Принцип змагальності сторін та його реалізація в судовій практиці: Автореф. дис… канд. юрид. наук / О.В. Немировська, НАН України. Ін-т держави і пр

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i. A.I.EI?AOeUeEIAI

IAIE?IANUeEA IEAIA A?EAI?AIA

OAeE 347.9

I?EIOeEI CIAAAEUeIINO? NOI??I OA EIAI ?AAE?CAOe?ss A

NOAeIA?E I?AEOEOe?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 12.00.03. – oeea?eueia i?aai;

oeea?eueiee i?ioean; n?iaeia i?aai;

i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,

*aaa?ye Iao?i A?oeiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iooea? ?aaai Aai?a?eiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao

?i. ?.O?aiea, i?ioani?

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

A??theia ?aai Aiae??eiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o
ni?aa

Oe?a?ie, i?ioani?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y,
eaoaae?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «31» aa?aciy 2000 ?. i 15.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.236.02 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a th?eaee/ieo iaoe i?e ?inoeooo?
aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 01001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae ?
i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 01001, i. Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «28» ethoiai 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe
Eo/a?aiei ?.I.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?eeii caeiiii??ii, ui a oiiaao,
eiee aeaiie?ao?y, caaaeueiee ?oo aei naiaiaee, aoiai?cio io?eiaee
aeiaaeueiee ?icaeoie, a?aeaoany ? iiooiao a ?icaeoeo i?aaa. Aaeaea i?aai
ii nai?e i?e?iae? i?enoiniaaii aei ni?eeiyooy naiaiaee,
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae, i?aa ethaeeie, ? ?o iin??i.

Eo?n ia noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa nooo?ai caoaeo?
ioae?/ii-i?aaiaa ?aaoethaaiiy ? aeeeeea? iineaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae
a noa?o i?eaaoieo i?aa a?iiaaeyi. Iaaea i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeiia
aecia/aoenue nooiaiai naiaiaee noni?euenoaa, aea eiaeiee /eai ia?
aeinoaoiuei iiaeeeainoae aeey caoenoo nai?o i?aa.

Oa?aeoa? oeea?eueii-i?aaiaeo a?aeiinei aecia/athoue aaciina?aaeiuei
iniaeno? iaeiia? oa iaiaeiia? ?ioa?ane noa`?eo?a oeea?eueiiai i?aaa ?
oiio, i?e?iaeii, ieoaiiy i?i oa, ye ?aae?coaaoe o? /e ?io?
i?aaia?aeiineie, e?aua ca ana iiaea aooe ae??oaii naiei noa`?eoii
i?aaia?aeiinei. sseui ?icaeyaeaoe i?aainoaeaey ye ae?yeuei?noue noaeo,
ni?yiiaaio ia caoeno noa`?eoeaieo i?aa oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi,
oi oaeee caoeno ia? aooe aa?aioiaaiee iaii noi?iiai.

O na?oe? oeo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?, ciaaaeuei?noue
ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ia eeoa ye aeaiie?aoe/io canaaeo, a e ye aa?aio
ae?enii iaoia?aaeaeaiiai ae??oaiiy ni?aae. Nooue ciaaaeueiino? iieyaa? a
iao?, ye?e neoaeeoue i?ioeanoaeueia aeoeai?noue noi??i. Any nenoaia
noaeiaiai aeieacoaaiiy ia? aoaeoaaoenue ia ciaaaeueiino?, aea
aca?iia?aeiineie noi??i aecia/a? i?ioeai?noai.

Noa`?eoii aeieacoaaiiy a i?ioean? iiaeooue ? iathoue aooe o?eueee
noi?iie, a oiio noae i? a yeiio ?ac? ia iiaeiai ca aeaniith
?i?oe?aoeaith cae?aoe aeieace, naiino?eii oi?ioethaaoe oaeoe, ui
iiaeooue aooe aeinoaoi?ie aeieacaie aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiia noi?iie.

?acii c oei, aaniethoecaoe?y ciaaaeueiino? ia ia?aoai?eoue noae ia
noi?iiiueiai niinoa??aa/a noaeiaiai i?ioeano. Noae iiaeiai ?aaoethaaoe
oeae i?ioean, ni?eyoe noi?iiai, a iaeaieiai?oei ? oa, ui ca noaeii
caeeoa?oueny eiai iaea?/iee iaia`ycie — anoaiiaeoe ?noeio, aeaoe i?aaiao
ioe?ieo anoaiiaeaiei ianoaaeiai oa canoinoaaoe ii?io iaoa??aeueiiai
i?aaa ? i?ney oeueiai aeianoe ??oaiiy.

Eeoa ?c cae??ieaiiyi o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie (no. 126) iniiaieo canaae
noaei/einoaa ciaaaeuei?noue io?eiaea na?e eiinoeoooe?eiee noaoon, oi/a
oa?i?i oeae i?eaa?oaa oaaao ia iaeiiai iieie?iiy a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a.
sse neeaaeiaa nenoaie i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano, oey canaaea
?icaeyaeaeanue o i?aoeyo Aaaetheiaa I.A., Aa?aiiaa N.I., Aiiia?a A.O.,
Iao??anueeiai I.Ae., Oa?oeoi?eiaa A.?., O?aooi?eiaa I.E. Ia
aeena?oaoe?eiiio ??ai? oeae i?eioeei aeine?aeaeoaaee Oa?aiaiei A.O. (o
1968 ?.), ?aoiaeue?aa ?.A. (o 1983 ?.) oa Iaiieoeueeee A.TH. (o 1995
?.).

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?i ? caaaeueiia?aeiiei, a iei?oi?o
oiiaao ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i o nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? noni?euenoaa
aeieea? iio?aaa a eiai a?oioiaiiio ia?ainieneaii? c iaoith aeyaeoe ci?no
aeaiiai i?eioeeio. A aoeiieia?/iiio cia/aii? oa?i?i «ciaaaiiy» ? oi?iith
nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, ca yeith o/anieee iaiaaathoueny ia?aaa?oeoe
iaeei iaeiiai a aoaeue-/iio.

Ioaea, a iao /an iaaaeueiith ? i?iaeaia ?ic?iaee iiai? eiioeaioe??
ciaaaeueiino? ye canaaee, noiniaii aei ?? ao?eaiiy a i?e?iaeo
oeea?eueieo i?ioeanoaeueieo a?aeiinei, ae??oaiiy ieoaiue
i?aaicanoinia/iai oa?aeoa?o.

Oeae i?eioeei ? aeineoue neeaaeiei i?aaiaei ooai?aiiyi, a a aeaiee /an
iiaeaeueoa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiiaeeeaa aac c`ynoaaiiy ci?noo
ie?aieo eaoaai??e, ?o i?aaeeueiiai ona?aeiieaiiy, aac aaaaeaiiy iiaeo
iiiyoue, aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ca`yce?a i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie.
Ca?aene i?e?iaeiei ? ? a?aenoaaaiiy a iiiaeaii? aaeocaaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aeoiaey/e c oai?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? iinooiiai ia?
o?ainoi?ioaaoeny c aeicaieyiiy ia ciaia`ycaiiy. I?aai iiaeaaaoe aeieace,
aeoeaia i?ioeanoaeueia iiaaae?iea ia? noaoe ia o?eueee caaacia/aiith
caeiiii iiaeeea?noth, a iaia`yceii. Ii?yae c oeei, aoaeue-yeee iaia`ycie
o?eueee oiae? noa? i??ith iaeaaeii? iiaaae?iee, eiee a?i caaacia/o?oueny
anoaiiaeaieie caoiaeaie a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.

