Прагмасемантичні особливості категорії оцінки в рекламному тексті (на матеріалі реклами журналу ‘Time’): Автореф. дис… канд. філол. наук / Л.М. Кири

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ee?e/oe Ea?ena Ieeiea?aia

OAeE 41:659.001.41

I?AAIANAIAIOE*I? INIAEEAINO?

EAOAAI??? IOe?IEE

A ?AEEAIIIIO OAENO?

(ia iaoa??ae? ?aeeaie aeo?iaeo “time”)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiae?enueei? o?eieia?? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ie?eiaa Ia??y Ieaenaiae??aia,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oaa/ei Na?oeaia Ieaen??aia, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e ia?aeeaaeo Noinueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ssiei Iaee? Aiae???aia, aeaeai

ia?aeeaaeaoeueeiai oaeoeueoaoo

Ai?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai

?inoeoooo ?iicaiieo iia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a ia?aeeaaei-

ciaanoaa ? eiio?anoeaii? e?iaa?noeee ?iai?

A?eai??y Ei/o?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “8” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 i?e Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
e?iaa?noe/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 73)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea,
73)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “6” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.A. Eaeeoa

Ca inoaii? ?iee aea/aiith ?ie? iiae a ethaenueeiio ni?eeoaaii? oa
?ioaeaeooaeueiiio inai?ii? ethaeeiith na?oo aeanoeaa ii?aeiaiiy
naiaioe/iiai oa i?aaiaoe/iiai aeaiaio?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, oea aea? ciiao
aecia/eoe iiaiee ia’?i ?ioi?iaoe?? , ui ia?aaea?oueny
aeneiaethaaiiyi/oaenoii. Ine?eueee eiaeiee oaeno a?aeia?aaea? ye
i?aaeiaoio, oae ? eiioi?eaoeaio neooaoe?th, ia?aaeaa/ath/e iaaiee aeea
ia aoaeeoi??th, ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi e?iaa?noeee ? ??ciianiaeoia
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiiiiaio?a oeueiai aieeao. Iaeiei ?c oaeeo eiiiiiaio?a,
aac noii?ao, aenooia? eaoaai??y ioe?iee – ca neiaaie I.Ae. A?oothiiai?
“iaeyne?aa?oee i?aaenoaaiee i?aaiaoe/iiai cia/aiiy”. Aiia caeaoia
iaaeaaaoe oaenoo a?aeiia?aei? eiai?oeai? ? eiioi?eaoeaii-iiaeaii?a?
oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Eaoaai??y ioe?iee iiaea aeyaeyoeny ye iioieia?/ia, ieac?iiaeueia /e
a??ooaeueia iciaea oaenoo, ?ioeie neiaaie, oey eaoaai??y caeia? yaea?io
/e ia?eoa??eio iiceoe?th a eiioeaiooaeuei?e ? iiai?e no?oeoo?? oaenoo.
I?noea oa ?ieue ioe?iee aea/athoueny iiaiciaaoeyie ia iaoa??ae? ??cieo
oaeno?a ? a ??ciiiai?oieo aniaeoao. Iaeiei c ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oaeno ?aeeaie, a yeiio ioe?iea aenooia? eiiiiiaioii
ia?aeiioaaeueii-niiioeaeueiiai aieeao ? caniaii caaacia/aiiy eiai
eiioi?eaoeaii-ci?noiai? oe?e?niino?.

?aeeaia ye aaaaoiieaiiaa yaeua – nioe?aeueia, ineoieia?/ia,
e?iaa?noe/ia, anoaoe/ia, aeania aeiiii?/ia oiui – i?eaa?oa? oaaao
aeine?aeiee?a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocae ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?.
Aeooaeueiei ia nueiaiaei? ? aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a aa?aoaaeueiiai aieeao
?aeeaie, ?? caeaoiino? ia?aeiioaaoe ? niiioeaoe aoaeeoi??th aei ae?e, ??
ni?iiiaeiino? caiai’yoiaoaaoeny ?aoeei??ioii ? caaacia/oaaoe aaoiiaoeci
iiaaae?iee inoaiiueiai.

Iiai? iniaeeaino? ?aeeaiiiai oaenoo (?O) ? i?aaeiaoii iino?eiiai aiae?co
ye o ca?oa?aei?e, oae ? o a?o/eciyi?e e?iaa?noeoe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaaeooueny ia iaoa??ae? ??cieo iia o oaeeo iai?yieao: caaaeueiee iien
(G. Leech, I.A. Ao?nueea, Ae.?. ?icaioaeue, I.I. Eiooaa, A.I.
No?eaeaiei); eiioeaiooaeueia no?oeoo?a (I.A. Aiii?ia); i?aaiaoe/i?,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-naiaioe/i?, no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i?, noee?noe/i?,
eaene/i?, neioaene/i? ia?aiao?e (A.I. Aa?aiiaa, ?.I. A?ee?oan, N.I.
Eiceiaa, A.I. Eociaoeiaa, N.I. Eoaeen, E.A. Eaaaae?aa, E.Ae. Ia?anueea,
?.I. Iiena?iei, I.I. Ie?eiaa, TH.A. Neeueaano?ia, ?.A. Ne?euenueeee,
?.O. Oanoaeiaa); nioe?i- ? ineoie?iaa?noe/i? iniaeeaino? (I.?. E?aniiaa,
I.I. Eaiioue?a, I.?. Iaaiaaeoeueea, I.I. Oaoia?iae/, TH.N. Ni?ie?i, ?.O.
Oa?ania, C.L. Bovee, W.F. Arens, J.L. Klose, M. Walker, J. Wright);
ie?ai? eiiiiceoe?ei? aeaiaioe: neiaai (N.I. Eiceiaa, A.I. Eociaoeiaa,
I.Ae. Nieioaiei, G. Cook); oiaa?iee ciae (C.I. Eiiieiaa, O.I. Niaieaaa,
I.A. Noia?ainueea).

Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui iiai? i?iaeaie ?aeeaie aeine?aeaeothoueny
aeineoue oe?iei, iica oaaaith caeeoa?oueny aeaoaeueia aena?oeaiiy
ioe?iiiai aniaeoo ?O, aea/aiiy yeiai iiaea iiynieoe ye iniaeeaino?
eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ii? i?aai?caoe?? oaenoo, oae ? aeaye? iiiaioe
oaenoioi?ioaaiiy oa oaenoini?eeiyooy.

Ia’?eoii aiae?co a aeena?oaoe?? ? iiai? caniae ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iee a
?aeeaiiiio oaeno?. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaoaai???
ioe?iee oa ?? aieea ia iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaianaiaioeee oaenoo.
Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee 1250 oaeno?a ?aeeaie aeo?iaeo
“Times” ca ia??iae 1990-1997 ??.

Aeaoaeueiee iien oi?i ae?aaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaoaai??? ioe?iee a
?O aeeeeeaiee iaiao?aei?noth aecia/aiiy niinia?a ?aae?caoe??
ia?aeiioaaeueii? eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? iaoe a ?aeeaiiiio
aeai??, cie?aia i?noey ioe?iee o cae?eniaii? ?aeeaiiiai ia?aeiiaiiy, a
oaeiae aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-iiaeaii?ai? caeaaeiino? ioe?iee a?ae
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a ?aeeaiiiai eiioaenoo. Oaeiae /aea? ia nai?
ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy uiaei aa??aoeaiino? ioe?iii? naiaioeee o o?aaiaioao
oaenoiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeeo o?aaiaio?a ye
eiioi?eaoeaieo aoai?a niiioeaiiy a iiaeaii?aiio aeo?. A?aeiii, ui
ioe?iea caeaoia ia?aiao?ecoaaoe oaeno; o ca’yceo c oeei aeeeeea? iaaiee
?ioa?an aeyaeaiiy ?? i?noey a no?oeoo?? naiaioe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? c
iiaeyaeo i?aaiaoe/ii? no?aoaa?? aeeneo?no.

Aena?oeaiith oeeo ieoaiue i?enay/aii iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, oaeei /eiii, aecia/a?oueny caaaeueiei
ni?yioaaiiyi e?iaa?noe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiae, cie?aia ye ?ino?oiaioa ia?aeiiaiiy oa niiioeaiiy.
Aeyaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a aa?aaeueiiai aieeao ia?aeiioaaeueii-niiioeaeueiiai
oaenoo, a naia, ?aeeaiiiai, iaiiaeeeaa aac aaeaeaaoiiai aiae?co eiai
i?aaiaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a, iaeiei c yeeo ? ioe?iiee.

Iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ??ciia?/ii iieno?oueny
ioe?iiee eiiiiiaio ?O ?c oi/ee ci?o eiai aeai?iaeo, iiaeaii?ai-aeoiaeo ?
aeeneo?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee; aea/aia ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y ?O ia iniia? ??
aeieiai? ?ai?acaioaoe??. O ?iaio? aaeineiiaeaii aiae?c iaoai?ci?a
niiioeaiiy a iiaeaii?aiio aeo?, ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??y
no?oeoo?e ?ioi?iaoe?? oaenoo.

