie /an‚ eiee ?o aaoi?e ia iiaee ia’?eoeaii ? anaa?/ii
i?aaenoaaeoe ?acoeueoaoe nai?o aeine?aeaeaiue. O?aaa iaoe ia oaac? ua e
oa, ui caeaa?eueoiai oea aoee ienoaoeoaiciaaoe?. Oiio ia aeeaii, ui
i?aaeiaoii ?o aiae?co noaaaee ie?ai? aniaeoe ioce/ii? oai?/ino?
eiiiiceoi??a, a uiaei ?o iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, oi aiia i?aeoe/ii
ia ?ice?eoa.

Aeaui caaaaoeeiny aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ca inoaii? ?iee. A ?yae? i?aoeue,
noaooyo, a?i-a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo neiaieeao ? aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo aeia?aeieeao
c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ iaienaieo
oaeeie aaoi?aie‚ ye ?.Aa?ian‚ N.?aanaeei‚ I.Iaaeaaaeee‚ ss.Ieoaeue/eoei‚
I.Iiiiia?aiei‚ N.I?ioeee‚ ?.Nia’ye‚ I.*a?aiaiei‚ TH.ssneiianueeee‚
ciaeoee /anoeiaa a?aeia?aaeaiiy ? ieoaiiy i?ina?oiuei-aeoiaii?
ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a. I?ioa iayai? ioae?eaoe?? iaeaaeaoue aei
ioceeiciaa/i? e?oa?aoo?e. ?o aaoi?e, ye i?aaeei, aena?oeththoue ioce/io
i?aoeth ieooe?a. Naia oiio aeaye? aniaeoe ?o ae?yeueiino? ua aei e?ioey
ia aea/ai?: a?aenooi?e aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe?, ?o i?ae?o/iee?a ?
ca??iee?a c ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚ ia aecia/aii ?o i?noea a
noaiiaeaii? ? ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aeiie Oe?a?i?.

Ie?aii iaiao?aeii coieieoeny ? ia aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?.Ai?n?iiai?‚
I.Ai?aen?ii?‚ A.Aooaiea‚ O.A?euaiei‚ I.Aeia?iaieuenueei?‚ ?.Cycthia‚
E.?aaiiai?‚ A.Eaeaie/aiei‚ E.Eiaaeue‚ E.Ianie‚ A.Iaaeaeee‚
I.?oaeieoeueei?‚ N.Oaaeioiaa‚ E.Oe?ai?eiai?‚ TH.THoeaae/a oa ?ioeo‚ a
yeeo ?ice?eo? ieoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy
a Oe?a?i?. Aeniei ioe?ithth/e iacaai? ?iaioe‚ a?aecia/eii‚ ui aiie
i?noyoue aaaaoee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae‚ yeee aea? eiiieaenio ioe?ieo noaio
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie. I?ioa oaiaeaioe?? e
iniaeeaino? eiai ?icaeoeo a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ cie?aia o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y‚ ieie aena?oeai? iaaeinoaoiuei‚
ine?eueee aeine?aeieee ia noaaeee oaeeo caaaeaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaaeinoaoi?i
aea/aiiyi iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a, iaiao?aei?noth
aeei?enoaiiy iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo ieooe?a o no/anieo oiiaao,
aaaeeeainoth ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee ?o ?ie? a iaoe?iiaeueiiio iinooi?. Ana
oea ? coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe «I?iaeaie ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a o ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a
(ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O – ii/aoie OO noi??//y)».

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
iia’ycaia c caaaeueiei iai?yieii ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
i?iaiaeyoueny eaoaae?ith ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee I?eea?iaonueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.A.Noaoaieea. Oaia ?iaioe iiaiaeaeaia c
Iaoeiai-eii?aeeiaoe?eiith ?aaeith AII Oe?a?ie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae 1848-1903 ??.
Eiai ieaeiy iaaea aecia/a?oueny ii/aoeii ye?nii iiaeo ioce/ii-ina?oi?o
ci?i o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ aeeeeeaieo ?aaiethoe?eieie iiae?yie 1848 ?ieo‚
aa?oiy – ca?aa?oueny ?c canioaaiiyi Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo o
Eueaia?.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy  – iaaeaaia?/ia oa i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
? oai?aoe/ia niaaeueia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – ci?no, oi?ie, iaoiaee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a o iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino? oa oai?aoe/i?e niaaeuei?
eiiiiceoi??a.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aeyaeoe ? ioe?ieoe c no/anieo iiceoe?e aianie
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a o ?icaeoie ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean ?icaeoeo ioce/ii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a?ae ieoiaoe?? ?o Aano???th aei 1848 ?ieo;

— aeine?aeeoe oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii?
ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie eiiiiceoi?aie ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y ? iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe ia??iaeecaoe?th oeueiai
i?ioeano;

— cae?enieoe iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c i?ae?o/iee?a ? ca??iee?a c ioceee‚
noai?aieo eiiiiceoi?aie Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie;

— ?ice?eoe ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea? eiiiiceoi??a ? iaa?oiooaaoe oeyoe
oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy ?o a no/ani?e oeie? Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aoe? aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a, iaaeaaia?a, eiiiiceoi??a ? o?einio?a, Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i
ina?oo», Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia «Ina?oa» («Oe?a?ia OO?
noie?ooy»), eiioeaioe?y caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee Oe?a?ie,
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a c i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— o?iiieia?/iee, yeee aeaa ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe ae?yeuei?noue eiiiiceoi??a
o aeeiai?oe? ? /ania?e iine?aeiaiino?;

— ?noi?eei-eia?/iee, oai?aoe/iee oa ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a, i?ae?o/iee?a ? ca??iee?a c ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy;

— i?aaeiaoii-oe?eueiaee aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
i?ane, ui aeoiaeeea a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noi??//y a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?;

— iaoiaee ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? aeyaeaieo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue iaaeaaia?/i? iiaeyaee ? ae?yeuei?noue
eiiiiceoi??a.

Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie aeey iaienaiiy ?iaioe iineoaeeee i?ae?o/ieee ?
ca??ieee c ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a‚ noai?ai? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie
eiiiiceoi?aie o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ii/aoeo OO noi??//y. Aaoi?ii
aea/aii iaeaea an? noaoo? e iaaeaaia?/i? aeaeaiiy eiiiiceoi??a‚ a oaeiae
iaoa??aee‚ iia’ycai? c ?o aeeooyi‚ ae?yeuei?noth oa oai?/?noth.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii noaee noaoooe ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa‚ ie?ai? o?yaeia?
caeiie, ye? aeaee iiaeeea?noue oe?oa i?ciaoe oo ?aaeueio ?noi?e/io
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io ae?eni?noue, yea niiioeaea eiiiiceoi??a aei
ioce/ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? na?aae oe?a?inueeeo oeiey??a.

sse aeaea?aeueio aaco i?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii aaeeeee
ianya ioae?eaoe?e ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo
OO noi??//y, ui aeoiaeeee a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. Oea — «Ci?y Aaeeoeueea»,
«Aaee/aiei», «Iaoa», «Neiai», «I?aaaea», «Ci?y», «?iaeeiee eenoie»,
«?onueeee N?ii», «Aeye?anueeee aean», «Ae?oa», «Aan?aea», «Oe?eueia
/aniienue», «Iniiaa», «Ae?ei», «O/eoaeue», «I?ii?iue», «?onnei? neiai»,
«Ia?iae», «A?iiaaenueeee aiein», «Iaae?ey», «?oneai», «A?oenoe/iee
a?noiee», «?ethno?iaaiee ioce/iee eaeaiaea?», «Oe?a?inueea ioceea» oa
?io?.

