Проблема походження індоєвропейців (аналіз концепцій): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / С.В. Конча, Київ. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. — К., 1999. — 19 с. —

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Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 931

EII*A NA?A?E A?EOI?IAE*

I?IAEAIA IIOIAeAEAIIss ?IAeI?A?IIAEOe?A

(AIAE?C EIIOeAIOe?E)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.12. — oe?a?iiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? aoiieia?? ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, Cae?ciye Eaii?ae Eueaiae/

— i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aoiieia?? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaeaa?i Aeieo?i sseiae/

— i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai Ee?ai-Ia/a?nueeiai
?noi?eei-Eoeueoo?iiai caiia?aeieea

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Iaaeaiei TH??e A?oae?eiae/

— i?ioani? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 ea?oiy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.01. ii caoenoo
eaiaeeaeaonueeeo ? aeieoi?nueeeo aeena?oaoe?e i?e ?inoeooo?
oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca
aae?anith 252033 Ee?a-33, aoeueaa? O. Oaa/aiea,14 (ae?oaee iiaa?o,
eiioa?aioe-cae)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe A.I.I?NEOI

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?nioth/? ia e?iaoeue 80-o — 90-o? ?iee iiaeyaee
oao?aoe?a ia iioiae-aeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a (??) ? ?ici?uaiiy ia?aeiiiai
oeaio?o ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy ? iioe?ai-iy — i?aaaouee?aueie ?? (I??),
iiaeooue aooe caaaeai? aei o?ueio iai?yie?a. I?aaenoaaieee ia?oiai
iai?yieo iaiieyaathoue ia ?ici?uaii? I?? o aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino?
a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo oeaio??a ca?iaeaeaiiy neioa?noaa ? caiea?ianoaa ?
iia’ycothoue iioe?aiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo (?.-?.) iia c ?icnaeaiiyi
ia?oeo caiea?ia?a c Aiaoie?? ? Aaeeai-nueeiai i-iaa ia i?ai?/ ? no?ae.
I?aaenoaaieee ae?oaiai iai?yieo ?ici?uothoue i?aaaouee?a-ueio a noaiao
i?ae Aei?i?ii ? Aieaith ? iiyniththoue iioe?aiiy ?? ?iaac?yie aeoeaiiai
e ?ooeeaiai (?aiiuei)neioa?nueeiai ianaeaiiy ia cao?ae, i?aaeaiue ?
no?ae. Ca?aeii i?aaenoaa-iee?a o?aoueiai iai?yieo, I?? ciaoiaeeeanue a
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? (i?ai?/i?oa Aa?o-iueiai Aeoiath) ?acii c i?eeaaeeie
oa?aiaie i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? /anoeie No?aeii?.

I?aaenoaaieee eiaeiiai iai?yieo aenoaathoue aeineoue ia?aeiieea?
a?aoiaioe, ni?y-iiaai? i?ioe iiaoaeia ?oi?o iiiiaio?a. Neeaaea?oueny
naiai ?iaeo “iaoiaa” neooaoe?y, iaya-i?noue yei?, cie?aia, aecia? a
noaoo? 1997 ?ieo iaeei c i?ia?aeieo ?iaei?a?iia?no?a Aeae.I.Iaeei??.
A?i, cie?aia, cacia/ea, ui ?aeii oa/?? Aei?i?a, iniaeeai a eiai
e?ni-noaiia?e oa noaiia?e /anoeiao, ? oei “iacaeieaiiei aa?’??ii”, a
yeee aie?athoueny ?ooe ianaeaiiy aiioe iaie?oo — aiaie?oo c caoiaeo, a
oa?aie ii iaeaeaa aiee Ea?iao (Iioenny, Iiae?eey, i?aaeaiia Aieeiue) ?
oeie ?oaaaeaie, aea aaanathoue ? aoaeyoueny ne?aee ?oo?a neioa??a c?
noiaeo. Oeeie ianoaaeiaie caiaeyoueny iai?aaoeue a?aoiaioaoe?ei? nenoaie
i?ea?/iee?a ye cao?aeiiai, oae ? no?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy ??, ine?eueee
oe? nenoaie iieiy-thoueny iieeoaieie iaenooo?a?oi? aeieaciai? eaiee.

Ioaea, a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee c oa?ai?a Oe?a?ie iiaee a cia/iith i??ith
i?iynieoe neooaoe?th ?, iiaeeeai, aeaanoe c aeooiai eooa i?iaeaio a
oe?eiio. Aiaaiaiino? a oeueiio aeiaea? ? oa, ui ca inoaii? 15 — 20 ?ie?a
a?oaieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? aeyaeee iaoa??aee, ye?
aeicaieythoue aaaaoi a /iio ii-iiaiio ?icaeyaeaoe o?ae aoiieoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a, aea ia noaee ua a?aeiieie oe?ieiio iaoeiaiio caaaeo (iniaeeai
a cao?aeieo e?a?iao), oao?aoeyi c ?iaei?a?iia?noeee cie?aia. Ia aeaeue,
?ic?iaea ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c noaiiaeaiiyi, ?icaeoeii ? ii/aoeiaeie
aoaiaie /eaioaaiiy (?iciaaeo) ?.-?. ni?eueiioe, a?o/eciyieie
aeine?aeieeaie iaooiaoo?oueny ia neaaeo iciaeiieai?noue c
?noi??ia?ao??th oeeo ieoaiue, no/aniei noaiii a ?iaei?a?iia?noeoe?,
nooi?noth aaaaoueio e?iaa?noe/ieo aniaeo?a ? o.ae., ui cia/iith i??ith
coiiaeth?oueny o?aaeeoe?eii iaaeinoao-iueith oaaaith nenoaie a?o/eciyii?
iaoee aei ?iaei?a?iia?noe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Iane?ae-eii oeueiai ? oa, ui
a oie /an, ye a?aee?eooy oe?a?inueeeo a?oaieia?a aeei?enoiaothoueny
aaoi?aie a?iioac ? oai??e ca ei?aeiiii, o aeani?e e?a?i? aiie ia
aeinyaathoue iaeaaeiiai ?ioa?i?aoaoe?eiiai ??aiy, ui ca?aeithth?
a?o/eciyio iaoeo ? cao?eio? ?? ?icaeoie.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui aaaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie
iioiaeaeaiiy iin??a ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo iia a eiioaeno? nenoaie
oe?a?iiciaa/eo aeenoeeie?i coiiaeth?oueny aaciina?aaei?i ca’yceii ?? c
ae??oaiiyi oe?eiai ?yaeo aca?iiiia’ycaieo ? aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
a?o/eciyii? iaoee.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. E?ioeaaith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ie?aneaiiy a?aaeo iioe?aiiy iin??a ?.-?. i?aiiae oa o?iiieia?/ieo iaae
?nioaaiiy ?.-?. ?aeiino? c oei nooiaiai a??ia?aeiino? ? iaaeeaeaiino?,
yeiai aeicaieythoue aeinyaoe aeinoaoiuei oaa?aei anoaiiaeai? ia
nueiaiaei? iaoeia? oaeoe.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe iathoue aooe ae??oai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1) iaeneiaeueii iiaia ioiieaiiy ?noi??? iiooe?a i?aaaouee?aueie ?? ?
iia’ycaieo c oeei aeine?aeaeaiue, iniaeeai ia no/aniiio aoai?, 2)
aiae?c, c iii?ith ia iia? oaeoe, oeo i?eioeeiiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye? ia
iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny aeinoaoiuei iaae?eieie (? canoa??eeie, iaaeinoaoiuei
?ic?iaeaieie ? o.ae.), 3) aeae?eaiiy o??? c eiioeaioe?e, yea iaeiiai?oa
ocaiaeaeo?oueny c aeaieie ??cieo iaoe ? ia ia? i?e oeueiio aioo??oi?o
noia?a/iinoae, 4) i?e iaiao?aeiino? iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaea?eueo
iaae?eii iaa?oioiaaii? aa?n?? (a?iioace) ?c caae?yiiyi iiaia?aee?eoeo
iaoa??ae?a ? iieiaeaiue, ui io?eiaee aeciaiiy, a oaeiae ?acoeueoao?a
aeanieo ?icooe?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaiii-?ioaa?aoe?eia
canoinoaaiiy aeaieo ? iaoiae?a ??cieo aeenoeeie?i, a ia?oo /a?ao —
e?iaa?noeee ? a?oaieia??, iaioith i??ith – ?noi???, aio?iiieia??,
iaeaiaeieia?? ? ye aeiiii?aeieo – iaea-iioieia??, iae?iieia??. B ?iaio?
canoiniaaii ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee, e?iaaiiaea-iioieia?/iee,
?noi?eei-?ao?iniaeoeaiee, oeiieia?/iee, eiiieaeniee iaoiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e
?noi??ia?ao?? i?i-aaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaea?eueo aaaiieo ?
iioe?aieo a iaooe? iia?oi?o (80 — 90-o? ?iee) eiioeaioe?e iioiaeaeaiiy
??. Io?eiaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iieiaeaiiy aeayeeo aaoi??a i?i
iaiiaeeea?noue (aacaeieacia?noue) a?aeoai?aiiy ia i?aenoaa?
ii??aiyeueiiai eae-ne/iiai aiae?co aeaiaio?a eoeueoo?iiai (aeiiii?/iiai)
noaio ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a ia??iaeo iiaii? ?aeiino?. Aei eiioaenoo ?ic?iaee
i?iaeaie i?aaaouee?aueie ?? aaaaeaii aeciaia na?aae oao?aoe?a, aea
iaaeinoaoiuei ona?aeiieaia ? neaaei a?aoiaaia aaoi?aie aa?n?e
iioiaeaeaiiy ?? iieiaeaiiy i?i a?aenooi?noue aaciina?aaei?o, o?eaaeeo ?
aeainoi?iii?o iiaieo ca’yce?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie ao?ac?enueei?,
o?aeuenueei?, i?ai?/iieaaeacueei? iiaieo ni?eueiio o ia??iae ioi?ieaiiy
i?ciueini?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiaii? nenoaie. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai
cai?iiiiiaaii ??oaiiy i?i a?aeaeaeai?noue (a?aeiniaeai?noue) ?aeiio
oi?ioaaiiy ?.-?. ni?eueiioe a?ae a?aae?a iioe?aiiy caaaeaieo iiaieo
ni?eueiio (n?iae).

Io?eiaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeoiea i?i iaeaaei?noue aei ?.-?. iiaiiai
oa aoiieoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o iin??a “e?niaeo” iaie?oe/ieo eoeueoo?
aanaei?a na?aaeiueiai Aei?i?a, I?ei’yo?, i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? I?eaaeoeee
oa ?o aaaiio ?ieue a aoiiaaiac? aaeo?a ? neia’yi. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
io?eiaee aeniiaie Ae.ss.Oaeaa?ia i?i aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie noaiiaeo
eoeueoo? “ia??oiieuenueeiai eiea” c aei?i?i-aeiiaoeueeei iaie?oii ?
a?iioaca E.E.Cae?ciyea i?i i?ia?aeio ?ieue a aaiac? ?? iin??a
iacie?oe/ieo eoeueoo? o.ca. “iinoiaaeaiicueeiai” eiea (VI — ia?o. iie. V
oen. aei i.a. — i?ae ?aeiii oa N?aa?nueeei Ae?ioeai). Ia a?aei?io a?ae
E.E.Cae?ciyea, yeee ?icaeyaeaa iin??a oeeo eoeueoo? ye aoiiaaiaoe/ia
i?aea?oioy ?? (oiaoi ye i?a?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a), c iaeyaeii ia o?iiieia?th
oa ianoa-aeie iiaeaeueoiai aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo, iaa?oioiaaii nain
aaaaeaoe ?o aeania ?iaei?a?iiaeoeyie — iin?yie ni?eueii? ?.-?. iiae
(“i?aiiae”) i?ciueiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ieoaiue aoii- oa aeiooiaaiace ia?iae?a
?a?iie ? Ac?? (cie?aia i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeoie?a oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo), iaienaii? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ia?-a?nii? oa aeaaiuei?
?noi???, i?ae?o/iee?a c ?noi???.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeeth/ai? aei aee-na?oaoe??, ii?eethaeiaii ? iaaiai?aii ia 4-e ? 5-e
I?aeia?iaeieo a?oaieia?/ieo eiioa-?aioe?yo nooaeaio?a ? iieiaeeo a/aieo
(IAEN ? IA) (Ee?a, 1996 ? 1997), Anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?ia ?
oe?a?iiciaanoai o XIX no.” (Ee?a, 1997), iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? (ia?aae?)
a?aeae?eo iiiianoeee ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, can?aeaii?
A?aeae?eo a?oaieia?? aiioe aiaie?oo ? a?iice ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, /a?ai-aeo ca?oiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? ia?aaeao a?aeae?eo aoiieia??
?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y (172 noi?.) neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, aeiaeathoueny nienie e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae
(470 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoie A (45 noi?.), aeiaeaoie A (12 noi?.),
aeiaeaoie A (18 oaae.), aeiaeaoie A (6 ea?o).