Iaoith iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae iiaiiai
ae?aaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaoaai??? ioe?iee a ?O oeyoii aeyaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae ?aae?caoe?? eiai i?aaiaoe/ii? ianoaiiae oa iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo eiai oaie.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo eiie?aoieo
caaaeaiue:

1. Aecia/eoe iniaeeaino? eiai?oeaii-iiaeaii?aiai ae?aaeaiiy eiioeaioo
iiceoeaiino? a?aeiia?aeii aei niaoeeo?ee noa?e ni?eeoaaiiy,
eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe oa oaeoi?a aae?anaoa; ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a aecia/eoe eaiii?/i? ?ene ?O.

2. Aeine?aeeoe naiaioe/i? oeie ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a
i?iiiceoe?iiaeueieo oa?ao ?O, ?icaeyiooe no?oeoo?o i?aaiaoe/ii?
?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia iniia? eiioi?eaoeaieo iaeeieoeue oaenoo
(aeie?a), ui i?noyoue iaaiee oei ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe niiioeaeuei? aeanoeaino? aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??
oa ?o ?ieue o aaiacen? aee?aeoeaii? ?eieooe?? ?O.

4. Aecia/eoe oeie ca’yceo i?ae o?aaiaioaie ?O – aeieaie ioe?iii?
?ioi?iaoe?? a oaiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? oaenoo.

5. Anoaiiaeoe nooi?iue caeaaeiino? i?ae ae?aaeaiiyi ioe?iee ? niiniaii
?icaeoeo oaie ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no.

6. Iiaoaeoaaoe aa??aoeai? iiaeae? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei
niiniao ?icaeoeo oaie.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny iinoaaeaieie caaaeaiiyie,
iaoa??aeii, oai?aoe/iith ni?yiiaai?noth ?iaioe ? iineoue eiiieaeniee
oa?aeoa?. Aieiaiei ? iaoiae a?iioaoeei-aeaaeoeoeaii aiae?co,
aeiiii?aeieie – iieniaee, aeaiaioe aeao?i?oe?eiiai, eiiiiiaioiiai,
aeeno?eaooeaiiai, eiioaenoieia?/iiai, ?ioaioe?iiaeueiiai oa e?euee?niiai
aiae?c?a ? iaoiae iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ei?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeaie
aca?iiae?? naiaioeee oa i?aaiaoeee oaenoo ia?aeiioaaeueii-niiioeaeueiiai
oeio; e?iaa?noe/iee iien niinia?a ae?aaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
eaoaai??? ioe?iee ni?ey? ?icoe?aiith iaoeo ciaiue i?i naiaioe/iee
iioaioe?ae iiaieo iaeeieoeue oa ?o i?aaiaoe/i? iiaeeeaino? o eiie?aoiiio
nioe?aeueii-iiaeaii?aiio eiioaeno?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaiei
aianeii o ?ic?iaeo oai??? ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeueiai? no?aoeo?eaoe??
iiae, iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a, aeeneo?no, o aea/aiiy aeayeeo aniaeo?a
eiioi?eaoeaii? naiaioeee, eiai?oeaii? naiaioeee, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaenoo;
aiie oaeiae ni?eyoeiooue ?ica’ycaiith ieoaiue i?e?i- ? iae?inaiaioeee,
cie?aia, oai?aoe/iiio inieneaiith i?iaeai ioe?iiiai aa??thaaiiy o
neiainiieo/aii?, ?a/aii?, aacaoe? oa oaeno?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
eiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a o i?ioean?
aeeeaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo caiyoue c eaeneeieia?? (?icae?e “Naiaioe/ia
no?oeoo?a oaenoo”) oa noee?noeee (?icae?e “Ooieoe?iiaeuei? noee?”)
aiae?enueei? iiae, i?e /eoaii? niaoeeo?n?a ?c i?aaiaoeee oa
eiioi?eaoeaii? e?iaa?noeee, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaenoo, i?aaiaoeee oa
naiaioeee iiaieo iaeeieoeue, a oaeiae ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo c
aiae?enueei? iiae i?e i?iaaaeaii? noee?noe/iiai, eaene/iiai,
?ioa?i?aoaoeaiiai oa eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aiae?co oaeno?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?? i?ioiaeeea ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aiae?enueei?
o?eieia?? Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee; ??
aacia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe a?aeia?aaeai? o aeiiia?aeyo ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
o 1994-1998 ?.?., i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Ethaeeia: iiaa, eoeueoo?a,
i?ciaiiy” (E?eaee ??a, 1995 ?.). Iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaany ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eaene/iiai,
noee?noe/iiai oa ?ioa?i?aoaoeaiiai aiae?co oaeno?a o a?oiao nooaeaio?a
III-V eo?n?a aeuacaaaeaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a iaaeao
iaoeiai? oaie “Naiaioe/i?, nioe?ie?iaa?noe/i? oa i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino?
iiaieo iaeeieoeue”, ui ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith aiae?enueei? o?eieia??
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee (oaia
caoaa?aeaeaiia ?aaeith Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i?ioieie
?9 a?ae 21 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo).

Iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Niaoeeo?ea ?ai?acaioaoe?? eaoaai??? ioe?iee a ?O aecia/a?oueny
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie oaeoi?aie ?aeeaiiiai aeai?o (iniaeeainoyie noa?e
ni?eeoaaiiy, eiioi?eaoeaiith iaoith ? oaeoi?ii aae?anaoa). Caeiath/e
aeii?ioth/o iiceoe?th ia nioe?aeueii-aen?ieia?/iiio ??ai? oaenoo ?
aecia/ath/e eiai eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iee oa iiaeaii?aee aniaeoe,
eaoaai??y ioe?iee aenooia? aieiaiei e?eoa???i iieno ?O ye oie?noe/iiai
ooai?aiiy.

2. Ioe?iiee eiiiiiaio, ui i?noeoueny a eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? oa
i?anoiiceoe?? ?O (ye iiaeaii?aiai aeoo), coiiaeth? ia?aaea/o iei
ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

3. Ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y, niaoeeo?/ii ae?aaeaia e i?aai?ciaaia ia
i?iiiceoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? oaenoo, iaeii/anii aecia/a? ? eiai
i?aaiaoe/ii-?ioaioe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue. Caaaeyee nai?io
i?ane?eioeaii-?aeiiaiaeaoe?eiiio iioaioe?aeo ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y
aenooia? caniaii oi?ioaaiiy e iineeaiiy aee?aeoeaii? ?eieooe??
(ae?aaeaii? oi?ioeith “Oea – “aeia?a”, nei?enoaeoanue!”) o o?aaiaioao
?O, iaaeath/e ?i aeanoeainoae iai?yieo i?e?iaeo?a niiioeaiiy.

4. No?oeoo?a ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? – oea ii?aeiaiiy aeie?a ioe?iii?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeaiioaoeaiiai, eiiioaoeaiiai oa i?aeoaenoiaiai naiaioe/ieo
oei?a, ye? iathoue eiie?aoia ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy o iiaeaii?aiio
aeo?.

5. Iine?aeiai?noue aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ??cieo naiaioe/ieo oei?a
o no?oeoo?? i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?O aeaiiino?o? eiia?iaoe?th
ineoieia?/ieo i?eeii?a na?aeiiiai/iana?aeiiiai ia?aeiiaiiy ?aoeei??ioa a
iiceoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai ia’?eoa ye i?aenoaae aeey eiai ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.
Canoinoaaiiy oaeeo i?eeii?a caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th niiioeaeueii?
onoaiiaee ?O.

6. I?ae oaiaoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no oa /a?aoaaiiyi o
iueiio oi?i ? oei?a ioe?iee ?nio? i?yia aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue, a oiio
aa??aio noaie aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeia?aaea? ye niin?a
?ai?acaioaoe?? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??, oae ? oei ?icaeoeo oaie aeeneo?no.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a
c aeniiaeaie aei eiaeiiai c ieo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a oa nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, yeee aeeth/a? 214 iaeiaioaaiue.

O Anooi? aecia/athoueny caaaeueiee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoa,
eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy oa iaoa??ae, aeae?eythoueny ia’?eo oa i?aaeiao
aiae?co; ia??oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iniaeeaino? eaoaai??? ioe?iee a ?aeeaiiiio aeai??”
?icaeyaea?oueny aieea aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a ?aeeaiiiai eiioaenoo
ia iiaeaethaaiiy ioe?iee a eiioeaiooaeueii-iiaeaii?a?e no?oeoo?? ?O ye
oie?noe/iiio ooai?aii?. Iienothoueny oa?aeoa?i? niiniae ae?aaeaiiy
ioe?iee, aeaoa?i?iiaai? iniaeeainoyie neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy,
eiioi?eaoeaiith iaoith ? oaeoi?ii aae?anaoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ioe?iiee aniaeo ?O ye iiaeaii?aiai aeoo niiioeaiiy”
aea/a?oueny iaoai?ci ?aae?caoe?? niiioeaeueii? onoaiiaee oaenoo ?aeeaie
ia iniia? niaoeeo?ee ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iee a eiai o?aaiaioao – i?e?iaeoao.
Aeae?eythoueny naiaioe/i? oeie ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aiae?co?oueny
no?oeoo?a i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?O ia iniia? aeieiai? ?ai?acaioaoe??
ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aeyaeythoueny i?aaianaiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? aeie?a
ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (I?-aeie?a).

