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OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI

OI?AAE?IIss I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA? OE?A?IE

A??I?AAOeUeEA I?ia Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 658.01

I?IAEAIA OI?IOAAIIss NO*ANIIAI

OEIO AeA?AEAAIIAI NEOAEAIAOess

A OE?A?I?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 25.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aa?anueeee Ai?en A?eaae?eiae/,

I?ae?aa?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii, caa?aeoth/ee
eaoaae?ith nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy ? iie?oieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeue/ei TH??e Iaea?iae/,

Aeaaeai?y ioi?oeeiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy,

?aeoi?

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ai?aaoaiei Aieiaeeie? Iaaeiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iie?oieia?? ? nioe?ieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o

ni?aa Oe?a?ie IAN Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oi?aae?iiy, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 3 ” a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 17-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.01 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
i. Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a-57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 2 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eiaoiiaa I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Aeo?ae ?c o?ainoi?iaoe?eii? e?ece oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa
caeaaeeoue a?ae noai?aiiy no/anii?, aoaeoeaii? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy. Iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy oaei? nenoaie ye ?ino?oiaioo
iiaeieaiiy e?ece a Oe?a?i? aei inoaiiueiai /ano ia ioe?ithaaeinue. Ia
nueiaiaei?, oi?aae?inueea neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? oa i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c
iath eaae?iaa caeeoa?oueny iacaaeia?eueiith. Eaae?e a noa?? oi?aae?iiy
neaai i?aeaioiaeai? ? iaaeinoaoiuei iioeaiaai? aei cae?eniaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Noa?? i?eioeeie e iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo aaea a?aeeeioo?, a iia? ua ia
noi?iiaai?. Neeaeany ia’?eoeaia noia?a/i?noue i?ae oeie aeiiaaie aei
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ye? aenoaa? iiaa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia ?
aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y oa ?nioth/ei, aaaaoi a /iio aeaoi?iiaaiei, oeiii
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, yeee i?eeoia aei aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ?
?aaeueii cae?enith? noni?euei? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?.

Oe? ianoaaeie coiiaeththoue iecueeee ??aaiue aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
neeaaeieo i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Oea iineeth? ianoaa?euei?noue i?aai?a aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy, ?o iaiine?aeiai?noue o i?iaaaeaii? ?aoi?i ?
iiaeeaeth? ?icaaeainiaai?noue nioe?aeueiiai i?inoi?o.

Neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny iacaaa?oai?noth ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, ia?icaeiai?noth ?iiiaaoe?eii? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.

Ca oaeeo oiia naia i?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey aeiaaa? oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy; ?aaeueia i?aeoeea iio?aao?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a?ae iaoee oa na?eiciiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?noo, oi?i oa
iaoiae?a i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaathoue iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiai oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey,
aecia/aiiy i?eioeei?a eiai oeiieia?caoe??, ioe?iee ?aaeueiiai noaio a
oe?e aaeoc? ? iiooeo iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a i?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue no/aniei aeiiaai.

Aiae?c a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae na?ae/eoue i?i
oa, ui i?iaeaiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, oaeineiiaeaiith aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae, oi?ioaaiith aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ?o i?aeaioiaoe?
i?eae?ey?oueny cia/ia oaaaa.

sse a?aeiii, iiooeia? iioeiaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
a?aeaiaeeeinue /?eueia i?noea ua a i?aoeyo A??noioaey, Ieaoiia, Aiaana,
Aaaaey oa ?i. Iaeiei c ia?oeo nenoaiii ii?aoethaaa ieoaiiy aoaeoeaii?
aca?iiae?? neoaeaiaoe?a I. Aaaa?, yeee ?ice?ea ci?no ? caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy “aea?aeaaii? iaoeie”. A?i ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?th
“?aeaaeueiiai oeio ath?ie?ao??” ye iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
?inoeoooe?ae?ciaaiiai ono?ith o ae??oaii? neeaaeieo caaaeaiue oi?aae?iiy
noni?euenoaii, aecia/eaoe iniiai? nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
“?aeaaeueiiai /eiiaieea”.

I?ae aieeaii ?aeae ?aoi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i? o XV-XVI no. ii/aea
oi?ioaaoenue iiaa iie?oeei-i?aaiaa ?aeaieia?y. Aiae?c oi?i aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeeeaa o nai?o ienaiiyo N. I??oianueeee-?ienieai; aaoi?aie
?aeae aea?aeaaiino? ia??iaeo Oe?a?inueei? aaoueiainueei? aea?aeaae aoee
A. Oiaeueieoeueeee, ?. Aeaianueeee, I. I?eee; ia ceai? XIX-XX no.
i?iaeaie aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ?icaeyaeaee oa ao?ethaaee a aeeooy A.
Aiae?ocuenueeee, I. Ae?aaiiaiia, I. A?ooaanueeee, A. Aeie/aiei oa ?i.

Inoaii?i /anii i?iaeaiai aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, aaei?i?no?aoeaiiio
?aoi?ioaaiith, iinoao? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey i?enay/aia cia/ia
e?euee?noue a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo ioae?eaoe?e. Aaciina?aaeiuei iaae
ieoaiiyie oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?aoeththoue o/ai? A.
A. Aaa?’yiia, A.A. Aoaiai/oe, A.Ae. Aaae?i, A.I. Aaaee, A.A. Aa?anueeee,
I.O. Aieiaaoee, A.A. E?aiaiue, TH.I. Iaeue/ei, I.A. Iao?eoei,
A.A. ?aaeaei; i?iaeaiai oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? i?enay/ai? ?iaioe TH.E. Aeoyea,
N.Ae. Aeoaaiei, I.?. Ieaeiee, I.TH. Iaieainueeiai, A.A. Oea?oeiaa;
i?ioeano ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aeaioiaee oa ia?ai?aeaioiaee oi?aae?inueeeo
eaae??a a Oe?a?i? i?eae?ey?oueny oaaaa a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo A.I.Eiyc?aa,
I.I. Eiaoiiai?, A.?. Eoaiaiai, A.E. Iaeai?iaee, ?.O. Iaaeieueiiai, A.A.
ssoeoae; iia? i?aeoiaee a nioe?aeueiiio oi?aae?ii? oa eaae?ia?e
iie?oeoe? aeeeaaeai? a ?iaioao A. A. Aeieo?aiea, I.I. Eoeaoaae/a, ?.I.
Ioioiiai, A.A. Neo?ao?anueeiai, A.A. Uie?ia.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aaea noai?ai?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icoi?iiy no/anii? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae oa
?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i?. Aiaeii/an, iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui noai
?ic?iaeaiino? aeacaieo ieoaiue ? ia ??aiii??iei ca nai?th aeeaeiith ?
eiiieaeni?noth ioiieaiiy. ?o iaoeiaee aiae?c oneeaaeith?oueny
iacaaa?oai?noth oi?ioaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? ? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace,
aeeth/ath/e oaeiae iieiaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny ooieoe?e, i?aa oa
iaia’yce?a aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. Ua iaei??th ianoaaeiith, yea
oneeaaeith? aeine?aeaeaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey,
ne?ae iacaaoe cae?eniaiiy ia?aoiaeo a?ae oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
noni?euenoaii aei aeaiie?aoe/ii?. I?e oeueiio a ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy oa ?oi?o i?aoe?aiee?a i?iyaeythoueny noa?aioeie noa?eo
i?aeoiae?a, ye? i?aeneeththoueny iaaaoeaieie yaeuaie ei?oioe?? ?
ceiaaeeaaiiy aeaaeith.