Ioaea, iaaeeiiaiiy ia?aaeaa/aiiai oeea?eueiei i?ioeanoaeueiei caeiiii
iaia`yceo ia ?icaeyaeaeinue ye oeea?eueia i?ioeanoaeueia
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, aea aiii ? oaeei ii nai?e noo?. Oaeee ?inoeooo
oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iiaeiai aooe i?enooi?i a
iaoai?ci? ?aaoethaaiiy oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa, ine?eueee ooo
noeeathoueny aea? noi?iie c i?ioeeaaeieie ?ioa?anaie. Iaaeeiiaiiy
iaia`yceo ia? oyaoe ca niaith canoinoaaiiy niaoe?aeueiiai anoaiiaeaiiai
a caeiiiaeaanoa? ia?ae?eo eiie?aoieo caoiae?a i?ioeanoaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? o aeaeyae? naieoe?e.

I?eoyaiaiiy aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy eiie?aoieo
aeae?a naieoe?e ? ia eeoa iiea?aiiyi ca iaaeenoeeie?iiaaio iiaaae?ieo,
a e i??ith caoenoo ?ioa?an?a i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie. Oiio nooue
oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iieyaa? a caaacia/aii?
iaeaaeii? iiaaae?iee a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia caeiio oa iaa?aeai?ioiino?
canoinoaaiiy naieoe?e i?e iaaeeiiaii? i?eien?a caeiio, oiaoi a ?ac?
ooeeaiiy a?ae aeeiiaiiy aeacaiiai iaia`yceo.

Aeooaeueiei ? caaaeaiiy noai?eoe nenoaio oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa,
uia ?? ii?ie aeicaieyee a iiai?e i??? caoeuaoe i?aaa oa ?ioa?ane
a?iiaaeyi, aea aa?aioiaai? ??ai?noue an?o ia?aae caeiiii oa noaeii,
aeinooii?noue noaeiaiai caoenoo, iaoia?aaeaeaiee oa eiiiaoaioiee
noaeiaee ?icaeyae. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? iine?aeiaia ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino? iiaeiia niiioeaoe o/aniee?a oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa aei
i?ioeanoaeueii? aeoeaiino?, caeeoeaoe noaeo ooieoe?th canoinoaaiiy
i?aaa.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? /anoeiith caaaeueii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? i?ia?aie
?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie uiaei ?ic?iaee
Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie aei 2002 ?.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeaoaeueia c`ynoaaiiy noo? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? a oeea?eueiiio
i?ioean?, oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ci?i uiaei eiai o?aeooaaiiy,
oi?ioethaaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaiai iiiyooy, aecia/aiiy eiai ae?? a
eiiieaeniiio ii?aeiaii? c ?ioeie i?eioeeiaie oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano,
?ic?iaea iaoai?cio eiai ?aae?caoe??, aea/aiiy i?iaeai canoinoaaiiy a
i?aeoeoe? noaei/einoaa ii oeea?eueieo ni?aaao.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaea/?:

— i?iaanoe aiae?c ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i o
a?o/eciyiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?;

— aeaoe iiaa aecia/aiiy i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeano;

— aeine?aeeoe ci?no i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i oa ?ic?iaeoe
iaoai?ci eiai ?aae?caoe??;

— ?icaeyiooe aca?iiae?th i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i c ?ioeie
i?eioeeiaie nenoaie oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa;

— aea/eoe aeina?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? a i?aeoeoe?
noae?a Oe?a?ie an?o ?inoaioe?e;

— aianoe eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith caeiiiaeaanoaa;

— noi?ioethaaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?aeoe/iiio canoinoaaiith i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aenooiathoue i?eioeeie ?noi?e/iiai oa ae?aeaeoe/iiai aiae?co
noni?eueieo, cie?aia i?aaiaeo, yaeu. Aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee
iaoeiai-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ye ?noi?e/ii-i?aaiaee, nenoaiiee,
aiae?oe/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, eia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee.

Oai?aoe/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia aiae?c? ii?iaoeaieo
aeaea?ae, eoaee aoiaeyoue Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, a?o/eciyia oeea?eueia
i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai, caeiiiaeaanoai ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??,
?ic`yniaiiy Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie oa iaoeia? i?aoe?
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, ye oai?aoee?a, oae ? i?ioeanoae?no?a:
Aa?aiiaa N.I., Aaaetheiaa I.A., Aeaen??aa N.N., Aiiia?a A.O., Aooi?aa
A.A., Aai??ai? E.A., A?eaaiiaa A.I., Ao?ae/a I.A., Caeoeaaa I.?.,
Eeaeiiaia A.O., Eiia?iaa A.A., Eo?eeueiaa N.A., Iaiieoeueeiai A.TH.,
Iaeueieeiaa A.A., Iie/aiiaa A.A., I?eiai? E.I., Iooea?y ?.A., ?aci?/aiei
?.I., ?aoaoi?eiai? ?.A., Naiaiiaa A.I., Oa?aiaiea A.O., Oa?oeoi?eiaa
A.?., O?aooi?eiaa I.E., Oaea?yi I.N., Ooaoaia I.E., *a/?ii? I.I. oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ?icaeyiooi
i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? ye eiinoeoooe?eii cae??ieaio canaaeo
noaei/einoaa; iaa?oioiaaii iiaee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei
ciaaaeueiino? ia ye aei i?aaa, a ye aei iaia`yceo, ca iaaeeiiaiiy yeiai
ia? ianooiaoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue; i?iaiae?ciaaii /eiia aaeocaaa
caeiiiaeaanoai ? aianaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei eiai aaeineiiaeaiiy;
i?iaaaeaii a?oioiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai, ui aeieeathoue o i?ioean?
eiai i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye? noaiiaeyoue aaoi?nueeo eiioeaioe?th i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino?:

— ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui ciaaaeuei?noue ye canaaea
noaei/einoaa ? iciaeith ae?enii aeaiie?aoe/iiai eaaeo, eiee
iineaaeaii ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a noa?o i?eaaoieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi;

— ciaaaeuei?noue o nenoai? i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano i?ney
i?eeiyooy iiai? Eiinoeoooe?? ? eiinoeoooe?eiei i?eioeeiii, ui ia?aaoaa?
o aa?iii?eii aca?iiiaoiiaeai?e ?aeiino? c ?ioeie i?eioeeiaie
oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano;

— i?eioeeiii ciaaaeueiino? noi??i a oeea?eueiiio i?ioean? ? iieeaaeaiiy
ia noi?iie iaia`yceo ii aeiaaaeaiith ianoaaei, ia ye? aiie
iineeathoueny a iaa?oiooaaiiy nai?o aeiia oa caia?a/aiue;

— aeeiiaiiy noi?iiaie iaia`yceo aeiaiaeeoe ianoaaeie, ia ye? aiie
iineeathoueny a iaa?oiooaaiiy nai?o aeiia oa caia?a/aiue, iiaeiii
caaacia/oaaoenue caoiaeaie oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, a ooeeaiiy a?ae aeeiiaiiy noi?iiaie aeacaiiai
iaia`yceo ? oeea?eueiei i?ioeanoaeueiei i?aaiii?ooaiiyi;

— ye aeae oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaaeeiiaiiy
cacia/aiiai iaia`yceo ne?ae canoiniaoaaoe iani?eyoeea? i?ioeanoaeuei?
iane?aeee, cie?aia a?aeiiao a caaeiaieaii? aeiia /a?ac ?o
iaaeiaaaeai?noue, caeeoaiiy cayae aac ?icaeyaeo, aeciaiiy oaeoo
a?aeiia?aeii anoaiiaeaiei aai ni?inoiaaiei o aeiaaeeo ooeeaiiy noi?iie
a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece oa ?i.;

— i?aae`yaeaiiy iiciao i?ieo?i?ii aeiionoeii o?eueee aeey caoenoo
?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae;

— aiinyoueny a?aeiia?aei? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaanoaa, a naia aeeeth/aiiy c Oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai
eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie i?aaa noaeo aeoiaeeoe ca iaae? iiciaieo aeiia oa
iaia`yceo noaeo ia?aa??yoe, ia yeeo oiiaao a?aeaoeenue i?eie?aiiy
noi??i, a?aeiiaa iiceaa/a a?ae iiciao, aeciaiiy noi?iiith iaaiiai oaeoo
? eeoa aeciaiiy iiciao a?aeiia?aea/ai ia? i?eeiaoenue noaeii c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? ye?nii iiaiai iiiyooy
i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i a oeea?eueiiio i?ioean? ? a?aeiia?aeii
iaoai?cio eiai ?aae?caoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeaii? ?iaioe aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue iine?aeiaii ao?eeoe i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? a i?aeoeeo
oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa ye ae?enii aeaiie?aoe/io canaaeo.

Aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
aaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa a oiae? ?ic?iaee iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ?ic`yniaiue uiaei
canoinoaaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a iinoaiiaao
Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, i?e canoiniaoaaii? ii?iaoeaieo
iieiaeaiue o noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?, iaoeia?e oa iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? aeniiaee oa iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aoee i?aaenoaaeai? ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo —
«Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i?» (eenoiiaae 1997 ?., i. Ee?a),
«Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie:
i?iaeaie, aeina?ae, ia?niaeoeae» (/a?aaiue 1997 ?., i. Ee?a),
«Nenoaiaoecaoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie oai??? oa i?aeoeee»
(aeiaoaiue 1999 ?., i. Ee?a).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 6 noaooyo ? 3 oacao
aenooi?a ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/eee
no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i`yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoeo.

Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 175 noi??iie, c yeeo nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (209 iaeiaioaaiue) caeia? 18 noi??iie, aeiaeaoie
ia 14 noi??ieao.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, ui noaiiaeoue ia?oo
/anoeio oeueiai aaoi?aoa?aoo: iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?cothoueny eiai iaoa, caaaeaiiy, aecia/aii i?aaeiao
oa ia`?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee, iaoeiaa iiaecia,
noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno; aeacaii ia
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i»
i?enay/aiee ?noi?e/iiio aniaeoo ?icaeoeo ciaaaeueiino? ye canaaee
noaei/einoaa /a?ac i?ecio eiai cae??ieaiiy a caeiiiaeaanoa?.

I?ine?aeeiaaii /eneaii? ?noi?e/i? iai`yoee, ii/eiath/e a?ae
noa?iaeaaiueiai aei no/aniiai /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co oeeo aeaea?ae ?icaeyiooi i?ioean aaiethoe?? oeueiai ?inoeoooo.
sseui a ia??iae ae?? ?onueei? I?aaaee i?ioean iaa ciaaaeueiee oa?aeoa?,
oi iio?i a?aecia/aeenue ia??iaee/i? a?aeiiae a?ae ciaaaeueiiai ia/aea ia
ei?enoue oae caaiiai ?iea?ceoe?eiiai (ne?ae/iai).

O oiae? noaeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. ? a
iaooe?, ? a caeiiiaeaanoa? aoei i?iaieioaii ?aeath ciaaaeueiino?,
ca?aeii c yeith ciaaaeueiee i?ioean ? naiiae?yeuei?noth noi??i, ia ye?
iieeaaeaii a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iiaiioo oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, a noae
eeoa ioe?ith? iiaeai? noi?iiaie aeieace. A ia?o? ii?aaiethoe?ei? ?iee
caiaioaaea oai??y ni?iuaiiy i?ioeanoaeueii? oi?ie, iaeiei c i?iya?a yei?
noaea a?aeiiaa a?ae i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? ye iciaee ao?aeoaciiai
i?aaa.

O Oeea?eueieo i?ioeanoaeueieo eiaeaenao ON?? 1924 ?., 1929 ?., oa O?N?
1964 ?. aoei oi?iaeueii cae??ieaii aieiaia i?aaeei ciaaaeueiino? –
eiaeia noi?iia aeiaiaeeoue o? ianoaaeie, ia ye? aiia iineea?oueny ye ia
i?aenoaao nai?o aeiia oa caia?a/aiue. Ii?yae c oeei, ae??oaeueia ?ieue o
aeieacia?e ae?yeueiino? iaeaaeaea noaeo, a oiio i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino?
oaeoe/ii i?aaethaaany, aaeaea ca noaeii aoei i?iaieioaii iaia`ycie, ia
iaiaaeoth/enue iiaeaieie noi?iiaie aeieacaie, aaeeaaoe caoiaee aei
iiaiiai, anaa?/iiai oa ia`?eoeaiiai c`ynoaaiiy an?o ianoaaei ii ni?aa? ?
a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino? cae?aoe aeieace ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
ciaaaeuei?noue ia i?inoi ?iiae? iinooiaeanue ne?ae/iio oa?aeoa?o
i?ioeano, a ? aeeeth/iith iciaeith aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith, eiee
aea?aeaaa ia o?eueee ia ia?ane?aeo? ea?aeueii? iaoe, a a?eueoa oiai –
iaiaaa?oueny iaeiaioa ao?o/aoenue a noa?o i?eaaoieo ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi,
iaaea? ?i oe?ieee niaeo? iiaeeeainoae a?aenoithaaoe nai? caeiii?
?ioa?ane.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – «Iiiyooy i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i» — aaoi?ii
ia i?aenoaa? cia/iiai ianeao oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?icaeyaea?oueny ?icaeoie oeueiai ?inoeoooo a iaooe? oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa. A ??ci? ?noi?e/i? ia??iaee iaea i?noea ia
o?eueee a?aeiiaa a?ae ciaaaeueiino? ye canaaee, a e ??cia ?? ?icoi?iiy,
caoaeaiee iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe??.

Aeciath/e ciaaaeuei?noue ye ?aeaae aeey iiaoaeiae iiaeae? oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeano, aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui i?e ?ic?iaeaii? no/anii? eiioeaioe??
i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?, aecia/aii? eiai iiiyooy oa iaoai?cio
?aae?caoe?? ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe ye aeina?ae aei?aaiethoe?eii? iaoee, oae
? iiceoeai? caeiaooee, ui c`yaeeenue a i?aaiciaanoa? ca ?aaeyinueeeo
/an?a.

O i?aoeyo aeaeaoieo aei?aaiethoe?eieo a/aieo-i?ioeanoae?no?a ciaaaeueia
ia/aei ?icaeyaeaeinue ye i?eioeei caeiiiaeaa/i? iie?oeee, caaaeyee yeiio
i?aaa noi??i ia?aaaaeathoue iaae iaia`yceaie noaeo. Naia oiae?, a e?ioe?
O?O no. ?icaeoie i?aaiai? iaoee nyaioa ??aiy, aei yeiai iai ne?ae ua
o?eueee i?aaiooe. A e?oa?aoo?? oiai ia??iaeo cia/ia i?noea i?eae?eyeinue
aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai noaei/einoaa, ? cie?aia ciaaaeueiino?.

Ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino?, i?ney ?ie?a caaaeueii?
oaiaeaioe?? aei ni?iuaiiy i?ioeanoaeueii? oi?ie, caia?a/oaaany ye
ao?aeoaciee ia?aaeeoie. Aea caiaeii a?i, caa??aath/e nai? i?aai ia
?nioaaiiy, i?iaieioo?oueny aaeocaaei i?eioeeiii oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano.
Ii?yae c oeei ci?ith?oueny eiai ci?no, a a?aeiia?aeii ? aecia/aiiy.
I?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? ?icaeyaea?oueny aaea ye ii?aeiaiiy ?i?oe?aoeae oa
naiiae?yeueiino? noi??i c ?i?oe?aoeaith oa aeoeai?noth noaeo uiaei
aeyaeaiiy an?o ianoaaei ni?aae ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ?o aeieacaie, ui
ni?eythoue anoaiiaeaiith ia`?eoeaii? ?noeie ii ni?aa?.