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Noaia I?-aeie?a ye ae?aaeaiiy ca’yce?a i?ae
oaiaoe/ieie o?aaiaioaie a ?aeeaiiiio aeeneo?n?” ?icaeyaeathoueny
iniaeeaino? ii?aeiaiiy aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ni?aa?aeiinii c
oaiaoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no. Aoaeo?oueny noaia
I?-aeie?a. Aiae?cothoueny niiniae ?icaeoeo ?aeeaiii? oaie ? a?aeiia?aei?
?i aa??aioe noaie I?-aeie?a.

O Aeniiaeao i?noeoueny ei?ioeee aeeeaae aieiaieo iieiaeaiue ?
?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iae?aneththoueny
ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy ioe?iii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

?O ? eiiieaeniei aaaaoiieaiiaei yaeuai: oea coiiaeth? ??ciianiaeoiee
i?aeo?ae aei eiai aea/aiiy: c oi/ee ci?o ooieoe?iiaeueii? noee?noeee,
oai??? iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a ? e?iaa?noeee oaenoo. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ?O
ni?ey? aeyaeaiith eiai oa?aeoa?ieo iciae ? aeicaiey? aecia/eoe
niaoeeo?eo ae?aaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeiiaeo i?aai?coth/eo ?
aecia/aeueieo eaoaai??e, na?aae yeeo ie aeae?ey?ii eaoaai??th ioe?iee.

*eneaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?O ye oie?noe/iiai ooai?aiiy, ui ia? niaoeeo?eo
oi?ie, ci?noo ? eiioi?eaoeaieo ooieoe?e, na?ae/aoue i?i eiai
iaeaaei?noue aei oaeno?a eaiii?/iiai oeio (N.I. Eoae?n, Ae.A.
?icaioaeue, I.I. Eioo?a, ?.A. A?ee?oan, ?.A. Oanoaeiaa, I.Ae. Nieioaiei,
I.I. Ie?eiaa, I.A. Aiii?ia, G.N. Leech oa ?io?).

O /enoi e?iaa?noe/iiio ieai? eaiii?/i?noue ?O ia?aaeaa/a? ?nioaaiiy
a?aeiinii aei?noei? iiaeae? eiai eiiiiceoe?eii? aoaeiae, iaiaaeai?noue
ia’?io, niaoeeo?eo a?ao?/iiai ioi?ieaiiy, a e??i oiai, — aeei?enoaiiy
eaene/ieo iiaieo cania?a aeeiai?/iiai aeni?aneaii-ee?oiaiai oeio,
neioaene/ieo iiaoi??a, ?iia?aoeaieo, ieee/ieo eiino?oeoe?e oiui. Iaeiae
eaiii?/i?noue ?O iieyaa? ia eeoa o noa?aioeiiino? eiai ciai?oiueiai
ioi?ieaiiy. Aaaeeeai a?aoiaoaaoe ? oie oaeo, ui naiaioeea oaenoo
aaco?oueny ia aeaye?e noaa?eueiino? iiaeae? (Aiii?ia I.A.), inoaiiy
aeeth/a? a naaa ??ciiai ?iaeo no?ee? eiiiiiaioe. Iaeiei ?c aaciaeo
eiiiiiaio?a, eio?? caaacia/othoue nieneiao oe?e?ni?noue ? ca’yci?noue
?O, a oaeiae ae??oaiiy iei eiioi?eaoeaiiai caaaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?th
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy a neooaoe?? ?aeeaiiiai ni?eeoaaiiy, ?
eaoaai??y ioe?iee.

Ie aeoiaeeii c iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ia iaoa ?O –
caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino? oa aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano eiioi?eaoe?? –
cae?enith?oueny oeyoii niaoeeo?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? e?iaa?noe/ieo oa
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo cania?a, ia’?aeiaieo iaaeiei eiai?oeaii? eiinoaioe
?O – eiioeaioo iciaee aaiaoaeoeaii? iiceoeaiino? ia’?eoa iia?aeiieaiiy.
Aianaiiy ?aea? iiceoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai ia’?eoa o
na?aeii?noue/i?aena?aeii?noue ?aoeei??ioa ?aae?co?oueny aiane?aeie
aeei?enoaiiy iiaieo cania?a ioe?iee – iioieia?/ieo (The finest in the
sky — aa?ae?i?? Emirates), ocoaeueieo (Come fly the friendly skies. –
United Airlines), ieac?iiaeueieo (Smooth as silk to more points in Asia
– aa?ae?i?? Thai), a??ooaeueieo (Istanbul. Make a point of it – Turkish
Airlines).

Iaie a?aany aei oaaae oie oaeo, ui a i?ioean ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaenoo
aeeth/a?oueny ia eeoa aeania iiaia, i?iiiceoe?iiaeueia, aaciaa
?ioi?iaoe?y, a e ony ?aeaaaioia ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea aeoea?co?oueny ?c
caaaeueiiai ciaiiy /e iai’yo?, ? oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?y, eia?/ii /e
aa?enoe/ii aeaaaeaia. Oiaoi caaaa/aiiy aeania iiaii? ?ioi?iaoe??
iia’ycaia c i?aeeeth/aiiyi eiioaenooaeueii-neooaoeaii? oa ?ioa?aioe?eii?
?ioi?iaoe?? (Iiaeeia A.?., Kempson R). Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ie o?aeoo?ii
anth ?aeeaiio ?ioi?iaoe?th ye noeoii?noue i?iiiceoe?iiaeueiiai ?
i?aaiaoe/iiai ??ai?a.

Ioe?iea, aenie?oeeoii /e ?iie?oeeoii ae?aaeaia a i?iiiceoe?iiaeueieo
oa?ao ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aenooia? neaiaeii ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??.
Ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y ? no?oeoo?ii, ooieoe?iiaeueii oa naiaioe/ii
aeene?aoiith ? o?aeoo?oueny iaie ye iaiao?aeia eaiea, caeaoia
caaacia/oaaoe i?aaiaoe/iee aoaeo iia?aeiieaiiy.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei aiae?co i?aaianaiaioeee ioe?iee aeicaieea ?icaeyiooe
??ci? ?? naiaioe/i? oeie ia ye o?aaiaioa?i? i?iyae, a ye aeioe?euei?
niiniae ?ioi?ioaaiiy ? aieeao c oi/ee ci?o ?o i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiai?
aii?yaeeiaaiino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Aecia/aeueiee iiiaio iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy – iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui
ioe?iea, ii?yae c ?ioeie nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieie aniaeoaie i?ciaiiy,
aoiaeeoue o iaioaeueii-iiaeaii?ao ?ai?acaioaoe?th ae?eniino?, i?e/iio
iiaea aa??thaaoenue o ieai? oi?ie, ci?noo oa ooieoe?e caeaaeii a?ae
iniaeeainoae nioe?aeueii-iiaeaii?aiai eiioaenoo, a yeiio cae?enith?oueny
aeo ioe?iee. Ii?aeiaiiy a no/anieo e?iaa?noe/ieo i?aoeyo eiai?oeaii?
i???ioaoe?? aiae?co c eiioi?eaoeaiith ni?ey? ae??oaiith oe?iei? i?iaeaie
– aecia/aiith ?ie? ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a iia?.

sse na?ae/aoue aeai? i?iaaaeaiiai iaie aiae?co, ioe?iiee eiiiiiaio
aeyaey?oueny ia ??ai? iiaa?oiaai? iiaii? ?ai?acaioaoe??, ia
ia?aaeiiaa?oiaaiio ??ai? eiioeaiooaeueii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? ? ia aeeaeiiiio
?ioaioe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ?O. Oea aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe niaoeeo?eo
eiai?oeaii-iiaeaii?ai? no?oeoo?e ?O ni?aa?aeiinii c eaoaai???th ioe?iee.

Caeaoi?noue ioe?iee iiaeaethaaoe aen?ieia?/iee ??aaiue ?aeeaiiiai
iia?aeiieaiiy (ae?aaeaoe ii?iaoeai?noue /e ia?aaa?oai?noue ii?ie aai ae
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ii?i? yeino? ia’?eoa), i?aaiaoe/ii-eiioi?eaoeaiee
??aaiue (aeoea?coaaoe eiioi?eaoeaiiai ia?oia?a) coiiaeth? o?aeooaaiiy ??
ye iaia’yceiaiai eiiiiiaioa eiioeaiooaeueii? no?oeoo?e
aen?ieia?/ii-ia?aeiioaaeueieo oaeno?a, aei yeeo iaeaaeeoue ?aeeaia. Oiio
aecia/aiiy e?iaa?noe/ii? niaoeeo?ee ?O ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c iiaeaii?ai?
o?enaoe?? ioe?iee oa ?? ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae o
oaeno?.

A?aeiii, ui o i?ioean? noai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiaeiiai oaenoo
iathoue i?noea aca?iicoiiaeai? ca’ycee oa iioieia?/i? iciaee, aiie
aeieeaathoue c iniaeeainoae aeai?o. AEai? o?aeoo?oueny iaie ye eean
aa?aaeueieo oaeno?a, eio?? aenooiathoue o eiiaaioe?iiaeuei?e noai?, ye
ci?noia?e, oae ? iiai?e; oea ? aeioe?eueiith oi?iith ae?aaeaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy e iioeiaeueiei niiniaii ae??oaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaiiai caaaeaiiy a iaeiioeiieo neooaoe?yo ni?eeoaaiiy.