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny
aieiaia iaoa, aecia/athoueny caaaeaiiy, ye? iathoue aooe aeeiiai? aeey
?? aeinyaiaiiy, ?ice?eaa?oueny iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e. ?noi??ia?ao?y (caaaeueiee iaeyae).

?noi??th iiooe?a i?aaaouee?aueie ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
o?e aaeee? ia??iaee (eiaeiiio c yeeo i?ena’y/aii a?aeiia?aeii ie?aiee
i?ae?icae?e ia?oiai ?icae?eo).

Ia?oee ia??iae ii/aany c anoaiiaeaiiy oaeoo nii??aeiaiino? i?ae iiaaie
?a?iie oa ??aio-?iae?? (e?iaoeue XVIII — ii/. XIX no.) ? i?iaeiaaeoaaany
aei 80-o ?ie?a XIX no., eiee a ?iaei?a?iia?noeoe? ii/aee aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeai? aio?iiieia?? oa a?oaieia??. Aeaea?aea ? iaoiaee,
yeeie iia?oaaee a ia?oee ia??iae, oaeoe/ii iaee iaeaea nooi
e?iaa?noe/iee oa?aeoa? (O?aaea?, 1886).

Anoaiiaeaiiy nii??aeiaiino? i?ae ?yaeii iia ?a?ac??, ui i?ci?oa io?eiaee
iacao ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? n?i’?, iia’ycaii c ?iaiaie O.Aeaeiina,
O?.Aiiia, ss.A?eiia, ?.?anea oa ?i. I?ioyaii ?yaeo aeanyoe??/ (iaeaea
anueiai ia?oiai ia??iaeo) I?? ooeaee a aaciina?aaei?e aeecueeino? a?ae
?iae?? — ia noaiiaeo oca??’yo ??aio oa Na?aaeiuei? Ac?? (?iaioe
Aeae.?iaea, O.Eannaia, A.I?eoa oa a. ?i.).

A oeae /an ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny iaoiae o. ca. “e?iaa?noe/ii?
iaeaiioieia??” (oa?i?i aaaaeaiee A.I?eoa), yeee iieyaaa o c?noaaeaii?
iaca i?e?iaeieo ia’?eo?a, ui ?aeii-no?othaaeeny ye
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenuee? c aaia?ao?/ieie oiiaaie, oei?ith ? oaoiith
oiai /e ?ioiai ?aa?iio. Ca?aene ?iaeany aeniiaie i?i i?iaeeaaiiy
ni?eueieo i?aaee?a ?.-?.iiaieo ia?iae?a iaia?aaeiaei? ?iciaaeo ?o
?aeiino? o iaaiiio ?aa?ii?.

?ioei iai?yieii canoinoaaiiy “e?iaaiiaeaiioieia?/iiai” iaoiaeo aoea
?aeiino?oeoe?y i?a?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e: a?aeiiaethth/e
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenuee? oa?-i?ie, iia’ycai? c? noa?ith eoeueoo?e
(ainiiaea?noaa, nioe?aeueiiai eaaeo ? o.ae.), ?o cia/aiiy ?ioa?i?aooaaee
ye aeieac iayaiino? o ?? oeo /e ?ioeo eoeueoo?ieo yaeu (oeae i?aeo?ae
iaaoa iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy i?ci?oa, eiee ii/aeiny caae?yiiy aeaieo
a?oaieia??).

?aii? ?iaioe aoee iiai? iaoyaeie, ia?aa?eueoaiue, iiieeeiaeo
?aeiino?oeoe?e. ?ic-aeoie e?iaa?noe/ii? iaoee a 50 — 60 — o? ?iee XIX
no. i?eca?a aei ia?aaeyaeo noa?eo a?ii-oac (?iaioe A.Oeaeoa?a, A.Eoia,
ss.A?eiia). I?ae ?ioei aeaeeinue, ui ?aae?? i?e?iaee I?aaeaiii? oa
Oeaio?aeueii? Ac?? ye?ac iiaaii a?aeia?aaeai? ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeei
neiaieeii, oiae? ye iacae ?yaeo ?aae?e Oeaio?aeueii?, No?aeii? ?
I?ai?/ii? ?a?iie (a?ae-i?/ai? ua ?.?aneii o 1818 ?ioe?) c aeinoaoiueith
a??ia?aei?noth iiaeooue aaaaeaoeny ni?eueii-?iaei?a?iiaenueeeie (?iaioe
O.Aaioay, A.O?oi?,A.O?ea oa ?i.). Aei oiai ae ?.Eaoai (1862) caa?ioa
oaaao ia oie oaeo, ui a ?a?ii? c ii/aoeo ?noi?e/ieo /an?a iaoea? aaaaoi
?.-?.iiaieo ia?iae?a, oiae? ye iiae “Aaanoe” (aeaaiuei??ainueea) oa
“??aaaaee” (aeaaiuei?iaei-a??enueea) ? aeecueeeie ??ciiaeaeaie ii noo?
iaeiiai iiaiiai eaaeo, a oie aea /an eeoia-nueea ? eaoenueea iiae
(e?iaoeue II oen. i.a.) caa??aathoue ia iaio a?oa?/iee (aeecueeee aei
ni?eueii?.-?. noaio) oa?aeoa?, i?ae cana?ae/ai? a I oen. aei i.a. iiae
aeaaiueiai ??aio oa ?iae??.

Oaeei /eiii aoee caeeaaeai? iniiae ?a?iiaenueei? aa?n?? iioiaeaeaiiy ??,
yea, iaeiae, a?ae?aco iiae?eeeany ia e?eueea aa??aio?a: yeui O.Aaioae,
A.O?e oa ?io? iia’ycoaaee ?o ca?iaeaeaiiy c Iaae/i?iiii?’yi, oi E.Aaeaa?
(1871) oa ?.Eoii (1871) aeacoaaee ia I?ai?/io ?a?iio (c /ei
iiaiaeaeoaaany ? ?.Eaoai). A 70-o? ?iee c’yaeythoueny ? iia? ?ic?iaee
i?ea?/iee?a ac?enueei? i?aaaouee?aueie. Cie?aia O?. I?eea? (1872)
?ici?uo? ?? a Caeaaeacc?, a E.I’?o?aiai (1879) — ia i?aaei? Nea??o.

Ia?ao?ae aei ae?oaiai ia??iaeo aoa i?aeaioiaeaiee oni?oaie aio?iiieia??
? iniaeeai ia?a?nii? a?oaieia??. Ca?aeii ?ic?iaie O.Iueioa (1878) oa
E.Iaiea (1883, 1886), aio?i-iieia?/i? aeai? i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaee oaco i?i
ca?iaeaeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a ia I?aii/? ?a?i-ie. E.Iaiea iaa?a
iaoa??aee, ye? cana?ae/oaaee, ia eiai aeoieo, aacia?a?ai?noue o
?ic-aeoeo ?aniaiai oeio c /an?a iaie?oo aei ?noi?e/ieo aa?iaioe?a (?,
cie?aia, oaaae?a).

I?iia?ii canoinoaaiiy a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a a ?iaei?a?iia?noeoe?
aenooiea I.O?aaea? (1883, 1911). I?e?aeiaaoenue aei oeo aaoi??a, ye?
aaaaeaee, ui aeai? aeieia?/-ii? eaeneee aeicaieythoue ?ici?uoaaoe I?? ia
i?ai?/ a?ae Aaeeainueeiai i?aino?iao ? Eaa-eaco, a?i a?aei?oea, ui
a?oaieia?/i? aeai? c oeeo oa?ai?a cana?ae/othoue iayai?noue ooo
caiea-?ianoaa ? neioa?noaa aaea c III — ii/aoeo II oen. aei i.a. — oiaoi
c /an?a, aei yeeo aaoi?e XIX — ii/. XX no. a?aeiineee ?nioaaiiy ?.-?.
ni?eueiioe. Oe? niinoa?aaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaee iiaoaeiaai e?iaa?no?a, ye?
iaa?oioiaoaaee neioa?nueei — caiea?ianueeee niin?a aeeooy aeaai?o
?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a ? iiaee neoaoaaoe i?aeo?eieith aeoioe? i?i ?ici?uaiiy
I?? a Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? oa (aai) I?ai?/iiio Iaae/i?iiii?’?. Ne?ae
caoaaaeeoe, ui I.O?a-aea? iiaiaeaeoaaany a i?eioeei? c oeie aaoi?aie
(cie?aia, A.Oeaeoa?ii, A.Aaiii), ye? caia?a/oaaee iieacia?noue
e?iaa?noe/ieo (eaene/ieo) aeaieo aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aea-iaio?a
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, aea aeoiaeeei oae, ui a?oaieia?/i?
na?ae/ai-iy ye?ac i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaee aaaaoi c cai?iiiiiaaieo
iiaiciaaoeyie ?aeiino?oeoe?e.

Iia’ycaoe aeaai?o ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a c a?eueo eiie?aoieie a?oaieia?/ieie
iai’yo-eaie aia?oa ni?iaoaaa A.Einn?ia (1902) — iaoeiaaoeue, yeee caeeaa
i?aeaaeeie oai??? a?oaieia?/ii? eoeueoo?e. Ia aeoieo A.Einn?ie,
aacia?a?ai?noue o ?icaeoeo iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e I?ai?/ii? I?ia//eie,
Aeai??, Oaaoe?? na?ae/eoue i?i ciaoiaeaeaiiy i?aeieenee ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a
naia ia oeeo oa?aiao. Eiai aeniiaie a?aeiia?aeaa aio?iiieia?/iei
?a-eiino?oeoe?yi E.Iaiee oa ?aeayi iiaiciaaoey A.A??oa.

C oeeie aeniiaeaie ia iiaiaeaeoaaany I.O?aaea?, yeee caia?a/oaaa
iieacia?noue aio?iiieia?/ieo aeaieo ? aeiaiaeea, ui ?.-?. noni?euenoai
iaei noi?ioaaoeny oai, aea noaie iaaeothoue c eenoyieie e?naie, a naia —
i?ae Ea?iaoaie ? Aeiiii. Ia a?oai-eia?/iiio iaoa??ae? oeth aeoieo aia?oa
ni?iaoaaa iaa?oiooaaoe A.*aeeae (1926), i?i-ne?aeeiaoth/e i?iieeiaiiy
eoeueoo?e iaeaeaai?oeo ?ooeeaeo eiiy??a c noai?a Iaae/i?-iiii?’y ia
Aaeeaie. Oaca i?i ca’ycie ?icnaeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a c iioe?aiiyi
eiiy?-noaa iaaoea iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy, ine?eueee an? ?.-?. ia?iaee
aenooiathoue a ?noi??? ye ai?aai? eiiy?? ? iathoue ni?eueio iacao eiiy.
C’yaeeeny ni?iae eieae?coaaoe i?aaaouee?aueio ?? a aaciina?aaei?e
aeecueeino? a?ae ?ioeo ai?aaieo eiiy??a — oth?e?a ? iiiaie?a — a
Oeaio?aeuei?e Ac?? (A.Athioa?o, A.Eiiia?n), ia I?aaeaiiiio O?ae?
(A.A?aiaeaiooaei). Iaoii?noue A.Ia??ia (1936) i?eioneaa iiaeeea?noue
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? /anoeie ?? c iin?yie o?ei?euenueei? eoeueoo?e.