Eeoa c /ano ii/aoeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o e?a?i?
a?ae?iaeaeo?oueny ia?a?nia ?icoi?iiy ciaaaeueiino?. Ciaaaeuei?noue ye
?noeiii aeaiie?aoe/ia canaaea noaei/einoaa aecia/a? oa?aeoa?
aca?iia?aeiinei noi??i, ciaia`yco? ?o aei aeoeaii? i?ioeanoaeueii?
iiaaae?iee. Noae ia? caeeoeoenue iica iaaeaie ?o ciaaaiiy ? eeoa
aeayeith i??ith a?aoe o/anoue o cae?aii? aeieac?a.

Aeoeai?noue noaeo ia oeueiio aoai? aeieaciai? ae?yeueiino? noia?a/eoue
nai?e noo? ciaaaiiy noi??i, yea ? i?ioeai?noaii. Oaeei /eiii,
aeeeth/aiiy ?i?oe?aoeae, aeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? noaeo aaoiiaoe/ii
iieeaaea? ia noi?iie ia i?inoi i?aai ciaaaoenue ia?aae noaeii,
aeiaiaey/e nai? aeiiae oa caia?a/aiiy, a e iaia`ycie, yeee aiie iiaeii?
iaiaei?iii aeeiiaoe.

Aaoi? iaa?oioiao?, ui ciaaaeuei?noue noi??i ye i?eioeei ia iineaaeth?
nai?? ae?? ? a iaiiciaiiio i?iaaaeaeaii?. Oea aeeeeeaii ia o?eueee
eiinoeoooe?eiei cae??ieaiiyi ?? ye canaaee aeey anueiai noaei/einoaa, a
e aeoiaeeoue c ?? o?aeooaaiiy. I?eoyaioo? aei o/ano? a ni?aa? iniae
iiaeooue iaoe oe?eeii i?ioeeaaei? ?ioa?ane, a ioaea aoaeooue iaiaaaoenue
aeiaanoe naith i?aaioo ia?aae noaeii. Ciaaaeueia iiaeaeue noaei/einoaa
iaa?oue i?e a?aenooiino? nii?o i?i oaeo, iaeiia?/iee oa?aeoa? ni?aae,
i?e aeeeth/aii? aeoeaiino? noaeo, coiiaeoue aeoeaio i?ioeanoaeueio
iiaaae?ieo o/aniee?a i?ioeano.

A i?aenoieo aaoi? ie?aneth? oa?aeoa?i? iciaee oa aea? nai? aecia/aiiy
i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano, yeee ?icoi?? ye
iieiaeaiiy, ca yeei ia noi?iie iieeaaeaii iaia`ycie ii aeiaaaeaiith
ianoaaei, ia ye? aiie iineeathoueny a iaa?oiooaaiiy nai?o aeiia oa
caia?a/aiue. I?e oeueiio ae?yeuei?noue noi??i iaaoaa? oa?aeoa?o
ciaaaiiy, noooth yeiai ? i?ioeai?noai.

O oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aaoi?ii iaaaaeaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae cae??ieaiiy
a caeiiiaeaanoa? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?, aea ?niothoue ye aaniethoii
ciaaaeuei? iiaeae? noaei/einoaa, oae ? ne?ae/?. Cie?aia, aiae?enueea,
aia?eeainueea oa eaiaaenueea nenoaie iathoue ca iniiao iiaoaeiae noa??
eaiii?/i? i?aaeea, aea cae??ieaii an? iieiaeaiiy aaniethoii?
ciaaaeueiino?. ?acii c oei ooieoe?iio? ? oae caaia eiioeiaioaeueia
noaeiaa nenoaia e?a?i ?a?iie c? ne?ae/ith iiaeaeeth noaei/einoaa. Oae o
O?aioe??, Aa?iai??, ?oae?? noaeae? nai? caeiathoueny iiooeii aeieaciai?
aace, aea ?o ?i?oe?aoeaa oaae ? iaiaaeaiith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – «I?noea i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i o nenoai?
i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano» — aaoi?ii iaaiaeyoueny ??ci? aeoiee
noiniaii e?eoa???a oa e?euee?niiai neeaaeo nenoaie i?eioeei?a
oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa Oe?a?ie.

I?eioeeie i?aaa acaaae? i?eeiyoi ?icoi?oe ye «ia/aea», «?aea?»,
«canaaee», ui cae??ieai? a ii?iao i?aaa, ? aecia/athoue eiai
ni?yiiaai?noue, nooue, nea?iaothoue ?icaeoie oa caaacia/othoue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c oeeo iiceoe?e i?eioeei i?aaa ?
caaaeueiiaeciaiei, aeineoue no?eeei, iaia`yceiaei aeey canoinoaaiiy.
sseui ?icaeyaeaoe i?eioeeie ye ?aei?noue, oi aiie ooai?ththoue
nenoaio, yea ooieoe?iio? oe?eani?yiiaaii, aieeaath/e ia aecia/ai?
noni?euei? a?aeiineie.

Aeey eeaneo?eaoe?? i?eioeei?a aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi? e?eoa???,
na?aae yeeo iaea?eueo aei?aaaeaiei ? oi?ia ii?iaoeaiiai cae??ieaiiy.
Cae??ieaiiy a Eiinoeoooe?? ciaaaeueiino? ye canaaee iia`ycaii c oeie
ci?iaie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a noni?euenoa?. A naith /a?ao ye?nii iiaee
ci?no aecia/a?oueny iiaith oi?iith cae??ieaiiy, aaeaea ciaaaeuei?noue
oaia? ia?aaaaeaii aei ?ic?yaeo eiinoeoooe?eieo i?eioeei?a.

?ai?oa, aeine?aeaeoth/e oeae i?eioeei, eiai iiaeia aoei eeoa
i?eioneaoe, ine?eueee a?i aoa oi?iaeueii i?iaieioaiee, aea cae??ieaiiy
ca noaeii iaia`yceo cae?aoe aeieace ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith a
?ioa?anao iaio noi??i aeeeth/aei eiai ae?th. Oiio ?icaeyaeath/e eiai
i?noea a nenoai? i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa,
ciaaaeuei?noue aecia/aee ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeeniiceoeaiino?, caiaeeee aei
i?ioeanoaeueii? ??aiii?aaiino? noi??i. Iaiaaeaiiy ae?? aeeniiceoeaiino?
oaeiae iaaaoeaii aieeaaei ia ciaaaeuei?noue.

An? i?eioeeie oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa ia?aaoaathoue o
aca?iica`yceo, aa?iii?ei?e ?aeiino?. Aeeniiceoeai? iiaiiaaaeaiiy iaei???
noi?iie a?aeia?aaeathoueny ia aiaeia?/ieo iiaiiaaaeaiiyo ?ioi?, a
i?eioeei ??aiii?aaiino? caaacia/o?oueny ciaaaeueiith iiaeaeeth i?ioeano,
yea iaaea? noi?iiai ??ai? iiaeeeaino? ciaaaoeny ia?aae noaeii,
?aae?coth/e nai? aeeniiceoeai? i?aaa. Iath/e ??ai? iaeiaeia?
i?ioeanoaeuei? i?aaa, noi?iie ianooue ? iaeiaeia? i?ioeanoaeuei?
iaia`ycee, cie?aia iaia`ycie ii aeiaaaeaiith ianoaaei, ia ye?
iineea?oueny noi?iia a iaa?oiooaaiiy nai?o aeiia aai caia?a/aiue.