O i?ioean? aiae?co i?eioeei?a a?aeai?o ioe?iieo iiaieo cania?a o
?aeeaiiiio aeai?? iaie aoei aeyaeaii caeaaei?noue ioe?iii?
?ai?acaioaoe?? a?ae aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a ?aeeaiiiai eiioaenoo –
iniaeeainoae noa?e ni?eeoaaiiy, eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe ? oaeoi?a aae?anaoa.

Oae, noa?a ni?eeoaaiiy, aea ooieoe?iio? ?O, iia’ycaia c ae?iaeaiiyi
na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioaoe?e oa ioe?iie ae?eniino?, oi?ioaaiiyi ?
iiaeaethaaiiyi nenoaie iiaeyae?a ? nioe?aeueii? iiaaae?iee. sse
nioe?aeueia caiiaeaiiy ?O aeeiio? nioe?aeueii-aen?ieia?/io ooieoe?th.

Nioe?aeueii-aen?ieia?/iee oa?aeoa? ?O aecia/a? iniaeea?noue iiaeae?
?ai?acaioaoe?? ae?eniino? a oaeno?; oey iniaeea?noue iieyaa? a oiio, ui
ioe?iea aoiaeeoue o iiaeaeue ia ooieoe?iiaeuei?e (nioe?aeuei?e) iniia? o
aeaeyae? iiceoe?e, iioeaaoe?e, oe?eae. ?ioaioe?iiaeueia ?ici?uaiiy
iioeaoth/i? i?e?inenoaie a yae?? aeiaa?aaeueii? noaie oaenoo ?
eiai?oeaiei aeoii ioe?iee – eeaneo?eaoe??th. Oe?eeii i/aaeaeii, ui
?aae?caoe?y aen?ieia?/ii? ooieoe?? ?O ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aei?noue
eeaneo?eaoe?? ?aeeaiiiai ia’?eoa oiiaai eiie?aoii? neooaoe??, o ye?e
iiceoeai? aeanoeaino? oeueiai ia’?eoa iinoaaaoeiooue iaea?eueo
i?eaaaeeaeie uiaei iaaii? nenoaie oe?iiinoae i?aaenoaaiee?a iiaiiai
nioe?oio.

Ca?aeii c ii?iaie ?aeeaiiiai aeai?o, ye? aeiioneathoue ye ?iie?eaoe?th,
oae ? aenie?eaoe?th iiceoeaiino? ia’?eoa, ioe?iiee eiioeaio iiaea
io?eiaoe /enoi ioe?iia, ioe?iii-aeane?eioeaia /e /enoi aeane?eioeaia,
ciai?oiuei iaioe?iia ae?aaeaiiy, i?ioa a?i caaaeaee caeeoa?oueny
onoaeaiei, iaia’yceiaei eiiiiiaioii eiai?oeaii? iiaeae? oaenoo,
coiiaeaii? iaiao?aei?noth oi?ioaaiiy ioe?iii? iiceoe?? aoaeeoi???.

Iai?eeeaae, iiceoeai?noue aiaeeiieea ae?aaeaia o?acaie:

Omega: The sign of excellence (?20, 1992) – aeania ioe?iea

Corum: … simply one of the most distinctive and elegant sports watches
in the world (?24, 1993) – aeane?eioeaia ioe?iea

Baume & Mercier: In 160 years, we haven’t lost a second (?20, 1992) –
aeane?eioe?y.

sse aa/eii, aea?? ?aeeaiiaeaaoeai ?aeo?no i?e ?icaeyae? neooaoe?? aeey
?? ii?o?aooaaiiy aecia/a?oueny iioeaoaaeueiei iioaioe?aeii oaeo?a i?i
ia’?eo. O ?acoeueoao? ae?aaeaiiy iciae, ui aiaeththoue aei iaaieo
oe?iiinoae (anoaoe/iee aeaeyae, oi/i?noue, i?anoeae oiui), oi?io?oueny
i?eoeeueia noaaeaiiy iioaioe?aeueiiai niiaeeaa/a aei eiie?aoiiai oiaa?o.

Oaeei /eiii, iniaeeaino? nioe?aeueii-iiaeaii?ai? neooaoe??, cie?aia,
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy iaiaeo?aeueieo iiceoe?e aoaeeoi???,
coiiaeththoue oaeo ?ai?acaioaoe?th ae?eniino? a ?aeeaiiiio aeai??, a
ye?e ioe?iiee eiioeaio caeia? oeaio?aeueio, aeii?iaioio iiceoe?th.
?ioeie neiaaie, noai?aiiy ?aeeaiii? eiioeaioe?? , ia iniia? yei?
aoaeo?oueny aoaeue-yeee ?O, iieyaa? o a?aeiia?ae? ?aeeaiiaeaaoey ia
ieoaiiy “*iio ia’?eo ? “aeia?ei”?”

I?ioean ?aae?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe ?O ni?yiiaaiee ia ooaa?aeaeaiiy
eiioeaioo iiceoeaiino? ia’?eoa iia?aeiieaiiy o na?aeiiino? ?aoeei??ioa,
oea aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii i?aaenoaaeaiiy “aeiaiae?a ?icoio ? aeiaiaeo
ii/ooo?a” (?ac?ie?ia I.I.). Ineoieia?/ia aeanoea?noue ioe?iee aieeaaoe
ia ?ioaeaeooaeuei? oa aiioe?ei? (“ratio” oa “emotio”) noaie, caeaoi?
caaacia/eoe aacia?aoeiaeia i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? /a?ac
ineoieia?/i? o?eueo?e ?aoeei??ioa, aeicaiey? o?aeooaaoe ?? ye eiiiiiaio
ia?aeiiaiiy, eio?ee caaeiaieueiy? oiiae ye eia?/ii? a?aoiaioaoe??, oae ?
aiioe?eiiai i?aeneeaiiy.

Aiae?c iaoa??aeo cana?ae/ea, ui o cia/i?e a?eueoino? ?O (91,42%)
aea?oueny iine?aeiaiee ia?ao?ae a?ae iaeiiai aeaeo a?aoiaioaoe?? aei
?ioiai; oeae ia?ao?ae o iiaeaii?a?e no?oeoo?? ?O aeaiiino?o?oueny
??cieie niiniaaie ae?aaeaiiy eiioeaioo iiceoeaiino? – aenie?oeeoii,
oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy o?eniaaieo cania?a ioe?iee aiioe?eiiai ni?yioaaiiy
(pleasant, enjoyable, lovely, admiration etc), aeane?eioeaii-ioe?iiiai
oeio (fresh, accurate, smart, ingenuity, to improve etc), aai ae
?iie?oeeoii, /a?ac i?aaenoaaeaiiy iiceoeaiino? ia’?eoa eiioeaiooaeueii,
ciai?oiuei iaioe?iieie caniaaie, ye oaeiai, ui a?aeiia?aea? ioe?iiei
oyaeaiiyi i?i eiai “aeia?ee” c?acie o ea?oei? na?oo iiaiiai nioe?oio.
Iai?.,

EPSON: The design is revolutionary (?iie?oeeoia aeni?aneaia ioe?iea);

The Action Printer sits flat or stands upright (?iie?oeeoia ioe?iea
ia’?eoa o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oiia eiai ioe?iiiai noa?aioeio);

Fits comfortably (aenie?oeeoia aiioe?eia ioe?iea) in any size workspace
and can easily be transported anywhere – from home office, bedroom to
hotel room (?iie?oeeoia ioe?iea); (Feb.8, 1995).

*a?aoaaiiy oei?a oa oi?i ioe?iee a iiaiiio ioi?ieaii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
ia’?eo a?aeia?aaea? ii/a?aiaa caa?iaiiy aei ratio oa emotio ethaenueei?
ineo?ee: revolutionary (aiioe?eia i?aeneeaiiy) – sit flat … (eia?/iee
a?aoiaio) – fits comfortably (aiioe?eia i?aeneeaiiy) – can easily be
transformed anywhere … (eia?/iee a?aoiaio).

Oaeei /eiii, /a?aoaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai (?ioaeaeooaeueiiai) oa
aiioe?eiiai (aeni?aneaiiai) naiaioe/ieo oei?a ioe?iee, a oaeiae ??
aenie?oeeoii? oa ?iie?oeeoii? oi?i aeaiiino?o? i?ioean ii?aeiaiiy
ineoieia?/ieo i?eeii?a cae?eniaiiy ia?aeiiaiiy a iiceoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai
ia’?eoa. Oiio niaoeeo?ea iiaeaethaaiiy ioe?iee ye eiiiiiaioa ia?aeiiaiiy
a eiai?oeaii-iiaeaii?a?e no?oeoo?? ?O ? oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?aeeaiiiai
aeai?o.