Noia?a/ea i?ae i?ea?/ieeaie ??cieo eiioeaioe?e aeinyaea a 30-o? ?iee
e?aei?o oi?i iaoiaeieia?/ieo ?icoiaeaeaiue. *anoeia aeine?aeiee?a
(cie?aia, iine?aeiaieee A.A??oa ? A.Einn?ie) iaiieyaaee ia aei?noeiio
aca?iica’yceo iiae, ?ane ? eoeueoo?e. ?io? caia?a-/oaaee nooo?ao ?ieue
i?a?aoe?e a ?noi??? ? aaaaeaee, ui ??ci? ?.-?. iiae ? ia?iaee
“naiica?iaeeeeny” ia anueiio i?inoi?? ?o iioe?aiiy — a?ae Aoeaioe/iiai
aei ?iae?enueeiai ieaai?a ? c naiiai ii/aoeo iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo ?an ?
eoeueoo?.

Cia/ieo oni?o?a a ae?oaiio ia??iae? aeinyaee aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aaeueieo
a?aeiinei i?ae ?.-?. ae?aeaeoaie iaaaeiac? i?ney ?iciaaeo ?aeiino?
(?iaioe A.Iaea, 1908, A.I?cai?,1940, O.Oiaooa,1937,1944 oa ?i.), ui iaei
aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey c’ynoaaiiy oa?aeoa?o ?iciaaeo ? ooi/iaiiy
o?iiieia??. Aoee a?aee?eo? aei oiai iaa?aeii? ?.-?. iiae: oioa?nueea ?
oaonueea; /an ?iciaaeo iiaii? ?aeiino? a?aenoaaany a IV oen. aei i.a.

Ia ii/aoeo o?aoueiai ia??iaeo — a ae?oa?e iieiaei? 40-o ?ie?a c
iniaeeaith aeoo-aeuei?noth iinoaea iaiao?aei?noue caeieaiiy ia?aoai?aieo
ia ?aeaieia?/i? aeiaie ? iaia-a?oioiaaieo iaoeiai iieiaeaiue, aea ?acii
c oei aaaeeeai aoei ia ao?aoeoe ca?acii oa oe?iia ? iiceoeaia, ui aoei
iaeiie/aii a iiia?aaei?e ia??iae. Oea caaaeaiiy aoei a oe?ei-io c
oni?oii aeeiiaia a ?iaioao A.Iaea?a (1948), I.Ia?aoa (1948),
TH.Iiei?iiai (1949), A.Oa?a?a (1950), A.I?cai? (1947), O.Oiaooa (1949).
Iieaciai, ui an? caaaeai? aaoi?e eeoaeeny ia iiceoe?yo
i?ai?/ii?a?iiaenueei? i?aaaouee?aueie — i???ioiaii i?ae ?aeiii —
Aeueaith ? Aei?i?ii — Aeiiii, ia i?ai?/ a?ae Aeoiath (aai Ea?iao) ?
*i?iiai ii?y (aai noaiiai? nioae). Ii?yae ?c noa?eie ?ic?iaeaie
c’yaeythoueny ? iia? a?aoiaioe ia ei?enoue i?aaaouee?aueie ia i?aii/?
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (cie?aia, “a?aoiaio eininy” — I.O?ia, 1954).

?acii c oei, iiooe iiaeo i?aeoiae?a ? iaiaaaiiy iaoia?aaeaeaii i?ae?eoe
aei i?iaea-ie i?ecaaee aei iiyae cian?i ?ioiai iai?yieo iiooe?a. A
na?aaeei? 50-o ?ie?a iiaeyaee ?yaeo aeine?aeiee?a (A.Oaieaia,
A.Ia?e?iaaia, A.Aai?a??aa, A.Ai?ioiaa oa ?i.) cina?aaee-eenue ia
Aaeeainueeiio i?aino?ia?. Iia? a?oaieia?/i? a?aee?eooy ia Aaeeaiao, ui
cana?ae-/oaaee ?ooe iai — aiaie?oe/iiai ianaeaiiy c i?aaeiy ia i?ai?/ —
a Oeaio?aeueio ?a?iio ? anoaiiaeaiiy a?aoeueeiai oa?aeoa?o iiae oaeno?a
XV — XIV no. aei i.a. ia i?aaei? Aaeeai (I.Aaio??n, 1952) noai?thaaee
ie?aeiee a?oio aeey Aaeeainueei? aa?n?? iioiaeaeaiiy ??.

Iaeiae Aaeeainueea i?aaaouee?aueia iiaaii ocaiaeaeo?oueny c eiiieaenii
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? aeieia?/ii? eaeneee, yeee aeaeaei ia aiiai?
a?aeiia?aea? ?aae?yi i?a-i?/ii — no?aeiiai Na?aaecaiiiii?’y. Iiaaii
a?aeiia?aea? ? eiiieaen eoeueoo?e aaeeainueeeo caiea?ia?a V — IV oen.
aei i.a. oiio eiiieaeno eoeueoo?e, ui a?aeiiaethaaany ye ni?eueii?.-?.
ca eaene/ieie aeaieie (ii?. Iaeei??, 1997).

Ni?iae ocaiaeeoe iaeiie/ai? iaoeith ? iaeaea caaaeueiiaeciai?
e?iaa?noe/i? a?aoiaioe c a?iioacith Aaeeainueei? aaouee?aueie ?
a?oaieia?/ieie iaoa??aeaie aaeeaii-aeo-iaenueeiai ?aa?iio i?noyoueny a
i?aoeyo I.Aio-A?iia?e (1960) ? Aeae.Aeaaioi (1962). A?ae-iia?aeii oe?
aaoi?e ci?uothoue a?aae i?aaaouee?aueie aeaui i?ai?/i?oa, i?ae ?oi?
iiia?aae-ieee, iia’ycoth/e eiai c eoeueoo?aie e?i?eii-no??/eiai?
ea?ai?ee, o?ei?euenueeith, eai-aeaeuenueeith oa ?i. — oiaoi a iniiaiiio
c aanaeiii Aeoiath. I?ci?oa — o 80-o? ?iee — aeecue-e? iiaeyaee
aeneiaeththoue ?.Aeueyeiiia (1982) oa ss.Iaeea? (1987), ye?
?icaeyaeathoue aaeeaii-ea?iaoi-aeoiaenueeee ?aa?ii V — IV oen. aei i.a.
ye iniiaiee oeaio? ?iaei?a?iia?caoe??. Iaeiae, ?io? i?ea?/ieee
i?aaeaiii? i?aaaouee?aueie (O.Aaie?ae?aeca, A.?aaiia, E.?ai-o?th,
A.Nao?iiia, A. oa N. Oa??ao) oe?eeii neooii cacia/athoue, ui eoeueoo?e V
(VI) — IV oen. aei i.a. a aeoiaenueeiio aanaei? ? aoi?eiieie a?aeiinii
i?aaeaiii-aaeeainueeiai ? aiaoie?enueeiai oeaio??a ? c’yaeythoueny
aiane?aeie i?yiiai ?icnaeaiiy iaoeaioe?a inoai-i?o ia i?ai?/ (ii?.
Oeoia, 1984). Oaeei /eiii, aeoiee ?iaei?a?iia?caoe?? eia?/i?oa aoei a
aaa/aoe a a?eueo i?aaeaii?o ?aa?iiao, i?eeaaeeo aei iaeaeaai?oeo (VIII
oen. aei i.a.) caiea?ianueeeo oeaio??a Aiaoie??. Ia aeoieo a?eueoino?
caaaeaieo aaoi??a, naia ?iaei?a?i-iaeoe? i?eiinyoue a ?a?iio ?aiith
caiea?ianueei-neioa?nueeo aeiiii?eo; eiiy?noai ae ?icaeaa?oueny a ieo
i?ci?oa — i?ae /an i?iaeeaaiiy a aeoiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?. Aeaui inoi-?iiue
noi?oue iiceoe?y O.Aaie?ae?aeca oa A.?aaiiaa (1980,1984), ye?
aaaaeathoue, ui oaanue eiiieaen ?.-?. eoeueoo?e neeaany iaeii/anii
(aeecueei V oen. aei i.a.) a Caeaaeacc? ? ca?aeoe o iiai?noth
noi?iiaaiiio aeaeyae? iioe?eany ia an? ?noi?e/ii a?aeii? ?aa?iie
i?iaeeaaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a. Oey iiceoe?y, iaeiae, i?yii
noia?a/eoue ?yaeo a?oai-eia?/ieo oa e?iaa?noe/ieo oaeo?a (Aeueyeiiia,
1982, A?iaooan, 1985, *a?ieo, 1988 oa ?i.).

Aaaiio aeueoa?iaoeao aiaoie?enueei-aaeeainuee?e aa?n?? neeaea noaiiaa
aa?n?y I??, iniaeeai iine?aeiaii ?ic?iaeaia a i?aoeyo I.A?iaooan (1963,
1977,1980) oa Aeae.Iaeei-?? (1989). I.A?iaooan, i?iaeiaaeoth/e
o?aaeeoe?th, caii/aoeiaaio a ?iaioao E.I’?o?aiaia, A.A?aiaeaiooaeia,
A.Athioa?oa oa ?i., ?ici?uo? aeo?aeiee ?aa?ii ?icnaeaiiy ?? a noaiao
i?ae ??. Aieaith oa O?aeii.

Iiaoaeiae I.A?iaooan ciaeoee ia aeeai iaeeo ? aaccanoa?aaeio i?aeo?eieo
oe?eiai ?yaeo i?ia?aeieo e?iaa?no?a (cie?aia ?.E?inneaiaea,
O.Aae?aaeina, A.Oiaa?a, A.Iieiia, A.Eaiaia oa ?i.), iaeiae ??,
iiaoaeiaaio iaeaea oe?eeii ia a?oaieia?/iiio iaoa??ae?, eiioeaioe?th, ia
i?aeo?eiaa (o iiaiiio ianyc?) aeiaeai c a?oaieia?a. Ae?enii — canoaaie/?
oace I.A?iaooan i?i aeoiee ?aiiuei? (V oen. aei i.a.) neioa?nueei?
(“eo?aaiii?”) eoeueoo?e o I?eo?aee? oa i?i canaeaiiy aeo?aeoeyie c?
noai?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie (oa?ai?a *ao??, Iieueu?, I?ia//eie) ia
ciaoiaeeee iaeaea i?yeiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy a iayaiiio iaoa??ae?. ?aeeiei
ioieoii, aea eiioeaioe?y “eo?aaiieo ?iaac?e” iiaea aaaaeaoeny
caoeuaiith, aoea eiinoaoaoe?y i?iieeiaiiy aeo?aeoe?a c? noaiiaiai
Iaae/i?iiii?’y ia ieaei?e Aeoiae ? i?a-i?/i? Aaeeaie (oey ianoaaeia
a?aei?/aeany A.*aeeaeii ua a 20-o ?ieao ? iia? iaoa??aee eeoa
aeiiiaithaaee ?? ? cia/ii iiaeeaethaaee a /an?).

Iiaeeo?eoaaoe noaiiao eiioeaioe?th, oieeath/e a?aei?/aieo iaaeie?e?a ?
aeieo/ath/e ?acoeueoaoe iia?oi?o aeine?aeaeaiue (iniaeeai c oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie ? Iiaieaeaey) iaia-aa?oueny a nai?e i?aoe? Aeae.Iaeei??. A?i
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo i?i ca?iaeaeaiiy ?.-?. ?aeiino? a noaiao i?ae
Aei?i?ii ? Aieaith, ca?aeee a e?ioe? V — iaii/aoeo IV oen. aei i.a.
iin?? ?.-?. iia ii/aee ?ooaoeny a cao?aeiiio, a aeaui i?ci?oa — a
i?aaeaiiiio oa no?aeiiio iai?yieao. Iaeiae ieoaiiy i?i
?iaei?a?iia?caoe?th Oeaio?aeueii? ? I?ai?/ii? ?a?iie a ?iaio?
Aeae.Iaeei?? eeoeeiny a?aee?eoei. Ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe aaeaeith ? ni?iao
Ae.Aioii? (1991) ae??oeoe oea ieoaiiy, nie?ath/enue ia iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee, cai?iii-iiaai? i?ea?/ieeii aiaoie?enueei? aa?n?? E.?aio?th.