? oi/a aaea ?ic?iaeaia Eiioeaioe?y aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?,
iaeiae ua ia iiaiith i??ith aecia/ai? ooieoe?? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, ia
aeinoaoiuei ?icaeyioo? i?iaeaie oeiieia?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a oa
ieoaiiy iniaeno?nieo yeinoae aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey. Oea cia/ii
oneeaaeith? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aeiai?o, i?inoaaiiy oa iaa/aiiy eaae??a
a?aeiia?aeii aei ?o ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? i?ioan?eieo
iaia’yce?a, iioeaaoe?? aei ?iaioe ? i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??.
Iaae??oai?noue aeacaieo i?iaeai iio?aao? iiaeaeueoi? aeoea?caoe?? oa
iiaeeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei caoiae?a
aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? oaie
“Nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie ? nioe?aeueia iie?oeea: iniiai? i?iaeaie ?
oaiaeaioe??(, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny iaoeiaoeyie eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?
aoiai?oa?ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
c’ynoaaii? no/aniiai noaio oa iniaeeainoae ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae a Oe?a?i?, o aecia/aii? noeoiiino? oaeoi??a, cania?a, oeyo?a ?
oaoiieia?e oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a no/aniiai oeio.

Aenoiooa iaoa ia?aaeaa/a? ae??oaiiy iecee caaaeaiue:

— iaa?oiooaaiiy oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a ye neeaaeiai?
no/anii? ia?aaeeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oa ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae;

— ooi/iaiiy iniiaieo eaoaai??e, ui a?aeoai?ththoue oa?aeoa?enoeee
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, aecia/aiiy ?? i?noey ? ?ie? a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy;

— aecia/aiiy no/anieo i?aeoiae?a aei oeiieia?? i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? ?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a, a oaeiae
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey;

— aeyaeaiiy oeyo?a ? oaoiieia?e oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oa ioe?iee ?o
ae?yeueiino?;

— ?ic?iaeaiiy iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? nenoaia
o?einionueeeo, caaaeueii-iaoeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae ? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee aiae?c.
Aeei?enoai? oaeiae eiioeaioe??, iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee, ye? i?noyoueny o
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo nioe?ieia?a,
iie?oieia?a, i?aaiciaaoe?a, oi?aae?ioe?a-i?aeoee?a c i?iaeai
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae oa eaae?iai? iie?oeee.

Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie, aeei?enoaieie a aeena?oaoe??, ?
caeiiiaeaa/i-i?aaia? aeoe ? iinoaiiae i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaee/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiiieaen iaoiae?a cae?aiiy, aiae?co
oa ia?iaee oaeoieia?/ii? oa aii??e/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, na?aae yeeo:

— iaoiaee caaaeueii-iaoeiaiai, ii??aiyeueii-?ao?iniaeoeaiiai,
nenoaiii-oai?aoe/iiai oa eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai aiae?co ca?oa?aeieo ?
a?o/eciyieo aeaea?ae;

— aea/aiiy aeieoiaioaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy;

— iaoiaee iiaeaethaaiiy ? i?ia?aioaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oai?aoe/iiio
inieneaii? i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i? oa o
?ic?iaoe? eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey.

Iniiai? ?aea? oa aeniiaee, ui noaiiaeyoue iaoeiao iiaecio
aeine?aeaeaiiy, iieyaathoue oaeiae o ianooiieo iieiaeaiiyo, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— ia iniia? a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo ioa?aeoa?eciaaii
oai?aoe/io iiaeaeue no/aniiai aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, yea aaco?oueny
ia aacia?a?aiiio aaeineiiaeaii? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
eiai no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee, iino?eiiio ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy, ei?aeoe?? i?aaiaiai noaoono
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey;

— ia aac? aiae?co ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey,
anoaiiaeaii oa?aeoa? ci?i o /enaeueiino? e aeeiai?oe? ooao?a
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, ci?oeiaiiy iaoeiai? aace aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei?
i?aoe?, c?inoaiiy ?ie? ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ieo ooieoe?e aeaaee ? ?ie?
aenia?oieo ioe?iie;

— cae?eniaii oeiieia?caoe?th aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ca ??aiyie
aeaaeieo a?aeiinei: oeaio?aeueiee, ?aa?iiaeueiee, i?noeaaee; ca aeaeaie
aeaaee: eiioeaiooaeueia, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ia, caeiiiaeaa/a,
aeeiiaa/a ? noaeiaa; ca iaeaaei?noth aei iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a –
iie?oe/ia ae?oa, i?ioan?iiaee, a?aeiia?aeaeuei? e oaoi?/i? aeeiiaaoe?;
ca ye?noth ina?oe aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a – i?e?iaeie/i-oaoi?/ia,
aoiai?oa?ia; ca oeiaie iniae – e?aea? eiioeaiooaeueiiai ieneaiiy,
e?aea?-i?aai?caoi?, e?aea? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ci?i, niaoe?ae?no, aeeiiaaaoeue
c iioaioe?aeii ?inoo oa aac iioaioe?aeo ?inoo ? ?i.

— ia?aaeyiooi e?eoa??? ioe?iee oi?aae?inueei? neooaoe?? ? eaae?iaiai
iioaioe?aeo, aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe ia?niiaeo oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae, ui aeicaieeei c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i aeeaie? aeaoi?iaoe?? o
aeeiiaii? ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a, o noee? ieneaiiy ? iiaaae?ioe?
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, a naia: i?ioaeoe?ii?ci, iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
a?iiaaeyinueei? na?aeiiino?, oa oi?aae?inueei? eoeueoo?e,
aea?aeaaieoeueei? iiaaae?iee ? i?ioan?iiae?cio, ei?oioe?y, oaaa?ieoeoai,
eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/iee noeeue ieneaiiy oiui;

— cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe iiaoaiiiai aeoiaeo ?c e?eoe/iiai noaio, ye?
ia?aaeaa/athoue ?icaeoie ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o aea?aeaaii?
ae?yeueiino?, oi?aae?inueei? ? eaae?iai? iie?oeee, ni?yiiaaieo ia
iio?aae ? caieoe noni?euenoaa ? ethaeeie; ?icaeyiooi ?iiiaaoe?ei?
?ano?ne ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, iaoeii?noe? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey. Aei ?o neeaaeo aoiaeyoue:
nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia?? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ? nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiino?
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, eiai i?ioan?eiiai ? caaaeueiiina?oiueiai
aacia?a?aiiai ?inoo, iioeaaoe?? aei i?aoe?, caaacia/aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iiai oa eiioeaiooaeueiiai ieneaiiy,
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, oaoiieia?? oi?ioaaiiy aoiai?oa?ii?,
oi?aae?inueei? eoeueoo?e ea??aieea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aecia/aii?
nioe?aeueiiai ii?o?aoo aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, o ni?eyii? i?ioeania?
noaiiaeaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i? ?
caaacia/aii? aeuiai ??aiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aenoioo? iieiaeaiiy,
oa oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ni?eyoeiooue
?ic?iaoe? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiith a aeeooy eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, aecia/aiith ci?noo ? iai?yie?a a ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, oi?ioaaiith ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a ?
aaeineiiaeaiith nenoaie i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniiai? ?aea? oa ?ic?iaee, ui cae?eniai? a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, cie?aia, o?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiai?
caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii i?ae /an /eoaiiy
eaeoe?e c eo?no “Iniiae eaae?iaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo” a I?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e
Aeaaeai?? oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii (i. Ee?a), ia o?ueio iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie:

— ui??/i?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai
ia?niiaeo, neooa/?a, ani??aio?a, aeieoi?aio?a Aeaaeai??, (o?aaaiue 1997
?.);

— i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy ? iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy a nenoai? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a(, (a?oaeaiue 1997 ?.);

— iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? ca i?aeia?iaeiith o/anoth
“?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?: noai, i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae”, (o?aaaiue 1998 ?.), iaaiai?thaaeenue ia nai?ia?ao ?
can?aeaiiyo e?oaeiai noieo c i?iaeai oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy a
Aea?aeaai?e Aeaaeai?? ea??aieo eaae??a ina?oe (i.Ee?a).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?
aoiai?oa?ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. I?iaeaie ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o 8 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo (2-? o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 155 noi??iie, aeeth/ath/e nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 158 iaeiaioaaiue ia 13 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aiae?co?oueny nooi?iue ??
?ic?iaee, ie?aneththoueny oe?e? e caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/athoueny iiaecia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oeiieia??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a (aiae?c noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie)”
-?ice?eaa?oueny ci?no aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, inieneth?oueny ??
eiioeaiooaeueia iniiaa, ?icaeyaeathoueny i?eioeeie ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae.

