Підвищення ефективності тепловозів шляхом використання в охолоджувальному пристрої секцій радіатора з сітчастим оребренням: Автореф. дис… канд. техн

15

CO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aeeaaei?ia Aaaeei A?eoi?iae/

OAeE. 629. 714.

“I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oaieiaic?a oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy a
ioieiaeaeoaaeueiiio i?enoi? naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi”

05.22.07 – ?ooiiee neeaae cae?cieoeue ? oyaa ii?cae?a

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Eoaainuee 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

ia eaoaae?? “Aaoiiia?e?”,

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eoe?eia TH??e Aiae??eiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?e “Aaoiiia?e?”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eiiy?a Ieaen?e Ieeieaeiae/,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e “Cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo”

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

Oeaey Aaneeue Noaiaiiae/,

aaaeo/?e ?iaeaia? eaai?aoi???

aa?iaeeiai?ee oa oaieioaoi?ee

oieae?iaiaie eiiiai?? “Eoaainueeoaieiaic”,

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Aei?i?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,
I?i?noa?noai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie, i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 19 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae29.051.03 i?e
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 348034
i. Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20 a.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, 348040, i. Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20 a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 18 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Inai?i TH.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo caaaeaiue ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
Oe?a?ie a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, iiaoaeiae ?ooiiiai neeaaeo, ?
inai?iiy aeioneo iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ? aenieiaoaeoeaieo oaieiaic?a.

Oaieiaia?aaoe/ia onoaiiaea (OAO) no/aniiai oaieiaica yaey? niaith
neeaaeiee eiiieaen ??ciiiai?oiiai aia?aaoe/iiai onoaoeoaaiiy, iaeiei c
iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeaiaio?a yeiai ? ioieiaeaeoaaeueiee i?eno??e (II), ia
aeieth yeiai i?eiaaea? aei 7% iiooaeiino? OAO ? 60% an??? i?ae?, ui
aeei?enoiao?oueny a oaieiaic?. Ca?ac o eiino?oeoe?? i?aeoe/ii an?o
oaieiiai?iieo aia?ao?a (OA), ui aeei?enoiaothoueny ia eieiiioeaao,
canoiniao?oueny aei?iaa i?aeue, i?e oeueiio ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui iniiaia
/anoeia aeo?ao i?ae? i?eiaaea? ia aiaeiiia?o?yi? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie.

A oiiaao ai?ioueae ca cieaeaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??, a oaeiae i?e
i?ei?eoaoiiio ?icaeoeo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e noa? oe?eeii
i/aaeaeiith iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo aeueoa?iaoeaieo eiino?oeoe?e
aiaeiiia?o?yieo ?aae?aoi??a, i?e aeaioiaeaii? yeeo, aeo?aoe i?ae?, ?ioeo
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a, a oaeiae nieaa?a, aeao?oeeoieo aeey Oe?a?ie, aoee a
caaaeai? aei i?i?ioio, a oaeiae aeicaieeee a nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe
iiooaeiino? ia i?eaiae aaioeeyoi??a II oaieiaic?a.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy aeaiaio?a II ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a, ia
aeieth yeeo i?eiaaea? a?eueoa iieiaeie iane oa aa?oino? nenoaie
ioieiaeaeaiiy, aeicaieeoue aeinyaoe aoaeoeaiino? aeiiii?aeiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy oaieiaica.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa i?enay/aia ae??oaiith caaaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oaieiaic?a oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy a nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, a yeeo iiaeia caanoe aei
i?i?ioio canoinoaaiiy eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a. Aiia aeeiioaaeany o
?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe “IAe e AeE? ii noai?aiith
aiaeiiia?o?yii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a c i?i?iaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi o
eiino?oeoe?? aeao?oeeoieo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a”, ui
i?iaiaeeeany Eoaainueeei a?aeae?eaiiyi O?ainii?oii? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie oa
No?aeiioe?a?inueeei aea?aeaaiei oi?aa?neoaoii NOAeO ia caiiaeaiiy
Oieaeeiaiai? eiiiai?? (OE) “Eoaainueeoaieiaic” o ?aieao ?ia?o, ui aaeeny
ca i?ia?aiith “Aeecaeue-ii?cae” oe?eueiai? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy yaey?oueny i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oaieiaic?a
oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy a nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e
?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi ? i?i?iaeueiei canoinoaaiiyi
aino?iaeao?oeeoieo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aecia/aiiy iniiaiiai iai?yieo oa i?eioeeio noai?aiiy aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c i?i?iaeueiei canoinoaaiiyi o ?oi?e eiino?oeoe??
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a nieaa?a.

2. Oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?io o aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?yo ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

3. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? II c o?aooaaiiyi
aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

4. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae, iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e
?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

5. ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo aa??aio?a eiino?oeoe?? aeine?aeii? naeoe??
?aae?aoi?a c i?i?iaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a.

6. Oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ia oaieiaicao
aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie noai?aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? eiino?oeoe??
aiaeiiia?o?yii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi. Iaea?aeaii
aiae?oe/io caeaaei?noue, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ca’ycie ?ioaineaiino?
oaieia?aeaea/? n?o/anoi? iiaa?oi? aei ieoiiiai oaieioo?eiaiiy iioieo,
oiaoi /enei Noaioiia aeey n?o/anoiai i?aa?aiiy aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e
?aae?aoi?a.

2. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a n?o/anoi? iiaa?oi? aeey
oaieiiai?iiee?a ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oeio. Iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue II
oaieiaica c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi.

3. Iaea?aeaii ia?aiao?e/i? oa e?eoa??aeuei? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue
aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeieo naeoe?e caeaaeii a?ae iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie oa i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a i?aa?aiii?
n?o/anoi? iiaa?oi? aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a, a oaeiae ?aaeei?a
?iaioe II oaieiaica c o?aooaaiiyi aeine?aeieo naeoe?e, ui aeicaieythoue
nei?ioeoe ianya, o?oaeii?noe?noue ? aa?o?noue aeine?aeieo,
aeine?aeii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o i?e noai?aii?
II, ye? ai?iaaaeaeai? o OE «Eoaainueeoaieiaic» , a oaeiae o AAO
«Ethaeeiiaioaieiaic».

2. ?ic?iaeaii, noai?aii e aei?iaoaaii iaoo?i? c?acee aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi c i?i?iaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a, ui iathoue a?eueo aenie? aia?aaoe/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee oa aeicaieythoue cieceoe iaaaaeai? aeo?aoe ia II.

3. Aeiaaaeaii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy a II
oaieiaic?a naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a n?o/anoi? iiaa?oi? aeey
oaieiiai?iiee?a ?aeoia?aoeaiiai oeio. Iaea?aeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue II
oaieiaica c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi;

— ?ic?iaeaii, noai?aii e aei?iaoaaii iaoo?i? c?acee aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi;

— iaea?aeaii ia?aiao?e/i? oa e?eoa??aeuei? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue
aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeieo naeoe?e caeaaeii a?ae iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny e
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia III, IV, V I?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo eieiiioeaiaoaeoaaiiy a 1993, 1994 ?
1995 ?ieao, ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie o?ainii?oo” a 1994
?ioe?, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao OE “Eoaainueeoaieiaic”, a oaeiae ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo NOAeO.

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 10 ?ia?o. O oiio
/ene?: 3 noaoo? o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (o ni?aaaoi?noa? ?c iaoeiaei
ea??aieeii, aea aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue aeiiiaiaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
II ?c o?aooaaiiyi canoinoaaiiy naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a ?c n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi), iaeii aaoi?nueea na?aeionoai, a oaeiae 4 aeaiiiiaai?
?iaioe.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiaeo, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? 3-o aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee
ianya ?iaioe 162 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? 107 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, 36 ?enoie?a, 12 oaaeeoeue, 129 a?ae?ia?ao?? c
iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? aea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, aecia/ai? iaoa oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, iieacai? aeooaeuei?noue ? iiaecia oaie,
iiaeai? iniiai? iai?yiee ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue aiae?c noaio iniiaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue c
ieoaiue ii i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a.

Aaeeeee ianya oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
?ic?iaee e iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?e naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a II
oaieiaic?a, a oaeiae noaiaeia? oa iaoo?i? aei?iaoaaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? o
eieeoiueiio N?N? ??cieie i?aai?caoe?yie: Ananithciei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei
?inoeoooii cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo, Iineianueeei ?inoeoooii ?iaeaia??a
o?ainii?oo, Ananithciei iaoeiai-aeine?aeiei oaieiaiciei ?inoeoooii oa
eiai Eoaainueeei o?e?aeii, Eoaainueeei iaoeiiaoae?aiei ?inoeoooii,
A?yinueeei iaoeiiaoae?aiei ?inoeoooii, Ae?iaie/ei ia’?aeiaiiyi
“Eoaainueeoaieiaic” oa ?i.

Aaee/aciee aianie o ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy OA, o oiio /ene? naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a aianee ae.o.i.
I.A.Oaeano, I.?.A?eieiiue, I.?.Iaiia, I.I.O?aoueyeia, A.?.?aaiei,
A.Ae.Eocueie/, TH.A.Eoe?eia, e.o.i. I.I.?aoiia, ?.ss.?iaa/ia,
?.I.Neoieeia, I.N.Iaeeiia, ?.A.*a?oie, A.N.Oeaey, A.?.Aiaaeaiia oa ?i.

Aaaaoi??/i? oai?aoe/i? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai?
??cieie i?aai?caoe?yie, aeicaieeee aeaoe ioe?ieo ?nioth/ei ?
ia?niaeoeaiei oeiai naeoe?e ?aae?aoi??a, iae?aneeoe oeyoe ?oiueiai
oaeineiiaethaaiiy.