Aaeeea cia/aiiy iathoue ? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee. Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie
aeena?oaoe?? noaee oiiaee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?, Euea?anueeiai iaeaniiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao, a oaeiae
oiiae?a ?oeiieniiai a?aeae?eo Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee
?i.A.Noaoaieea, ye? oi?iaeiaae aeiaaiai /ano ciaoiaeeeeny o
niaoenoiaeuao ? aoee iaaeinooii? aeey oe?ieiai eiea iaoeiaoe?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny i?ioyaii 1995-1998??. o aeaa aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? – (1995-1996??.) – oai?aoe/ii inienethaaeanue i?iaeaia‚
aecia/aeenue i?aaeiao‚ ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ eiai iaoa ? caaaeaiiy;
?ic?iaeyeanue i?ia?aia ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe; aea/aeanue
?noi?e/ia‚ o?einionueea‚ ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia ? ioceeiciaa/a
e?oa?aoo?a c ia?aii? i?iaeaie.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? – (1997-1998??.) – aea/aeenue oa aiae?coaaeenue
aeyaeai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee‚ ocaaaeueithaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ ye? ioae?eoaaeeny o aeaeyae? iaoeiaeo noaoae oa
aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo; eaeoe?eieo aenooiao;
aea/aeenue iiaeeeaino? e oeyoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a
iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie eiiiiceoi??a o iaaeaaia?/io oai??th ? i?aeoeeo
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy; oi?ioaaeeny aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue a oiio,
ui ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co ??cieo aeaea?ae:

— ?ice?eoa oe?e?nia ea?oeia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ioce/ii? ina?oe oa
aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? (1772-1903);

— aecia/aii aianie cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a o iaaeaaia?/io
oai??th ? i?aeoeeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy e iaa/aiiy oeiey??a;

– aeyaeaii ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/i? i?ae?o/ieee‚ ye? iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe
a oaeineiiaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy;

– aia?oa ai?iaaaeaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a iia? aeieoiaioe, ?noi?e/i? oaeoe,
cie?aia, i?i iaaeaaia?/io ae?yeuei?noue I.Aa?aeoeueeiai,
?.Eaa??anueeiai, N.Ai?iaeaae/a, I.Aaaeainueeiai, A.Aaoiyieia,
?.A?eeeianueeiai, A.Iaothea, ?.Eei??yia, I.Eiiea, E. Eeoaeaae/a,
I.Ieaeaie?anueeiai, Ae.N?/einueeiai oa ?i.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio‚ ui
iaoa??aee‚ aeniiaee, iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? caaaa/othoue oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ni?eyoeiooue caa?aaeaiith
? ia?aaea/? aeina?aeo ieioeeo iieie?iue; aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?
i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e c iaoiaeeee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? ioceee ? iaaeaaiaiee ia ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoeueoaoao
aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe, eo?nao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??, a oaeiae i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? i?ae?o/iee?a, ca??iee?a oa ?ioi? iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy iieiae?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii?
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y, cie?aia aiae?c? i?aoeue, ye? ia aoee
?ai?oa i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy; aecia/aii? ?o ?ie? a ?icaeoeo ioce/ii?
ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?; iaa?oiooaaii? oeyo?a oai?/iai
aeei?enoaiiy ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae eiiiiceoi??a o i?ioean?
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe ia no/aniiio aoai?.

A??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/o?oueny
aeei?enoaiiyi oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace, cie?aia, a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a
oa niaoe?aeueii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?o ia’?eoeaiei
aiae?cii, canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eo iaoiae?a,
aaeaeaaoieo iao?‚ i?aaeiaoo ? caaaeaiiyi ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ai?iaoaaeenue /a?ac ioae?eaoe??, aeaieioaiiy aeiiia?aeae ia
Anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997?.; Oa?nii,
1997?.; Oaeai?iae, 1997?.; Oa?iii?eue,1998?.), a oaeiae o aenooiao ?c
iaoeiaeie iia?aeiieaiiyie ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e oai???, ?noi??? ioceee
oa a?e ia ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaioao Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. ?.O?aiea.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai?
o naie naiino?eieo ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (263 iaeiaioaaiiy) oa
o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 177n.,
aeiaeaoee 5n. ?iaioa i?noeoue o?e oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaai? aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue ia?aii? oaie‚
nooi?iue ?? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee‚ aecia/ai? ia’?eo‚ i?aaeiao‚ iaoa‚
caaaeaiiy ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ ?ice?eo? iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy ?iaioe‚ iaaaaeai? aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy‚ oiaoi aeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? (1772 — 1903)» – anoaiiaeaii‚ ui
iniiaiith i?e/eiith‚ yea iaea ae??oaeueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a o Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ aoa i?ioean
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo‚ aiane?aeie yeiai oaea o 1828 ?ioe? a Ia?aieoe? aoea caniiaaia
ia?oa oe?a?inueea ioce/ia oeiea.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi noai ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy aei canioaaiiy
ioce/iiai caeeaaeo a Ia?aieoe?. A?aecia/aii‚ ui aiii iaiaaeoaaeiny
aeeeth/ii ?ae?a?eii-eoeueoiaeie iio?aaaie. Oaeee noai ni?aa inoaoi/ii
coiiaea iaiao?aei?noue o iaaaeiiio noai?aii? ioce/iiai caeeaaeo‚ a yeiio
oe?a?inueea iieiaeue iiaea a ?aeiaoeny‚ a/eoeny‚ aeoiaoaaoeny oa
aaeineiiaethaaoeny ia e?aueo iaoe?iiaeueieo oa ?a?iiaenueeeo
o?aaeeoe?yo. Oaeei caeeaaeii ? noaea oe?a?inueea oeiea a Ia?aieoe?‚ yea
ia?aoai?eeany o nai???aeiee iaoe?iiaeueiee oeaio?‚ aea noai?eeeny
iaiao?aei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ii/aoeo i?aai?ciaaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? i?aoe? ?
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. Iniiaia
caneoaa a oeueiio iaeaaeaea ?.Ni?ao?nueeiio‚ E.Eaaeoeueeiio‚ a oaeiae
ia?oei a/eoaeyi caeeaaeo A.Iaiea‚ A.Na?naa?th. Aeoiaaioe? oeiee‚ i?ney
?? cae?i/aiiy ?iciianthaeaeoaaee ioce/io ina?oo ? eoeueoo?o a
oe?eueieoeoa? ? na?aae ianaeaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeai aaaeeeaa oa‚ ui a oeie? caeiaoaaee ioce/io ina?oo ia?o?
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? eiiiiceoi?e‚ ye? na?e oaeaio ? aia?a?th a?aeaeaaaee
ni?aa? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy‚ a oaeiae ?icaeoeia? ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio ?aa?ii?.