Aaconi?oi?noue ni?ia aeaanoe an? a?aeii? a?oie ?.-?.iiaiiai ianaeaiiy c
yeiainue iaeiiai oeaio?o i?ecaaea aei a?aeiiaeaiiy aeoiee i?i
oi?ioaaiiy ?.-?. ni?eueiioe a iaaeao oe?ieiai oa?eoi??aeueiiai i?inoi?o,
a yeiio ai?uoaaeenue eoeueoo?e ye aeoiaenueeiai eiea, oae ? i?ai?/iiai
iaie?oo (oeio A?oaaieea), ye caiea?iae (O?ei?eey), oae ? neioa??
no?aeieo noai?a (?iaioe A.Aienea?a, E.E?e?aia, Ae.Oaeaa?ia, ss.Iaeea?,
E.A?iae?ia oa ?i.).

Iiae?aiee i?aeo?ae caeiiii??ii aeeeeea? ieoaiiy i?i iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy
naii? iiaii? ?aeiino? ia oaeiio aaee/aciiio, aaia?ao?/ii iaiaeii??aeiiio
i?inoi??, a oiiaao cia/ii? eoeueoo?ii? no?ieaoino?. I?ioe??//y i?ae
iayai?noth a?aeiinii oi?o?eiaaiiai ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai iiaiiai
eaaeo ? ?icia?o?noth aoiieoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o Oeaio?aeueii-No?aeii?
?a?iie VI — IV oen. aei i.a. aeicaiey? aeciaoe neooiith e?eoeeo oeueiai
i?aeoiaeo Aeae.Iaeei?? (1997). I?aaaouee?aueia ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a
aacoiiaii iiaeiia aoea iaoe a?eueo iaiaaeai? ia?aiao?e.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e. *an, i?noea ?nioaaiiy ? eoeueoo?iee noai
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe ca e?iaa?noe/ieie aeaieie.

A ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iiai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie ? o? e?iaa?noe/i?
iiaoaeiae, ye? neeaaeathoue i?aea?oioy a?oaieia?/ieo ?aeiino?oeoe?e. A
iniiao aiae?co e?iaa?noe/ieo aeaieo iieeaaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? e?eoa???
e?iaa?noe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? noi?ioeueiaai?, cie?aia, a i?aoeyo
I.O?aaea?a, A.Iaea, A.I?cai?, A.Ii?oeeaa, ?.Aeueyeiiiaa oa ?i.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue /eaioaaiiy
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? iiae aeicaiey? i?aaenoaaeoe i?ioean ?iciaaeo
?.-?. (aoii-) iiaii? ?aeiino? o aeaeyae? /ioe?ueio aoai?a (ia??iae?a).

1. A?aeie?aieaiiy ae?aeaeo?a, ui eyaee a iniiao oaooi-eoa?enueei? a?oie
iia.

2. Ia?inoaiiy a?aei?iiinoae i?ae (i?aaeaiii-) cao?aeiei Iicia/aiiy
«cao?ae», «no?ae» ooo ? oiiaieie (oi/a ? ia aeeeth/aii, ui aiie
a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?eniiio ?ici?uaiith ae?aeaeoieo a?oi o i?inoi??)
(iiai? i?aaeee eaeueo?a, ?oae?a, oioa??a, iiaeeeai ?ee???eoe?a) ?
no?aeiei (i?aaeee a???a, a?ae?a, a??iai, iiaeeeai o?aei-o??a?eoe?a)
ae?aeaeoieie oa?oioaaiiyie. I?ae oeeie aeaiia «iiey?ieie» a?oiaie
ae?aeaeo?a ?nio? ia?ao?aeiee ae?aeaeoiee «eaioetha», c yeiai aeoiaeyoue
i?ci?oa iiai? i?aaeee aa?iaioe?a, aaeo?a, neia’yi, aeayeeo ?ioeo
aoi?/ieo a?oi.

3. Inoaoi/ia a?aeie?aieaiiy no?aeii? (resp. i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? aai
«aoaiaioii?») a?oie. I?ioineia’yie, ?ai?oa o?nii ca’ycai? c oe??th
a?oiith, iineeththoue ca’ycee c i?aae-eaie aaeo?a ? aa?iaioe?a. Inoaii?
a oie aea /an i?aeaeathoueny neeueiei aieeaai c aieo i?a-aeaiii —
cao?aeii? a?oie (ui aeicaiey? aanoe iiao i?i «cao?aeiee» ae?aeaeoiee
a?aae). Aiaeii/an iineeth?oueny ae?aeaeoia ?icae??aiai?noue ana?aaeei?
eiaeii? c a?oi.

4. Ii/eia?oueny ?iciaae i?aaeaiii-no?aeii? a?oie, i?aa??? iineeththoue
ca’ycee c o?iii-oa?aie. I?aaeee aaeo?a ? neia’yi aoyaothoueny aei noa?e
aieeao cao?aeieo ae?aeaeo?a (aac i?aoioa?nueeiai), ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
inoaoi/iiai ioi?ieaiiy o. ca. ni?eueii?a?iiae-nueeiai aai
aeaaiuei?a?iiaenueeiai (ca oa?i?iieia??th A.E?aa) iiaiiai nithco.

Cana?ae/aiiy ienaiieie aeaea?aeaie na?aaeeie II oen. aei i.a. aaea
noi?iiaaieo ?iaeia??enueei? oa a?aoeueei? iia, a oaeiae oaonueei? iiae
aeaea?aeaie ia?oi? iieiaeie II oen. aei i.a. aeaco? ia oa, ui ?iciaae
?.-?. ni?eueiioe caaa?oeany ia i?ci?oa na?aaeeie III oen. aei i.a. Oa
ianoaaeia, ui a?aoeueea oa ?iaeia??enueea iiae aeeoee c iaei???
(«i?aaeaiii-no?aeii?» aai «aoaiaioii?») ae?aeaeoii? a?oie, yea ?nioaaea
i?ioyaii 3-ai ia??iaeo, aeicaiey? aeaooaaoe oeae ia??iae uiiaei?ci?oa
e?ioeai IV — ia?oith iieiaeiith III oen. aei i.a. Ae?oaee ia??iae
a?aeiineoueny, oaeei /eiii, a IV oen., a ii/aoie ?iciaaeo ?.-?.
ni?eueii-oe iaa i?noea ?iia??ii a iaaeao V — ii/aoeo IV oen. aei i.a.
Oaeiai aeaooaaiiy ?iciaaeo ?.-?. (aoii-)iiaii? ?aeiino? aeio?eio?oueny
ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a.

Aeaye? aaoi?e aeacothoue ia iayai?noue o ni?eueii?.-?. neiaieeo iaca
aeey i?iiai caiea?ianoaa, eie?niiai o?ainii?oo, aeayeeo iaoae?a — yaeu,
ui c’yaeeeny, ca a?oaiei-a?/ieie aeaieie, ia ?ai?oa na?aaeeie IV oen.
aei i.a., ? aaaaeathoue ia oe?e i?aenoaa?, ui ?iciaae oaeiae a?aeaoany
ia ?ai?oa oeueiai /ano (O.Aaie?ae?aeca oa A.?aaiia, A.Nao?iiia,
Ae.Aioii? oa ?i.). Iaeiae nai iaoai?ci ? ianoaaeie iiyae a ie?aieo ?.-?.
iiaao (ae?aeaeo-ieo a?oiao) a?aeiia?aeieo iaca (ui /anoeiai iiaee aooe
i?a?aoe?eieie oa?i?iaie) aeia-aathoue iniaeeaiai ?icaeyaeo (aeea.
ieae/a), a ioaea, aeaooaaiiy ?iciaaeo ca aeiiiiiaith eoeueoo?ii? eaeneee
cacaeaeaa?aeue i?eeiyoei aooe ia iiaea.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae eoeueoo?ii? eaeneee, ui caiice/oaaeanue ?acii ?c
canai?iiyi aea-iaio?a eoeueoo?e, aeieia?/ia eaeneea (iacae aeeeeo
oaa?ei, ?ineei, ?ioeo ?aae?e i?e-?iaee) caiice/oaaeanue eeoa i?e
ia?ai?uaii? ianaeaiiy c iaei??? aeieia?/ii? ciie aei ?ioi?. Oiio ??
na?ae/aiiy ? aaaaoi a /iio a?eueo iieaciaeie ?, ye aeacoaaeiny, aaea c
XIX no. aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeey aecia/aiiy i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy
i?aaaouee?aueie ??.

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a — o oiio /ene? aaoi??a ?ia?o
inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ — iiaiaeaeothoueny c oei, ui aeai? aeieia?/ii?
eaeneee aeacothoue ia ?ici?uaiiy i?aaaoue-e?aueie ?? a iii??i?e cii?
?a?ac?? a e?niaeo i?noeaainoyo. Ia oea aeacothoue ni?euei? iacae aeey
aa?ace, a’yca, a?eueoe, ineee, ynaiy, aaaeiaaey, ?en?, einy, oaoa?aaa,
aia?a ? o.ae. C ?ioiai aieo, iacae aaaaoueio ?aae?e, niaoeeo?/ieo aeey
i?eaoeaioe/ii? ?a?iie, na?aaecaiiiii?nueeeo ocaa?aaeae?a, Ia?aaeiuei? oa
Oeaio?aeueii? Ac??, ?iae??, a iioe?aieo oai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo iiaao
aaaaeathoueny caiice/aieie c ia?.-?. aeaea?ae (Iaii, 1968; E?e?ai, 1983;
Aeueyeiiia, 1968, 1982; Ia?iciae, 1978; Aa??io, 1976 oa ?i.). Oaeei
/eiii, a?aae ii-ooeo I?? iiaea aooe iaiaaeaiee i?eaeecii aanaeiii ?aeio
? Aeueiaie ia caoiae?, Aae-eainueeeie ai?aie ? noaiiaith nioaith O?
/anoeie noaio, aea aeieeiaie ??/ie iioe?thaaeanue e?niaa ?ineeii?noue
(ai?aaeueiee oa aoeaioe/iee ia??iaee) ia iiaeooue aooe aeeeth/ai? c
a?aaeo iiooeo I??. ia i?aaei?, i?aaeaiiei ei?aeiiii oaeae ia i?aii/? ?
noiae? Iaiiaeeeai iiaiaeeoeny c iiaoaeiaaie O.Aaie?ae?aeca oa A.?aaiiaa,
ye? iaiaaathoueny aeiaanoe ni?eueii?.-?. oa?aeoa? iaca eaaa, iaaie,
neiia (resp. neiiiai? e?noee), aa?na, aeiia?aaeo (aeia) oa aeayeeo ?i.
Oe? iacae iiaee iioe?eoeny ye i?a?aoe?ei?, i?e/iio a ?yae? iia aaea ca
aeineoue i?ci?o /an?a (ia ui cie?aia aeacothoue iniaeeaino? ?o
oiiaoeee).

.

Oni?oe a?oaieia?? i?aeaeueee aeooaeuei?noue ieoaiiy i?i eoeueoo?iee noai
?.-?. ni?eueiioe iaia?aaeiaei? ?iciaaeo. ?yae aeine?aeiee?a iaiaaa?oueny
aeae?eeoe eoeueoo?o ia i?ci?oo a?ae IV oen. aei i.a., yea iaea a aanue
iaa?? eoeueoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, ui ?aeii-no?oththoueny iiaiciaaoeyie ye
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenuee? (cie?aia eiiy?noai, ia?iaea i?ae?, eie?niee
o?ainii?o, i?ia caiea?ianoai). Oaea eoeueoo?a, ia aeoieo oeeo
aeine?aeie-e?a, ia? ?ai?acaiooaaoe ?.-?. aoiiiiaio ?aei?noue aei ii/aoeo
?? ?iciaaeo. I?e oeueiio iaeiae ??aeei caa?oa?oueny oaaaa ia iniaeeaino?
iaoiaeieia?? aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o iioiaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eoeueoo?ieo
oa?i?i?a.