Iaeiiio c ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? eiiaaeoeaiiai oaieiiai?io oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo
oo?aoe?caoi??a i?enay/ai? ?iaioe ??cieo o/aieo – A.A.AEoeaoneana,
A.A.Aooiaia, A.A.Eae?i?ia, A.A.Ae?aeoea?a, N.A.ss?oi, A.I.Ai?ii?ia,
?.A.Aeoa?ianueeiai, aaoi?e iaoeiaiai a?aee?eooy ?242 “Caeiiii??i?noue
ci?ie oaieia?aeaea/? ia no?ieao eaiae?a c aeene?aoiith oo?aoe?caoe??th
iioieo i?e ciooai?e eiiaaeoe??”. ?.?.I?eoe?ia, TH.A.Eoe?eiaa,
A.A.Ao?eiaa, ?.I.Neoieeiaa, A.Eaena, A.Eiiaeiia, ?.Nia??io, ?.Aaaaa,
N.Eeaeia oa ?i.

Caaaeai? aeua aeine?aeaeaiiy A.A.AEoeaoneana iieacaee iiaeeea?noue
iiaeaeueoi? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioean?a oaieia?aeaea/? ca ?aooiie
aeei?enoaiiy ye oo?aoe?caoi??a ae?io?a iaaaeeeiai ae?aiao?a. Iaeiae oea
iio?aaoaaei i?iaaaeaiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeioe?eueiino?
canoinoaaiiy oaeiai ?iaeo i?aa?aiiy a naeoe?yo ?aae?aoi?a.

O ca’yceo c ia?niaeoeaith canoinoaaiiy a yeino? i?aa?aiiy n?o/anoi?
iiaa?oi?, ui aeicaiey? ?noioii ca?eueoeoe oaieia?aeaea/o o iia?o?y,
?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy iiaeeeaino? cai?ie aino?iaeao?oeeoieo iaoa??ae?a,
i?ae? oa ?? nieaa?a, ui o?aaeeoe?eii aeei?enoiaothoueny a eiino?oeoe?yo
?aae?aoi??a oaieiaic?a, ia iaio aei?ia? – eaooiue, noaeue oa ?i., i?e
aeayeiio cieaeaii? aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a naeoe??. Canoinoaaiiy
i?aa?aiiy n?oee aeiaaa? ci?ie oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy oaeeo ?aae?aoi??a.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieea noi?ioethaaoe
iniiai? caaaeaiiy (aeea. noi??ieo 2).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?ioean?a oaieiianiiai?io o aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?yo ?aae?aoi?a c
n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioean?a
oaieiianiiai?io a II oaieiaica c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a.

Nenoaia aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue aeeiaie/iiai noi?aeiiai oa?o aeey
??oaiiy caaea/? aecia/aiiy aieeao ia?aiao??a n?o/anoiai i?aa?aiiy ia
oaieiianiiai?i ia?aoai?aia o nenoaio ??aiyiue:

aea: n — u?euei?noue oaieiiin?y;

u — oaeaee?noue oaieiiin?y;

n? — ieoiia oaiei?ii?noue oaieiiin?y;

O — oaiia?aoo?a o aeeiaie/iiio noi?aeiiio oa??;

? — oene o aeeiaie/iiio noi?aeiiio oa??;

— eiao?oe??io oaieii?ia?aeiino?;

i — aeeiai?/ia a’yce?noue oaieiiin?y;

R — ?aae?on oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi?;

x — a?aenoaiue i?ae non?aei?ie oe?e?iae?aie;

c a?aie/ieie oiiaaie: R x ; 0 x .

*a?ac neeaaei?noue i?ioean?a aeeiai?/ii? oa oaieiai? aca?iiae?? iioieo c
iiaa?oiath oaieiiai?io c n?oie aoei c?iaeaii oae? i?eiouaiiy: ?aaeei
?ooo iioieo oaieiiin?y noaoe?iia?iee, ia ?ioain?o?eaoe?th oaieiiai?io
aieeaathoue eeoa oeee?iae?e/i? iiaa?oi? ?icoaoiaai? aiiia?ae iioieo
oaieiiin?y.

?ica’ycaiiyi ??aiyiue (1), (2), (3) iaoiaeii ?ioaa?aeueieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?iioeuen?a, aia?a?? oa iane iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/ia
caeaaei?noue, ui oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oaieia?aeaea/?
n?o/anoi? iiaa?oi? aei ieoiii? oaieii?noeino? iioieo, oiaoi /enei
Noaioiia:

— eoo i?ae aeioe/ii? aei oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? oa a?nueth o,
a?aae.;

nNO ? n’u — u?eueiino? oaieiiin?y a?ey no?iee ? a oeaio??
iioieo, ea/i3;

uCO ? u — oaeaeeino? oaieiiin?y a?ey no?iee ? a oeaio?? iioieo,
i/n;

Ro — i?iaeoe?y ?aae?ona oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? ia a?nue o, i;

St*=0.485/(PrmRen)- e?eoa??e Noaioiia;

KZ — iii?aai/iee eiao?oe??io.