?ice?eoi noai ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy ? a ?ioeo caeeaaeao
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. Iacaaaeath/e ia iani?eyoeeao neooaoe?th‚ yea neeaeany
a oe?e aaeoc? – iino?eia i?aeoeea aei?noieeo ooene?a ? ceiaaeeaaiue‚
a?aeaa?oa iaoooaaiiy caeiaooeaie oe?a?inueei? ioceee‚ – aecia/i? ae?y/?
ia?oi? iieiaeie O?O noi??//y‚ na?aae yeeo c’yaeythoueny ? eiiiiceoi?e‚
aeiiaaathoueny iii?oieo oni?o?a o ieoaiiyo ienoaoeueeiai iaa/aiiy oa
aeoiaaiiy. Aeaoaeueii aiae?co?oueny iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
I.Aa?aeoeueeiai‚ a?aecia/aii oaeiae caneoae ?.N?ieaae/a‚ yeee aoa iaeeei
iao??ioii ? ai?oeai ca ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? ina?oe.
Iane?aeeii oaei? ai?ioueae noaei cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a 1838 ?ioe? o
Euea?anuee?e aeooiai?e nai?ia??? iioiiai ni?ao.

O ?icae?e? aeaii aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y. A?aecia/aii‚ ui
naia aiia iaea ae??oaeueiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniia
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Aiae?c i?aoe? eiiiiceoi??a aeicaieea aeae?eeoe o?e
ia??iaee ?o ae?yeueiino? a?ae 1848 aei 1903 ??.: ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy –
1848 — 1873 ??.; ia??iae ?icaeoeo – 1873 — 1891 ??.; ia??iae
?ioaineo?eaoe?? – 1891 — 1903 ??.

Anoaiiaeaii‚ ui iniiaieie iai?yieaie ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a‚ ye?
ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ aoee ?o
iaaeaaia?/ia‚ aeaeaaie/a‚ ioae?oeenoe/ia i?aoey ? eiioea?oia
ae?yeuei?noue. Eiaeai ?c iacaaieo iai?yie?a aeaoaeueii aiae?co?oueny.
I?ioa iniaeeaee iaaiein ?iaeoueny ia iaaeaaia?/i?e ae?yeueiino?
eiiiiceoi??a‚ yea aoea noeioeii ?o oai?/ino? ? niiioeaea ienaoe ioceeo
aeey oeiey??a.

Aei ia?oiai ia??iaeo iaeaaeaea ae?yeuei?noue oaeeo eiiiiceoi??a‚ ye
I.Aa?aeoeueeee‚ ?.Eaa??anueeee‚ N.Ai?iaeaae/‚ I.Aaaeainueeee‚
A.Aaoiyiei. Iacaaaeath/e ia an? ni?iae aeaaeieo no?oeoo?‚ ye? o nai?e
iie?oeoe? ii?ia/aiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy iaiaaaeeny
aeei?enoaoe ? ioce/ia ienoaoeoai‚ eiiiiceoi?e i?aaioee i?ioenoiyoe
ianeeueieoeuee?e iie?oeoe? Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???. Aeyaeaii‚ ui c
naiiai ii/aoeo iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue eiiiiceoi??a iaea ae?acii
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? aoea ni?yiiaaia ia iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy
iieiae?. O ca’yceo c oeei‚ oe?a?inueea ia?iaeia i?niy noa? iaeiei ?c
aaaiieo /eiiee?a o aeoiaaii? ae?oae‚ oeiey??a‚ iieiae?.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue «I?ina?oe»(1868)‚ a oaeiae oaeeo
ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa‚ ye «?onueea Aan?aea»(1861)‚ «Oai?aai»(1870)‚ ye?
aeoeaii aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy e ?icaeoie ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Aaeee?
caneoae a ni?aa? canioaaiiy «I?ina?oe»‚ «N?/?» o A?aei?‚ «Oai?aaia»
iaeaaeaee A.Aaoiyieiia?‚ yeee aoa ia?oei aieiaith «I?ina?oe».
Cacia/a?oueny‚ ui noai?aiiy «I?ina?oe» noaei aaaeeeaith iiae??th a
eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ? ui aiia aeaea
iiooiao aei iiceoeaieo ci?i a aaeoc? iaoee oa ina?oe ?‚ cie?aia‚
ooaa?aeaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy‚ a yeiio aaaiia i?noea caeiyea
e ioceea.

O ae?oaiio ia??iae?‚ e??i N.Ai?iaeaae/a‚ I.Aaaeainueeiai‚ A.Aaoiyieia‚
?ice?eaa?oueny ae?yeuei?noue eiiiiceoi??a: ?.A?eeeianueeiai‚ A.Iaothea‚
?.Eei??yia‚ I.Eiiea‚ I.Ieaeaie?anueeiai‚ ?.Eoi/einueeiai‚ Ae.Aiae?aeea.
A?aecia/aii‚ ui iiyaa aaeeei? e?eueeino? eiiiiceoi??a‚ ye? nai? aeeooy
i?enay/othoue ?icaeoeia? oe?a?inueeiai ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa ?‚ cie?aia‚
oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo iniia ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚ aoei‚ ia?aaeon?i‚
coiiaeaii noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie‚ eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?ie ? i?ioan?eieie
oaeoi?aie. Anoaiiaeaii‚ ui aeiaeai c ia??iae?a a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
ioceee‚ aeeth/ath/e e no/aniee‚ ia oa?aeoa?ecoaaany oaeith aaeeeith
e?euee?noth ieooe?a‚ ye?‚ aoaeo/e ia i?ioan?iiaeaie‚ c?iaeee aaaiiee
aianie o iaaeaaia?/io oai??th ? i?aeoeeo.

Aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace aeaei i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe‚ ui aaeeeee
aieea ia i?aoeth eiiiiceoi??a iaea ae?yeuei?noue aecia/ieo ae?y/?a ?
ieooe?a No?aeii? Oe?a?ie‚ ye? a Aaee/ei? aaa/aee
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee oeaio?‚ aea ni?eueieie coneeeyie oai?eeeny
aa?oino? ia iio?aao an??? Oe?a?ie. A ?iaio? i?aee?aneaii iniaeeai
aaaiiee aieea I.Eenaiea ia ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a.

Iacaaaeath/e ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino? a ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a‚
a?aecia/aii ? /eiaei ni?eueieo ?en a ?o i?aoe?. Oa?aeoa?iei ? oa‚ ui
aiia ?icii/eiaeany ua i?ae /an ?oiueiai iaa/aiiy a a?iiac?yo ?
nai?ia??yo‚ aea aiie‚ aoaeo/e aee?eaaioaie o/i?anueeeo oa nooaeaionueeeo
oi??a‚ iaa/aee iioiiai ni?ao‚ yeee aenooiaa aaaeeeaei /eiieeii
ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Eiiiiceoi??a ii?aeioaaea ni?eueia iaoa‚
yea iieyaaea a oiio‚ uia iaa/aiiy ioceee iinoaaeoe ia
iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/io iniiao ? ca ?? aeiiiiiaith aeoiaoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiieo iao??io?a nai?? A?o/ecie.