Aea?? iiaieo cania?a ?ai?acaioaoe?? eiioeaioo aaiaoaeoeaii? iiceoeaiino?
a ?O, cie?aia, aeii?ioaaiiy iaaii? oi?ie ? naiaioe/iiai oeio ioe?iee
aeey oi?ioaaiiy caoe?eaaeaiiai (ia iaeo?aeueiiai) noaaeaiiy iioaioe?eieo
niiaeeaa/?a aei oiaa?o oa cae?eniaiiy ia?aeiiaiiy a aeioe?eueiino? eiai
aeei?enoaiiy, aecia/athoueny iiaeaeeth ?aeeaiiiai aae?anaoa. Oaea
iiaeaeue aeeth/a? eiai nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? (iaoe?iiaeuei?,
?aeaieoeueoo?i? oiui), ineoieia?/i? (?ioaeaeooaeueii-aiioe?ei?) oa
aia?oeaioaoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee.

Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aae?anaoa aeaoa?i?iothoue
eiai?oeaiee ??aaiue ?ai?acaioaoe?? ioe?iiiai eiioeaioo ? ae?aaeathoueny
o aeai?? ?aeo?no aeey ii?o?aooaaiiy ia’?eoa, a aeoeaiooaaii? oaeeo eiai
aeanoeainoae, ye? caeaoi? caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae aae?anaoa ye
i?aaenoaaieea eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii-a?eiai? a?oie.

Ineoieia?/i? aeanoeaino? aae?anaoa coiiaeththoue ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iiiai
eiioeaioo ia’?eoa ye ei?eniiai (caniaaie ?aoe?iiaeueii?, ooee?oa?ii?,
oaieia?/ii? ioe?iee) /e i?e?iiiai (caniaaie aiioe?eii?, naini?ii?,
anoaoe/ii? ioe?iee) aeey iaoa??aeueii?/iaiaoa??aeueii? ae?yeueiino?
aae?anaoa. Ia?aaaaeaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai eiiiiiaioa – ?icnoaeeeaino?,
aiioe?eiino?, eaaeiaaaeiino?, oaioaca?noaa, e?eoe/iino? oiui – a
ineoieia?/i?e no?oeoo?? aae?anii? a?oie coiiaeth? caa?iaiiy aae?anaioa
naia aei oeueiai eiiiiiaioa (yaeua ineoiaaiiino? na?aaeiaeua).

Aia?oeaioaoeai? aeanoeaino? aae?anaoa iai?oanoothoueny oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy iiaieo cania?a, i?ecia/aieo a?aee?eoi /e i?eoiaaii
ia?aaeaaaoe ioe?ii? nienee iia?aeiieaiiy. Oae, aeei?enoaiiy
aenie?oeeoieo oa ?iie?oeeoieo ioe?iie iiynith?oueny oei, ui, aeoiaey/e c
iniaeeainoae nai?? iai’yo?, caaaeueii? a?oaeeoe??, aeina?aeo oiui, iaeia
ethaeeia iiaea aeaeiaeoaaoe i?eoiaaiee niene ?c “i?aneiaa”, ?ioo
iio??aii ci???iooaaoe oeyoii aeoea?caoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?? – caeo/aiiyi
i?aaiaoe/ieo eiiiiiaio?a – o?eniaaieo ioe?iieo iiaieo cania?a.

I?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy ioe?iee a ?aeeaiiiio aeai??
cana?ae/ea aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy oe??? eaoaai??? o ?O (oie?noe/iiio
ooai?aii?); naia ioe?iea iiaeaeth? aen?ieia?/iee aniaeo aeai?o ye
nioe?aeueiiai caiiaeaiiy; aiia aenooia? ?ino?oiaioii ?aae?caoe??
i?aaiaoe/ii? ?aea? ?O ye caniao aieeao ? ? eiiiiiaioii, ui aecia/a?
aae?ania ni?yioaaiiy ?O ye caniao cae?eniaiiy ia?aeiiaiiy iioeiaeueiei
niiniaii. Ia iniia? aecia/aiiy aeii?iaioii? iiceoe?? ioe?iee a ?O ie
aaaaea?ii, ui eaiii?/ieie iciaeaie aeai?o (eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieie,
ci?noiaeie ? iiaeaii?aeie) ? cae?eniaiiy ia?aeiiaiiy oeyoii aiaeyoe??
aei ioe?iii-oe?ii?nieo onoaiiaie aae?anaoa, ?ici?uaiiy eiioeaioo
aaiaoaeoeaii? iiceoeaiino? a oeaio?? eiioeaiooaeueii? no?oeoo?e oaenoo,
ii?aeiaiiy aenie?oeeoii? oa ?iie?oeeoii? oi?i ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iee oa ??
naiaioe/ieo oei?a a eiai iiaeaii?a?e ieiuei?. Eiiaaioe?iiaeuei?noue ?
?aeo?aioi?noue oeeo iciae na?ae/eoue i?i iiiie?oi?noue,
eiioi?eaoeaii-ci?noiao oa oi?iaeueio oe?e?ni?noue ?aeeaiiiai aeai?o.

C iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaianaiaioe/ieo iniaeeainoae ioe?iee c
iiceoe?? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaoe/ii? onoaiiaee ?O inoaii?e ?icaeyaea?oueny
ye aeiaaeueiee iiaeaii?aee aeo niiioeaiiy. Aeyaeaiee ia
?ai?acaioaoe?eiiio ??ai? eiaeiiai i?e?iaeoo (o?aaiaioa,
eiiiiceoe?eii-no?oeoo?iiai aeaiaioa ?O) ioe?iiee eiiiiiaio na?ae/eoue
i?i oa, ui ii?yae ?c iaaiei aeaeii i?iiiceoe?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? –
ia’?eoeaiith, noa’?eoeaiith, aeni?aneaiith, ?iia?aoeaiith oiui – a
iueiio oaeiae iayaia ?ioi?iaoe?y ioe?iia. Oaeei /eiii, ioe?iia
?ioi?iaoe?y ooieoe?iio? ye noiooi?e iio?e caaaeueii? ?aeeaiii?
?ioi?iaoe??.

Ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y, iaaiei /eiii ae?aaeaia e i?aai?ciaaia ia
i?iiiceoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ?O, iaeiicia/ii aecia/a? eiai
i?aaiaoe/ii-?ioaioe?iiaeueiee ??aaiue.

Caaaeyee nai?io i?ane?eioeaii-?aeiiaiaeaoe?eiiio iioaioe?aeo ioe?iia
?ioi?iaoe?y ni?ey? aeieeiaiith a ?aoeei??ioa i?e ni?eeiyoo? aaciai?
?ioi?iaoe?? niiioeaeueieo noeioe?a ??cii? i?e?iaee, a, ioaea, aenooia?
caniaii oi?ioaaiiy e iineeaiiy aee?aeoeaii? ?eieooe?? o o?aaiaioao ?O,
ae?aaeaii? oi?ioeith “Oea – “aeia?a” – nei?enoaeoanue!” Oi?ioth/e
?eieooeaiee i?aie, a oaeiae aeeiioth/e ooieoe?th, ui ?aaoeth? iiaaae?ieo
ethaeeie, naia ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y i?e a?aenooiino? aoaeue-yeeo
iieaciee?a ?iia?aoeaiino? caaacia/o? ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?aaiaio?a ye
iai?yieo i?e?iaeo?a niiioeaiiy.

Ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y – naiaioe/ii iaiaeii??aeia, aiia ia? ??ciiiai?oia
ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy a i?e?iaeoao, ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ??
oei?caoe??. O ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny eaene/iee i?eioeei ye e?eoa??e
aeae?eaiiy oei?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Eiiiiiaioiee aiae?c 793 iaeeieoeue ?aeeaiii? eaeneee aeicaieea iai
aecia/eoe i?noea ioe?iiiai eiiiiiaioa a ?o naiaioe/i?e aoaeia?; a
?acoeueoao? aiae?co neiaa aoei ?iciiae?eaii ia i’youe a?oi, aei yeeo
oa?eoee aeania ioe?ii?, aiioe?eii-ioe?ii?, aeane?eioeaii-ioe?ii? neiaa,
a oaeiae neiaa ieac?iiaeueii? oa a??ooaeueii? ioe?iee. Aeciath/e
i?e/eiii-coiiaeaio a?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae oeiii ?ioi?iaoe??, yeee
caeaoiee ia?aaeaaaoe neiai o aa?aaeuei?e eiioi?eaoe??, ? eiai
neiaieeiaei cia/aiiyi, ie aaaaea?ii aeae?eai? a?oie ne?a ?iaeeeaoi?aie
ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iayai?noue eaene/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a iaaii? a?oie o o?aaiaio? ?O coiiaeth?
ia?aaea/o iei a?aeiia?aeiiai oeio ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? – aeaiioaoeaii?
(AeI?), eiiioaoeaii? (EI?) /e i?aeoaenoiai? (II?). Oae, aeaiioaoeaio
?ioi?iaoe?th ia?aaeathoue neiaa, a naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? yeeo ioe?iia
naia:

1) caeia? yaea?io iiceoe?th (aeane?eioeaia naia – ioeueiaa), – aeania
ioe?ii? neiaa: well, good, fine, excellent, magnificent, great,
splendid, excellence, to better etc.