I?eioeei ia`?eoeaii? ?noeie, yeee i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe i?aeaaeocaaei,
a?aeia?aaea? aieiaio iaoo noaeiaiai i?ioeano – anoaiiaeoe ?noeio, ?
i?ney oeueiai, i?aaeeueii canoinoaaaoe ii?io iaoa??aeueiiai i?aaa,
?ica`ycaoe ni?? i?ae noi?iiaie. Aeiiaa anoaiiaeaiiy ia`?eoeaii? ?noeie
a?aeiia?aeaea aeoeai?e ?ie? noaeo a i?ioean? aeieacoaaiiy, yeee iaa
aeiiiaithaaoe aeieaciao aaco ii ni?aa? a ?ac? ?? iaaeinoaoiino?. Ca
iiaiai o?aeooaaiiy naia i?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? caaacia/o? iiaiioo
oaeoe/iiai oa aeieaciaiai iaoa??aeo, ui ? oiiaith aeinyaiaiiy ?noeie,
aaeaea o?eueee noi?iie aieiae?thoue iaea?eueoei ianyaii oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo.

C iaeyaeo ia iaiaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a noa?o i?eaaoieo ?ioa?an?a
a?iiaaeyi ci?ith?oueny ? oa?aeoa? ?noeie, yea anoaiiaeth?oueny. Noae
ciiaea c`ynoaaoe ae?eni? ianoaaeie ii ni?aa? o?eueee a oiio ianyc?, yeee
aoaea iia?aeiieaiee noi?iiaie.

Ioaea, ?noeia, yea anoaiiaeth?oueny a ciaaaeueiiio i?ioean?, ?
noaeiaith. ?acii c oei ca?eueiaiiy noaeo a?ae iaia`yceo cae?aoe aeieace
ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith ? aa?aio??th ae?enii ia`?eoeaiiai ae??oaiiy
ni?aae.

Eiaeiee i?eioeei, ui aoiaeeoue aei nenoaie i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa ia? nai? i?noea, aea aioo??oi?e aca?iica`ycie
caaacia/o? ?o ni?eueio ae?th. Ii?aeiai? oaeei /eiii, aiie aeiiiaiththoue
oa ?icaeaathoue iaeei iaeiiai.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – «Iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?
noi??i» — aeoiaey/e c oai?aoe/ieo iiceoe?e aaoi?ii iaa?oioiao?oueny
nooue i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?, ia i?aenoaa? /iai oi?io?oueny iaoai?ci
?aae?caoe?? ciaaaeueiino? a oeea?eueiiio i?ioean?.

O?ainoi?iaoe?y i?aaa a iaia`ycie iiaeaaaoe aeieace ia?aaeaa/a?
iayai?noue iaaieo caoiae?a i?eioooaaiiy. Ioaea aeeiiaiiy oeueiai
iaia`yceo ia? caaacia/oaaoenue anoaiiaeaiiyi o caeii? eiie?aoieo
naieoe?e oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ui ? ie?aiei
aeaeii th?eaee/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? iieeeeaia caaacia/eoe aeeiiaiiy
noi?iiaie iaia`yceo ae?yoe a iaaeao, aecia/aieo i?aaeeaie.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aei oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
iiaeooue i?eoyaaoenue eeoa noa`?eoe i?ioeanoaeueieo a?aeiinei. Aiia
aeieea? c iiiaioo ii?ooaiiy oeeie noa`?eoaie aeiia ? canoiniao?oueny
aeeeth/ii noaeii. Ioaea, aei ia? i?eoyaathoueny o? iniae, ye?
iaiaeaaeiei /eiii aeeiiothoue nai? i?ioeanoaeuei? iaia`ycee, /ey
iiaaae?iea a?aeoeey?oueny a?ae i?eieno caeiio. I?eoyaiaiiy aei
oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? ia eeoa i??ith
iiea?aiiy ca iaaeenoeeie?iiaaio iiaaae?ieo. Eiai ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ? ye
cao?ae caoenoo ?ioa?an?a i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie. Niaoeeo?/iith iciaeith
oe??? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ? i?acoiioe?y aeie.

Oaeei /eiii, iaaeeiiaiiy iaia`yceo ii aeiaaaeaiith nai?o aeiia oa
caia?a/aiue ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye oeea?eueia i?ioeanoaeueia
i?aaiii?ooaiiy, ca ui anoaiiaeth?oueny a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue – naieoe??.
Na?aae naieoe?e oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? noiniaii
ciaaaeueii? iiaeae? i?ioeano iaea?eueo ae??aeie ? naieoe?? iniaeeaiai
aeaeo – iaaaoeai? i?ioeanoaeuei? iane?aeee. Oae? iane?aeee ? naiai ?iaeo
iaaeaie, ui aeeeth/athoue ceiaaeeaaiiy i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie nai?ie
noa`?eoeaieie i?aaaie, eiee aiia aeei?enoiao? oi?io ?o ?aae?caoe??, yea
aeoiaeeoue ca ?aiee aeicaieaiiai caeiiii.

Iaaaoeaiei i?ioeanoaeueiei iane?aeeii ? i?eeiyooy iani?eyoeeaiai aeey
o??? /e ?ioi? noi?iie i?ioeanoaeueii-i?aaiaiai aeoa, cie?aia caeeoaiiy
cayae aac ?icaeyaeo, aeianaiiy ??oaiiy ia ei?enoue i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie,
a?aeiiaa a caaeiaieaii? iiciao /a?ac eiai iaaeiaaaeai?noue, aeniiaie
i?i aeciaiiy oaeoo aeey iaaii? noi?iie anoaiiaeaiei aai ni?inoiaaiei.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy i?e ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? iaaoaathoue
i?acoiioe?yie ui ? i?eiouaiiyie, ye iaoa??aeueii-i?aaia?, oae ?
i?ioeanoaeueii-i?aaia?. Ioaea, iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaa i?acoiioe?y aoaea
ae?yoe aeioe, aeiee aiia ia aoaea ni?inoiaaia i?ioeeaaeiith noi?iiith.
Oea noino?oueny, cie?aia aeiia i?i a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy oeiaee, caoeno /ano?
oa a?aeiino? oa ?i.

Oaae naia noino?oueny ? i?ioeanoaeueii-i?aaiaeo o?eoe?e, ia i?aenoaa?
yeeo noae i?aa? i?eoyaaoe aei oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iaeio c noi??i. Oae? o?eoe?? iathoue
canoiniaoaaoenue aei aeiaaee?a iayaee a noaeiaa can?aeaiiy ?
iaiia?aeiieaiiy i?e i?e/eie iayaee, oo?eioaaiiy aeieaco, ooeeaiiy a?ae
o/ano? a i?iaaaeaii? aenia?oece. Canoiniaoth/e aeacai? o?eoe?? noae
ai?aa?, cie?aia aeciaoe oaeo ni?inoiaaiei aai anoaiiaeaiei, caeaaeii
a?ae oiai, aeey /iai i?ecia/aeanue aenia?oeca.

Noae, i?ecia/ath/e ni?aao aei ?icaeyaeo caeaaeii a?ae
iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa ia? ?ic`ynieoe ia ye?e noi?ii? eaaeeoue
oyaa? aeieacoaaiiy iaaieo ianoaaei, ? a?aeoiae? o?eueee a?ae ae?e oe???
noi?iie aoaea caeaaeaoe anoaiiaeaiiy oeueiai eiea oaeo?a. Oaeee
?iciiae?e oyaa?y aeieacoaaiiy naiei aaciina?aaei?i /eiii aoaea aieeaaoe
ia aeoeaio iiaaae?ieo noi?iie a i?ioean?.

Iiiyooy oyaa?y aeieacoaaiiy aoei i?eeiyoi ?icaeyaeaoe naia ye iaia`ycie
aeieacoaaiiy, ia a?aei?io a?ae i?aaa a?aoe o/anoue o aeieacoaaii? iica
iaaeaie aecia/aiiai eiea ianoaaei. O ciaaaeuei?e iiaeae? i?ioeano oyaa?
aeieacoaaiiy aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a eiioaeno? ca?eueiaiiy
i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie a?ae iaia`yceo aeieacoaaiiy.