Naia oey iaoa‚ a oaeiae i?aaiaiiy i?ioenoiyoe ianeeueieoeuee?e iie?oeoe?
aano?i-oai?nueeeo aeanoae‚ niiioeaea eiiiiceoi??a aei iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aaeeea e?euee?noue i?ae?o/iee?a c ioceee‚ aeaeaia ieie o
80-o ?ieao O?O noi??//y‚ ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai‚ ui i?iaeaia ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy aoea aeii?ioth/ith a ?o ae?yeueiino?. Anoaiiaeaii iii?oio
?ieue ioce/ieo aeaeaiue eiiiiceoi??a o ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚ a
oaeiae ?o aaaiiee aianie o oai??th ? i?aeoeeo ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy. Naia ae i?aoey eiiiiceoi??a noaea oei ia??aeiei eaiaiai‚ yeee
iaa?oue o aaaee? ?iee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aoa iniiaith ?icaeoeo oai???
? i?aeoeee ioce/iiai iaa/aiiy e aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ? iieiae?.

O?ao?e ia??iae ?icae?eo ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee ia?aeiiiei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo
ioce/ii? ina?oe. E??i caaaeaieo eiiiiceoi??a‚ aena?oeaia iaaeaaia?/ia
ae?yeuei?noue E.Eeoaeaae/a ? Ae.N?/einueeiai‚ iaa?oioiaaii ?o caneoae o
oi?ioaaii? ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

O oeueiio ia??iae? i?inoaaeo?oueny oeyo ca?iaeaeaiiy ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy. O?iiieia?/ii ii?aeiaii eia?eo ?o aeieeiaiiy
? i?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue aae aei noai?aiiy a 1903 ?ioe? Aeuiai
ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo o Eueaia?. Aeyaeaii aieea ienoaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
ia ?icaeoie ioce/ii? ina?oe ? aeoiaaiiy a ?aa?ii?. ?aeay canioaaiiy
ioce/iiai oiaa?enoaa i?ioiaeeea /a?ac aanue aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae‚ a
eiai aeieeiaiiy aoei i?aeaioiaeaii an?i oiaeii noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. Iaaieioo?oueny‚ ui na?aae ia?oii?e/ei noai?aiiy
Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo noaee i?ioan?ei? i?iaeaie‚ iia’ycai?‚
ia?aaeon?i‚ c a?aenooi?noth iaoe?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai caeeaaeo aeey
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Iaeiae ia?o? ioce/i? oiaa?enoaa iaee oie iaaeie?e‚ ui ia’?aeioaaee ia?o
ca ana iieiaeue noa?oiai iieie?iiy. Oaeei /eiii‚ aeieeei ona?aeiieaiiy
iio?aae ? iiaeaeueoiai ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a. Naia oiio
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? eiiiiceoi?e‚ e??i o/ano? a oiaa?enoaao‚
i?iaeiaaeothoue i?aoethaaoe ? a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ?aa?iio‚ a yeeo
aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaeathoue ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiio aeoiaaiith. A
?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny ?o ae?yeuei?noue o oeieao‚ a?iiac?yo‚ nai?ia??yo
oa ?ioeo caeeaaeao Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a oeueiio ia??iae? iaaea?oueny aena?oeaiith
iaaeaaia?/ii? ae?yeueiino? Ae.N?/einueeiai. Ia iniia? aiae?co a?o?aieo
iaoa??ae?a‚ ia??iaee/ii? i?ane aeyaeaii aaaiiee aianie eiiiiceoi?a o
?icaeoie ioce/ii? ina?oe. A ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii‚ ui eiiiiceoi? o
i?aeoiae? aei ?ica’ycaiiy iac??eeo oiai/anieo i?iaeai ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy i?ieoia iaeaaeee‚ oa?ienoee oeyo. I?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue
ia?oi? oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii? oeiee a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?‚ yeo canioaaa
Ae.N?/einueeee o 1902 ?ioe?. Iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i e?euee?noue o/i?a‚ ui
iaa/aeenue ia ia?oiio ?ioe? ?? ?nioaaiiy‚ a oaeiae‚ ca iaoa??aeaie
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue oiai /ano‚ i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aenieee i?ioan?eiee
??aaiue oeiee.

Aea/aiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace aeaei iiaeeea?noue a?aecia/eoe ? oie oaeo‚
ui a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no.‚ e??i ieoaiue ienoaoeueeiai iaa/aiiy ?
aeoiaaiiy a ii/aoeiaeo ? na?aaei?o oeieao‚ eiiiiceoi?e ui?ac /ano?oa
caa?oathoue oaaao ia noai?aiiy aeuiai ioce/iiai caeeaaeo c oe?a?inueeith
iiaith iaa/aiiy. A ?icae?e? iieacaii aaiethoe?th eiai noai?aiiy.
A?aecia/aii‚ ui aeieeiaiiy Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo ia aoei yeeiinue
a?aeie?aieaiei yaeuai‚ a noaei ?acoeueoaoii aaaeeeaeo aeinyaiaiue ia
iie?oe/iiio‚ aeiiii?/iiio‚ eoeueoo?iiio iie? caaaeueiiai i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie‚ ui Aeuee ioce/iee ?inoeooo‚ iino?eii
oaeineiiaethth/e nenoaio iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano‚ noaa iaeiei ?c
i?ia?aeieo caeeaae?a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie‚ a yeiio i?iaeiaaeoaaei ?
?icii/eiaei naith ae?yeuei?noue /eiaei cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a‚ ? ui naia a iueiio oi?ioaaany iiaee oei
eiiiiceoi?a-i?ioan?iiaea‚ yeee caiaeii‚ noaaoe iaaeaaiaii‚ cia/ii
?icoe?ea noa?e ioce/iiai oe?eueieoeoaa.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e – «Ci?no‚ oi?ie ? iaoiaee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy o
niaaeuei? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO noi??//y» – aea? ioe?ieo aianeo eiiiiceoi??a o oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy‚ a oaeiae iaa?oioiao? iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?o iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? oeiee.

O ?icae?e? cae?eniaii aiae?c iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie oaeeo eiiiiceoi??a:
A.Iaothea‚ I.Eiiea‚ A.Aaoiyieia‚ ?.Eei??yia‚ Ae.N?/einueeiai. Ia iniia?
??cieo aeaea?ae aeyaeaii ?o i?aeoe/iee aianie o iaaeaaia?/io iaoeo oa
caaaeueiee i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Cie?aia‚ a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ii? niaaeueie A.Iaothea
cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co oaeei eiai aeaeaiiyi: «?onueeee
ni?aaiee aeey oe?e ia?iaeieo»‚ «Iaeee eaoaoec ioceee»‚ «Aiyi»‚ «Ei?ioeee
ia/a?e iaoee aa?iii?? ? eiiiiceoe??»‚ «I?ni? aei i?anayoi?
Aiai?iaeeoe?»‚ «I?ni? oea?eiai? ??cieo aaoi??a‚ ia?aeiaeai? ia ae?ii/ee
oi?»‚ «Eieyaee»‚ «Oea?eiaii-ia?iaeiee ni?aaiee»‚ «Ni?aaiee
oea?eiaii-ia?iaeiee aeey oe?e ia?iaeieo». A ?icae?e? a?aecia/ai? oaeiae
i?ae?o/ieee ? ca??ieee eiiiiceoi?a‚ ye? caeeoeeenue o ?oeiienao. Oea –
«6 i?naiue aeey aeeoy/iai aieino a noi?iaiae? oi?oai?aii»‚ «Ai?aae a
ioceoe? oai?aoe/i?e»‚ «Iaoea ioceeaeueii? eiiiiceoe??» ? «Oeiea ni?ao».