Dunhill: The finest cigarettes in the world! (?19, 1994).

2) caeia? yaea?io iiceoe?th (aeane?eioeaia naia – ia?eoa??eia) – neiaa
aiioe?eii-ioe?ii?, ui ae?aaeathoue ineo?/i? noaie noa’?eoa /e
ineoieia?/i? iciaee ia’?eoa: pleasant, welcome, enjoyable, to enjoy,
satisfaction, comforting etc.

Peter-Stuyvesant: The international passport to smoking pleasure … so
much to enjoy! (?45, 1994).

3) o yaea?i?e iiceoe?? ii?aeio?oueny c aeane?eioeaiith naiith, – neiaa
aeane?eioeaii-ioe?ii?, aeey ae?aaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo iciae ia’?eoa –
(aii??e/ieo, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo, nioe?aeueieo, ooee?oa?ieo oiui): fresh,
neat, prestige, accurate, convenient, useful, reliable, quality, to
improve etc.

Buick: Providing that when you experience the luxury and quality of a
Regal Sedan, you are truly travelling first-class. (?47, 1994).

Eiiioaoeaia ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y ia?aaea?oueny neiaaie, a naiaioe/i?e
no?oeoo?? yeeo ioe?iia naia ? ia?eoa??eiith. I?ioa aiane?aeie
ia?aa?oioaaiiy nai i?ae ae??th eiioaenoo aiia ia?aoiaeeoue o yaea?io
iiceoe?th: silk (Thai as silk); revolution (Gillette has started the
revolution); gold (Ballantine’s: Go to Gold); pearl (Cartier: Pearl
tipped cigarettes).

I?aeoaenoiaa ioe?iea ?ioi?iaoe?? ia?aaea?oueny neiaaie, a naiaioe/i?e
no?oeoo?? yeeo ioe?iia naia ? ioeueiaith (ciai?oiuei ia-ioe?ii? neiaa),
iaeiae ca iaaieo oiia aiia ia? caeaoi?noue iaa?thaaoenue aeno?a-?//e
?io?ae?iaa?noe/iei eiioaenoii. Iai?., o caaieiaeo

Satun: A different kind of company, a different kind of a Car (?16,
1995) iaioe?ii? neiaa, cie?aia different, iaaoaathoue ioe?iiino? a
eiioaeno? ?O.

Eiaeai o?aaiaio i?noeoue naith ioe?iio aeii?iaioo, i?aaenoaaeaio iaaiei
oeiii ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aoaeue-yeee oei ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? o
o?aaiaio? coiiaeth? eiai a?aeiia?aeia ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy o
no?oeoo?? ?O ye aoaio, iaiao?aeiiai ? aeinoaoiueiai aeey ?aae?caoe??
aee?aeoeaii? ianoaiiae oaenoo.

Iaaeath/e aeayeeo niiioeaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e?iaeoai, naiaioe/ii
iaiaeii??aeia ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y, oaeei /eiii, aecia/a? no?oeoo?o
i?aaiaoe/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?O. Oaea no?oeoo?a yaey? niaith ii?aeiaiiy
aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (eiioi?eaoeaii-i???ioiaaieo
naiaioe/ii-no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue oaenoo) ??ciiai naiaioe/iiai oeio –
aeaiioaoeaiiai (AeI?-aeie?a), eiiioaoeaiiai (EI?-aeie?a) ?
i?aeoaenoiaiai (II?-aeie?a). Eiaeiee aeie ocaiaeaeo?oueny c iaaiei
eiiiiceoe?eiei aeaiaioii – caaieiaeii (i?aecaaieiaeii), oaenoii
(aa?aeiei, oeaio?aeueiei, caeeth/iei aacaoeaie), neiaaiii.

Aiae?c AeI?-, EI?-, II?-aeie?a aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe caeaaei?noue
niiioeaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e?iaeo?a a?ae niiniao ae?aaeaiiy a ieo
ioe?iee, a oaeiae aecia/eoe i?noea oa ?ieue i?e?iaeo?a – I?-aeie?a o
aeiaaeueiiio iiaeaii?aiio aeo? niiioeaiiy, cae?enithaaiiio ?O.

Oae, ca eiaeiei aeieii cae??ieth?oueny eiie?aoia ooieoe?iiaeueia
i?ecia/aiiy – noeioethaaiiy aaoiiaoeciaaieo ?aaeoe?e aae?anaoa,
aeoea?caoe?y eiai ineoieia?/ieo noai?a iiceoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy
(AeI?-aeiee); aeoea?caoe?y aiioe?eii-anoaoe/iiai ni?eeiyooy ?aeeaiii?
?ioi?iaoe??, cae?eniaiiy noaanoeaiiai ia?aeiiaiiy a iiceoeaiino? ia’?eoa
ia iniia? noai?aiiy eiai ?i?aeaeo (EI?-aeiee); iaeo?ae?caoe?y e?eoe/iiai
iano?ith aae?anaoa uiaei oeneo c aieo aaoi?a, oi?ioaaiiy aeia??e oeyoii
noai?aiiy ?ethc?? ia’?eoeaiino?, iaoia?aaeaeaiino? aeeeaaeo (II?-aeiee).

Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui I?-aeiee ? ?aaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie ?aeeaiii?
oi?ioee AICDA (Attention, Interest, Credibility, Desire, Action),
?aae?caoe?y yei? ia?aaeaa/a? caioi/aiiy aae?anaoa aei cae?eniaiiy
eiie?aoii? ae??.

*a?aoaaiiy I?-aeie?a, ae?aaeaia iiaeaeeth AeI?-aeie + EI?-aeie +
II?-aeie (?? oi?iaeueieie ?//e e?euee?nieie aa??aoe?yie), o no?oeoo??
i?iiiceoe?iiaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ?O a?aeia?aaea?, c iaeiiai aieo, ?oo
ioe?iee ii e?i?? aenie?oeeoia – ?iie?oeeoia, noa’?eoeaia – ia’?eoeaia,
aeooae?ciaaia (oaea, ui ni?eeia?oueny i?e ii?ooaii? eiaeo) –
aaoiiaoeciaaia (ui ni?eeia?oueny aac ii?ooaiiy eiaeo) oa aecia/a?oueny
i??i?eoaoaie oeio ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a ??ciieiiiiiaioieo ?O. C ?ioiai
aieo, a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae
eiaeiiai I?-aeieo ?o iine?aeiai?noue o no?oeoo?? i?aaiaoe/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? aeaiiino?o? eiia?iaoe?th i?eeii?a na?aeiiiai/iana?aeiiiai
ia?aeiiaiiy a iiceoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai ia’?eoa ye i?aenoaae aeey eiai
?aeiiaiaeaoe??. Canoinoaaiiy oaeeo i?eeii?a caaacia/o? ?aae?caoe?th
niiioeaiiy ?O.

Aeae?eyth/e I?-aeiee c ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa i?aaenoaaeyth/e ?o
/a?aoaaiiy a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? oaenoo ye ??ciiiai?oi?noue
niinia?a ae?aaeaiiy eiioeaioo iiceoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai ia’?eoa,
iaiao?aeii a?aoe aei oaaae ? oie oaeo, ui iine?aeiai?noue aeie?a ia ?
aeia?eueiei ii?aeiaiiyi aeaiaio?a, a oiio i?noea eiaeiiai aeieo a
?ioi?iaoe?ei?e no?oeoo?? aeaoa?i?io?oueny ae??th iaaieo i?eioeei?a
oaenoiooai?aiiy ? oaenoini?eeiyooy. Ioaea, i?iaeaio niieo/oaaiino?
I?-aeie?a (i?aai?caoe?? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??) aeioe?eueii ae??ooaaoe o
cayceo c ?icaeyaeii niaoeeo?ee ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no.

O i?ioean? aiae?co ooieoe?iioaaiiy eaoaai??? ioe?iee a ?aeeaiiiio
aeeneo?n? ie aeyaeee, ui niin?a ia?aaea/? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??
a?aeiia?aea? caaaeueiei i?aaianaiaioe/iei i?eioeeiai ni?yioaaiiy
aeeneo?no ia ae??oaiiy eiai eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iiai caaaeaiiy, a
oaeiae iniaeeainoyi ?icaeoeo eiai oaie.

Noa?aioeiia oaia ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no, ui aecia/a?oueny iaie ye
iia?aeiieaiiy i?i aaiaoaeoeaio iiceoeai?noue ia’?eoa, ca nai?th
nooi?noth aaco?oueny ia eaoaai??? ioe?iee. O aeaeyae? iae?ino?oeoo?e
aeuiai ??aiy oaea oaia i?iaeoo?oueny ia oaio eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai ?O,
aea iaaoaa? aenie?oeeoiiai /e ?iie?oeeoiiai ae?aaeaiiy a eiai oaenoiaeo
o?aaiaioao – I?-aeieao, ii?aeioth/enue c eaoaai???th “iiaeeo?eaoi?”
(iiaeaii?aith ioe?ieith). Ioe?iea, oaeei /eiii, i?enooiy o eiaeiiio
oaiaoe/iiio o?aaiaio?, aea aiia aai ia?aaoaa? o eiai aieiaiiio
naiaioe/iiio oieon? aai oi?io? aeiaeaoeiaee oaiaoe/iee oeaio?
iia?aeiieaiiy, ae?aaeaiee i?eoiaaiith ioe?iiith aeii?iaioith.