Iaea?aeaiee ?ica’ycie aeicaieea i?iaanoe i?iaiici? aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei
aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo cia/aiue ia?aiao??a n?o/anoiai i?aa?aiiy, a oaeiae
ooi/ieoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue II c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy aeine?aeieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a:

aeey ia?oiai eiioo?o:
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;(5)picscalex1000100090000035c010000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;(6)picscalex1000100090000039c01000002001500000000000500000009020000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;(7)picscalex10001000900000346020000030015000000000005000000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,(8)

aea: QB — e?euee?noue oaieioe, ui a?aeaiaeeoueny a?ae aiaee aeecaey,
eAo;

e=Wji/WBi — a?aeiioaiiy aiaeyieo aea?aaeaio?a uiaei iia?o?y ? aei aiaee
a?aeiia?aeii;

aeey ae?oaiai eiioo?o:

aea: QM, QOHB — e?euee?noue oaieioe, ui a?aeaiaeeoueny a?ae ianea ?
iaaeaeoaiiai iia?o?y, eAo;

ae1=2WB21/Wf21; ae2=2WB21/Wf22; e1=WB1/WO21; — a?aeiioaiiy aiaeyieo
aea?aaeaio?a eiioo?o uiaei aiaee ? iiaa?oi? oaieia?aeaea/? c aieo
iia?o?y aeey a?aeiia?aeiiai eiioo?o;

T1n ? T2n — a?aeiia?aeii oaiia?aoo?e aa?y/iai e oieiaeiiai
oaieiiin??a o oaoo? II;

k1, k 2 — eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/?, ui aecia/a?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith
ae?aco (4);

zin — e?euee?noue naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a ?-ai eiioo?o, ?icoaoiaaieo o
oaoo? II.

??aiyiiy (6), (9), (13) iieacothoue aaeain oaieioe uiaei aiaee. ??aiyiiy
(5), (10), (11) neeaaeai? ia iniia? aaeaino ia?aaea/? oaieioe a?ae aiaee
aei iia?o?y a a?oiao naeoe?e Z1, Z22, Z21. ??aiyiiy (7), (14), (15)
ae?aaeathoue aaeain oaieioe i?ae aiaeith oa iia?o?yi, a (12) iieaco?
aaeain oaieioe ii aiae?.

Iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy e?iaa?eciaai? ca oiiaith, ui na?aaei?e oaiia?aoo?iee
ia?aiaae o naeoe?yo ?aae?aoi?a i?eeiyoee ca na?aaeiueia?eoiaoe/iei
cia/aiiyi, cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a i?e iaa?aeiieo oaiia?aoo?ao
oaieiiin??a ? i?aaeo /anoei ??aiyiiy iino?ei?.

O ca’yceo c oei, ui aiae?oe/iei oeyoii aecia/eoe aieea on?o oaeoi??a,
caaaeaieo o iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae? (K = f(u, d, a, t, F2 oa ?i.), ia
aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a neeaaeii, oiio iaiao?aeii
i?iaanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c
n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeyoueny c iaoith
ia?aa??ee e ooi/iaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?aco
(4), aecia/aiiy aieeao ia oaieiiai?i oa ii?? iaoa??aeo n?o/anoiai
i?aa?aiiy, ae?aiao?a ae?io?a n?oee (d), ?ici???a a?/ea n?oee (a), e?ieo
i?aa?aiiy (t) oa aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi?
oaieiiai?io aeey iaoo?ieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iieacaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeaeae, iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c
n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

Oaieiaa?iaeeiai?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?aeaeaaaeeny iiaeae? naeoe?e ?c
ciai?oi?ie ?ici??aie iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co o?oaie 17 o 2,5 o 0,4 ii oa
eieaeoeaiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi. I?aa?aiiy iiaeaeae aeeiioaaeiny c
i?aeii?, noaeueii? oa eaooiii? n?oee. I?iiathaaiiy iiaeaeae naeoe?e
cae?enithaaeiny iaoiaeii caio?aiiy o aaiio c ?icieaaeaiei i?eia?i c
ianooiiei neeueiei no?oooaaiiyi aeey aeaeaeaiiy iaaeeeoeo i?eiith, ui
caaacia/oaaei aenieo ye?noue eiioaeoo o?oaee c n?oeith, a oaeiae
ae?ioei n?oee i?e i?i?iaeueiiio aeeiai?/iiio iii??.

On? iiaeae?, ui neeaaeathoueny c /ioe?ueio ?yae?a o?oaie, ?icoaoiaaieo o
oaoiaiio ii?yaeeo, iaee ?iai/o aeiaaeeio Lp = 50 ii. Aeoiaey/e c
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue ?ia?o, aeey aeine?aeieo iiaeaeae aoa ia?aiee
iioeiaeueiee e?ie ?icoaooaaiiy o?oaie ii o?iioo – 12,5 ii. Ia?aiao?e
i?aa?aiiy ci?ithaaeeny a oaeeo iaaeao: d = 0,2…0,6 ii; a = 0,8…1,6 ii;
t = 2,8…3,2 ii.