E?eoa??yie, ca yeeie aecia/a?oueny ?o niieiia?/iee aai caiice/aiee
oa?aeoa? neiaa a iia? (i?e a?aenooiino? ?noi?e/ieo na?aeioeoa), ?
oiiaoe/i? iciaee. Oiiaoeea ci?-ith?oueny c /anii: neiai, yea aoei
caiice/aia aei oiai, ye a iia? a?aeaoany oie /e ?ioee i?ioean,
iia’ycaiee c oiiaoe/ieie ci?iaie, ye i?aaeei, a?aeaeaa? oe? ci?ie ?
/a?ac oea, a?aeiinii oeueiai i?ioeano, ia a?ae??ciaiia a?ae
oniaaeeiaaii? (niieiia?/ii?) eaeneee.

Na?aae iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo oiiaoe/ieo yaeu, ye? cana?ae/othoue oa?aeoa?
neiaa a ie?aieo ?.-?. iiaao, iaeaeaai?oith ? ?ciaeina «naoai» (ia?ao?ae
a a?eueoino? no?aeieo ?.-?. iia caaeiueiyceeiaeo c?ieiaieo o ueeeii?)
(Ii?oeea, 1964; Aaie?ae?aeca, ?aaiia, 1984,I; Ioeoiueeia, 1989). A oie
aea /an oea yaeua ? i?ci?oei ca 3-e ia??iae (aeea. aeua), ine?eueee
a?aoeueea iiaa, ui aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo «aoaiaioii?» a?oie ia cana?ae/o?
eiai. Ca i?ae?aooieaie I.Naia?aiue? (1980), ii/aoie ae?? ?ciaeine
«naoai» iiaea aooe aeaoiaaiee na?aaeeiith — ae?oaith iieiaeiith III oen.
aei i.a. Ii/aoie aea ?iciaaeo ?.-?. ni?eueiioe iaa i?noea, ye ie aa/eee,
ia i?aoi?e — aea? oeny/? ?ie?a ?ai?oa. Oaeei /eiii, eoeueoo?i? oa?i?ie,
ye? iathoue caoee, ui i?aeaeaaaeeny «naoai?caoe??», iiaee iioe?thaaoeny
a ?.-?. iiaiiio i?inoi?? a?ae ii/aoeo ?iciaaeo (aeecueei e?i. V — ii/.
IV oen.) aei «naoai?caoe??» (ae?oaa iieiaeia III oen. aei i.a.);
oa?i?ie, ui ia iathoue a?aeiia?aeieo caoe?a, iiaee a i?eioeei?
iioe?eoeny ua i?ci?oa. Iieaciai, ui IV — III oen. aei i.a. ? ye?ac oei
/anii, eiee a na?aaei?e nioc? ?a?iie ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny eiiy?noai,
ia?iaea i?ae? oa aeayeeo ?ioeo iaoae?a, c’yaey?oueny i?ia caiea?ianoai
oa eie?niee o?ainii?o (Iiiaaeo, 1973; Ia?ia?o, 1988; *a?ieo, 1978, 1988;
Eocueieia, 1974; Oeoia,1988 oa ?i.). ?iia??ii, ui a oeae ia??iae ie?ai?
?.-?. a?oie aaea a?aeie?aieeenue ? ?icnaeeeeny i?eiaeii? a iaaeao
Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie.

Neacaia aeicaiey? oaa?aeeoe, ui aeey ie?aneaiiy a?eueo aocueeiai a?aaeo
i?iaeeaaiiy ?? aei ?iciiae?eo ?o ia ie?ai? a?oie, ye ? aeey ooi/iaiiy
/ano oeueiai ?iciiae?eo, aeai? eoeueoo?ii? eaeneee ia i?eaeaoi?, aea
aiie ia noia?a/aoue aeniiaeai uiaei o?iiieia?? oa ?ici?uaiiy a?aaeo
iiooeo I?? ca aeaieie aeieia?/ii? eaeneee.

Cia/iith oaaaith a aeine?aeiee?a ei?enoo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i iiai? ca’ycee
?? aiioe ?aeiino? c iin?yie ?ioeo (ia?.-?.) iia. Anoia?a/ aeii?ioth/iio
na?aae aaoi??a ?ia?o c i?iaeaie I?? iiaeyaeo, ia?aaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue
oao?aoe?a c i?aeiiaieo (i?aen?iaeieo) ca’yce?a (A. ?ee?/a-Na?oe/a,
A.Aiioa?aea, ?.Aeueyeiiiaa, I.Oaeaeo, A.Aiae?aaaa, ?.Oae?inueeiai,
N.Noa?ino?ia oa ?i.) aeicaiey? i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui iin?? ?.-?. iiae
iaeaea aei caaa?oaiiy ?iciaaeo ?aeiino?, oaeaeoa ca ana, ia iaee
o?eaaeeo o?nieo aeainoi??ii?o eiioaeo?a c iin?yie ao?ac?enueeeo
(nai?onueeeo), o?aeuenueeeo, aeoaenueeeo, i?ai?/iieaaeacueeeo
(aeeth/ath/e oo??eoi-o?a?onuee?) iia. Iiee ui na?aae on?o a?iioac
a?aeiinii ia-ae?eiei iiaea aaaaeaoeny iieiaeaiiy i?i
ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei — ea?oaaeuenuee? o?ni? iiai? ca’ycee
(Aaie?ae?aeca,1971; Aeueyeiiia, 1982 oa ?i.). Iaeiae oea ua ia aea?
i?aenoaa ooeaoe I?? iiaeeco Eaaeaco, aaeaea ia?aaoaaiiy i?aea?oaae?a ia
Eaaeac? ia i?ine?ae-eiao?oueny ia?aeiieeai aeeaoa III oen. aei i.a.
(/ano ?iciaaeo ni?eueiiea?oaaeuenueei? iiaii? ?aeiino?).

A?aenooi?noue o?nieo iiaieo ca’yce?a ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a c nai?oaie oa
iin?yie ?ioeo iia Aeecueeiai Noiaeo (Aeueyeiiia,1982) ia noia?a/eoue
ie?aneaiiio ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo aeieia?/ii? eaeneee a?aaeo a??ia?aeiiai
iiooeo I?? — iii??ia nioaa ?a?iie a?ae ?aeio aei O?aeo ? aeae? ia no?ae.
Oaeoi? a?aenooiino? o?nieo ca’yce?a i?ae ?.-?. oa o?aeuenueeith
«i?a-iiaaie» aeicaiey? aianoe ei?aeoeae a eiio?ao?aoe?th
«?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai a?aaeo», iaia-aeeaoe eiai na?aaeiueith oa/??th
Aieae (aai oaeaeoa aieai-aeiinueeei iaaee??//yi), ine?eueee ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue iaoeiaoe?a-o?ae?no?a (Aaaea?,1974; A?aea?,1974; Oaeaeo,
1985; Oaeeinueeee,1989 oa ?i.) aaaaea?, ui i?aaaouee?aueia iin??a
ni?eueiio?aeuenueei? iiae ciaoiaeeeanue i?ai?/ii-no?aei?oa Na?aaeiuei?
Aieae a ?aeiiao, i?eeaaeeo aei Na?aae-iueiai oa I?ai?/iiai O?aeo.

Aeae?eaiee ia i?aenoaa? aeaieo aeieia?/ii? eaeneee oa iiaieo
«i?aen?iaeieo» eiioaeo?a a?aae (ciia iii??ieo eenoyieo e?n?a ?
e?ninoai?a i?ae ?aeiii, Aaeeaiaie ? Aeiiii — Aieaith)
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny oaeiae aeaieie ii ia?iaei?a?iiaenueeei noano?aoiei
aea-iaioai a ie?aieo ?.-?. iiaao oa aeaieie iiiianoeee (oiii- ?
a?ae?ii?i?ee) (?icaeyae oeeo aeaieo aeianaii a aeiaeaoie aeena?oaoe??).
Oeae a?aae ia i?a aooe ia anueiio i?inoi?? eieeneith ?.-?. iiaii?
?aeiino?, ine?eueee a VII-IV oen. aei i.a. eiai caeiaee ??ci? ca
oa?aeoa?ii, iai?yieii ciai?o?o ca’yce?a ? iioiaeaeaiiyi aoiieoeueoo?i?
ooai?aiiy a?aeii? c a?oaieia?/ieo aeaea?ae.

O?ao?e ?icae?e. Aeoiee ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a ca aeaieie a?oaieia?? e
aio?iiieia??.

A iniiao a?oaieia?/iiai iiooeo aeoie?a ?? iieeaaeaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee
iaoiae, yeee iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? aaiaoe/ii aacia?a?aii? e?i??
?icaeoeo a?ae oeo eoeueoo?ieo oi?ioaaiue, aoiiiiaia oa?aeoa?enoeea yeeo
iiaea aaaaeaoeny a caaaeueieo ?enao anoa-iiaeaiith, aei aiioe VI — V
oen. aei i.a., eiee i?eieieeiny ?nioaaiiy ?.-?. (aoii)iiaii? ?aeiino?.

Ca a?aei?aaiee ioieo ?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ?icaeyaeo aa?ooueny eoeueoo?e
na?aaeeie — ae?. iie. III oen. aei i.a. o aeae?eaiiio, ca e?iaa?noe/ieie
aeaieie, ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiio a?aae?. I?ai?/io /anoeio Oeaio?aeueii? a
na?aaeith nioao No?aeii? ?a?iie (e?niao ciio) caeiaee a oeae /an iin??
eoeueoo? oio?iai? ea?ai?ee (EOE), noaie ? e?ninoaie No?aeii? ?a?iie
caeiaei ianaeaiiy yiii? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? ni?eueiioe (ssE?N).
*eneaii? ? aeineoue ??ciiiai?oi? eoeueoo?e Aaeeaii-Ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio
?icaeaathoueny i?ioyaii IV-III oen. aei i.a. i?ae cia/ieie aieeaaie
no?aeieo noaiiaeo eoeueoo? (iia’ycaieo c ssE?N), a oaeiae i?ai?/ieo
(iia’ycaieo c EOE).

Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a noiaeeoueny ia oiio, ui ianaeaiiy
i?aaenoaaeaia iai’yoeaie EOE neeaei iniiaia aaiaoe/ia i?aea?oioy
neia’yi, aaeo?a, aa?iaioe?a, eaeueo?a ? iiaeeeai oaeiae (/a?ac
iina?aaeieoeoai «eo?aaiii?» ? «iie?a iioiaaiue» eoeueoo?), ?ee???eoe?a
oa ?oae?a. Ianaeaiiy ssE?N, ?iia??i?oa ca ana, a?aeiia?aeaei neaaei
?ic/eaiiaaiiio ua ?iaei??ainueeiio iiaiiio ianeao. Ia aeeeth/aii, ui ia
iiia?aaei?o aoaiao ianaeaiiy ssE?N acyei aeoeaio o/anoue o aaiac?
aaeeainueeeo ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a: o?aei-o??a?eoe?a, a??iai, iiaeeeai
a?ae?a, i?i ui na?ae/aoue ne?aee ?iaac?e noaiiai? ethae-iino? ia Aaeeaie
? ooai?aiiy ooo neie?aoe/ieo eoeueoo? (A?iaooan, 1980; Ia?ia?o,
1984,1988; Oaeaa?i, 1990). Iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, oaeei /eiii, ui
?ao?iniaeoeaii a?aeoai?aia a i?aoeyo ??cieo aeine?aeiee?a aoiieoeueoo?ia
neooaoe?y III oen. aei i.a. a iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aea? iiai?e neooaoe?? 4
ia??iaeo ?iciaaeo ??N (ca e?iaa?noe/ieie aeaea?aeaie): ?iciaae
«aoaiaioii?» (i?aaeaiii-no?aeii?) a?oie, eiinie?aeaoe?y
«aeaaiuei?a?iiaenueeiai» (i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai) iiaiiai eiio?iooio.

?icaeyae a?aoiaioaoe?? i?ia?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a eoeueoo? OE (ss.Iaoi?ea,
E.E?e?aia, A.Aienea?a, ?.Na?oi?eiaa, ?.A?oaiaiea, Ae.E?aeiiaa oa ?i.)
aeicaiey? ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui iaeaeaai?o? EOE ca?iaeaeothoueny a
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?, oi/a, a??ia?aeii, ? ia aac aieeao yeeoinue
noaiiaeo («eo?aaiieo») a?oi (Ia?ia?o,1976). Iniiaiei aaiaoe/iei
i?aea?oioyi ?aii?o EOE aenooiathoue i?ci? a?oie eoeueoo?e e?e/anoeo
eoae?a (EEE) (Aienea?,1963; E?e?ai,1983; Iaoi?e, 1970). I?ci?oa aei
neeaaeo iin??a EOE aeeeth/ath-oueny oaeiae a?oie eoeueoo?e eoeynoeo
aioi?, ui oaeiae noi?ioaaeany ia iniia? i?ciuei? EEE (A?neyinueeee,
1966, 1979).