Aa?o/e aei oaaae ?nioaaiiy neeaaeii? eiia?iaoe?? aioo??oiuei- ?
ciai?oiueioaenoiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae I?-aeieaie, a i?ioean? aiae?co ie
aeciaee ca aeioe?eueia ? iiaeeeaa i?aaenoaaeoe ?o e?i?eio
iine?aeiai?noue o aeaeyae? ?iaa??aioii? noaie I?-aeie?a.

Eia?ei-naiaioe/ia ca’yci?noue i?ae aeieaie aecia/a?oueny cai?ioi?noth
aenie?oeeoieo/?iie?oeeoieo ioe?iieo cia/aiue ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeie
ca’yceaie i?ae ieie – iineeaiiy, aeiiiaiaiiy, c?noaaeaiiy oiui.
No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ia ni?aa?aeianai?noue I?-aeie?a oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ca’yceaie neinaiaioe/iino? (i?ae?yaeiino?) oa aaoinaiaioe/iino?
(no?yaeiino?).

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui oeie ca’yce?a i?ae I?-aeieaie aeyaeythoue
caeaaei?noue a?ae niiniao ae?aaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo oaie ?aeeaiiiai
aeeneo?no – e?i?eiiai, nooi?i/anoiai, ioieoe?iiai ? ia?aeaeueiiai. Oea
aeaei iai iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe aa??aioe noaie I?-aeie?a.

Oae, iiaeaeue a?aeiioaiue i?ae I?-aeieaie i?e e?i?eiiio ? nooi?i/anoiio
niiniaao ?icaeoeo oaie ocaiaeaeo?oueny c? noaiith neinaiaioe/ieo
ca’yce?a:

1) aeaaeoeoeaiith: AeI?/EI? + II?-aeiee;

2) iineethth/ith: AeI?/EI? + AeI?/EI?-aeiee;

3) ?iaeoeoeaiith: II? + AeI?/EI?-aeiee;

i?e ioieoe?iiio – c? noaiith aaoinaiaioe/ieo ca’yce?a iineeaiiy:
AeI?/EI? ? AeI?/EI? – aeiee; i?e ia?aeaeueiiio – c? noaiith
aaoinaiaioe/ieo ca’yce?a c?noaaeaiiy ? aca?iiaeiiiaiaiiy: AeI?/EI?/II? ?
AeI?/EI?/II? – aeiee. (Iii?uaiiy a ?aieo icia/a? oaiaoe/io
aaoinaiaioe/i?noue I?-aeie?a).

Cie?aia, oaia a?iioaoe/iiai aae?anaoa (“aoeeaoecaoe?y” aae?anaoa) iiaea
aooe i?aaenoaaeaia aoaeue-yeei oeiii aeieo – aeaiioaoeaii?, eiiioaoeaii?
/e i?aeoaenoiai? ?ioi?iaoe??:

You look wonderful (AeI?-aeie). – Whether you are a greater flamingo, an
imperial eagle … the attraction is impressive (EI?-aeie). – If you have
got the will, you can have the power. (II?-aeie). ?aae?coth/e
naiaioe/iee o?ae iineeaiiy/iiaoi?o ioe?iieo niene?a, ?I-aeie oaie
“aoeeaoecaoe?y” anooia? o aca?iia?aeiioaiiy c I?-aeieaie ?ioeo i?aeoai,
a ?acoeueoao? /iai oi?io?oueny ia?aeaeueiee oei ca’yce?a i?ae
oaiaoe/ieie o?aaiaioaie aeeneo?no.

Iine?aeiai?noue I?-aeie?a, c iaeiiai aieo, aecia/a? iaaio iiaeaeue
a?aeiioaiue i?ae oaiaoe/ieie o?aaiaioaie aeeneo?no i?e ??cieo niiniaao
?icaeoeo eiai oaie. C ?ioiai aieo, iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo oaie
coiiaeththoue a?aeiia?aeia naiaioe/ia iaiiaiaiiy ? i?aaiaoe/i?
?iie?eaoe?? I?-aeie?a, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ?nioaaiiy i?yii?
aca?iicaeaaeiino? i?ae oaiaoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th aeeneo?no oa
/a?aoaaiiyi o iueiio oi?i ? naiaioe/ieo oei?a ioe?iee. A oiio noaia
I?-aeie?a a?aeia?aaea? ye niin?a i?aai?caoe?? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??, oae
? niin?a ?icaeoeo ?O.

Caaaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee:

1. Eaoaai??y ioe?iee caeia? aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy a
eiioeaiooaeueii-iiaeaii?a?e, i?aaiaoe/i?e ? oaiaoe/ii-aeeneo?ni?e
no?oeoo?? ?O, ui coiiaeth? aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae eiai i?aai?caoe??
oeyoii aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee ae?aaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy o iueiio
oe??? eaoaai???.

2. Naiaioe/i? oa i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? ioe?iee a ?O aecia/athoueny
aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieie oaeoi?aie ?aeeaiiiai eiioaenoo, niaoeeo?eith
?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaoe/ii? ianoaiiae oaenoo oa niaoeeo?eith eiai
oaiaoe/ii? i?aai?caoe??. O naith /a?ao, oe?iea aa??aoeai?noue
naiaioe/ieo ? i?aaiaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae ioe?iee iaaea? oe?e eaoaai???
iiaeeea?noue iiaeaethaaoe a iaaieo iaaeao aeai?ia?, iiaeaii?aiaeoia? oa
oaiaoe/ii-aeeneo?ni? ia?aiao?e ?O.

O aeena?oaoe?? ie ia i?eae?eeee oaaae aea/aiith iiaeeeainoae
aeaeiaeoaaiiy ioe?iee c on?o iiaieo ??ai?a oaenoo, iaiaaeeaoenue eeoa
eaene/iei. O ca’yceo c oeei, iai aeaea?oueny ia?niaeoeaiei i?iaaaeaiiy
aiae?co ii?oieia?/ieo oa neioaene/ieo iiaeaeae ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iee a
?aeeai?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?aeeaiiee oaeno ye iiaeaii?aee aeo ioe?iee (ia iaoa??ae? ?aeeaiieo
oaeno?a aeo?iaeo “Time”): Iaoa??ae XLI iaoe. eiioa?aioe?? i?io. aeee.
neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee, 1995. – N. 170-171.

2. Eeaneo?eaoe?y ioe?iieo iiaieo iaeeieoeue ?O ia iniia?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee naiaioe/ii? no?oeoo?e // Iaoa??aee OL??
iaoe eiio. i?io-aeee. neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. – *anoeia ???. – Eooeuee, 1996. – N. 39.

3. Aiae?c ?aeeaiii? ioe?iii? eaeneee o i?aaiaoe/iiio aniaeo? // Iaoeiaee
a?niee AAeO/ AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean?
Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee. ?iiaii-aa?iainueea o?eieia?y. –
1996.–?1.–N. 83-88.

4. I?aaiaoe/ii-naiaioe/i? aniaeoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?aiaeo iaca
(i?aaiii?i?a) // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO / AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee.
?iiaii-aa?iainueea o?eieia?y. – 1996. – ?1. – N. 80-83.

5. Eiioi?eaoeai? aeiee ioe?iee a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?e iiaeae? ?aeeaiiiai
oaenoo // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO / AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee. ?iiaii-aa?iainueea
o?eieia?y. – 1997. – ?5. – N. 62-63.

6. Eaoaai??y ioe?iee ye e?eoa??e aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeaaiai
noaoono oaenoo // Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO / AEo?iae Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. O?eieia?/i? iaoee.
?iiaii-aa?iainueea o?eieia?y. – 1999. – ?3. – C.127-133.

7. Iiai? caniae ae?aaeaiiy ioe?iee a ?aeeai? (ia iaoa??ae? aeo?iaeo
“Time”) / Ee?e/oe E.I.; Aieei. aea?ae. oi-o. – Eooeuee. 1995. – 11n. –
Oe?. – Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie 12.07.95, ? 1799 – Oe 95.