Anoaiiaeaii‚ ui a ?noi??? ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy i?ae?o/ieee eiiiiceoi?a
caeiathoue aaaiia i?noea caaaeyee ?o o?niiio ca’yceo c
ia?iaeii-i?naiiith oai?/?noth ? no?iaei caa?aaeaiiyi iniiaieo
aeeaeaeoe/ieo i?eioeei?a aeinooiiino? ? iine?aeiaiino? o aeeeaae?
iaoa??aeo. A niaaeuei? eiiiiceoi?a aeyaeaii oaeiae iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae
?ae?a?eii-ii?aeueiiai‚ iao??ioe/iiai‚ anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia I.Eiiea i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie aeaeaiiyie:
«Naiio/ea»‚ a oaeiae 14 aeioneaie «A?ae?ioaee ioceeaeueii?»‚ yeo
aeaeaaaa eiiiiceoi?. Iaa?oioiaaii iaaeaaia?/io oe?ii?noue ioae?eaoe?e‚ a
oaeiae aeiaaaeaii aaaiiee aianie eiiiiceoi?a a oai??th ? i?aeoeeo
ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Iaaeaaia?/i? iniiae ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aeine?aeaeai? ? a niaaeuei?
A.Aaoiyieia. A ?icae?e? aiie aena?oeai? /a?ac aiae?c oaeeo i?ae?o/iee?a
? ca??iee?a: «Ni?aaiee oe?euei?»‚ «Ni?aaiee oea?eiaiee aeey oe?e
ia?iaeieo»‚ «Eiaca?»‚ a oaeiae i?aoe? «Iaoea aa?iii??»‚ ?oeiien yei?
caa??aa?oueny a Oeaio?aeueiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Eueaiaa.

Aeena?oaio ae?eoia aeniiaeo‚ ui iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia A.Aaoiyieia‚
iiai?noth i?aeii?yaeeiaaia oe?eyi iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy‚ cia/iith
i??ith eiiiainoaaea a?aenooi?noue ioce/iiai iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey
ae?oae ? aoea aaaiiei aianeii o oai??th ? i?aeoeeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy
oeiey??a.

Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia ?.Eei??yia oaeiae i???ioiaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. Oae? eiai aeaeaiiy ye «O/aaiee ii/aoeiaeo
a?aeiiinoae ioceee ? ni?ao»‚ «Iaoea ni?ao ii neooo a ia?oeo aeaio ?ieao
ia?iaeieo oe?e»‚ «Aei ?oeiaiaenoaa i?e caeeaaeaiith oi?o»‚ «Ni?ae
iaaiaei? aeey aaeeoeo iieiae?aee aeey nii?aii ? aeueoa» oa ?i. ? aaaiiei
aeaea?aeii ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ii? oai??? ? i?aeoeee a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.
? oi/a a aeena?oaoe?? a?aecia/aii oie oaeo‚ ui aeaye? i?aoe? eiiiiceoi?a
ia aeinyaaee aenieiai iaoeiaiai ??aiy‚ i?ioa aeyaeaii‚ ui eiai «O/aaiee
ii/aoeiaeo a?aeiiinoae ioceee ? ni?ao»‚ ye ? ?yae ?ioeo ?ia?o‚ ni?aaea
iii?oiee aieea ia ?icaeoie ci?noo iaa/aiiy‚ a oaeiae a?ae?a?aa aaaeeeao
?ieue o noaiiaeaii? ??aeii? oeiee ? niiioeaa aei noai?aiiy a?eueo
aeineiiaeeo ca oi?iith ? ci?noii aeaeaiue c ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy.

Iaaeaaia?/iee aei?iaie Ae.N?/einueeiai o ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaiee
«Ca??ieeii ia?iaeieo ? iao??ioe/ieo i?naiue ia aieine aeeoy/? a
noi?iaiae? oi?oai?aii»‚ ni?aaieeii «Ua ia aia?ea Oe?a?ia»‚ a oaeiae
ca??eith eieyae «O?enoin ?iaeeany».

Aecia/aii aaaiiee aianie eiiiiceoi?a ia o?eueee o ioce/ii-anoaoe/ia
aeoiaaiiy‚ a e o oi?oai?aiio iaaeaaia?eo. sse iieacaa aiae?c ca??ie «Ua
ia aia?ea Oe?a?ia» ? «O?enoin ?iaeeany»‚ oi?oai?aiiee aeeeaae iiaea aooe
c oni?oii aeei?enoaiee ye ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/iee ?aia?ooa? aeey
i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o i?ai?no?a. A?aecia/aii‚ ui naia /a?ac
a?aenooi?noue o oe?euei?e oi?oai?aii?e e?oa?aoo?? aenieiooaeiaei?o
c?ace?a iaoe?iiaeueii? ioceee‚ Ae.N?/einueeee‚ i?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe??
I.Eenaiea oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a‚ noai?ea iiaiioe?iiee
?aia?ooa? aeey ae?oae‚ iaaeaaia?/ia aa?o?noue yeiai oe?iia ? nueiaiaei?.

A ?icae?e? c?iaeaii aeniiaie‚ ui iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a‚ aoaeo/e iaoe?iiaeueii ni?yiiaaiith‚
a?ae?a?aea aaaeeeao ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? iniia ??aeii? oeiee ? ?icaeoeo
ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy. ?o i?ae?o/ieee e ca??ieee c ioceee
ni?eyee aeooiaiiio icaei?iaeaiith iaoe?? oa oi?ioaaiith na?aeiiiai
iieiaeiai iieie?iiy‚ aeoeaieo ai?oe?a ca aea?aeaaio naiino?ei?noue
Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?icae?e? a?aeaiaeeoueny aena?oeaiith
ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae eiiiiceoi??a ? iaa?oioiaothoueny iiaeeeaino?
?o aeei?enoaiiy a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e oeie?.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c iayaieo iaoa??ae?a aeaa i?aenoaao aeey aeniiaeo i?i
oa‚ ui aaeeeee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a‚ cie?aia eiiiiceoi??a‚ iaea oe?a?inueea
iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea‚ yea o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O noi??//y aeinyaioea
cia/ieo oni?o?a. A ?? iniia? aeii?ioaaea ?aeay ia?iaeiino?‚ yea aeaea
iiooiao aei ai?ioueae ca iaoe?iiaeueio oeieo.