Ia?ao?ae a?ae ne?ae/iai aei ciaaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?ioeano iiaeiai
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue noai?aiiyi niaoe?aeueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai
iaoai?cio, yeee aa?aiooaaoeia caoeno i?aa eiaeiiai noa`?eoa oeea?eueieo
i?ioeanoaeueieo i?aaia?aeiinei. Aaeaea a?aeiiaa a?ae aeoeaiino? noaeo a
aeieacia?e ae?yeueiino? aaoiiaoe/ii ia? iieeaaeaoe ia noi?iie anth
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iiaiioo aeieaciai? aace.

??oaiiy noaeo ia? aeiineoenue o?eueee ia i?aenoaa? o??? aeieaciai? aace,
ui iaaeaia noi?iiaie, a iaaeao cayaeaieo iiciaieo aeiia. Ii?yae c oeei
noae iiaeiai aaaaeaoe oaeo anoaiiaeaiei, yeui i?ioeeaaeia noi?iia eiai
aeciaea, yeui aiia ooeey?oueny a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?oece, aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy /e ni?inooaaiiy yeiai aiia aoea i?ecia/aia.

Noaeii ia iiaeii? ia?aa??yoenue i?aenoaae ie?iai? oaiaee, a?aeiiae
iiceaa/a a?ae iiciao ? aeineoue iaiaaeaii, o?eueee noiniaii
iaoa??aeueii-i?aaiaeo i?aenoaa, iiaeiii ia?aa??yoenue aeciaiiy iiceaa/ai
iiciao. Onoiaiiy i?ioe??//y i?ae noi?iiaie oeyoii i?eie?aiiy
a?aeiia?aea? noo? noaei/einoaa ? a oeueiio aeiaaeeo noae ia iiaeiai
ia?aa??yoe ia yeeo oiiaao a?aeaoeinue i?eie?aiiy i?ae noi?iiaie.

Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iaiiaia c`ynoaaiiy ianoaaei ni?aae, aeiiouaia ia
c aeie noaeo, a i?e ianeai?e iiaaae?ioe? iaei??? c noi??i aai iaa?oue
aeaio ia iiaea aooe i?aenoaaith aeey neanoaaiiy ??oaiiy a noae?
eanaoe?eii? (a caiaeii – aiaeyoe?eii?) ?inoaioe??.

Iiaeeea?noue iiaeaiiy iiaeo (aeiaeaoeiaeo), a ia oeo, ye? noae
a?aeiiaeany i?eeiyoe, aeieac?a a noae eanaoe?eii? ?inoaioe?? ca /eiiei
caeiiiaeaanoaii ia niiioea? noi?iie aei aeoeaii? i?ioeanoaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aaeaea iiooe ? iiaeaiiy iiaeo aeieac?a aoaea iaoe i?noea
aaea i?ney aeianaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aeey noi?iie ??oaiiy noaeii ia?oi?
?inoaioe??.

Oiio iio?aao? ia?aaeyaeo any eiioeaioe?y inea?aeaiiy ??oaiiy a noae?
aiaeyoe?ei?e ?inoaioe??. Ii?yae c oeei ne?ae ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeea?noue
iiaoi?iiai caa?iaiiy aei noaeo c iiciaii, yeui iiceaa/o aoei a?aeiiaeaii
a caaeiaieaii? iiciao a ca`yceo c iaaeiaaaeai?noth.

A?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueieo ci?i o ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a i?ieo?aoo?e
iio?aao? iiaiai aecia/aiiy iiiyooy i?aaenoaaieoeoaa i?ieo?i?ii
?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi. Ca?aeii ?c cae??ieaiei o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
iieiaeaiiyi, i?aaenoaaieoeoai i?ieo?i?ii ?ioa?an?a a?iiaaeyi ia ? eeoa
iiaeaiiyi iicia?a oa o/anoth ye i?aaenoaaieea a i?ioean?.

Ii ie?aiei eaoaai??yi ni?aa o/anoue i?ieo?i?a ye naiino?eiiai o/anieea
i?ioeano ? aeioe?eueiith. Aea iiaeaiiy iiciao ia caoeno ?ioa?an?a
a?iiaaeyieia a?oai ii?ooo? i?ioeanoaeueio ??aiii?aai?noue noi??i,
noia?a/eoue ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?. Oea ia? aooe
aeiionoeiei o?eueee aeey ?ioa?an?a aea?aeaae.

O i`yoiio ?icae?e? – “I?aeoeea ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?
noi??i” – aeaii aiae?c noaeiai? i?aeoeee o oeea?eueieo ni?aaao ii ??ciei
eaoaai??yi ni?aaai.

Aii??e/iith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaaaeaiee aeena?oaioii aiae?c
noaeiai? i?aeoeee oa aaciina?aaei?e aeina?ae i?aeoe/ii? ?iaioe a yeino?
noaeae? ?aeiiiiai noaeo. C oe??th iaoith aoei aea/aii iiiaae 200 ni?aa o
noaeao an?o ?inoaioe?e – ?aaeyinueeee, Noa?iee?anueeee, Oaa/aie?anueeee
?aeiii? noaee i. Ee?aa, Ee?anueeee i?nueeee noae oa Aa?oiaiee Noae
Oe?a?ie. Aeineoue aeaoaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaia ae?yeuei?noue noae?a,
a?aecia/aii ye iiceoeaiee aeina?ae, oae ? iaaeie?ee.

Caniae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, anoaiiaeai? a /eiiiio Oeea?eueiiio
i?ioeanoaeueiiio eiaeaen? Oe?a?ie aeyaeeenue cian?i iaae??aeie aeey
aieeao ia oaeo iiaaae?ieo noi??i, aeiaaee naith iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue.
Aea a i?iaeo? iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie
i?noyoueny o? ae nai? caoiaee.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co, aeena?oaio aaaaea?, ui noaeiaa
nenoaia ua ia a aeinoaoi?e i??? aioiaa aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino?. Cae/aeii, ui /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai iio?aao? nooo?aiai
iiiaeaiiy. Aea ca?ac ua ia iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i oaeoe/ia cae??ieaiiy a
caeiiiaeaanoa? i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino?, a?aenooi?e /?oeee iaoai?ci eiai
?aae?caoe??. Ii?yae c oeei, i?ney aianaiiy ci?i aei Oeea?eueiiai
i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie a 1996 ?. ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui aoee
c?iaeai? ia?o? e?iee uiaei oeueiai.

Ca /an, ui ieioa, aaea ? ia?oee aeina?ae, yeee, ia aeaeue, iaiiaeia
aeciaoe iiceoeaiei. Noaeae? ca noaeei ?icoi?iiyi i?iaeiaaeothoue
cae?aoe aeieace ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith, ia iaaaaeothoueny
a?aeiiaeyoe a caaeiaieaii? iicia?a /a?ac iaaeiaaaeai?noue iiciaieo
aeiia. Oeueiio ni?ey? ye a?aenooi?noue /?oeeo ?ic`yniaiue a iinoaiiaao
Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie, oae ? iiceoe?y noae?a eanaoe?eii? oa
iaaeyaeii? ?inoaioe??.

Oeeie ?inoaioe?yie ia noae ia?oi? ?inoaioe?? ye ? ?ai?oa, aac iaeyaeo
ia o? ci?ie, ui aaea ? a caeiiiaeaanoa?, iieeaaea?oueny iaia`ycie:
ia?aa??eoe aeiaiaee oa caia?a/aiiy noi??i aeieacaie, a?eueo ?aoaeueii
ia?aa??eoe aeiaiaee noi??i, c`ynoaaoe aeiaiaee iiceaa/a oa caia?a/aiiy
a?aeiia?aea/a, ia?aa??eoe iaa?oioiaai?noue aeiia noi??i.

A oeueiio ae ?icae?e? aeena?oaioii noi?ioeueiaaii i?iiiceoe?? ii
aianaiith ci?i oa aeiiiaiaiue a iinoaiiae Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo
Oe?a?ie uiaei ?ic`yniaiue a?aeiinii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino? noi??i a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino? noae?a.