Ee?e/oe E.I. I?aaianaiaioe/i? iniaeeaino? eaoaai??? ioe?iee a ?aeeaiiiio
oaeno? (ia iaoa??ae? ?aeeaie aeo?iaeo “Time”). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae. – Aieeinueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aiae?co i?aaiaoe/ieo oa naiaioe/ieo iniaeeainoae
ioe?iee a ?aeeaiiiio oaeno?, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny c o?ueio oi/ie ci?o –
eiai aeai?iaeo, iiaeaii?aiaeoiaeo ? aeeneo?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee. Aecia/aii
aeii?iaioio iiceoe?th ioe?iee a eiioeaiooaeueii-iiaeaii?a?e no?oeoo??
?aeeaiiiai aeai?o. Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? ?? iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a ?aeeaiiiai eiioaenoo, a
naia, niaoeeo?ee neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy, eiioi?eaoeaii? iaoe oa oaeoi?o
aae?anaoa. Aeae?eaii naiaioe/i? oeie ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? –
aeaiioaoeaiee, eiiioaoeaiee ? i?aeoaenoiaee. Iiaoaeiaaii noaio
i?aaiaoe/ii? ?aeeaiii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ia iniia? eiioi?eaoeaieo iaeeieoeue
oaenoo (aeie?a), ui i?noyoue iaaiee oei ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aecia/aii
ooieoe?iiaeueia i?ecia/aiiy aeie?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?? ?ieue o
aaiacen? aea?aeoeaii? ?eieooe?? ?O ye iiaeaii?aiai aeoo niiioeaiiy.
Iiaoaeiaaii aa??aioi? iiaeae? ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeiia?aeii aei
niiniao ?icaeoeo oaie ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no – e?i?eiiai, nooi?i/anoiai,
ioieoe?iiai oa ia?aeaeueiiai. Aeyaeaii aca?iia?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae
/a?aoaaiiyi oei?a ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? oaiaoe/iith i?aai?caoe??th
?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?no.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaiaoaeoeaia iiceoeai?noue, ioe?iia ?ioi?iaoe?y,
naiaioe/iee oei ioe?iee, iiaeaeue ioe?iii? ?ioi?iaoe??, oaiaoe/ia
i?aai?caoe?y ?aeeaiiiai ni?eeoaaiiy.

Ee?e/oe E.I. I?aaianaiaioe/aneea iniaaiiinoe eaoaai?ee ioeaiee a
?aeeaiiii oaenoa (ia iaoa?eaea ?aeeaiu aeo?iaea “Time”). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. Aieuineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco i?aaiaoe/aneeo e naiaioe/aneeo
iniaaiinoae ioeaiee a ?aeeaiiii oaenoa, ?anniao?eaaaiii n o?ao oi/ae
c?aiey – aai aeai?iauo, ?a/aaiaeoiauo e aeeneo?niuo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Ii?aaeaeaii aeiieiaioiia iieiaeaiea ioeaiee a eiioeaiooaeueii-?a/aaie
no?oeoo?a ?aeeaiiiai aeai?a. Auyaeaii iniaaiiinoe aa ycueiaiai
au?aaeaiey a caaeneiinoe io yeno?ieeiaaenoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia ?aeeaiiiai
eiioaenoa, a eiaiii, niaoeeoeee neooaoeee iauaiey, eiiioieeaoeaiie oeaee
e oaeoi?a aae?anaoa. Auaeaeaiu naiaioe/aneea oeiu ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee
– aeaiioaoeaiue, eiiiioaoeaiue e iiaeoaenoiaue. Iino?iaii noaio
i?aaiaoe/aneie ?aeeaiiie eioi?iaoeee ia iniiaa eiiioieeaoeaiuo aaeeieoe
oaenoa (aeieia), niaea?aeaueo ii?aaeaeaiiue oei ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee.
Ii?aaeaeaii ooieoeeiiaeueiia i?aaeiacia/aiea aeieia ioeaii/iie
eioi?iaoeee e eo ?ieue a aaiacena aee?aeoeaiie eeeieooeee ?O eae
?a/aaiai aeoa iiaoaeaeaiey. Iino?iaii aa?eaioiua iiaeaee ioeaii/iie
eioi?iaoeee a caaeneiinoe io niiniaa ?acaeoey oaiu ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?na
– eeiaeiiai, nooiai/aoiai, ioieoe?iiai e ia?aeeaeueiiai. Auyaeaii
acaeiiniioaaonoaea iaaeaeo /a?aaeiaaieai oeiia ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee e
oaiaoe/aneie i?aaiecaoeeae ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?na.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiaoaeoeaiay iiceoeaiinoue, ioeaii/iay eioi?iaoeey,
naiaioe/aneee oei ioeaiee, iiaeaeue ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee, oaiaoe/aneay
i?aaiecaoeey ?aeeaiiiai aeeneo?na.

Kyrychuk L.M. The Pragmasemantic Peculiarities of the Category of
Evaluation in the Advertising Text (on the advertising materials of
magazine “Time”). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in the field of philology by speciality
10.02.04 – Germanic Languages. – Volyn State University, 1999.

The dissertation deals with a study of specific features of language
expression and function of evaluation in advertising texts (based on the
advertising materials of magazine “Time”).

In this work a complex approach to the advertising text (AT) is applied,
viz. the latter is regarded as a genre of texts of the persuasive type,
a speech act and a topically organized discourse. The above approach, on
the one hand, has ensured a comprehensive study of the peculiarities of
the category of evaluation in this type of text, on the other hand, has
determined the structure of the dissertation (its main part consists of
three chapters), as well as the content of the chapters.

In Chapter One, “The Peculiarities of the Category of Evaluation in the
Advertising Genre”, we define specific pragmasemantic features of
evaluation of a AT as determined by the extralinguistic factors of the
advertising intercourse, the communicative goal and the addressee
factor. The results of the performed analysis have permitted us to make
the following conclusions: 1) evaluation manifests the axiological level
of an AT viewed as a social offer (for it is the evaluation that forms
the non-neutral attitude of the audience toward the object of the
communication); 2) evaluation is an instrument for realizing the
pragmatic idea (persuasion) in an AT, when the latter is viewed as a
component of impact; 3) evaluation is a component which determines the
address orientation in an AT, when the latter is viewed as a means of
exercising persuasion in the optimal way.

The category of evaluation holding the dominant position on the
socio-axiological level of the text and characterizing its
communicative-pragmatic and speech aspects consequently reveals itself
as a main criterion of describing the genre peculiarities of an AT.

In Chapter Two, “The Evaluative Aspect of an AT as a Speech Act”, the
mechanisms that realize the directive maxim of the text on the basis of
the specific expression of an evaluation in its fragments/microacts are
investigated.

Evaluation, being explicitly or implicitly expressed on the
propositional level of the advertising information is regarded as a
signal of evaluative information. In the dissertation evaluative
information is treated as a necessary link ensuring the communication
pragmatic effect.

In order to reveal pragmatic implications of microacts, expressing the
semantically heterogeneous evaluative information, the differentiation
of the latter into denotative, connotative and implied is suggested.
These semantic types of evaluative information are distinguished on the
basis of lexical criterion, proceeding from the identification of the
position of the evaluative seme in the semantic structure of the
language units of the advertising vocabulary.

Since evaluative information is inherent in each part of an AT and is
revealed as an immutable feature of total advertising information, it
has appeared possible and reasonable to present the informational
structure of an AT as a combination of blocks of denotative evaluative
information (DEI), connotative evaluative information (CEI) and implied
evaluative information (IEI), each, with a different degree of
intensity, realizing the formula: “It is good – make use of it”.

As a result of the analysis of pragmasemantic peculiarities of
evaluative information (EI) blocks, the dependence of the inducive
characteristics of microacts upon the mode of expressing their
evaluation has been established. There have also been described the
place and role of microacts, comprising any of the blocks, in the global
speech act of inducement, performed by an AT.

The succession of EI-blocks (or its formal-quantitative variants) in the
structure of the propositional information reflects the alternation of
evaluative semantics as explicit – implicit, objective – subjective,
automatized – actualized and demonstrates the priorities of certain
types of evaluative information in multi-component AT. The data obtained
in the analysis of the functional characteristics of different types of
EI-blocks have led us to the conclusion that the succession of the
blocks in the structure of pragmatic information of an AT represents a
combination of the methods of conscious and unconscious persuasion based
on the positiveness of the advertising object as the grounds for its
being recommended.

The peculiarities of block juncture in regard to topical organization of
an AT as a discourse are analyzed in Chapter Three, “The Model of
EI-blocks as a Reflection of Interrelation among Topical Fragments of a
Discourse”.

It was ascertained that the mode of rendering the evaluative
information, types of connection between EI-blocks in particular, are
determined by the relative character of the advertising discourse
strategies and by the peculiarities of its topic development.

The stereotype topic of an advertising discourse is approached as a
communication of the beneficiary positiveness of the object; the
communication, being the macrostructure of a higher level, is projected
onto the topic of a text fragment. Within the above approach the
following observation has been made: the concept of evaluation is
inherent in every topical fragment being expressed in its primary
semantic focus or forming an additional, secondary center of
communication.

The analysis of the variants of an EI-block model, logical-semantic and
structural-semantic relations among its components in particular, has
testified that they correspond to certain models of relations among the
topical fragments of the discourse in the linear, gradual, dotted and
parallel models of its topical development. There has been investigated
the ability of an EI-block model to reflect simultaneously both a mode
of representation of the evaluative information and a definite type of
development of the discoursive topic. The analysis has allowed us to
make the assertion that there is an interdependence between the topical
arrangement and the succession of forms and types of evaluation in an
advertising discourse.

The overall result of the research is that the category of evaluation
holds the dominant position in the speech-conceptual, pragmatic and
topical-discoursive structure of an AT. Thus, the specific
pragmasemantic features of evaluation in an AT are determined by the
extralinguistic factors of advertising context, the peculiarities of
accomplishment of its pragmatic orientation as well as the development
of its topic.

Key words: beneficiary positiveness, evaluative information, semantic
type of evaluation, model of evaluative information, topic development
of advertising discourse.

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