Iaeaoe naeoe?e iaee ?iai/o aeiaaeeio Lp = 240 ii, a a iaoo?i? naeoe?? c
n?o/anoei noaeueiei (?1; ia?aiao?e i?aa?aiiy a = 1,2 ii, d = 0,4 ii, t
= 3,0 ii) oa eaooiiei i?aa?aiiyi (?2,3; a?aeiia?aeii ia?aiao?e i?aa?aiiy
a =1,2 ii, d = 0,4 ii, t = 3,0 ii oa a = 1,2 ii, d = 0,4 ii, t = 3,2 ii
aeiaaeeio Lp = 535 ii. I?e aeaioiaeaii? aeine?aeii? naeoe?? ?3,
i?aa?thth/? ieanoeie yei? ia?aae neeaaeaiiyi aoee i?aeaeai?
niethuoaaiith ia a?ae?aae?/iiio i?an? aeey ciaioaiiy oiaueie ieanoeie a
i?noeyo ia?ao?auaiiy ae?ioei, a?aei?aoeueiaaia ?aoe?iiaeueia oaoiieia?y
?? neeaaeaiiy. Oae, cie?aia, ia?aii ?aoe?iiaeueio oiaueio iie?eooy
i?eii?i n?o/anoeo ieanoei, ui neeaaea? 0,015 ii ? caaacia/o? i?oeia
c’?aeiaiiy ie?aieo ae?ioei, a oaeiae c o?oaeaie i?e ni?eaii? a ia/?.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iiaeaeae naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a iaaaaeai? ia ?en.
1, ia eio??i i?eeiyo? ne?aeoth/e nei?i/aiiy: 1 — 0,4 — 1,2 — 3,2; ?
o.ae., aea ia?oa oeeo?a aecia/a? ae?aiao? ae?ioo (d) o ii, ae?oaa —
a?aenoaiue i?ae non?aei?ie ae?ioeiaie (a) o ii, o?aoy — e?ie i?aa?aiiy
(tp) o ii.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a, iaea?aeaieo o oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aeine?aeieo
iiaeaeae ?aae?aoi?a, aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

— eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? KE iiaeaeae naeoe?e c i?aeiei ae?ioyiei
i?aa?aiiyi ia 90 … 92% aeua, i?ae o na??eii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a;

— eiao?oe??io, aeey eaooiiiai oa noaeaaiai i?aa?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii
aeuee ia 75…82% ? 15…18%;

— aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ?N2 iiaeaeae ia?aaeuo? aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii??
na??eii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a ia 52 … 64%;

— eiiieaeni? iieacieee kF2, kF2/ AeN2, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue a?aeiia?aeii
oaieiao iai?oaeai?noue iiaa?oi? ioieiaeaeaiiy naeoe?? c aieo iia?o?y ?
iiooaei?noue ia i?iea/oaaiiy oaieiiin?y, aeine?aei? iiaeae? ii??aiyii c
na??eiith naeoe??th ia?aaeuothoue ?? ia 15…17%, 3…5% aeey i?aeiiai
n?o/anoiai i?aa?aiiy; ieae/a ia 1…2%, 2…4% a?aeiia?aeii aeey eaooiiiai
i?aa?aiiy ? ieae/a ia 12…15%, 30…39% a?aeiia?aeii aeey noaeueiiai
i?aa?aiiy.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieythoue i?eionoeoe, ui a eaiaeao,
ooai?aieo n?o/anoeie ieanoeiaie ioieiaeaeaiiy ? ieineiiaaeueieie
o?oaeaie, aeaii??ia iiaa?oiy iiia?a/ieo aenooi?a o aeaeyae? ae?ioeiie
oeee?iae??a iaeiai ae?aiao?a ia i?eaiaeeoue aei oo?aoe?caoe?? anueiai
iioieo oaieiiin?y, a oo?aoe?co? eeoa oa? iioieo a?ey iiaa?oi? i?aa?aiiy,
aea ae?iaey?oueny iniiaiee oaiia?aoo?iee iai?? i?ae i?aa?aiiyi ? iioieii
70…80%. I?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny aeiaaeeia iiia?a/iiai aenooio iioieo
acaeiaae oeee?iae?a. A ?acoeueoao? aeiaeaoeiaa oo?aoe?caoe?y iioieo
a?aeaoaa?oueny, a iniiaiiio, eeoa o aa?oi?e /anoei? oeee?iae?a, a?ey
no?iee. I?e oeueiio ca oeee?iae?ii-ae?ioii, i/aaeaeii, caeeoa?oueny
eai?i?ciaaia ciia, a ye?e a?aeaoaa?oueny aeeneiaoe?y aeo?iaeo no?oeoo?,
ui aaia?othoueny o aa?oi?e /anoei? oeee?iae?a. Ianooiiee aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaa, ui ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi e?ieo ?icoaooaaiiy i?aa?aiiy t o aeine?aeieo naeoe?yo
a?aeiia?aeii ca?eueoo?oueny cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? KE oa
ciaioo?oueny aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? iiaeae? ?N2. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a
ae?ioo a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia c?inoaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o naeoe?e
i?e aeayeiio ciaioaii? eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/?, a ?c ca?eueoaiiyi
?ici??o a?/ea (a) (i?aeinueiai? a?aenoai? i?ae non?aei?ie ae?ioeiaie)
a?aeaoaa?oueny c?inoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? i?e iacia/iiio
c?inoaii? aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o iiaeaeae.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiue aoee iaea?aeai? iie?iiie, ui aeneiaeththoue
caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? ? aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o
iiaeaeae naeoe?e ?aae?aoi??a c n?o/anoei eaooiiei i?aa?aiiyi a?ae
ia?aiao??a d, a ? t.