Aiae?coth/e ci?no ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ia i?eeeaae?
aii??e/ieo oa oaeoieia?/ieo aeaieo, aecia/ath/e oeyoe ?aae?caoe??
iniaenoiai iioaioe?aeo aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, a?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?eo
? iniaeeaino? noaiiaeaiiy iiai? aea?aeaaiino?, aaoi?, ia i?aenoaa?
iacia/ii? e?eueeino? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii? i?iaeaie
caa?oa?oueny aei na?oiaiai aeina?aeo noaiiaeaiiy ? iiaea?i?caoe??
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a ??cieo e?a?iao, yeei aeanoeaee aeeiai?ci,
iino?eiee iiooe oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae oa ??
aia?aoo. A iniiaiiio, nooue ieoaiue, ui noinothoueny oe??? i?iaeaie,
aaaaoi a /iio caiaeyoueny aei aecia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ie? oa
eiiiaoaioe?? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy
– aei “oeaio?ae?caoe??” ? “aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??”.

C i?aeoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o a aaaaoueio e?a?iao na?oo ?ai?aai?caoe?y
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo i?ecaaea aei oiia?eueiaiiy c?inoaiiy /enaeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a aai iaa?oue aei ?o nei?i/aiiy. I?iaeoeoeai?noue
?oiuei? i?aoe? c?inea, ? oea iicia/eeinue ia athaeaeao?. O?yaee
aaaaoueio e?a?i i?aaiooue oae cae?enithaaoe eaae?iao iie?oeeo, aae
iaeneiaeueii caa?aaoe ye?niee ??aaiue aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, ia?aaeon?i
aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe ?? aeui? eaiee. Noaa?euei?noue ? i?ioan?iiae?ci
aia?aoo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae o ?ac? ci?ie iie?oe/ii? aa?o?aee o?yaeo ia
i?ae?eaathoueny. sse i?aaeei, ?nio? caeiiiaeaa/ee iaoai?ci, yeee caoeua?
eiai a?ae ?iciaaeo.

Aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaiith neoaeaith ? iie?oe/iith aeaaeith a
Oe?a?i? aacothoueny ia i?eioeei? naiaiaee ia?aeiiaiue, yeee cae??ieaiee
a Iniiaiiio Caeii? e?a?ie. C iueiai aeieeaa?, ui aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe?
ei?enoothoueny naiaiaeith nia?no?, naiaiaeith i?eiaeaaeiino? aei
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?aaii aenoaaoe naith eaiaeeaeaoo?o ia aeai?ao.
Iaeii/anii ia ieo iieeaaeathoueny iaia’ycee aeio?eioaaoenue
iaoia?aaeaeaiino?. Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny i?ioan?ei?e ina?o? e
?inoo aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a /a?ac nenoaio niaoe?aeueieo ina?oi?o ?
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. O oe?eiio, iiaea?i?caoe?y aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo ?
aaaeeeaei iiiaioii a no/anieo aca?iia?aeiineiao aea?aeaae ?
noni?euenoaa. Caaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo a Oe?a?i? iieyaa? a
?icoe?aii? naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ?icaeoeo aini?ic?aooieiaeo no?oeoo?,
i?aeaeuaii? aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe eaae??a ia iniia? iiaeo iieiaeaiue i?i
iinaaeia? ooieoe??, ia?aaeyae? ooaoiiai ?iceeaaeo e n?oee ieaoi? aeey
ieae/eo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a aia?aoo.

Aea?aeaaia neoaeaa ye nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee ? oi?aae?inueeee ?inoeooo
noni?euenoaa aeeiio? aieiaio ooieoe?th aea?aeaae, aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy – caaacia/aiiy i?ia?aneaii? o/ano? iaea?eueo cae?aieo
oi?aae?ioe?a o ae??oaii? oeo caaaeaiue, ye? noiyoue ia?aae
noni?euenoaii, ? ciaoiaeeoue aeya o ooieoe?yo aea?aeaae. Iii?ieie
aaciaeie eaoaai??yie aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ? “aea?aeaaia iinaaea” ?
“aea?aeaaiee neoaeaiaaoeue”. I?ae ieie ?nio? i?aai?/iee ca’ycie, ui
?aae?co?oueny /a?ac iniaeeaa a?iiaaeyinueea a?aeiioaiiy, ca yeiai
aea?aeaaia aeaaea aeeiio? nai? ooieoe?? oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy, i?aai?caoe?? ?
?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo i?ioean?a, iiaaae?iee ethaeae. Ia aeoieo
aaoi?a, aeey ?oiuei? ?aae?caoe?? iaiao?aei? /?oeee iien eeaneo?eaoe?? ?
ci?noo aea?aeaaieo iinaae, aeia?? ia ieo ethaeae, i?aeaioiaeaieo aei
aeeiiaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ooieoe?e ? iiaiiaaaeaiue; i?aaiaa aecia/aiiy
i?ioeaaeo? aeeiiaiiy iinaaeiaeo ooieoe?e; aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a aiae?co e
ioe?iee ?o aeeiiaiiy. Aieiaia ooieoe?y aea?aeaaii? neoaeae – neoaeeoe
noni?euenoao, oiaoi caaacia/oaaoe no?eeee ca’ycie aea?aeaae ?
noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyi; o nai?e ae?yeueiino? i?aeoe/ii
?aae?ciaoaaoe aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie; ?icoe?thaaoe oiiae aeey
noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, iioeaoaaoe ?icaeoie eiai
naiia?yaeieo ae?e caniaaie i?ioan?eii? oi?aae?inueei? ?iaioe.

A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia /?oeiio aecia/aiith ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy,
i?ioan?eieo iaia’yce?a aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, a aeena?oaoe??
iaaieioo?oueny ia a?aeiini?e naiino?eiino? inoaiiueiai o iaaeao
iinaaee, yeo a?i ia?eia?, eiai aioo??oi?e iioeaaoe?? aei aeeiiaiiy
neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a, caaaeuei?e eoeueoo??, a?iiaaeyinuee?e
na?aeiiino?. Oea iaaoaa? iniaeeai? cia/ouino? a oiiaao aeoiaeo
noni?euenoaa c e?ece, eiai iiaea?i?caoe??, eiee iaiao?aei? iai?aeeia?i?,
oai?/? ae?? aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy, a ia o?eueee i?inoa aeeiiaiiy neoaeaiaeo
iaia’yce?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oe?eae ? caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy, c aecia/aiiy oeyo?a
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey iiaiai oeio, aaoi? i?iiiio?
a?aoiaoaaoe aca?iica’ycie ? aca?iiaieea o?ueio i?ioean?a: noaiiaeaiiy
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo; oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey ye i?ioan?eiiai i?aoe?aieea ? anaa?/ii ?icaeiaii? iniae;
cae?eniaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, yea
caaacia/eea a ye?noue i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? ea??aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a, aaeaeaaoieo iio?aaai
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “No/ania ia?aaeeaia oi?aae?iiy ? oi?ioaaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a” — aaoi?, ia iniia? aiae?co
aea?aeaaii-oi?aae?inueei? ?noi??? eieeoiueiai N?N? oa Oe?a?ie, iiaea?
iniiai? neeaaeia? no/anii? ia?aaeeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

A?aeiii, ui a?o/eciyia nenoaia iiaeyae?a, yea aecia/aea i?ioyaii
naieaeanyoee?oiueiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? (?aaeyinueei?) oai???
? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy, noi?ioaaeanue i?ae aieeaii ia?enenonueei?
ia?aaeeaie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. A i?e ye aieiaiee e?eoa??e
nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe?? aeiiii?ee aeaeea?oaaany anaa?/iee ?icaeoie
iniae. ?ieue aeiiii?/iiai ooiaeaiaioo, ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?iciiae?eo ca
?acoeueoaoaie i?aoe? aeeiioaaea noni?eueia aeani?noue ia caniae
ae?iaieoeoaa, a aeeiiaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ieaio, a naith /a?ao, aenooiaei
iniiaiith iaoith noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ui e a?aeia?aaeaeinue o
a?aeiia?aei?e aeiiii?/i?e oai???.