Ioaea, iniiaiei aaiaoe/iei i?aea?oioyi ?.-?. ianaeaiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?
/anoeiai No?aeii? ?a?iie aoee ieaiaia eoeueoo?e e?e/anoeo eoae?a (ui
?nioaaea i?eaeecii i?ae 4400 ? 3100 ?.?. aei i.a.). Aeoiee uiaei
iioiaeaeaiiy oe??? eoeueoo?e iiaeooue aooe caaaeai? aei aeaio iniiaieo
iiceoe?e. Ca?aeii c ia?oith (E.ssaeaeaeaanueeee, Aeae.O?iaen-Ni?o,
O.A?neyinueeee oa ?i.) ianaeaiiy EEE i?iaeiaaeo? aaiaoe/io e?i?th
?icaeoeo i?noeaaiai ianaeaiiy i?ai?/ii?a?iiaenueeeo iecei ? ii?nueeeo
ocaa?aaeae?a aiioe iaie?oo ? iacie?oo, ca?aeii c ae?oaith (O.Aa?ain,
A.Iaonooiie, ss.Iaeea? oa ?i.) EEE iinoaea aiane?aeie ?icnaeaiiy ia
i?ai?/ ianaeaiiy eoeueoo? aeoiaenueeiai eiea — no??/eiai? ea?ai?ee oa
eaiaeaeuenueei?.

Ii??aiyiiy a?aoiaioaoe?e iaio oi/ie ci?o aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
«aeo-iaenuee?» aeaiaioe a neeaae? EEE c’yaeeeny aiane?aeie canai?iiy
i?ai?/ii?a?iiaenueeei ianaeaiiyi aeayeeo a?eueo i?ia?aneaieo niinia?a
aaaeaiiy ainiiaea?noaa, aeaioiaeaiiy ea?ai?ee, iiaeeeai
aeiiiaoae?aieoeoaa ? o. i., oiae? ye iniaeeaino? ia?iaee e?aiaith ? oeie
cia?yaeue, oi?ie iinoaeo, aeaiaioe iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, oiiia?ao?y
iinaeaiue, a oaeiae aio?iiieia?/iee oei ethaeiino? iathoue i?noeaaa
ei??iiy ? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iniiaiei aaiaoe/iei i?aea?oioyi
ianaeaiiy EEE aoee ?aiiueiiaie?oe/i? ?, iiaeeeai, aeaye?
i?ciueiiacie?oe/i? a?oie iaoeaioe?a ieciaeo ??aiei i?ae ?aeiii ?
A?neith. Oea ianaeaiiy, i?aaenoaaeaia eoeueoo?ith A?oaaieea-Aeea?aae,
iai’yoeaie c ?aiiueith «e?ni-aith» ea?ai?eith Iieueu?, o naith /a?ao
i?iaeiaaeo? aaiaoe/io e?i?th ?icaeoeo iacie?oe-/ieo eoeueoo? o. ca.
«iinoiaaeaiicueeiai» eiea — Ieueaeaneia-Aoaeaii, Oiei?oea-Iaiueee,
ssi?neaaeoey (A??i/-Iaoa?nai, 1973; Eiceianueeee, 1975, 1977; E?e?ai,
1983 oa ?i.).

Iinoiaaeaiicuee? iai’yoee i?aii/? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ?ai?acaioothoue
aeecuee? ca eoeueoo?iei noaiii, aaiaoe/ii nii??aeiai? a?oie ianaeaiiy,
yea aenooia? aaiaoe/iei iiia?aaeieeii ?.-?.-iiaieo iin??a EOE. ?acii c
?o ?aiiueiiaie?oe/ieie («ea?ai?/-ieie») iauaaeeaie iinoiaaeaiicuee?
eoeueoo?e aeaoothoueny VI — ia?o. iie. V oen. aei i.a., ui
aaciina?aaeiuei noeea?oueny c /anii, eiee, ca e?iaa?noe/ieie aeaieie,
iaa noaoeny ?iciaae ?.-?. aoiiiiaii? ?aeiino?. Oaeei /eiii, ? i?aenoaae
i?eioneaoe, ui iin?? iacie?oe/ieo eoeueoo? eiea iaaeaiica-iinoiaaeaiica
aoee iaeaeaai?oeie iin?yie ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai iiaiiai oeio.

Ia oa?aiao no?aei?oa A?nee iin?? eoeueoo? OE aaaaeathoueny i?eeoeeie.
Iaeiae a aaiac? i?ci?oeo eoeueoo? a?iiciai? aeiae, ui, ye aaaaea?oueny,
iaeaaeaee ?aii?i aaeoai ? i?aneia’yiai (cie?aia, ooeiaoeueei?), a?aee
aeoeaio o/anoue ia eeoa iin?? EOE, aea e i?noeaaa iaie?oe/ia ianaeaiiy,
i?aaenoaaeaia i?ci?oeie eoeueoo?aie a?aa?ioeaai? ea?a-i?ee (??iaioaia,
1980, 1985; Eaii?noe, 1973; Oaeaa?i, 1996). Aeaye? aeine?aeieee
(?.??iaioaia, Ae.Oaeaa?i, Ae.E?aeiia, ?.Aeai?niaa oa ?i.) aaaaeathoue,
ui eoeueoo?e c a?aa?ioeaaith ea?ai?eith No?aeii? I?eaaeoeee, aanaeio
I?ei’yo? oa Aa?oiueiai Aei?i?a iiaeooue ?ai?acaiooaaoe aaiaoe/ieo
iiia?aaeiee?a aaeo?a ? neia’yi. I?eioeeiiai aaaeeeaei ? oa, ui oe?
eoeueoo?e, ye? c’yaeythoueny a e?ioe? VI — iaii/aoeo V oen. aei i.a.,
oaeiae oi?iothoueny ia iinoiaaeaiicueeiio i?aea?oio? (i?aaenoaaeaiiio
yi?neaaeoeueeith eoeueoo?ith) (Cae?c-iye, 1978; Cae?ciye, Aaeae?i,
1985), ui na?ae/eoue ia ei?enoue ?o aoiiaaiaoe/ii? nii??ae-iaiino? c
iin?yie ?aii?o EOE (ioaea, inoaii? ?ai?acaioothoue yeonue ?ioo a?eeo
?iaei-?a?iiaeoe?a, ?iia??ii i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii? a?oie
(aeea. aeua)). Oaeei /eiii, ?ao?iniaeoeaa aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo
aaeoi-neia’yinueeiai aoi?/iiai iane-ao i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeoieo i?i
iiaeeeao oioiaei?noue iin??a eoeueoo? eiea iaaeaiica-iinoiaaeaiica c
iaeaeaai?oeie ??.

Caa?oath/enue aei ieoaiiy i?i iioiaeaeaiiy ssE?N oa aoiiaaiaoe/i? aeoiee
iin??a noaiiaeo eoeueoo? III oen. aei i.a., iiaeia a?aei?oeoe iayai?noue
iaaiiai eiinainono aeoiie c oeueiai i?eaiaeo: iaeaea an? aeine?aeieee
noiaeyoueny ia oiio, ui nai?i ei??iiyi ethae-i?noue ssE?N nyaa?
iiia?aaeiuei? noaiiai? ni?eueiioe — na?aaeiueinoia?anueei-oaaeeinueei?,
ui ?ici?uoaaeany (i?ae 4400 ? 3400 ?.?. aei i.a.) a?ae Ieaeiueiai
Iiaei?i?ia’y aei Na?aaeiuei? Aieae. A?aeiinii ?ie? ? i?noey ie?aieo a?oi
oe??? ni?eueiioe a aaiac? ssE?N aeoiee ?icoiaeyoueny, aea a aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo oea ia ia? i?eioeeiiaiai cia/aiiy, ine?eueee ca iia?-oeie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iin?? eoeueoo? na?aaeiueinoia?anueei-oaaeeinueei?
ni?eueiioe i?ae Aei?i?ii ? Aieaith oaeiae iaee ni?eueio aaiaoe/io iniiao
— ia??oiieuenueeo ni?eueiioo (Aaneeue?a, Neithe, 1985, ?annaiae?i,
1993, 1997).

C i?eaiaeo iioiaeaeaiiy aoi?/iiai yae?a eoeueoo? ia??oiieuenueei?
ni?eueiioe aeoiee iiae?eythoueny. ?.Aaneeue?a (1979, 1980) aaaaea?, ui
eiai neeaee ia?anaeaioe? c I?aaeaiiiai O?aeo ? Iiaieaeaey; oeth aeoieo
iiae?eythoue A.Neithe, I.Eioiaa oa ?i. Ia i?ioeaaao oeueiio Ae.Oaeaa?i
(1981,1988) aaaaea?, ui aoi?/io iniiao ia??oiieueoe?a neeaei ianaeaiiy
eoeueoo? aei?i?i-aeiiaoeueeiai eiea. I?ea?/ieee no?aeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy
ia??oiieueoe?a ia aeacothoue eiie?aoieo iai’yoie, ui ?o iiaeia aoei a
?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ioioei eeane/ieo ia??oiieuenueeeo eoeueoo? i?ae
Aei?i?ii ? Aieaith, iaoii?noue aei?i?i-aeiiaoeuee? iai’yoee Ee?aueie ?
Aeiia//eie ca neeaaeii iniiaiiai ?iaaioa?y ? oeiaie ae?ia?a aeoaea
iiae?ai? aei ?aii?o ia??oiieuenueeeo o Ieaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’?, ia Aeiio
? Na?aaei?e Aiec? (Oaea-a?i,1968, 1981, 1988). Niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
ia??oiieuenueeeo eoeueoo? — aeaiaioe a?aeoai?th-th/iai ainiiaea?noaa,
iniaeeaino? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, i?ee?ane oa aeaye? ?io? eaoaai-???
ae?ia?a iiaeooue aooe iiyniai? i?enoinoaaiiyi aei?i?i-aeiiaoeueeeo
ieaiai aei noaiiaiai na?aaeiaeua, aieeaaie c aieo ianaeaiiy E?eio,
Eaaeaco, I?eeani?th, I?eo?aeey. Oaeei /eiii, iiceoe?y Ae.Oaeaa?ia
aeaeyaea? aeeae/ith aei ae?eniiai iieiaeaiiy ?a/ae.

Aeine?aeiee iacie?oe/ieo iai’yoie Iie?nny E.Cae?ciye ae?eoia aeniiaeo
i?i aaia-oe/iee ca’ycie i?ciueiiacie?oe/ieo iai’yoie oeueiai ?aa?iio c
iinoiaaeaiicueeei eieii i?aii/? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, a c ?ioiai aieo
i?i o/anoue ?o iin??a a aaiac? iaie?oe/iiai aei?i?i-aeiiaoeueeiai (a
ioaea ? ia??oiieuenueeiai) ianaeaiiy (Cae?ciye, 1978, 1991, 1994,
Cae?ciye, Aaeae?i, 1985), ui aeaei eiio i?aenoaae aaa/aoe a iin?yo
iinoiaaeaiicueeeo eoeueoo? aaiaoe/ieo iiia?aaeiee?a ?? (Cae?ciye, 1994,
1998). Iaeiae, c iaeyaeii ia o?i-iieia?th (/an o?iaeueieo iaiyoie
iinoiaaeaiica ni?anoaaeiee c /anii ii/aoeo ?iciaaeo ?.-?. iiaii?
?aeiino?), ? ia oa, ui c inoaoi/iith aeac?ioaa?aoe??th
iaaeaiica-iinoiaaeaiica, ?aei?noue cao?aeii? (EEE — EOE) ? no?aeii?
(ia??oiieuecea ? iio?aei? noaiia? eoeueoo?e) a?eie ?? aaea ia
a?aeiiaethaaeanue, ?iia??i?oith caea?oueny oioiaei?noue ethaeiino?,
?ai?acaioiaa-ii? iai’yoeaie iaaeaiica-iinoiaaeaiica, aeania
?iaei?a?iiaeoeyi.