Aiae?c caeaaeiino? aeaeo (17), (18) aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe oaea: i?e
ca?eueoaii? aaee/eie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a/d a?ae 1 aei 3 a?aeaoaa?oueny
c?inoaiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? (ia 7 … 10%), ui iiynith?oueny
i?ioeanii oo?aoe?caoe?? iia?o?yiiai iioieo a i?eno?iiiio noi?aeiiio
oa??, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeneiaeueia aaia?aoe?y oaiia?aoo?iiai iaii?o,
a iio?i i?e a/d ? 3 niinoa??aa?oueny cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
oaieiia?aaea/?, i/aaeaeii, ca ?aooiie oiai, ui oa?aeoa?enoeee n?o/anoi?
iiaa?oi? iaaeeaeathoueny aei oaeeo aea ia?aiao??a, ui ? a aeaaee?e
ieanoei?. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao, iia’ycaii c oei, ui i?e ciaioaii? ?ici??o
a?/ea i?aeinueiai? a?aenoai? i?ae non?aei?ie ae?ioeiaie, aaia?iaai? ca
ae?ioii aeoi?ia? no?oeoo?e ia iaea?aeothoue naiai iaeneiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo. Ui noino?oueny ci?ie aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iii?o, oi a?i i?e
ca?eueoaii? cia/aiiy a/d ciaioo?oueny, ui a ia?oo /a?ao iia’ycaii ?c
ciaioaiiyi ae?aiao?a ae?ioo, a oaeiae c oei, ui aaia?iaai? ca ae?ioii
aeoi?ia? no?oeoo?e i?e ciaioaii? a ia anoeaathoue iiai?noth ?icaeiooeny,
a i?e ca?eueoaii? a — caanathoue ua aei iiai? ia?aoeiaee – /a?aiaiai
ae?ioo.

Aeaii?, iaaaaeai? ia ?en.1, iiaeooue aooe ai?ieneiiaai? o aeaeyae?
caeaaeiinoae:

o ia?aiao?e/i?e oi?i?:

iaea?aeaieo aeey 0,2 ? o ? 1,5 i/n; 3 ? u2f ? 12 ea/i2n;

o e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i?:

iaea?aeaieo aeey 900 ? Re2 ? 6000 ? 2,5 ? a/d ? 4,5.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ooi/iaii cia/aiiy
iii?aai/iiai eiao?oe??ioa KZ = 1,18…1,21 aeey ??aiyiiy, ui iieno?
a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? oaieia?aeaea/? aei ieoiiiai oaieici?noo
iioieo, ui iao?ea? oeee?iae?e/io iiaa?oith (4).

I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a
aeicaieeee ioe?ieoe aaeaeaaoi?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
i?ioean?a oaieiiai?io ia n?o/ano?e iiaa?oi?. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeaeae aoee ia?ai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e n?o/anoiai
i?aa?aiiy e aeaioiaeai? iaeaoe oa iaoo?i? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a
iieacai? ia ?en. 2.

?en. 1. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? oa aa?iaeeiai?/iiai
iii?o aeine?aeieo iiaeaeae naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a a?ae ianiai?
oaeaeeino? iia?o?y.

1 — 0,4 — 1, 2 — 3,2; 2 — 0,2 — 0,8 — 3,2; 3 — 0,4 — 1,2
— 3,0; 4 — 0,2 — 0,8 — 3,0; 5 — 0,4 — 1,2 — 2,8; 6 — 0,2
— 0,8 — 2,0; 7 — 0,6 — 1,6 — 3,2; 8 — 0,6 — 1,6 — 3,0;
9 — 0,6 — 1,6 — 2,8; 10 — na??eia naeoe?y / ainueie?yaei?
iiaeae?.

?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue eiao?oe??ioa oaieiia?aaea/? oa aa?iaeeiai?/iiai
iii?o aeine?aeieo iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a a?ae ianiai?
oaeaeeino? iia?o?y.

1 – na??eia naeoe?y ?aae?aoi?a; 2 – ?aae?aoi? c? noaeueiei n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi; 3 – ?aae?aoi? c eaooiiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi;
4 — ?aae?aoi? c eaooiiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi (ieanoeie
i?ney i?ieaoee).

Eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? EE iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e (?1,2,3) c
eaooiiei ? noaeueiei ae?ioyiei i?aa?aiiyi a?aeiia?aeii ia 15 … 18% (?1)
? 75…86% (?2,3) aeua, i?ae o na??eii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a.
Aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ?N2 iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e ia?aaeuo?
aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? na??eii? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a ia 55 … 65% (?1, 2) ?
25 … 30% (?3).