A ?iaio? aeaii ioe?ieo i?aoeyi E.Ooeinueeiai ? I.Aeooiiae/a.
Iaaieioo?oueny‚ ui ieie oaea a 50-o ??. O?O no. aoea oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaia ?aeay ia?iaeiino? aeoiaaiiy‚ yea ciaeoea na?e iiaeaeueoee
?icaeoie o ae?yeueiino? aecia/ieo iaaeaaia?a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ?‚
cie?aia‚ eiiiiceoi??a. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ? oie oaeo‚ ui
iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia eiiiiceoi??a a?oiooaaeany ia i?noeaaiio iaoa??ae?
? ianea a nia? aaeeeee ca?yae ethaia? aei ??aeiiai ia?iaeo. Eiiiiceoi?e
aeaee c?acee‚ ye? i?aee?anethaaee ?o ??aeiioe?eueio i???ioaoe?th. Naia
oiio ia?iaeia i?niy aoea aieiaiei aeeaeaeoe/iei iaoa??aeii ?o
i?ae?o/iee?a ? ca??iee?a‚ a i??i?eoaoiei iai?yieii aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?
noaei oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? c??eino?
oeiey??a. Oaeei /eiii‚ c?iaeaii aeniiaie‚ ui i?ia?aeiith o ae?yeueiino?
eiiiiceoi??a noaea ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy‚ yea
aee?enoae?coaaeany i?ae aieeaii aeinyaiaiue oe?a?inueei? iaaeaaia?/ii?
iaoee. E??i E.Ooeinueeiai‚ I.Aeooiiae/a‚ ia ?? oi?ioaaiiy iaea iii?oiee
aieea i?aoey oaeeo aecia/ieo iaaeaaia?a‚ ye ?.O?aiei‚ A.Aa?oeueiia‚
A.Ca?eoeueeee‚ I.A?ooaanueeee‚ I.Aa?a?inueeee‚ ?.Aa?oioaanueeee‚
I.Ae?aaiiaiia‚ A.?eueieoeueeee oa ?ioeo i?ia?aneaieo ae?y/?a –
a?aeaeaieo ai?oe?a ca iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath.

Aacia?a/io oe?ii?noue noaiiaeyoue ??ciiiai?oi? iaoiaee ? i?eeiie
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a‚ a oaeineiiaeaii? yeeo eiiiiceoi?e a?aee
aaciina?aaeith o/anoue. Aeyaeaii‚ ui iaoiaeeea ?icaeoeo ioce/ieo
cae?aiinoae o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? eiiiiceoi??a aeeth/a? a naaa
aeoiaaiiy oaeeo yeinoae: a?ae/oooy eaaeo‚ ?eoio‚ iao?o. I?aee?aneaii‚ ui
?aae?caoe?y ?aea? eiiiiceoi??a i?i ?icaeoie ioce/ieo cae?aiinoae
oeiey??a‚ ye? i?aai?/ii ii?aeioaaee a noi?iiaai?noue eaaeiaiai‚
?eoi?/iiai ? iao?i?eoi?/iiai a?ae/oooy c iii?ith ia ia?iaeiii?naiio
oai?/?noue‚ caeaoi? nai? i?aeiineoe ioce/ia aeoiaaiiy oa ?icaeoie
iniaenoino? a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa noni?eueiiai aeeooy.

Aei iaea?eueo aaaiieo ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeinyaiaiue eiiiiceoi??a o
?icae?e? a?aeianaii oaeiae ?aea? cae??ieaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ciaiue ia
i?aeoeoe?‚ ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae oeiey??a‚ ?aeiino? anoaoe/iiai
oa ?aeaeiiai‚ ?ae?a?eii-ii?aeueiiai‚ iao??ioe/iiai‚ anoaoe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy. Aeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?o a no/ani?e oeie?.

Aeyaeaii i??i?eoao aianeo eiaeiiai eiiiiceoi?a o oai??th ? i?aeoeeo
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a‚ a naia:

– N.Ai?iaeaae/ai caii/aoeiaaii ?aeath noai?aiiy aeeoy/iai aieaeueiiai
?aia?ooa?o‚ ui ciaeoea nai? i?iaeiaaeaiiy o ae?yeueiino? oaeeo
eiiiiceoi??a ye A.Iaothe‚ I.Eiiei‚ ?.Eei??yi‚ A.Aaoiyiei‚ Ae.N?/einueeee
oa ?ioeo cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ieooe?a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO
noi??//y‚ ye? ca iniiao aei nai?o aeaeaiue aa?ooue ia?iaeiii?naiiee
iaoa??ae;

– A.Iaothe ? ia?oei na?aae eiiiiceoi??a Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aaoi?ii
«?onueeiai ni?aaieea aeey oe?e ia?iaeieo»‚ yeee‚ ?acii ?c «Iaeei
eaoaoecii ioceee»‚ noai?ea iaeo i?ia?aneaio oeieo ni?ao‚ aea oai?aoe/iee
iaoa??ae eaoaoeco cae??iethaaany i?aeoe/ieie ai?aaaie ?c ni?aaieea.
Caiaeii oey ?aeay aoea i?aeo?eiaia N.Ai?iaeaae/ai‚ I.Eiieii‚ ?ioeie
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie ieooeyie;

– ?.Eei??yi‚ aeaeaaoe «O/aaiee ii/aoeiaeo a?aeiiinoae ioceee ? ni?ao»‚
oa?eoia a ?noi??th ye aaoi? ia?oiai oai?aoe/iiai i?ae?o/ieea c ioceee;

– I.Eiiei ia? iniaeea? caneoae a ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ye
?aaeaeoi?-aeaeaaaoeue‚ yeee canioaaa aeaeaaieoeoai‚ aea ae?oeoaaa
ie?aieie aeioneaie i?ae?o/ieee ? ca??ieee c ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy;

– Ae.N?/einueeee‚ aoaeo/e ia?oei i?ioan?eiei eiiiiceoi?ii Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie‚ i?aeiya i?anoeae oi?oai?aiii? iaaeaaia?ee‚ oa?eoiaoe a ?noi??th
ye aaoi? ye?niiai aeeoy/iai oi?oai?aiiiai‚ a oaeiae aieaeueiiai
?aia?ooa?o;

– A.Aaoiyiei nai?th i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/iith ae?yeuei?noth caeeaa
ooiaeaiaio aeui? ioce/ii? ina?oe a ?aa?ii?. Eiai iinoaoue ? iaei??th c
iaeyne?aa?oeo a ?noi??? cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? ioceee ae?oai? iieiaeie
O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y.