Oey nenoaia iiaeyae?a ciaoiaeeea aeya o oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao ?
i?aeoeoe? oi?aae?iiy nioe?ae?noe/iei ae?iaieoeoaii. Aoee noai?ai?
iaoeia? caeeaaee aeey oi?aae?iiy, ?ic?iaee i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? ?
ae?iaieoeoaa.

? oi/a aaea a o? /ane eoiaee caeeeee, ye? canoa??aaee a?ae caoaiino?,
oae caaii?, “aaei?i?no?aoeaii?” aeiiii?ee, ai?o acyee aaoi?eoa?ia
ath?ie?ao?y, oioae?oa?enonuee? ono?aie?iiy, aeeeoaoi?nueeee, a ioaea,
? iiai?noth noa’?eoea?nonueeee niin?a oi?aae?iiy noni?eueieie oa
aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie. Iaoeiaa aeoiea a aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy noaea
i?aeoe/ii i?eiio ia iio??aiith ? aoea oni?oii “i?ee?eoa”. Ana oi?aae?iiy
caiaeeeiny aei aeeiiaiiy ea??aii? aie? aiaeae?a, ye? i/iethaaee ia?o?th,
eaae?iaa iie?oeea aeanyoe??//yie cae?enithaaeanue “caa?oo aiec”, a
?icnoaiiaea eaae??a ?aae?ciaoaaeenue /a?ac ?inoeooo ia?o?eii?
iiiaieeaoo?e.

No/ani? i?ioeane aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? coiiaeththoue
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iiai? oi?aae?inueei? ia?aaeeaie, nooue yei?, ia
aeoieo aaoi?a, caiaeeoueny aei ianooiiiai.

Ii-ia?oa, aio/ea ii?aeiaiiy iaoiae?a ?eieiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, yea
caniiaaia ia cai?ioi?o ca’yceao, c aea?aeaaiei ?aaoethaaiiyi
nioe?aeueieo oa aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a. Iaiao?aei?noue oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
coiiaeaia oei, ui i?inoaaiiy aei ?eieo – oea neeaaeiee i?ioean,
iaiaei?iieie e aeoeaieie o/anieeaie yeiai iiaeii? aooe aea?aeaaa ?
aea?aeaaia neoaeaa.

Ii-ae?oaa, oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaieo nenoai.
Eiioeaioe?y i?aai?caoe?e ye a?aee?eoeo nenoai icia/a? iiai?io aei ?eieo
? niiaeeaa/a. Eiaeia i?aai?caoe?y, yea ooieoe?iio? a ?eieiaiio
na?aaeiaeu?, iiaeiia naiino?eii ae??ooaaoe ia o?eueee ieoaiiy
aioo??oiuei? i?aai?caoe??, aea e on??? noeoiiino? ca’yce?a ?c ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai.

Ii-o?ao?, naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia a?aeiia?aeieo ??aiyo ? ia?ao?ae aei
iie?oeaio?e/ii? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aaiethoe?y nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ni?yiiaaia ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeaio?e/ii? nenoaie,
yea aaco?oueny ia ooieoe?iioaaii? a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? no?oeoo?,
caeaoieo aei naiia?yaeoaaiiy ? naii?icaeoeo. A oiiaao Oe?a?ie aeoeaioe
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeaaeae? a?eueoa ia?ai?uothoueny ia ??aaiue ?aa?ii?a,
aeiiii?/ia naiino?ei?noue yeeo o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ia’?eoeaii c?inoa?.
C iaeiiai aieo, oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?
neeaaeiino? caaaeaiue, ye? ae??oothoueny a ?aa?iiao, c ae?oaiai –
cia/iiai ni?iuaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii a
oe?eiio, cieaeaiiy aio?ii?? (aeaiaio aeiaaeeiaino?) ? ni?eyiiy
c?inoaiith ea?iaaiino? aeiiii?eith Oe?a?ie.

Ii-/aoaa?oa, ii?aeiaiiy ?eieiaeo ? aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy
i?aei?e?inoaaie aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee. O ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae
aea?aeaaiee naeoi? iinooiiai nei?i/o?oueny ca ?aooiie ?icoe?aiiy noa?e
?eieiaiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? i?eaaoecaoe??. Oi?aae?iiy ??cieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie ia? aacoaaoeny ia eiia?iaoe?? iaoiae?a ?eieiaiai oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ia?aaaaeaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? a?oie iaoiae?a
caeaaeeoue a?ae noaoono i?aei?e?inoa o aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? e?a?ie. O
ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeua a aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeyoueny aeniiaee:

( a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? iaa?yae /e ci?ieoueny noaaeaiiy aei
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, yeui oeueiai ia noaiaoueny, ianaiia?aae, o noa??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, o na?aeiiino? oa iiaaae?ioe? oi?aae?inueeeo
eaae??a;

( oi?aae?iiy ye o aea?aeaaiiio, oae ? a iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?ao
aeiiii?ee caeaoia noaoe ?aaeueiith ?oo?eiith neeith noi?eueiiai ?icaeoeo
eeoa ca oiiae, eiee a noni?euenoa? aoaeooue iai?aoeueiaai? aeinoaoi?
iaoeia? ciaiiy i?i naia oi?aae?iiy ? oe? ciaiiy ii/iooue i?aeoe/ii
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue;

( caeo/aiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy o i?ioean oi?aae?iiy iiaeeeaa o?eueee
oiae?, eiee noni?euenoai c?icoi??, ui iei ea?oaaoe iiaeooue ? iiaeii?
eeoa eiiiaoaioi? ? niaoe?aeueii i?aeaioiaeai? a aaeoc? iaiaaeaeiaioo
i?aoe?aieee, oiaoi aenieieaae?o?eiaai? aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe?.

?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, aaoi? cina?aaeaeo?
oaaao ia iiaeae? oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, a iniiao yei?, ia
eiai aeoieo, iiaea aooe iieeaaeaia noeoii?noue i?ioan?eieo ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo ?en iniae. Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy oa
?ino?oiaioaeueia inai?iiy oeeo ?en iio?aao? ooi/iaiiy iniiaieo iiiyoue,
ianaiia?aae iiiyooy “iniaa”. Oa?i?i “iniaa” oa “iniaa aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey” aenooiathoue ye oai?aoe/i? iiiyooy ??cii? i??e
ocaaaeueiaiiy. Iniaa aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ? ao?eaiiyi neeaaeiiai
ia?aieao?iiy caaaeueiiai, iniaeeaiai e iaeeie/iiai, aea caaaeueia – oea
o? aeanoeaino? iniae aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, ye? aecia/athoueny ??
noaiii a nenoai? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Aiaeii/an, iniaa aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey iaeaaeeoue aei iaaii? nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eii? a?oie, aea
i?iyaeythoueny ?ene, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?? noaaeaiiy aei aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae, nai?? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino?, oe?eae ? caaaeaiue aea?aeaaiiai
aia?aoo, iaoiae?a ?iaioe, aca?iia?aeiinei o eieaeoea?. Iniaa
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ia? aieiae?oe nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie
yeinoyie, ye? neeaaeathoue ?? no?oeoo?o ye i?ioan?iiaea. E??i oiai,
iniaa aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ? ua e noa’?eoii noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