Ieoaiiy i?i iaeaaei?noue aei ?.-?. ni?eueiioe iin??a caiea?ianueeeo
eoeueoo? aaeeaii-ea?iaonueeiai ?aa?iio (VI — i. iie. IV oen. aei i.a.)
ae??oo?oueny iaaaoeaii. Oea ianaeaiiy c’yaey?oueny ia i?aii/? Aaeeai, a
Iiaeoiaa’?, a I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? aiane?aeie e?eueeio oaeeue
ia?anaeaiue c Aiaoie?? oa na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai ocaa?aaeaey, i?e/iio
iin?? ?yaeo ie?aieo eoeueoo? (e?i?eii-no??/eiai? ea?ai?ee, A?i/a,
Eaiaeaeue, Eoeooai?-O?ei?eey) aoee, oaeaeoa ca ana, ianii??aeiai? i?ae
niaith ? i?eoiaeeee c i?aaeiy ??cieie oeyoaie (Iiiaaeo, 1973; Oeoia,
1984 oa ?i.). AEiaeia c aaeeainueeeo eoeueoo? ia aeaea aaiaoe/ieo
iauaaee?a, yeeo iiaeia aoei a ioioiaeieoe c oaeei aoiiiiaiei ianeaii ye
?iaei?a?iiaenueeee. Iaa?oue iaaiaee: i?ioyaii IV-III oen. aaeeainuee?
eoeueoo?e aiaie?oo caia-iaaeathoue i?ae oeneii i?ai?/ieo oa no?aeieo
non?ae?a (ui aeua aoee ie?aneai? ye a??ia?aei? ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?)
(Ia?ia?o, 1984, 1988 oa ?i.). Eoeueoo?e ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo ia?iae?a
Aaeeaii-Ea?iaooy (o?ae?eoe?a oa ?i.) i?iaeiaaeothoue aaiaoe/io e?i?th
?icaeoeo ia?anaeaioe?a III oen. aei i.a. c i?ai?/ieo ?aeii?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie ? c? noaiiai? ciie (Oiaei?iaa, 1981; Ia?ia?o,
1984).

Aeniiaee

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

1. ?iciaae ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe a?aeaoaaany iiaoaiii i?ioyaii
ae?oai? ii-eiaeie V — ii/. ??? oen. aei i.a. ?nioaaiiy aoiiiiaii?
?aeiino? iiaea aooe a?aeianaia, oaeei /eiii, o VII — ia?o. iie. V oen.
aei i.a.

2. Aeai? aeieia?/ii? eaeneee na?ae/aoue i?i ?ici?uaiiy i?aaaouee?aueie
?iaei?a?i-iaeoe?a o iii??ieo, ae?eoeo eenoyiei e?nii oe?ioao; cie?aia
aeeeth/athoueny na?aae-caiiiii?nuee? ocaa?aaeaey, I?aaeaiia ?
Oeaio?aeueia Ac?y, i?eaoeaioe/i? ?aeiie ?a?iie.

3. “Ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueea” eoeueoo?ia oa?i?iieia?y iaiaiayceiai
iiaeiia aoea aeieeiooe i?ae /an ?nioaaiiy ia?ic/eaiiaaii? iiaii?
?aeiino?, aiia iiaea iioe?thaa-oenue i?ioyaii ia??iaeo ?iciaaeo (ae?oa
iieiaeia V — ??? oen. aei i.a.), oeyoii caiice/aiiy eoeueoo?ieo yaeu (?
a?aeiia?aeieo iaca) c iaeiiai ?iaei?a?iiaenueeiiiaiiai ina?aaeeo aei
?ioiai. Oe??th ianoaaeiith ci?ia?oueny iaiao?aei?noue iinooethaaoe a
yeino? a?oaieia?/ii-ai aea?aaeaioo ia?aeiii? ?.-?. ni?eueiioe oaeo
eoeueoo?o, yea iaiaei?iii iaea a eiiieaen yaeu, cana?ae/aiee ni?eueiith
oa?i?iieia??th.

4. ?iaei?a?iiaeoe? aiioe iiaii? ?aeiino? ia iaee o?nieo aeainoi?iii?o
eiioaeo?a c i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo a?aeiieo iiaieo n?iae (ie??i,
iiaeeeai, ea?oaaeuenueei?). Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai c a?aaeo iiooe?a
i?aaaouee?aueie aeeeth/a?oueny any Ac?y, a oaeiae ?a?i-iaenueea
Ia?aaeo?aeey, aea ciaoiaeeeenue i?aaeee iin??a a?aeiieo
ia?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo iia.

5. Iaeanoue i?ae ?aeiii ia caoiae?, Aieaith ia noiae?, Aeueiaie,
Aaeeaiaie ? Eaaeacii ia i?aaei?, ia yeo aeacothoue iiai? aeai?, ia iiaea
aooe ia anueiio i?inoi?? i?aaaoue-e?aueiith ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a /a?ac
cia/i? ?ici??e, ??ciiiai?oi?noue aaiaeieia?/ieo oiia, a?aei?ii?noue ca
oa?aeoa?ii eoeueoo?e ? iioiaeaeaiiyi a?oi ianaeaiiy, ui o VII — V oen.
aei i.a. caeiaee ie?ai? ?aa?iie aeacaii? iaeano?.

6. ?ao?iniaeoeaa aoiieoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a ie?aneaiiio a?aae? aeaco?
ia ieceii?, e?nia? ??aieie i?ae ?aeiii ? Aei?i?ii ye ia aeo?aeiee
ia?aeiiee oeaio? ?iaei?a?i-ia?caoe??. O VI — ia?o?e iieiaei? V oen. aei
i.a. — i?ae /an ?nioaaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaenueei? ni?eueiioe (aai ??
i?ciueiai aoaio) — aeacaiee ?aa?ii caeiathoue nii??aeiai? ? aeecuee? ca
niiniaii aeeooy aoiieoeueoo?i? ia?aeiaiiy, i?aaenoaaeai? a?oaieia?/ieie
eoeueoo?aie iinoiaaeaiicueeiai eiea. Aaiaoe/ii ia?aaeoth/a inoaii?i,
iaaeaiicueea eoeueoo?ia ni?eueiioa (VIII — VII oen. aei i.a.) iiaeeeai
a?aeiia?aea? a?eueo ?aii?i aoaiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? aoiiiiaii? ?aeiino?.

7. C-iii?ae iaea?eueo iioe?aieo a iaooe? aa?n?e iioiaeaeaiiy
?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a — aiaoi-e?enueei-aaeeainueei?, noaiiai?,
oeaio?aeueii?a?iiaenueei?, ia?oa (a?aoiaoth/e ??ci? ?? aa??aioe oa
iiaeeo?eaoe??) ia? aooe a?aeoeeaiith iiai?noth. Ae?oaa oaeiae ia? aooe
a?aeoe-eaiith a i?eioeei?, aea iieiaeaiiy i?i noaiiao ciio No?aeii?
?a?iie IV-III (II) oen. aei i.a. ye oeaio? ?iaei?a?iia?caoe?? Aaeeai,
Oeaio?aeueii? ? I?aaeaiii? Ac?? ? neooiei. Inoaiiy aa?n?y i?eeia?oueny c
aeiaeaiiyi iii?aaie ? ei?aeyoe?e, coiiaeaieo a ia?oo /a?ao iiaeie
a?oaieia?/ieie a?aee?eooyie. Iaea?eueo a??ia?aeieie ?ai?acaioaioaie
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? aoiiiiaii? ni?eueiioe ? iacie?oe/ia ni?eueiioa
iaaeaiica (VIII-VII oen. aei i.a.) oa iio?aei? i?ciueiiacie?oe/ii —
?aiiueiiaie?oe/i? eoeueoo?e i?ae ieaei?i ?aeiii ? Aei?i?ii-Aeiiii (VI-V
oen. aei i.a.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. I?iaeaia ni?eueii?iaei?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?ii? oa?i?iieia?? //
Iiaiciaanoai. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 54-62.

2. I?iaeaia i?aaaouee?aueie ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a a ?noi??ia?ao?? //
A?oaieia?y. — 1998. — ?3. — N. 77-90.

3. ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?: i?iaeaia i?aaaouee?aueie oa iaeaeaai?oeo
i?a?aoe?e // I?iaeaie i?a?aoe?e. — 1998 — ?4. — N. 15-22.

4. Aei i?iaeaie eiiieaeniiai iaoiaeo a ?iaei?a?iia?noeoe?. // Oace
aeiiia?ae? ia IV I?aeia?iaei?e a?oaieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? nooaeaio?a ?
iieiaeeo a/aieo. — Ee?a: “Niai?ia Oe?a?ia”, 1996. — N. 29-30.

5. Aeaye? oeiieia?/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie iioiaeaeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a
// Oace aeiiia?ae? ia V IAEN ? IA. — Ee?a: Aeae-ai Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, 1997. — N. 97-100.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eii/a N.A. I?iaeaia iioiaeaeaiiy ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a (aiae?c eiioeaioe?e).
— ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.12. — oe?a?iiciaanoai. —
?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. O.Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ?noi??y ? no/aniee noai i?iaeaie
iioiaeaeaiiy aeaai?o iin??a ?iaei?a?iiaenueeeo iia. I?iaiaeeoueny
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iaea?eueo aaaiieo ? iioe?aieo a iaooe? a?iioac,
iiaoaeiaaieo ye ia e?iaa?noe/iiio, oae ? ia a?oaieia?/-iiio iaoa??ae?,
aa?eo?eo?oueny a??ia?aei?noue eiaeii? c ieo /a?ac c?noaaeaiiy c
iaea?eueo onoaeaieie ? aeciaieie na?aae oao?aoe?a iiaeyaeaie ia aniaeoe
iiaiiai oa aoiieoeueoo?iiai (a?aeiiiai c a?oaieia?/ieo aeaea?ae)
?icaeoeo. ?iaeoueny ni?iaa aaanoe aei ia?aaeeaie ?iaei?a?iia?noeee
aeaye? iia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo a?oaieia?a.
I?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue a?aoiaoaaoe oaeoi? ae?ao?iiiino?
(iiaeiaaeaiino? a /an?) ia eeoa i?ioean?a ca?iaeaeaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? aoiiiiaii? ?aeiino?, a e i?ioeano ?? ?iciaaeo (resp.
aeie?aieaiiy ?noi?e/ii a?aeiieo a?oi). Oea aeicaiey? aeaui ?iaeoa, i?ae
o a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue, i?ae?eoe aei ieoaiiy i?i eoeueoo?iee noai
?iaei?a?iiaenueeiai noni?euenoaa iaia?aaeiaei? ? i?ae /an ?iciaaeo
iiaii? ?aeiino?. ?iaeoueny aenii-aie, ui a?aeiiei ia nueiaiaei? aeaiei
iaee?aua a?aeiia?aea? a?iioaca i?i ?ici?uaiiy i?a-aaouee?aueie
?iaei?a?iiaeoe?a a iaeano? ieceiieo e?niaeo ??aiei i?ae ?aeiii ?
Aei?i?ii ca aiioe iacie?oo — ?aiiueiai iaie?oo (aeecueei VII — V oen.
aei i.a.). ?iciaae ?iaei?a?i-iaenueei? ?aeiino? aoa, a??ia?aeii,
iia’ycaiee c ia?aoiaeii ianaeaiiy Na?aaeiuei? oa I?a-i?/ii? ?a?iie aei
a?aeoai?thaaeueii? aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iaei?a?iiaenuee? iiae, ?iaei?a?iiaeoe?, aoiiiiaia
ni?eueiioa, a?oai-eia?/ia eoeueoo?a, iioiaeaeaiiy, i?aaaouee?aueia.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eii/a N.A. I?iaeaia i?ienoiaeaeaiey eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa (aiaeec
eiioeaioeee). — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.12. —
oe?aeiiaaaeaiea. — Einoeooo oe?aeiiciaanoaa Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa ei.
O.Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea i?iaeaiu
i?i-enoiaeaeaiey e i?a?iaeeiu iineoaeae eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo ycueia.
?ani?ino?aiaiiua iuia a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a oai?ee e eiioeaioeee
(I.Aeiaooan, O.Aaie?aeeaeca e A.Eaaiiaa, ss.Iaeeae, E.?aio?th,
E.Eeeeaia, Aeae.Iyeei?e e ae?.) ca/anooth niaea?aeao acaeiieneeth/athuea
iieiaeaiey. Iiiaiia?acea iiaiee iiaeao auoue naaaeaii e o?ai iniiaiui
oi/eai c?aiey. Niaeanii ia?aie, ?aeii oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aiia/aeueiie
eiaeiaa?iiaeneie iauiinoe iaoiaeeeny a iaiin?aaenoaaiiie aeecinoe io
ae?aaiaeoeo oeaio?ia ca?iaeaeaiey caieaaeaeey e neioiaiaenoaa — a
Aiaoieee e (eee) ia Aaeeaineii iieoino?iaa. Niaeanii aoi?ie, ?annaeaiea
eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa naycaii n i/aiue iiaeaeae-iui, i?aeiouanoaaiii
neioiaiae/aneei e aienoaaiiui ia?acii aeecie, eioi?ue iia neiaeeoueny a
noaiyo iaaeaeo Aeiai?ii e O?aeii. O?aouey oi/ea c?aiey i?aaeiieaaaao
neiaeaiea eiaeiaa?iiaeneie iauiinoe a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iia
(i?eaeeceoaeueii iaaeaeo ?aeiii e Aeiai?ii) eee aea ia aieaa iaoe?iii
i?ino?ainoaa, i?eia?ii ia?aie/aiiii ?aeiii, Aaeeaiaie, Aeiiii (eee
Aieaie), ii?yie, e ia naaa?a — thaeiie a?aieoeae niaoaiiuo (eee aea
oaieiuo) eania.