Oi/a oe?e?nii? nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a iiaiiio ?
caaa?oaiiio aeaeyae? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeie eiiiiceoi?aie ia aoei
noi?iiaaii‚ a ?yae? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue‚ /eneaiieo aacaoieo ? aeo?iaeueieo
noaooyo‚ i?ae?o/ieeao‚ ca??ieeao aiie aenoioee ?yae aaaeeeaeo ?aeae
uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo‚ oi?i ? iaoiae?a ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Oe?
caeiaooee ciaeoee nai? i?iaeiaaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie o ae?yeueiino?
N.Ethaeeaae/a‚ O.Eieanne‚ A.Aa?a?inueeiai‚ A.Aaoiyieia‚
I.Aaeai?iinueeiai‚ I.Ieaeaie?anueeiai oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a
ia?oi? iieiaeie OO noi??//y‚ a nueiaiaei? caneoaiaothoue ia aeeaiea e
anaa?/ia aea/aiiy‚ ine?eueee iiaeooue ? iiaeii? noaoe aeoeaieie
/eiieeaie ?icaoaeiae iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy noi?ioeueiaaii oae? aeniiaee:

1. Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ioce/ii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? aoee coiiaeai? i?ioeanii iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Iie?oeea iaoe?iiaeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai iiiaaieaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy a ia?o?e iieiaei? O?O noi??//y
c?oeioeanue ?c c?inoath/ei iii?ii iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, a yeiio, ii?yae
c aecia/ieie ina?oi?ie ae?y/aie, aeoeaio o/anoue a?aee ? eiiiiceoi?e.
Aeniei ioe?ithth/e aeoiaia cia/aiiy ioce/iiai ienoaoeoaa, aiie
cae?enieee cia/iee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ?ice?eee ?yae iiaeo ia?niaeoea a ?noi???
iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ?, cie?aia, oai??? ? i?aeoeee ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.

2. I?iaeaie ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a caeiaee iaeia c aaaeeeaeo
i?noeue o ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a. Iaea?eueo iiaia nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aiie ciaeoee o iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aoe? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y, yea o nai?io ?icaeoeo
i?ieoea o?e iniiai? ia??iaee: ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy – 1848-1873 ??.;
ia??iae ?icaeoeo – 1873-1891 ??.; ia??iae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? – 1891-1903
??.

O ia?oiio ia??iae? (1848-1873) a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy
ioce/ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a‚ yea iaea ae??oaeueiee
aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia iaoe?iiaeueii? ioce/ii? ina?oe ?
aeoiaaiiy‚ aeaaoe iiooiao aei iiaeaeueoiai ?? ?icaeoeo.

Ae?oaee ia??iae (1873-1891) oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaiieie caeiaooeaie a
aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee‚ cie?aia aeaeaiiyi o 80-o ?ieao oe?ei? na???
i?aeoe/ieo i?ae?o/iee?a c ioceee‚ ye? caaaaoeee oai??th ? i?aeoeeo
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a.

O?ao?e ia??iae (1891-1903) ? ia?aeiiiei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo ioce/ii?
ina?oe a ?aa?ii?‚ yeee i?ea?a aei canioaaiiy Aeuiai ioce/iiai
?inoeoooooo o Eueaia?.

3. Iae?noioi?oeie oaiaeaioe?yie e iniaeeainoyie iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a noaee:

– iaoiiaeai?noue ioce/iiai iinooio ianoaaeiaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo, ??aiai ?icai?oaiiy i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy;

– aaiethoe?eiee oeyo ?o ae?yeueiino? a?ae i?inoiai i?ina?oieoeoaa e
caeo/aiiy iieiae? aei ni?ao aei i?aai?caoe?? ?icieo oi?i ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy, a iniia? yeeo aeii?ioth/ith noaea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay;

– ?icoe?aiiy oeieae ? caaaeaiue ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy caeaaeii a?ae
noni?eueieo iio?aa, ??aiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo,
caaaeueiiiaaeaaia?/ieo i??i?eoao?a ia oiio /e ?ioiio aoai?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo;

– aaeineiiaeaiiy ci?noo ae?yeueiino?, ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeiaoaeoeaieo oi?i,
iaoiae?a ? cania?a aei iiooeo oeyo?a naiino?eiiai ae??oaiiy aeooaeueieo
i?iaeai ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ? iieiae?.

4. Iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a ca
oa?aeoa?ii ? ci?noii ?iaioe aoea i?ia?aneaiei noni?eueii-iaaeaaia?/iei
yaeuai, ai aiia ni?eyea:

– caaaa/aiith ci?noo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiei aeaiaioii, eiai iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei caaacia/aiiyi;

– ?icaeoeo ?aea? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeoiaaiiy, ooaa?aeaeaiith ?? canaae o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?;

– oi?ioaaiith ?icaaeoaeaii? ia?aae? ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa, a yeeo
eiiiiceoi?e aeoeaii i?iaiaeeee naith i?ina?oieoeueeo i?aoeth na?aae
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, aoaeeee eiai iaoe?iiaeueio na?aeii?noue;

– noai?aiith oe?a?inueei? ioce/ii? oeiee ? Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo ye
aeueoa?iaoeae aei aiaeia?/ieo iieuenueeeo, i?iaoeueeeo caeeaae?a;

– anoaiiaeaiith o?nieo ca’yce?a, iiooeo oeyo?a ni?ai?aoe? i?ae No?aeiith
? Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith;

– iiya? iiaeo ?iai eiiiiceoi??a-iaaeaaia?a, ye?, i?iaeiaaeoth/e
o?aaeeoe?? iiia?aaeiee?a, aiineee ? naith aaaiio /anoeo a i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.

5. Aaaeeeaei iane?aeeii ae?yeueiino? eiiiiceoi??a noaei noai?aiiy ia?oeo
ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa – ae?acieeia iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Oae, a inia?
«Euea?anueeiai Aiyia» 1891 ?ieo iinoaei oiaa?enoai, ui iaei ae??oaeueiee
aieea ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ioce/ii? ina?oe a cao?aeieo iaeanoyo
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia ia canioaaiiy Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo o Eueaia?.

6. Iaeiei ?c iaeaaaii?oeo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a ? ?o iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia. A.Iaothe, I.Eiiei, ?.Eei??yi,
N.Ai?iaeaae/, A.Aaoiyiei, Ae.N?/einueeee oa ?io? aaaaeaee nai?i
iaia’yceii noai?thaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? i?ae?o/ieee ? ca??ieee aeey ae?oae.
Iaa/aiiy ioceee aiie iinoaaeee ia iaoeiao iniiao, oiaoi o nai?o
aeaeaiiyo ai?uoaaee iaoiaee/i? ?icae?ee, ye? aena?oethaaee iniiae
aeeaeaeoeee ioceee ? aoee i?ecia/ai? ye aeey a/eoae?a, oae ? o/i?a. Ana
oea na?ae/eoue i?i aeeaiea ?icoi?iiy eiiiiceoi?aie ?ie? ioce/iiai
ienoaoeoaa o aeoiaaii? ina?/aiiai, iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiiiai iieiaeiai
iieie?iiy.

7. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe
aaiethoe?th iaaeaaia?/ieo iiaeyae?a eiiiiceoi??a. sseui a ia?o?e /aa?o?
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O noi??//y oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ?o ae?yeueiino?
aoea iaiaaeai?noue oe?eae ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy (eiiiiceoi?e aeiiaaaeeny
aeeth/aiiy o?ie?a ioceee o oe?euei? iaa/aeuei? ieaie ? i?ia?aie), oi
iai?ee?ioe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y ?i aeiaaeinue ae??ooaaoe a?eueo
neeaaei? caaaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa iieyaaea a oiio, uia i?ae?o/ieee ?
cai?ieee c ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia iaoe?iiaeuei? iio?aae
oeiey??a‚ ? uia iaa/aiiy a?aeaoaaeiny ??aeiith oe?a?inueeith iiaith.

8. Ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a iineea
iiaeaeaeieoeueeee oa?aeoa?. ?i aoei aeanoeaa ii/oooy noni?eueiiai
iaia’yceo, aeniea iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, ni?aaaeiy naiiiiaea?oaa. A
oiiaao anei?eyoeieii? iie?oeee aeaaee, iino?eiiai ianooio ia ??aeio iiao
e ina?oo ?o i?aoey noaaaea ina?aaeeii iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy. ?iaia oeeo
eiiiiceoi??a iiaeii? caeiyoe ii/ania i?noea a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? oeiee a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae iathoue aooe
a?aeiia?aeii e ia’?eoeaii iioe?iiaai?.

9. Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia eiiiiceoi??a ia ao?aoeea nai?? aeooaeueiino? ?
ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.
I?iaeiaaeo?oueny oaeineiiaeaiiy aeeaeaeoeee ? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy,
ni?yiiaaii? ia ae??oaiiy aaaeeeaeo ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oa
?aeaeii-aeoiaieo caaaeaiue. Oe? ieoaiiy oni?oii ae??ooaaeeny ieooeyie ?
cao?eniaai? a iaa/aeueieo i?ae?o/ieeao ? ca??ieeao.

Aeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?aoaiaeo? ia ae/a?iiee ?icaeyae on?o aniaeo?a
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a. Oiio i?aaeiaoii iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy
iiaea a noaoe: iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
eiiiiceoi??a o ia??iae a?ae canioaaiiy Aeuiai ioce/iiai ?inoeoooo o
Eueaia? aei 1939 ?ieo; aeoiaia ae?yeuei?noue ioce/ieo oiaa?enoa; ie?ai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaee a aooe i?enay/ai? iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei?
A.Iaothea, I.Eiiea, A.Aaoiyieia, ?.Eei??yia, Ae.N?/einueeiai.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue:

1. A?eoi? Iaothe – eiiiiceoi? ? nayuaiee // Na?o aeeoeie. – 1997. – ?1.–
N.12-13.

2. ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a i?ina?oieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino?
aaeeoeueeiai eiiiiceoi?a Inoaia Ieaeaie?anueeiai (1863-1919) // ?aeay
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?
O?O-OOno.: Ca??iee noaoae ? aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – Eieiiey‚ 1997. – N.264-267.

3. Iaaeaaia?/ia niaaeueia A.Aaoiyieia ? ?? aeei?enoaiiy a no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e oeie? // Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeiciaanoai o iaaeaaia?/iiio
i?ioean? ina?oi?o onoaiia: Ca??iee noaoae. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee‚ 1997. –
N.120 — 123.

4. Iaaeaaia?/ii-i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Aeaiena N?/einueeiai
(1865-1909) // Ia???. – 1998. – ?1. – N.12-15.

5. I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue Iaeneia Eiiea (1859-1918) // Ienoaoeoai
oa ina?oa. – 1998. – ?2. – N.33-34; 52-54.

6. I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae ae?oae o iaaeaaia?/i?e
niaaeuei? aaeeoeueeeo eiiiiceoi??a e?ioey O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y //
Ina?oyiei. – 1998. – ?2. – N.16-17.

7. ?noi??y noai?aiiy ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo oe?eueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c ioceee
a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O noi??//y // Aeaea?aea. –
1998. – ?2. – N.19-22.

AIIOAOe??:

O?aeo ?.A. I?iaeaie ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a o ae?yeueiino?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a (ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O – ii/aoie OO
noi??//y).

Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy
eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 – oai??y oa
?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. I?eea?iaonueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i.A.Noaoaieea.
?aaii-O?aie?anuee‚ 1998.

O ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiiiiceoi??a
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO noi??//y‚ aecia/a?oueny ?o aianie o
?ic?iaeo ?aeae‚ ui noinothoueny ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai ioce/iiai
aeoiaaiiy a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. Anoaiiaeaii‚ ui‚ iacaaaeath/e ia neeaaei?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?‚ iie?oe/i? ? eoeueoo?i? ianoaaeie‚ eiiiiceoi?e a
oiiaao aano?i-oai?nueei? ieoiaoe?? aianee aaaiio eaioo a oai??th ?
i?aeoeeo ioce/ii-anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

I?ia?aneai? ioce/ii-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aea? eiiiiceoi??a iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe ?
ioce/iiai aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ioce/ia aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a‚ iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue‚
iaa/aiiy‚ aeeaeaeoeea‚ iaaeaaia?/ia ae?yeuei?noue‚ niaaeueia‚ ?aea?
eiiiiceoi??a.

O?aeo E.A. I?iaeaiu iocueaeueiiai ainieoaiey oeieueieeia o
aeayoaeueiinoe caiaaeiioe?aeineeo eiiiiceoi?ia (aoi?ay iieiaeia O?O –
ia/aei OO noieaoey).

Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 – oai?ey e enoi?ey
iaaeaaiaeee. I?eea?iaoneee oieaa?neoao ei.A.Noaoaieea. Eaaii-O?aieiane,
1998.

A ?aaioa aiaeece?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue caiaaeiioe?aeineeo eiiiiceoi?ia
aoi?ie iieiaeiu XIX – ia/aea XX noieaoey, ii?aaeaeyaony eo aeeaae a
?ac?aaioeo eaeae, eanathueony ?acaeoey iaoeeiiaeueiiai iocueaeueiiai
ainieoaiey a Caiaaeiie Oe?aeia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi, ianiio?y ia neiaeiua
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea, iieeoe/aneea e eoeueoo?iua ianoiyoaeuenoaa,
eiiiiceoi?u a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo aano?i-aaiaa?neie ieeoiaoeee aianee
aeeaae a oai?eth e i?aeoeeo iocueaeueii-ynoaoe/aneiai ainieoaiey.

I?ia?anneaiua iocueaeueii-iaaeaaiae/aneea eaeae eiiiiceoi?ia iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu aeey ?ac?aaioee eiioeaiooaeueiuo iniia iaoeeiiaeueiie
nenoaiu ia?aciaaiey e iocueaeueiiai ainieoaiey a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iocueaeueiia ainieoaiea oeieueieeia, iaoeeiiaeueiay
niciaoaeueiinoue, iao/aiea, aeeaeaeoeea, iaaeaaiae/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, ianeaaeea, eaeae eiiiiceoi?ia.

Frait I.V. The problems of musical education of schoolchildren in the
activity of West Ukrainian composers (the second half of the 19-th – the
beginning of the 20-th century).

Thesis in manuscript for a Candidate of Sciences degree (Pedagogics),
speciality 13.00.01 – Theory and History of Pedagogics. V.Stefanyk
Precarpathian University, Ivano-Frankivs’k, 1998.

In this work the activity of West Ukrainian composers of the second half
of the 19-th – the beginning of the 20- th century is analysed, their
contribution to the working out of the ideas concerning the development
of national musical education in Western Ukraine is underlined.

It is investigated that the composers made a great contribution to the
theory and practice of musical and aesthetic education during the
Austro-Hungarian occupation, notwithstanding the difficult
socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions.

The progressive musical and pedagogical ideas of the composers can be
used in the development of conceptual principles of national education
and musical education at present.

Key words: musical education of schoolchildren, national consciousness,
education, didactics, pedagogical activity, heritage, ideas of the
composers.

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