?icaeyaeath/e iniiai? aeaiaioe oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey ia iniaeno?niiio ??ai?, aaoi? ?aeiiaiaeo? a?aoiaoaaoe ??
?ieueiao neeaaeiao. ?ie?, ye? aeeiiothoue aea?aeaai? neoaeaiaoe?, iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia neoaeaia? ? ianeoaeaia?. sse na?ae/eoue ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae
aeey i?aoe?aiee?a aea?aeaia?aoo oa?aeoa?ia iiiaeeii?noue ?
aaaaoiieaiia?noue neoaeaiaeo ?ieae. Oea iiynith?oueny, ia?aaeon?i,
niaoeeo?eith ?iaioe a aia?ao?, aea aea?aeaaiee neoaeaiaaoeue aeey
iiaiioe?iiiai aeeiiaiiy nai?o ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a iiaeiai ia
o?eueee ii?aeioaaoe o nia? oe?eo ieceo ??ciiiai?oieo aeanoeainoae oa
i?ioan?eieo iaae/ie, aea e aeeiioaaoe oae? aeaee ?ia?o, ye? ?noioii
a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii? ye o ci?noiaiiio ieai?, oae ? ca
nai?th ineoieia?/iith i?e?iaeith.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iathoue oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe?? iniae
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey. ?ioaa?aeueia eaoaai??y ?? oe?ii?nieo
i???ioaoe?e aeeth/a? a naaa o “ciyoiio aeaeyae?” oae? aaaeeea?
e?eoa???, ye oe?iiino?, ?ioa?ane, iioeae, iio?aae, onoaiiaee.
?ioaa?oth/e o nai?e na?aeiiino? noeoii?noue oeeo eiiiiiaio?a,
aea?aeaaiee neoaeaiaaoeue iaea?aeo? iaai? i???ioaoe??, i?eioeeie
ni?eeiyooy ??cieo aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?e ? aeai?o a?aeiia?aeieo niinia?a
iiaaae?iee. O ca’yceo c oeei aeey no/aniiai aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey
iniiaiith oe?ii?niith i???ioaoe??th ia? aooe iino?eia ni?yiiaai?noue ia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo ?ioa?an?a, ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? iio?aa ethaeeie, ia aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo ia?aae aea?aeaia?aoii nioe?aeueieo oe?eae ia iniia? caeiio.
Oey i???ioaoe?y ? aeuaiacaai? a?iiaaeyinuee? oe?iiino?, ye? neeaaeathoue
a?iiaaeyinueeo naiina?aeii?noue, iiaeii? ?aae?ciaoaaoenue ia
aaciina?aaeiuei, a /a?ac i?ioan?eio ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a.

Ia iniia? oeiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a a aeaiiio
?icae?e? i?iiiiothoueny i?aeoiaee aei ?oiuei? caaaeueii? oeiieia?caoe??
c o?aooaaiiyi iniaenoeo ? i?ioan?eieo yeinoae. Aeoiaey/e ?c “Caeiio i?i
aea?aeaaio neoaeao” aaoi? aeae?ey? oae? oeie aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a:

— ca e?eoa???i “aeae aea?aeaaii? neoaeae”, ui aecia/a?oueny caeaaeii
a?ae aeeiioaaieo ooieoe?e ? aeaeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae: a
i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo, aeeiiaa/eo, noaeiaeo oa ?ioeo i?aaiao aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy;

— ca e?eoa???i “iinaaea aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a”: ea??aieee, aieiai? ?
i?ia?aei? niaoe?ae?noe, iii?/ieee ? oaoi?/i? i?aoe?aieee.

Ca aeaieie iciaeaie, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aaaeeeai aea/eoe a?aeiia?aei?noue
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aieea eaae?o?eaoe?eiei aeiiaai aea?aeaaii?
iinaaee. Oaeei /eiii, oi?io?oueny nai???aeia i?ioan?ia?aia, o ye?e, c
iaeiiai aieo – ia?a?aoiaothoueny an? aeiiae aei aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey, c ae?oaiai — a?aeiia?aei? ciaiiy, iaae/ee, ai?iiy,
cae?aiino?, ye? iaiao?aei? aeey aeeiiaiiy oeeo aeiia.

O ?icae?e? i?iiiiothoueny i?aeoiaee aei eeaneo?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a, a iniiao yeeo iieeaaeai?: ??aaiue caaaeueii? ?
nioe?aeueii? eoeueoo?e, noeeue ieneaiiy, noaaeaiiy aei
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae, iniiae iioeaaoe?? aei neoaeae;
?ice?eaa?oueny aaaeeeaee, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, e?eoa??e oeiieia??
aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a – oi?aae?inuee? cae?aiino?. Aaaeeeaiai cia/aiiy
i?e ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey
iaaoaa? aecia/aiiy e?eoa???a ioe?iee eiai ae?yeueiino?. C oe??? oi/ee
ci?o ne?ae aeciaoe, ui aieiaia caaaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey iiaiai oeio iieyaa? a oiio, uia ii?ie e oe?iiino?
aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino? ia?aoai?eoe o iiceoeai? iioeae iniaenoi?
iiaaae?iee eiaeiiai aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, yeee ia?eia? oo /e ?ioo
iinaaeo. Aecia/aeueiei iaoai?ciii ae??oaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, ? noai?aiiy nenoaie iiceoeaii? iioeaaoe?? aei i?ioan?eiiai
? noie?iiiai aeeiiaiiy nai?o iaia’yce?a. Oea ia?aaeaa/a? iayai?noue
iiceoeaieo iioea?a aeey io?eiaiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy i?ioan?eieo ciaiue o
?iaio? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, aenieee noni?eueiee i?anoeae ?inoeoooo
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a noni?euenoa?, iayai?noue iniaenoeo iioea?a aeey
ae?yeueiino? a aea?aeaaiiio aia?ao? (iie?oe/i? ia?aeiiaiiy,
a?iiaaeyinueea iiceoe?y, oai?/? noeioee naiiae?aaeaiiy, nioe?aeueia
caoeuai?noue oiui).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio e oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae,
iaoiaee/ieo canaae, oe?ieiai eiea i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue aeicaiey? c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iioei?caoe?? eaae?iai? iie?oeee,
?iaioe aea?aeaaii? neoaeae iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ieceo oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue
o iaaeao naii? iaoee, yea aoea a caeaoia e?euee?nii ? ye?nii ioe?ithaaoe
o? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a aea?aeaaiiio aia?ao? o aeaeyae?
iino?eii? ci?ie eiai ooieoe?e, ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaia’yce?a aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey, ??aiy eiai i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee, iniaenoeo yeinoae oiui.
Oea a naith /a?ao aenoaa? iia? aeiiae aei iino?eiiai ?iiiaoaaiiy nenoaie
i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i?”, a ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? – cacia/a?oueny, ui
iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a, caeaoieo cae?enieoe eaae?iaee
i?i?ea ? ?icoe?eoe eiai iiaeeeaino?, ? no/ani? nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia??.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaiao?aeia iiaeaeueoa ?ic?iaea ieoaiue
nioe?aeueii? oaoiieia?caoe??, eiiieaeno iaoiae?a ? i?aai?caoe?eieo
i?ioeaaeo?, ye? aoee a ni?yiiaai? ia iioei?caoe?th oi?aae?iiy
noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie. Aeey aoaeoeaiino? oaeeo ?ic?iaie ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe ??ci? ??ai? nioe?aeueieo ciaiue: caaaeueii? iaoiaeieia??,
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue, eiie?aoieo iaoiaeee ? o. ae. Caeeoee
eiina?aaoecio a iaooe? nueiaiaei? o?nii ii?aeiai? c eiina?aaoeciii
i?aeoeee nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, aea aeanyoee ?ie?a iaioaaa caeeoeiaee
i?eioeei ia nioe?aeuei? iio?aae, oaoiie?aoeci ieneaiiy ? i?aaiaoeci
iiaaae?iee. ?ic??aaoe oeae ca’ycie icia/a? c?iaeoe i?i?ea aei ae??oaiiy
nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai.