?anniio?aiea iaeaieaa ecaanoiuo oai?ee, iie?athueony ia iiaaeoea (70 —
90o aiaeia) ?acoeueoaou eeiaaenoeee e a?oaieiaee e, niioianaiea eo n
?ac?aaioeaie niaoeeaeenoia ii eaaeaeiio ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo aniaeoia
i?iaeaiu iicaieyao i?eaeoe e auaiaeo, /oi iiaiey, naiaeeiua e ia?aui
aeaoi oi/eai c?aiey iniiaaiu nei?aa ia niia?aaeaieyo iauaai ii?yaeea,
/ai ia eiie?aoiuo oaeoao.

Aaeeaineay aa?ney i?a?iaeeiu naia ii naaa iaei aa?iyoia, o.e.
aaeeaii-ea?iao-neee ?aaeii a ia?eiae i?aaeiieaaaaiiai neiaeaiey e
nouanoaiaaiey eiaeiaa?iiaeneie iauiinoe (VII — ia/. IV oun. aei i.y.)
aue canaeai auoiaeoeaie n Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, i?aeiouanoaaiii ec
Aiaoieee. Aiaoieeeneay aa?ney anooiaao a i?yiia i?ioeai?a/ea n aeaiiuie
yeieiae/aneie eaeneee, eeiaaenoe/aneie iaeaiioieiaee, oiii- e
aeae?i-ieiee, aeaiiuie ii naycyi eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa n iineoaeyie ae?oaeo
ycueia. I?iieeii-aaiea iineoaeae aiaoieeenei-aaeeaineeo eoeueoo? ia
naaa? Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu e a noaiioth ciio a?oaieiae/anee ia
i?ineaaeeaaaony. Ia nouanoaoao oaaaeeoaeueiuo iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee oiio, /oi
?acii?iaeiua eoeueoo?u aaeeaii-aiaoieeeneiai ?aaeiia i?eiaae-eaaeaee
yoie/anee ?iaenoaaiiui ieaiaiai, iineoaeyi aaeeiiai ycueiaiai no?iy.

Noaiiay aa?ney caieiaao aieaa neeueiua iiceoeee, iaeiaei ionoonoaea
a?oaieiae-/aneeo aeaiiuo, iiaeoaa?aeaeathueo i?iieeiiaaiea noaiiiai
ianaeaiey aaeoaue Oeaio?a-eueiie e Naaa?iie Aa?iiu, noaaeo iiae niiiaiea
eiaeiaa?iiaecaoeeth yoeo ?aaeiiia ni noi?iiu noaiiie ciiu. Ia aiieia
niaeanoaony yoa aa?ney e n oiiiyioouie eeiaae-noe/aneeie aeaiiuie.

Aa?ney i ca?iaeaeaiee eiaeiaa?iiaeneie iauiinoe iaaeaeo ?aeiii e
Aeiai?ii iae-eo/oei ia?acii niaeanoaony n aeaiiuie eiaeiaa?iiaeneie
yeieiae/aneie eaeneee. A aa iieueco aiai?yo oaeaea aeaiiua oiii- e
aeae?iieiee (enneaaeiaaiey O.E?ay, A.Oieaea e ae?.). A ?aaeiia
i?ineaaeeaaaony iai?a?uaiia (aac cia/eoaeueiuo aeeth/aiee ecaia)
?acaeoea io yiioe iacieeoa — ?aiiaai iaieeoa aei eaioia enoi?e/aneie
yiioe (?aaiou E.ssaeaeaeaaneiai, E.Eeeeaia, Ae.Oaeaaeia, ?.?eiaioaia e
ii. ae?.). ?aeinei-aeiai?ianeay aa?ney i?a?iaeeiu ia i?ioeai?a/eo oaeaea
aeaiiui ii iaaeuycueiaui naycyi, o.e. eiaeiaa?iiaeoeu ia?eiaea aaeeinoaa
ia eiaee, ii-aeaeeiiio, iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo, aeaonoi?iiieo e aeeeoaeueiuo
eiioaeoia n ycueaie Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, naaa?ii-eaaeacneeie e
o?aei-aeoaeneeie (E.Aeueyeiiia, N.Noa?inoei, I.Oaeaeo e ae?.).

Iaaeinoaoeaie yoie aa?nee n/eoathony ionoonoaea i?yiuo aeieacaoaeuenoa
i?iiee-iiaaiey naaa?iaa?iiaeneiai ianaeaiey a no?aiu N?aaeecaiiiii?uey,
THaeiie e Oeaio?a-eueiie Acee, aaea i?iaeeaatho e iuia
eiaeiaa?iiaeneiycu/iua ia?iaeu, a oaeaea ianiio-aaonoaea eoeueoo?iiai
o?iaiy naaa?a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu V? — ?V oun. aei i.y., oiio eiiieaeno
eoeueoo?u, eioi?ue ?aeiino?oe?oaony eae iauaeiaeiaa?iiaeneee ia
iniiaa-iee aiaeeca eiaeiaa?iiaeneeo eoeueoo?iuo oa?ieiia.

Iiaaeoea aeaiiua a oaeaea aieaa ouaoaeueiue aiaeec ecaanoiuo oaeoia
iicaiey-tho i?aiaeieaoue oeacaiiua cao?oaeiaiey. Neaaeoao niaeaneoueny n
?yaeii enneaaeiaaoaeae (a o./. ni noi?iiieeaie noaiiie i?a?iaeeiu), /oi
eiaeiaa?iiaecaoeey no?ai Ainoi/iiai N?aaeecaiiiii?uey e Acee
i?ienoiaeeea iooai iea?aoeee ec noaiiie ciiu Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Iaeiaei
noaiiie oeaio? eiaeiaa?iiaecaoeee yaeyeny, ii-aeaeeiiio, aoi?e/iui
ioiineoaeueii oeaio?aeueiiaa?iiaeneiai e aue enoiaeiui ?aaeiiii ia aeey
anao eiaei-aa?iiaeoeaa, a oieueei aeey eo ainoi/iie
(a?aei-a?iyii-a?eeneie) aaoae. E oaeiio auaiaeo iicaieytho i?eaeoe
a?oaieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee, i?ineaaeeaathuea
i?iaeaeaeaiea ianaeaiey a yiioo iacieeoa — ?aiiaai iaieeoa (VII — V oun.
aei i.y. c naaa?a Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu a N?aaeiaa Iiaeiai?iauea (?aaiou
N.Eiceia-neiai, E.Eieueoeiaa, E.Caeeciyea e ae?.) e aeaeaa a noaiioth
ciio (?aaiou Ae.Oaeaaeia, E.Caeeciyea, A.Ai?aeeea).

Ia/aei ?acaeaeaiey eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa ia caiaaeioth e ainoi/ioth aaoae
aeieaeii auoue ioianaii, oaeei ia?acii, e VI — V oun. aei i.y.
Eoeueoo?iay eaeneea, oeacuaathuay ia ciaeiinoai a yiioo aaeeinoaa n
caieaaeaeeai, neioiaiaenoaii e ae?oaeie aieaa iicaeieie yaeaieyie
eoeueoo?u, iiaea ?ani?ino?aieony iinea oiai eae yoiieoeueoo?iia
aaeeinoai eiaeiaa?iiaeoeaa ?aniaeinue, ii i?aaeee anao enoi?e/aneeo
a?oii ?aniieaaaeenue aua a aeeceii ninaaenoaa e a ioaeaeueiuo ycueao
(eee aeeaeaeoao) aua ia i?iecioee ec-iaiaiey, iicaieythuea ycueiaaaeai
ioee/eoue neiaa, oianeaaeiaaiiua ni a?aiaie aaeei-noaa io
?ani?ino?aieaoeony iicaeiaa iooai caeinoaiaaiey (noiaeiiai iiaiey
i?eaea?aeeaaeny aua “ia?aiioe?uaaoaeue” eiaeiaa?iiaeneie eoeueoo?u
I.O?aaea?).

Ianaeaiea VI — ia?aie iie. V oun. aei i.y. naaa?iaa?iiaeneeo iecei
iaaeaeo Ieaeiei ?aeiii, THaeiie Ceaiaeeiaaeae e N?aaeiei Iiaeiai?iaueai
i?aaenoaaeaii ?iaenoaai-iuie eoeueoo?aie iinoiaaeaiicneiai e?oaa, enoiee
eioi?uo ainoiaeyo e aieaa ?aiiae iaaeaiicneie iacieeoe/aneie iauiinoe
(enneaaeiaaiey ?.?eiaioaia, N.Eiceianeiai, E.Eieueoeiaa, E.Caeeciyea e
ae?.). Aiieia aa?iyoii, /oi ca yoei eoeueoo?iui ?iaenoaii ne?uaaaony
yoiiycueiaia aaeeinoai, eioi?ia, noaey ii anaio ?yaeo i?eaaaeaiiuo
iieacaoaeae, e auei eiaeiaa?iiaeneei.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiaeiaa?iiaeneea ycuee, eiaeiaa?iiaeoeu, yoiiycueiaay
iau-iinoue, a?oaieiae/aneay eoeueoo?a, i?ienoiaeaeaiea, i?a?iaeeia.

SUMMARY

Koncha S. A problem of Indoeuropeans origin (analysis of the
conceptions). Manuscript. The dissertation submitted for a scholarly
degree of a candidate of historical sciences in specialisation 09. 00.
12. — Ukrainian studies at the Institute of Ukrainian studies of Kyiv T.
Shevchenko university, Kyiv, 1999.

The present status of problem on origins of ancient Indoeuropean
languages speakers is analysed in the investigation.

The comparative analysis of the most important and wide-spread
scientific hypotheses, which are based both on linguistic and
archaeological materials is also examined. Each of them is correlated
with main scientific opinions. The scientific indoeuropeistic paradigm
is completed with new Ukrainian archaeological research results. The
diachronic factor (temporal prolongation) is applied not only in the
original and formation process of indoeuropean ethnic and languages
unity, but also to its disintegrating process (respectively, the
emergence of different groups known in history). That enables to achieve
a new approach (comparing with the most of researches) to the problem of
cultural condition of the Indoeuropean society. A conclusion is made
that the best hypothesis corresponding to contemporary dats, is the
hypothesis of localisation of the Indoeuropean native land in the region
of the low wooden plain between the rivers Rhine and Dnipro in
mesolithic — early neolithic epoch (VII — V millennium B.C.). The
decomposing of indoeuropean unity was related with transition of Middle
and Northern Europe population to reproductive economy.

Key words: Indoeuropean languages, Indoeuropeans, ethnic and languages
unity, archaeological culture, origin, native land.

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