O aeniiaeao aeeeaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?aenoiee, ia i?aenoaa? yeeo ie?aneai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Cie?aia, aeacaii, ui i?aaie i?aainoaeaey iathoue a nai?e ae?yeueiino?
ea?oaaoeny iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie i?aaa, ye? ae?aaeai? a /eiiiio
caeiiiaeaanoa?. Noai?aiiy iiai? nenoaie oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa ia?
a?aeiia?aeaoe aeiiaai aeinooiiino? noaeiaiai caoenoo, aa?aiooaaoe
??ai?noue an?o ia?aae caeiiii oa noaeii, i?aai ia iaoia?aaeaeaiee oa
eiiiaoaioiee noaeiaee ?icaeyae.

*eiia i?ioeanoaeueia caeiiiaeaanoai a?aenoa? a?ae ??aith ?icaeoeo
noni?euenoaa, noa?a ioae?/ii-i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy ua ia?aaaaea? iaae
i?eaaoiei. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a noaei/einoai i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i
? iieacieeii ??aieo, aeinoaoi?o iiaeeeainoae an?o /eai?a noni?euenoaa
a?aenoithaaoe nai? ?ioa?ane, caoeuaoe noa`?eoeai? i?aaa.

Ciaaaeueia iiaeaeue oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano ? ?aeaaeueiith aeey
noaei/einoaa, ine?eueee niiioea? noi?iie aei i?aaiai? aeoeaiino?,
caeeoath/e noaeo eeoa ooieoe?th canoinoaaiiy i?aaa.

Caoiaee oeea?eueii? i?ioeanoaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ne?ae
?icaeyaeaoe ia eeoa ye iiea?aiiy iaei??? c noi??i ca iaaeeiiaiiy i?eieno
caeiio, iaaeenoeeie?iiaaio iiaaae?ieo, a ye i??o caoenoo ?ioa?an?a
i?ioeeaaeii? noi?iie.

Noaiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee noae?a noiniaii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino? noi??i iiaeeeaa ca oiiae aianaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ci?i oa
aeiiiaiaiue aei /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ia? a?aeaooenue c i?eeiyooyi
iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, a?aeiia?aeieo
?ic`yniaiue a iinoaiiaao Ieaioio Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?ii aeeeaaeaii eiie?aoi? i?iiiceoe?? a?aeiinii aeiii?aoethaaiiy
i?iaeoo iiaiai Oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

O aeiaeaoeo i?noeoueny eii?y a?aeiia?aeiiai iiaeaiiy aei ?iai/i? a?oie
ii ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeoo Oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue:

1. Iaie?ianueea I.A. ?aae?caoe?y eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino? noi??i o oeea?eueiiio i?ioean? // Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie –
iniiaa iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – E., 1997. – Aei.
2. — N. 261-267.

2. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa – iaiaei?iia oiiaa noaeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie // I?iaeaie
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
?inoeoooo caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – E., 1997. – Aei.
3. — N. 134-138.

3. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Ciaaaeuei?noue noi??i o nenoai? i?eioeei?a
oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano // Aea?aeaaa ? i?aai. Ui??/iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
iieiaeeo a/aieo. – E., 1998-1999. – Aei. 2.- N. 221-228.

4. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Aeaye? ieoaiiy nenoaiaoecaoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa a
aaeoc? oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano // Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie oa i?iaeaie
nenoaiaoecaoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?inoeoooo
caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie. – E., 1999. – Aei. 5. — N.
276-281.

5. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Ciaaaeuei?noue: noa?a iiiyooy, iiaee ci?no //
I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ? 9. – N. 53-56.

6. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Ia oeyoo iiiaeaiiy oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa // I?aai Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ?11. – N. 70-73.

7. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Ciaaaeuei?noue noi??i – eiinoeoooe?eia canaaea
noaei/einoaa a Oe?a?i? // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
«Oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie:
i?iaeaie, aeina?ae, ia?niaeoeae». – Oa?e?a, 1998. – N. 201-202.

8. Iaie?ianueea I.A. I?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? oa noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai
oeea?eueiiai noaei/einoaa // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
«Aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa ?aoi?ia a Oe?a?i?». – E., 1997. – N. 322-324.

9. Iaie?ianueea I.A. Nenoaiaoecaoe?y ye oeyo oaeineiiaeaiiy
oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «Nenoaiaoecaoe?y caeiiiaeaanoaa a
Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee». – E., 1999. – N. 499-502.

Iaie?ianueea I.A. I?eioeei ciaaaeueiino? noi??i oa eiai ?aae?caoe?y a
noaeia?e i?aeoeoe?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.03 – oeea?eueia i?aai; oeea?eueiee i?ioean;
n?iaeia i?aai; i?aeia?iaeia i?eaaoia i?aai. – ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii i?iaeaiai i?eioeeio ciaaaeueiino? noi??i ye
eiinoeoooe?eii? canaaee noaei/einoaa: aeine?aeaeaii eiai ?noi?e/iee
?icaeoie oa /eiia caeiiiaeaanoai; i?iaiae?ciaaii nooue oa i?noea a
nenoai? i?eioeei?a oeea?eueiiai i?ioeano; aeaii iiaa aecia/aiiy iiiyooy
oeueiai i?eioeeio; i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ca?oa?aeiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa; ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iaoai?ci eiai ?aae?caoe??; aea/aii
no/anio i?aeoeeo noaei/einoaa ii oeea?eueieo ni?aaao; noi?ioeueiaaii
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?eioeeio
ciaaaeueiino? a i?ioeanoaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa? Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?eioeeie oeea?eueiiai i?ioeanoaeueiiai i?aaa,
ciaaaeuei?noue, noaeiaa i?aeoeea.

Iaie?ianeay A.A. I?eioeei ninoycaoaeueiinoe noi?ii e aai ?aaeecaoeey a
noaeaaiie i?aeoeea. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.03 – a?aaeaeaineia i?aai; a?aaeaeaineee
i?ioeann; naiaeiia i?aai; iaaeaeoia?iaeiia /anoiia i?aai. – Einoeooo
ainoaea?noaa e i?aaa ei. A.I. Ei?aoeeiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony i?eioeei ninoycaoaeueiinoe noi?ii a
ea/anoaa eiinoeoooeeiiiiai ia/aea a?aaeaeaineiai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa.
I?iaaaeaiiia aaoi?ii aeoaieia enoi?e/aneia enneaaeiaaiea cae?aieaiey
yoiai i?eioeeia a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aai
aeaiie?aoe/aneie i?e?iaea. Ioeac io ninoycaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a
noaeii?iecaiaenoaa a iieueco neaaenoaaiiiai eiae ianoi a ia?eiaeu
iaeaieueoaai aiaoaoaeuenoaa ainoaea?noaa a noa?o /anoiuo eioa?ania
/eaiia iauanoaa. Caeiiiia?iui yaeyaony iieiia niioaaonoaea
i?ioeannoaeueiuo ii?i i?e?iaea a?aaeaeaineiai i?aaa, aaea eaaeaeue
a?aaeaeaiei eiaao aeinoaoi/ioth ia?o naiaiaeo aeey ?aaeecaoeee naieo
i?aa, caueou naieo eioa?ania. Aeaenoaothuaa i?ioeannoaeueiia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai oaea aeaaii ia niioaaonoaoao o?iaith ?acaeoey
iauanoaa.

A iuiaoiee ia?eiae noaiiaeaiey iiaie nenoaiu i?aainoaeey neaaeoao
enoiaeeoue ec ia/ae ni?aaaaeeeainoe, aeinooiiinoe noaeaaiie caueou,
eioi?ua a ninoiyiee iaania/eoue aiaae?aiea i?eioeeia ninoycaoaeueiinoe a
noaeii?iecaiaenoai. Nenoaia noaeaaiiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa aeieaeia
no?ieoueny ia ninoycaiee, i?ioeaiai?noaa aeaoo ?aaiii?aaiuo noi?ii,
inoaaeyy noaeo ooieoeeth i?eiaiaiey i?aaa.