I?aeaeuaiiy ae??caeaoiino? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy a oaeineiiaeaii?
nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy ?icii/eia?oueny c oi?ioaaiiy a oi?aae?ioe?a
niaoe?aeueieo ciaiue, iaae/ie ? a?aeiia?aeieo ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiae?a
?iaioe c ethaeueie: a?ae ?icoi?iiy caeii?a ?icaeoeo iniae aei i?ioeano
?? aca?iiae?? a a?oi?, eieaeoea?, ?aa?ii?. Noaiiaeua, yea neeaeiny a
aaeoc? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, i?ye ia iiaea caaeiaieueieoe no/ani? ?
iaeaooi? iio?aae ?aca?ao “ethaenueeiai ?ano?no”.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e a aea?aeaaiiio oi?aae?ii?. Ia?aaeon?i
i?aee?aneth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaiiy ? canoinoaaiiy aeey
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiaaeueieo no?aoaa?/ieo oaoiieia?e, ye?
nueiaiaei? a oiiaao e?eciaiai noaio Oe?a?ie ? aecia/aeueieie.
Aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e,
oaoiieia?e oi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?inueei? eoeueoo?e ea??aieea, caoenoo ?
?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?, ?ic?iaeaiiy ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo iaa/aeueieo ? cai?iaaaeaeoth/eo oaoiieia?e, aac yeeo ci?ia
oi?aae?inueei? neooaoe?? a ?aa?iiao ? o?ainoi?iaoe?y oi?aae?inueeiai
oiio iaiiaeeea?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aaoi? i?iiiio? iieeanoe a iniiao ?ic?iaeaiiy
oaoiieia?? nooo?aeo ci?i o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iiaeaeue
iaia?a?aii? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. A?aeiii, ui a no/anieo oiiaao iiaaii
a?aoiao?oueny i?noeaaa oi?aae?inueea niaoeeo?ea oa ?? iio?aae, iaa/aiiy
/anoi-aonoi aaaeaoueny ia?aaaaeii ia oai?aoe/iiio ??ai?. Iaa/aeuei?
i?ia?aie ia a?aeiia?aeathoue oi?aae?inueeei caaaeaiiyi, a aeaiaioe
ea?’??e aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ia caaeainiaai? c ye?noth ciaiue,
neoaeaiaa i?inoaaiiy ia?niiaeo ia iioeao?oueny. O ca’yceo c oeei
i?iiiio?oueny ?noioii iaiiaeoe naio eiioeaioe?th ? iiaeaeue iaa/aiiy,
ia?ai?aeaioiaee oi?aae?ioe?a, oii?yaeeoaaoe ?? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe,
aianoe ci?ie aei ae?th/eo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai.

?ic?iaeyth/e ci?no iaa/aiiy, iaiao?aeii, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ianaiia?aae
a?aoiaoaaoe i?iaeaiaoeeo, yea iia’ycaia c iniaeeainoyie ?icaeoeo
e?a?ie, ?aa?iio: ?ano?ne, aeaea?aea, iaoai?cie, i?i?oaoiieia??;
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? iaoai?cie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy; iniaeeaino?
aeieia?/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, iaoe?iiaeueii-aoi?/ii? neooaoe?? oiui. Oea
ia? aooe iniiaith aeey i?noeaaiai iaa/aiiy eaae??a, ui iaiiaeeeai aac
iino?eiiai aiae?co nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeiiiiiaea aecia/eoe i?aaeeueia
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aaciaith, oai?aoe/iith ? niaoe?aeueiith
i?eeeaaeiith i?aeaioiaeith, a oaeiae ianya nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
o?ai?iao ? iaiao?aeieo oi?aae?inueeeo iaae/ie.

A iiaeo oiiaao ?nio? iaaaeueia iio?aaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o an? oi?ie
ia?ai?aeaioiaee ? iaa/aiiy ea??aieo eaae??a aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
iniia oai??? ? i?aeoeee i?noeaaiai oa nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, ui
aeeth/aei a aeaiaioe ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee, nioe?aeueii? oaoiieia??.
Iiaa eaea i?i oe?ieo aoiai?caoe?th ina?oe, oi?ioaaiiy aoiai?oa?ii?
eoeueoo?e, i?i inai?iiy iiai? aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy – nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe,
yea aeaaii iin?aea? /?eueia i?noea a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a
oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?iao.

Ioe?iea i?iaeaiii? neooaoe?? a aaeoc? i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaiao?aei? i?eioeeiiai ?io?,
?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? i?aeaioiaee ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a iiaiai oeio, caeaoieo a?aeiia?noe ia caieoe OO? noie?ooy.
Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, a iniiao ?o ia? aooe iieeaaeaii:

( aeinyaiaiiy oi?o?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo
neoaeaiaoe?a, iniaeeai aenieiai ?aiao, ui caaacia/eoue iiyao “ni?eueii?
iiae” ? ni?eyoeia ni?ai?aoe? oi?aae?ioe?a ??cieo ??ai?a, ?oiueiio
ia?aoiaeia? c iaei??? no?oeoo?e a ?ioo, a oiio /ene? c aea?aeaaii? – o
?eieiao, c iaeiiai ??aiy ia ?ioee;

( noai?aiiy ??cieo oeaio??a i?aeaioiaee eaae??a, ia iniia? caaaeueieo
i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aiiy, aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aiieo i?iaeoeo?a,
ei?enooaaiiy aaoiiii??th o canoinoaaii? ??cieo iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy,
niia?aeoaaiiy a?aeiinii? naiaiaee, i?aaa ia canoinoaaiiy aio/eeo
i?ia?ai, ieaaath/eo iiaeoe?a iaa/aiiy, a?aeiinii a?eueiiai ? aio/eiai
ooaoiiai ?iceeaaeo, i?aaa iaiaa?o o aecia/aii? i?iii?oe?e iaoeiaiai ?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioean?a;

( iineeaiiy oaaae aei a?eueo oe?ieeo ieoaiue aoiai?oa?iiai ciaiiy,
ethaeeiiciaanoaa, iie?oieia??, i?aaiciaanoaa, iaaeaaia?ee, nioe?aeueii?
ineoieia?? o ci?no? i?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a ia i?ioeaaao
o?aaeeoe?eiiio iaaieino ia i?aaiaeo, aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oa aeiiii?/ieo
aniaeoao ?iaioe aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey;

( ?ic?iaea ??cieo i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, ye? a
iia’ycoaaeeny c ?nioth/ith nenoaiith ?o aoanoaoe??, i?inoaaiiyi ii
neoaea?, caoiaeaie caioi/aiiy.

AENIIAEE

Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i? aeicaieeei aeena?oaioo c?iaeoe ieceo aeniiae?a oa
oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue.

1. Iacaeaaeia Oe?a?ia oniaaeeoaaea nenoaio aea?aeaaii? eaae?iai?
iie?oeee, eaae?iai? aea?aeaaii? ?iaioe caaaeii, yea ca nai?th nooi?noth,
no?oeoo?ith, oi?iaie oa iaoiaeaie oi?aae?iiy a?aeiia?aeaea
eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/i?e nenoai?, ui ooieoe?iioaaea a ?aaeyinueeiio
oioae?oa?iiio noni?euenoa?. Nueiaiaei? ?aaeueiee noai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy oa aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a aea?aeaa? cia/ii a?aenoa? a?ae aeiia
oi?aa?naeueii? oaoiieia?? ?iiiaoaaiiy oi?aae?inueei? neooaoe?? oa ? a
oe?eiio iaei ?acoeueoaoeaiei. A ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae oa ??
eaae?iaiai ei?iono aein? iioe?aiee caoea?oaeee noa?aioei “caei?iaiai
aeocaeo”, aeaoi?iiaaiiai eiiaiaeii-ath?ie?aoe/iiai ieneaiiy, ui
coiiaeth? neaaeo ea?iaai?noue noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie aeeooy.

2. A no/anieo oiiaao ?nio? iio?aaa a no/aniiio oei? aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey, yeee aoa ae caeaoiee aoaeoeaii ?aaoethaaoe i?ioeane
noni?eueii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?. A ia??iae ?aaeeeaeueieo ci?i, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueiiai
aoooy, ia’?eoii yeiai ? ? aea?aeaaia neoaeaa, iniiaiei ?aaoeyoi?ii ??
ianooiiino? oa noaa?eueiino? ? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? /eiieee. Oiio
aea?aeaaia neoaeaa a iao?e e?a?i? iiaea aooe noai?aia ia canaaeao
oi?aae?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ?? iniaeeainoae, niaoeeo?ee niiniao aeeooy
ia?iaeo a i?aai?/i?e ?aeiino? c caaaeueiiethaenueeei aeina?aeii
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy, aea?aeaaii? ?iaioe.

3. Aea?aeaaia neoaeaa – neeaaeiee nioe?aeueiee, iie?oe/iee,
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaee, aeooiaii-eoeueoo?iee ?inoeooo, aeey yeiai
oa?aeoa?ia aeineoue neeaaeia ii?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a, niieo/aiue, iniiaiei
c yeeo ? iniaa aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey. Aiae?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo
iieaco?, ui a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae aei /enea
i??i?eoaoieo oaeoi??a iaeaaeaoue o? oaeoi?e, ye?, c iaeiiai aieo, aaaaoi
a /iio aecia/athoue aioo??oi? iaoai?cie ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae,
aeeiai?eo ci?i o i?e, a c ae?oaiai – i?eioeeiia? eiioo?e ?? iiaeae?.
Oaeeie oaeoi?aie ?: aca?iiae?y aea?aeaaii? neoaeae ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa; ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?oeee ? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae; eoeueoo?a
noni?euenoaa, oe?ii?ni? i???ioaoe??, oi?aae?inueea, i?aaiaa ? iie?oe/ia
eoeueoo?a.

4. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e iniiai? eiioo?e oai?aoeei-eiioeaiooaeueii? iiaeae?
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey iiaiai oeio, iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa iniiai?
??ai? oe??? iiaeae?: ia?oee iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee ia iniia?
aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey;
ae?oaee – ye i?ioean ?ic?iaee aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a iaa/aiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??, yeee ia? aooe iaia?a?aiei, iiaoaiiei. Iniiao
cai?iiiiiaaii? iiaeae? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey neeaaea? oe?eee eiiieaen
eiiiiiaio?a ae?yeueiino? (ae?yeueia nooi?noue iniae), noaoono
(noeoii?noue neoaeaiaeo ?ieae), oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?e (ianaiia?aae
a?iiaaeyinueei? ea?’??e), eaae?o?eaoe?? (i?ioan?iiae?ci). Iniaeno?noue
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey ? ocaaaeueiaiiyi neeaaeiiai ia?aieao?iiy
caaaeueiiai, iniaeeaiai ? iaeeie/iiai, aea caaaeueia ia? o? aeanoeaino?
iniaenoino? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, ye? aecia/athoueny ?? noaiiaeuai a
nenoai? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.

5. Oaoiieia?/ii aeineiiaea i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aiiy eaae??a aea?aeaaii?
neoaeae nueiaiaei? a Oe?a?i? ia? ciaeoe iaoe?iiaeueiee a?oio,
a?aoiaoth/e oo ianoaaeio, ui iiaa ia?aaeeaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
iiaea aooe aeineoue aoaeoeaiith a ?ac? a?aooaaiiy ia’?eoeaieo ?
noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a ia eeoa ?aaeueiiai noaio oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aea ? eiai aea?aeaaieoeueeiai oeyoo, iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaioae?oaoo ?, aiaeii/an, aooe aeineoue ni?eeiyoeeaith aeey a?aooaaiiy
na?oiaiai aeina?aeo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o 8 ioae?eaoe?yo
caaaeueiei ianyaii aeecueei 6 ae?oe.a?e.

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. Aea?aeaaia neoaeaa ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo: i?iaeaie
eiioeaiooaeueiiai aiae?co // E., — 1999. — 31n.

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. Iioei?caoe?y i?aeaioiaee ? oi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo
eaae??a aea?aeaaii? neoaeae // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — E., 1998.
— Aeione1. — N.136-142.

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. Oi?ioaaiiy oai?aoe/ii? iiaeae? oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a
aea?aeaaii? neoaeae Oe?a?ie // A?niee OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. —
1998. — ? 4. — N. 195-200.

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. E?eoa??? nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? – iaeei ?c aei???a
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a // Eiiaiaei?. — 1999. — ? 2. — N.
26-27.

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. Iia? i?aeoiaee aei oeiieia?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
a Oe?a?i? // A?niee OAAeO i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 3. — N.
220-225.

A?eieaaoeeay I.I. Nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e i?eiyoeth oi?aaeai/aneiai ?aoaiey
// Ia?niiae. — E.: IAOI, 1996. — ?2. — N.29-32.

A?eieaaoeeay I.I., Ooeaieia I.A. Nouiinoii-niaea?aeaoaeueiua aniaeou
no?aoaae/aneiai e neooaoeeiiiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa // Ia?niiae. — E.: IAOI,
1997. — ?1. — N.3-14. — Aaoi?nueeeo — 8 n.

Ooeaieia I.A., A?eieaaoeeay I.I. Iniiau iaiaaeaeiaioa // I?ia?aiia eo?na
— E.: IAOI, 1997. — 21n. — Aaoi?neeo — 11 n.

Aiioaoe?y

A??i?aaoeueea I.I. I?iaeaia oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.01 – oai??y oa ?noi??y
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. – Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai oeio aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a Oe?a?i? ia aoai? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

Noi?ioeueiaaii iniaeeaino? iiaeae? aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, ye? iiaeooue
aooe aecia/ai?: ye ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy aaciina?aaei?ie oiiaaie
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ui i?iaeeaathoue ia aeai?e oa?eoi??? a
aeaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo oiiaao, ? iathoue aooe
iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeai? aei iio?aa a?iiaaee, anioe?aoe??, eiaeiiai
?iaeea?aeo ? a?euei? a?ae iaeueioo iie?oecaoe?? oa ?aeaieia?caoe??.

Cae?eniaii oeiieia?caoe?th aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a: ca ??aiyie aeaaeieo
a?aeiinei – oeaio?aeueiee, i?noeaaee; ca aeaeaie aeaaee –
eiioeaiooaeueia, ?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/ia, caeiiiaeaa/a, aeeiiaa/a ?
noaeiaa; ca i?eiaeaaei?noth aei iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? ?oo?a – iie?oe/ia
ae?oa, i?ioan?iiaee, a?aeiia?aeaeuei? ? oaoi?/i? aeeiiaaoe?; ca ye?noth
ina?oe aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy – aeuee, na?aaei?e, ii/aoeiaee oei; ca
oeiaie iniae – e?aea? eiioeaiooaeueiiai ieneaiiy, e?aea?-i?aai?caoi?,
e?aea? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ci?i, niaoe?ae?no, aeeiiaaaoeue c iioaioe?aeii
?inoo ? aac iioaioe?aeo ?inoo ? o.?i.

Cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe ?iiiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaii? ae?yeueiino?, oi?aae?inueei?
? eaae?iai? neooaoe??, noai?aiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a, cai?iiiiiaaii ?iiiaaoe?ei? ?ano?ne
?icaeoeo aea?aeaaii? neoaeae, iaoeii?noe? iaoai?cie oi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey no/aniiai oeio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaia neoaeaa, aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy, aea?aeaaiee
neoaeaiaaoeue, a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, i?aaiaa ? i?ioan?eia
eoeueoo?a, nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia??.

Aiiioaoeey

A?eieaaoeeay I.I. I?iaeaia oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai oeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai a Oe?aeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.01 – oai?ey e
enoi?ey ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey. – Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oi?ie?iaaiey nia?aiaiiiai oeia
ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai a Oe?aeia ia yoaia noaiiaeaiey oe?aeineie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe.

?anniao?eaay niaea?aeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau,
ii?aaeaeyy iooe ?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoiiai iioaioeeaea ainoaea?noaaiiiai
neoaeauaai, o/eouaay niaoeeoeeo e iniaaiiinoe noaiiaeaiey iiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, aaoi? ia?auaaony e ie?iaiio iiuoo noaiiaeaiey e
iiaea?iecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau a ?acee/iuo no?aiao, aaea
i?ioeanno aa eciaiaiey, iiaea?iecaoeee i?enou aeeiaieci, iinoiyiiue
iiene iooae iioeiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe ainoaea?noaa e aai aiia?aoa.

Aaeieieno?aoeaiay ?aoi?ia a Oe?aeia, nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e
iio?aaiinoue iauanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey ainoaea?noaa iaoneiaeeaatho
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?ainiuneaiey nouiinoe, ?iee e ianoa ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeau a iauanoaa. Oe?aeia oianeaaeiaaea nenoaio ainoaea?noaaiiie
eaae?iaie iieeoeee, eaae?iaie ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaiou a oeaeii, eioi?ay
ii naiae nooe, no?oeoo?a, oi?iai e iaoiaeai oi?aaeaiey ioaa/aea
eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiie nenoaia, /oi ooieoeeiie?iaaea a oioaeeoa?iii
iauanoaa. Auoaeceiaeaiiia ii?aaeaeeei oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi ?aaeueiia
iieiaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau
naaiaeiy a Oe?aeia nouanoaaiii ionoaao io o?aaiaaiee oieaa?naeueiie
oaoiieiaee eiiiae?iaaiey oi?aaeai/aneie neooaoeee. A aeayoaeueiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau e aa neoaeaueo nio?aieeny noa?aioei
aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai eiiaiaeii-aaeieieno?aoeaiiai iuoeaiey, /oi
iaoneiaeeaaao neaaia ?oeiaiaenoai iauanoaaiiuie i?ioeannaie. A nayce n
yoei a aeenna?oaoeee noi?ie?iaaiu iniaaiiinoe iiaeaee ainoaea?noaaiiie
neoaeau, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu: eae ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey
iaiin?aaenoaaiiuie oneiaeyie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe ethaeae, i?iaeeaathueo
ia aeaiiie oa??eoi?ee a aeaiiuo nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, eoeueoo?iuo e
eiuo oneiaeyo; yoe ooieoeee oi?aaeaiey aeieaeiu iaeneiaeueii o/eouaaoue
ioaeaeu a?oiiu, annioeeaoeee, eaaeaeiai eiaeeaeaea e aeieaeiu auoue
naiaiaeiu io iaeaoa iieeoecaoeee e eaeaieiaecaoeee.

Ia iniiaa ioa/anoaaiiiai e ca?oaaaeiiai iiuoa ioa?aeoa?eciaaia iiaeaeue
nia?aiaiiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai, iniiaiuie yeaiaioaie eioi?ie
yaeythony aani?a?uaiia oniaa?oainoaiaaiea eiioeaioeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey aai no?aoaaee e oaeoeee; iinoiyiiia ?acaeoea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
e ooieoeeiiaeueiuo no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey; ei??aeoeey i?aaiaiai noaoona
ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai; oe?aieaiea iao/iie aacu ainoaea?noaaiiie
?aaiou, aic?anoaiea ?iee eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneeo ooieoeee aeanoe e
?iee yenia?oiuo ioeaiie. I?ineaaeaiu ooieoeeiiaeueiua iaycaiiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai, ii?aaeaeai oa?aeoa? eciaiaiee a
/eneaiiinoe e aeeiaieea ooaoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa. Ia?aniio?aia
ioeaiea oi?aaeai/aneie neooaoeee e eaae?iaiai iioaioeeaea, ?aaiou
ia?niiaea oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, /oi iicaieeei naeaeaoue
auaiaeu i aeoaieeo aeaoi?iaoeeyo a auiieiaiee ooieoeeiiaeueiuo
iaycaiiinoae, a noeea iuoeaiey e iiaaaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo,
a eiaiii: i?ioaeoeeiieci, ieceee o?iaaiue oi?aaeai/aneie eoeueoo?u,
acyoi/ie/anoai.

I?iaaaeaia oeiieiaecaoeey ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo: ii o?iaiyi
aeanoiuo ioiioaiee — oeaio?aeueiue, ianoiue; ii aeaeai aeanoe —
eiioeaiooaeueiay, eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneay, caeiiiaeaoaeueiay,
eniieieoaeueiay e noaeaaiay; ii i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e iieeoe/aneei ia?oeyi
e aeaeaeaieyi – iieeoe/aneay yeeoa, i?ioanneiiaeu, ioaaonoaaiiua e
oaoie/aneea eniieieoaee; ii ea/anoao ia?aciaaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey – aunoee, n?aaeiee, ia/aeueiue oei; ii oeiai ee/iinoe —
eeaea? eiioeaiooaeueiiai iuoeaiey, eeaea?-i?aaiecaoi?, eeaea?
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo ia?aiai, niaoeeaeeno, eniieieoaeue n iioaioeeaeii ?inoa e
aac iioaioeeaea ?inoa e o.i.

I?aaeeiaeai auoiae ec e?eoe/aneie neooaoeee, eioi?ue ninoieo a
eiiiae?iaaiee ainoaea?noaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, oi?aaeai/aneie e
eaae?iaie neooaoeee, i?aaeeaaathony eiiiaaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu ?acaeoey
ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau, iaoeiaieea iaoaieciu oi?ie?iaaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai neoaeauaai nia?aiaiiiai oeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa, ainoaea?noaaiiia oi?aaeaiea,
ainoaea?noaaiiue neoaeauee, a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai, i?aaiaay e
i?ioanneiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a, nioeeaeueiua oaoiieiaee.

Summary

Grinivetska N.N. Problem of moulding a new type employee in Ukraine. –
Manuscript.

Master’s presention to speciality 25.00.01 – theory and history of state
administration, Ukrainian Academy of State Administration under the
President of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999

The thesis deals with the problems of formation of a modern type of
civil employee in Ukraine on the stage of establishing the Ukrainian
State system.

The peculiarities of a state work model are formed and can be defined as
functions of managing spontaneous surrounding of people, living in a
given area in specific social, economic, cultural, ecological and other
conditions. The types of state employees: have been grouped according to
levels of power – central, local; according to sorts of power –
conceptual, informational and analytical, legislative, executive and
judicial according to membership in political parties and movements –
political elite, professionals, executives according to sort of
establishing state management (high, middle, primary types); according
to personal characteristics – conceptual mentality leader,
leader-organizer, leader-innovator, expert, an executive with potential
to fight to the top and without it.

Suggested ways to innovate state activities, innovation resources for
state work development, mechanisms for moulding a state employee of a
new type; introduced a scientifically grounded system for training state
employees.

Key words: state work, state administration, state employee, civil
society, law and professional culture, social technology.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 22.10.99 ?.

Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1,0. Iae.-aeae. A?e. 1,0

Iaeeaae 100. Cai.

______________________________________________________

IAOI, Ee?a-39, aoe.O?iiao?anueea, 2

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