Aaoiiaoe/aneia eneeth/aiea ec aeoeaiinoe noaea aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia a ninoiyiee eciaieoue i?eau/iia iieiaeaiea aauae.
Noi?iiu ioiuia ia oieueei eiatho i?aai aeieacuaaoue naie o?aaiaaiey e
aic?aaeaiey, a caeiiii ia ieo aiceiaeaia iaycaiiinoue aeieacuaaoue
ianoiyoaeuenoaa, eioi?uie iie iainiiauaatho naie o?aaiaaiey e
aic?aaeaiey. Enoiaey ec yoiai aaoi?ii noi?ioee?iaaii iiaia iiiyoea
i?eioeeia ninoycaoaeueiinoe noi?ii.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaaaony nenoaia i?eioeeiia a?aaeaeaineiai
i?ioeanna eae aaeeinoai, aaea ana ninoaaiua yeaiaiou iaoiaeyony ai
acaeiinayce. Anee ?aiaa ninoycaoaeueiinoue yaeyeanue eneeth/eoaeueii
io?aneaaui i?eioeeiii a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeanna, oi a iineaaenoaee naia
aeeciue iaoneiaeea i?eciaiea ninoycaoaeueiinoe a ea/anoaa ia/aea aeey
anaai noaeii?iecaiaenoaa. Ni a?aiaie i?eiyoey iiaie Eiinoeoooeee Oe?aeiu
a 1996 a. ninoycaoaeueiinoue yaeyaony eiinoeoooeeiiiui i?eioeeiii.

Oaeia eciaiaiea ?iee e ianoa a nenoaia i?eioeeiia ia iiaei ia aucaaoue
eciaiaiee a aai iiieiaiee. Aei yoiai i?eioeei ninoycaoaeueiinoe
oaeoe/anee ioiaeaeanoaeyeny n ?aaiii?aaeai noi?ii, yaeyeny
i?iaeieaeaieai i?eioeeia aeeniiceoeaiinoe.

E?iia oiai, aeeth/aiea a niaea?aeaiea ninoycaoaeueiinoe aeoeaiinoe noaea
a aeieacaoaeuenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ?anniao?eaaeinue aa?aioeae
aeinoeaeaiey iauaeoeaiie enoeiu. I?e i?aaeeueiii iiieiaiee
ninoycaoaeueiinoe ioiaaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue a oaeii niaoaiee ?aciuo
naiinoiyoaeueiuo i?eioeeiia. E?iia oiai, oa?aeoa? enoeiu, eioi?ay
aeinoeaaaony a ninoycaoaeueiii i?ioeanna, oiaea ia iiaeao inoaaaoueny
iaeciaiiui e ioiuia aa neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae noaeaaioth.

Aeenna?oaioii, enoiaey ec oai?aoe/aneeo iainiiaaiee ?anniao?eaaaony
nooue ninoycaoaeueiinoe e i?aaeeaaaaony eiie?aoiue iaoaieci aa
?aaeecaoeee. Iaauiieiaiea iaycaiiinoe aeieacuaaoue naie o?aaiaaiey e
aic?aaeaiey neaaeoao ?anoeaieaaoue eae a?aaeaeaineia i?ioeannoaeueiia
i?aaiia?ooaiea, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai noi?iia aeieaeia i?eaeaeaoueny e
a?aaeaeaineie i?ioeannoaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Oaeay ioaaonoaaiiinoue
i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaeiaeaiea naieoeee ii?aaeaeaiiiai aeaea –
io?eoeaoaeueiuo i?ioeannoaeueiuo iineaaenoaee, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiuie.

Ia?aoiae io neaaenoaaiiiai e ninoycaoaeueiiio ia/aeo aeieaeai
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny cae?aieaieai a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa eiie?aoiiai
iaoaiecia ii aai aiaae?aieth a a?aaeaeaineee i?ioeann. ?aoaiea noaea
aeieaeii auiineoueny ia iniiaaiee oieueei oao aeieacaoaeuenoa, eioi?ua
i?aaenoaaeaiu noi?iiaie e a i?aaeaeao cayaeaiiuo eneiauo o?aaiaaiee,
noaeii ia aeieaeiu i?iaa?youeny iniiaaiey ioeaca io enea enooeii,
ie?iaiai niaeaoaiey. Neaaeoao cae?aieoue aiciiaeiinoue aeey noaea
n/eoaoue oaeo onoaiiaeaiiui eee ii?iaa?aiooui a neo/aa oeeiiaiey noi?iiu
io i?iaaaeaiey yenia?oecu.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony eciaiaiey a ooieoeeyo i?ieo?i?a a
a?aaeaeaineii i?ioeanna. Cae?aieaiiia a Eiinoeoooeee i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
ia neaaeoao naiaeeoue oieueei e iiaea/a enea a eioa?anao a?aaeaeaieia.
I?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai i?ieo?i?ii a i?ioeanna eioa?ania iaeiie ec noi?ii
a?oai ia?ooaao ?aaiii?aaea, i?ioeai?a/eo naiie nooe ninoycaoaeueiiai
i?ioeanna. Aianoa n oai oeaeaniia?aciui yaeyaony i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoai
i?ieo?i?ii eioa?ania ainoaea?noaa e o/anoea a ea/anoaa naiinoiyoaeueiie
oeao?u a aeaeao ii?aaeaeaiiuo eaoaai?ee.

I?iaiaeece?iaaiiay aeenna?oaioii noaeaaiay i?aeoeea naeaeaoaeuenoaoao,
/oi noaeu aua ia aioiau e aiaae?aieth ninoycaoaeueiinoe a i?ioeann.
Yoiio i?aiyonoaotho eae ionoonoaea a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa /aoeiai
iaoaiecia ?aaeecaoeee ninoycaoaeueiinoe, niioaaonoaothueo ?acuyniaiee a
iinoaiiaeaieyo Ieaioia Aa?oiaiiai Noaea Oe?aeiu, oae e iiceoeey noaeia
eannaoeeiiiie e iaaeci?iie einoaioeee. Eiaiii yoe noaeu i?iaeieaeatho
aiceaaaoue ia noaeu ia?aie einoaioeee iaycaiiinoue i?iaa?eoue aeiaiaeu
noi?ii aeieacaoaeuenoaaie, auynieoue aeiaiaeu e aic?aaeaiey noi?ii.

A ea/anoaa auaiaeia aaoi?ii noi?ioee?iaaiu eiie?aoiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
iaiiaeaieth a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia
aeieaeii ninoiyoueny n i?eiyoeai iiaiai A?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai
eiaeaena Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?eioeeiu a?aaeaeaineiai i?ioeannoaeueiiai i?aaa,
ninoycaoaeueiinoue, noaeaaiay i?aeoeea.

Nemirovska H.V. The Principle of Competitiveness of Sides and its
Realization in Court Practice. — Manuscript.

The dissertation for obtaining a scientific degree of candidate of
sciences (law) in specialty 12.00.03 – Civil Law; Civil Procedure;
Family Law; International Private Law. – The V.M.Koretsky Institute of
State of Law National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to problems of principle of competitiveness
of sides as a constitutional back ground of court procedure as to civil
cases: studying of its historical development and acting legislation as
to it; to analyzing of the meaning and place of it in the system of
civil process principles; to finding a new definition of this
principle; to comparative analysis of foreign legislation devoted to it;
to searching a new mechanism of its realization; to studying of
present practice of a civil cases court procedure; to proposing
recommendations as to improving a legal position and regulation of the
principle of competitiveness in civil process legislation of Ukraine.

Key words: principles of civil procedure law; competitiveness, court
practice of civil cases.

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