Aeine?aeia naeoe?y c? noaeueiei n?o/anoei (?1) i?aa?aiiyi ca
eiiieaenieie aia?aaoe/ieie iieacieeaie kF2 oa kF/AeN2 iinooia?oueny
na??ei?e naeoe?? a?aeiia?aeii ia 19…22% oa 50…55%. Aeine?aeia naeoe?y c
eaooiiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi (?2)

ca iieacieeii kF2 ia?aaeuo? na??eio naeoe?th ia 19…22%, a ca iieacieeii
kF/AeN2 aeaui iinooia?oueny ?e. Aeine?aeia naeoe?y c eaooiiei
n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi (?3), ca eiiieaeniei iieacieeii kF2 ia?aaoaa? ia
??ai? na??eii? naeoe??, a ca iieacieeii kF/AeN2 iinooia?oueny na??ei?e
naeoe?? ia 5…7%. I?e oeueiio aa?o?noue aeine?aeii? naeoe?? ia 45…50%
iaioa a?ae na??eii?.

Aeaii?, iieacai? ia ?en.2, iiaeooue aooe ai?ieneiiaai? o aeaeyae?
caeaaeiinoae:

o ia?aiao?e/i?e oi?i?:

iaea?aeaieo aeey 0,2 ? o ? 1,5 i/n; 3 ? u2f ? 12 ea/i2n;

o e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i?:

iaea?aeaieo aeey 900 ? Re2 ? 6000 ? 2,5 ? a/d ? 4,5.

Aeine?aei? iaoo?i? naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a aoee aei?iaoaai? a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe?? ia oaieiaic? 2OA10E ? 435.

Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo iiaeaeae, iaeao? ? iaoo?ieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe
ia?aiao?e eiino?oeoe?? oa ?aaeeie ?iaioe II oaieiaic?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
oeeo naeoe?e.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ?aoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a eiino?oeoe?? ? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe II oaieiaic?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi ia i?eeeaae? oaieiaico
2OA116OI.

I?e ?ic?aooieo II oaieiaica 2OA116OI, i?iaiaeeeany ia?aa??ea
i?aoeacaeaoiino? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? oa i?ia?aie “RA-OY”, a oaeiae
ni?anoaaeaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie
o aeiaaeeo aeei?enoaiiy iaeaoo i?ia?ai, iaienaieo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
?OI 24.040.022-73. Oaieiaice. Iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo nenoai ioieiaeaeaiiy
(aeey na??eieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a).

?ic?aooiie II i?iaiaeeany ca oiiae canoinoaaiiy naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a:

1) na??eieo ca e?aneaiiyi ?.132.000.000. – na??eiee aa??aio;

2) c n?o/anoei i?aeiei i?aa?aiiyi – aa??aio ?1;

3) c n?o/anoei eaooiiei i?aa?aiiyi – aa??aio ?2;

4) c n?o/anoei noaeueiei i?aa?aiiyi – aa??aio ?3,4.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ca oiiae: aeecaeue i?aoeth? ia iii?iaeueiiio
?aaeei? ? caaaeaiiy caiaeeoueny aei ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaa?aeiieo oaiia?aoo?
oaieiiin??a (aiaee, iia?o?y, ianea, iaaeaeoaiiai iia?o?y) i?e caaeaii?
i?i?iaeueii? e?eueeino? naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a oa aeo?aoaie iiooaeiino? ia
i?eaiae aaioeeyoi??a II ? oaiia?aoo?? ciai?oiueiai iia?o?y THI=318 (313)
K.

O oaae. iaaaaeai? iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aa??aio?a II oaieiaica
2OA116OI, aiae?c yeeo aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

— e?euee?noue naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a, ui caaacia/othoue caaeaiee
oaieia?aea?ae i?e THI=318 K ? iii?iaeueiiio cia/aii? aeo?ao iiooaeiino?
ia i?eaiae aaioeeyoi?a NB=95 eAo, neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii: 44 na??ei?
naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a; 40 aeine?aeieo c i?aeiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi; 46 c
eaooiiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi (iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue naeoe?e a
?nioth/eo aaaa?eoao oaooe IO); 50 c? noaeueiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi;

— e?euee?noue naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a, ui caaacia/othoue caaeaiee
oaieia?aea?ae i?e THI=313 K oa NB=95 eAo, neeaaea? a?aeiia?aeii: 42
na??eieo naeoe?? ?aae?aoi?a; 38 aeine?aeieo c i?aeiei n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi; 44 c eaooiiei n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi;

— e?euee?noue aeine?aeieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c? noaeueiei n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi, ui caaacia/othoue caaeaiee oaieia?aea?ae i?e THI=313 K ?
iaeneiaeueii i?eionoei?e iiooaeiino? ia i?eaiae aaioeeyoi??a II NB=125
eAo, neeaaea? 46 oo.

Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c iieacaa, ui i?e iaeiaeiaeo aeo?aoao iiooaeiino? ia
i?eaiae aaioeeyoi??a NB=95 eAo ? oaiia?aoo?? ioi/oth/iai iia?o?y THI=318
K, ca ianiaaaa?eoieie iieacieeaie II oaieiaica, iniauaia aeine?aeieie
naeoe?yie ?aae?aoi?a ii??aiyii c na??eieie iathoue:

— aeey i?aeieo naeoe?e oe?eio o?iioo, iano ? aa?o?noue iaioa ia 0,3 i,
260 ea oa 900 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii;

— aeey eaooiieo naeoe?e iaeiaeia? aaaa?eoe, a iano i?ae? ? aa?o?noue
iaioa ia 300 ea ? 1700 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii;

— aeey noaeueieo naeoe?e oe?eio o?iioo a?eueoa ia 0,45 i, a iano i?ae? ?
aa?o?noue iaioa ia 500 ea ? 4060 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii.

E?euee?noue aeine?aeieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c? noaeueiei n?o/anoei
i?aa?aiiyi, ui caaacia/othoue caaeaiee oaieia?aea?ae i?e OII=313 ? i?e
iaeneiaeueii i?eionoei?e iiooaeiino? ia i?eaiae aaioeeyoi??a II
?A=125 eAo, neeaaea? 46 oo.

Oaaeeoey. Oa?aeoa?enoeee II oaieiaica 2OA116O??

Oa?aeoa?enoeea

II na??eiiai oeioII c aeine?aeieie naeoe?yie? 1? 2? 3? 4Iiooaei?noue
oaieiaica, Eao

2650

Oei naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a IIna??ei? naeoe??
?aae?aoi?a ca e?aneaiiyi ?.132.000.000.naeoe?? c n?o-/anoei
i?aa-?aiiyinaeoe?? c n?o-/anoei i?aa-?aiiyinaeoe?? c n?o-/anoei
i?aa-?aiiyinaeoe?? c n?o-/anoei i?aa-?aiiyiOei aaioeeyoi??a oa ?o
e?euee?noue

OE-2I, 4 oo.

Aeo?aoe iiooaeiino? ia i?ea?ae aaioeeyoi??a II, eAo

95

125E?euee?noue naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a a II i?e OII=318 313 E, oo

44 (42)

40 (38)

46 (44)

50 (48)

46 (44)Iana eieuei?iaiai iaoaeo a IO, ea

1250 1193884

840736

704550

528506

484

Aa?o?noue naeoe?e, a?i.

10500 100809600

(9120)8740

(8360)7000

(6720)6440

(6160)

AENIIAEE

1. Aecia/aii iai?yiie ? i?eioeeie noai?aiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo
aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi ? i?i?iaeueiei
canoinoaaiiyi a ?oi?e eiino?oeoe?? eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a, i?e
iaeneiaeueiiio caa?aaeaii? ?nioth/i? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy.

2. Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/io caeaaei?noue, ui oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiioaiiy
?ioaineaiino? oaieia?aeaea/? iiaa?oi? aei ieoiiiai oaieioo?eiaiiy
iioieo, oiaoi /enei Noaioiia, ui aeicaieeea ia?aoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
ia?aiao?e n?o/anoiai i?aa?aiiy – ae?aiao? ae?ioo ? i?aeinueiao
a?aenoaiue i?ae ae?ioeiaie. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? i?ia?aio
?ic?aooieo ia?aiao??a aiaeiiia?o?yieo naeoe?e c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, ui
aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue II c o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy
aeine?aeieo naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a.

3. I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae naeoe?e
?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, ui aeicaieeee ooi/ieoe oai?aoe/ia
ae??oaiiy ca aecia/aiiyi oaieia?aeaea/? a?ae i?aa?aiiyi aei iia?o?y ?
anoaiiaeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e i?aa?aiiy.

4. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue ia iiaeaeyo ?acoeueoaoaie
aei?iaoaaiue iaeao?a ? iaoo?ieo naeoe?e. Ii??aiyii ?c na??eiith
naeoe??th ?aae?aoi?a aeine?aei? naeoe?? iathoue:

— eiao?oe??io oaieiia?aaea/? KE aeuee ia 92…95%, 75…80% oa 15…22% aeey
i?aeiiai, eaooiiiai oa noaeueiiai i?aa?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii;

— aa?iaeeiai?/iee ii?? ?N2 aeine?aeieo naeoe?e aeuee ia 25…30%;

— eiiieaeni? iieacieee kF2 oa kF/AeN2 aeey i?aeiiai i?aa?aiiy aeu? ia
15…17% oa 3…5% a?aeiia?aeii; aeey eaooiiiai — ia?aaoaathoue ia oiio ae
??ai?, aeey noaeueiiai i?aa?aiiy ieae/? ia 12…15% ? 30…39%
a?aeiia?aeii.

5. Ni?iaeoiaaii, noai?aii ? aei?iaoaaii, o oiio /ene? a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe?? ia oaieiaic? 2OA10E ? 435, iaoo?i? c?acee aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei eaooiiei i?aa?aiiyi.

6. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaeiaeiaeo aeo?aoao iiooaeiino? ia i?eaiae
aaioeeyoi??a ? oaiia?aoo?e ioi/oth/iai iia?o?y, ca ianiaaaa?eoieie
iieacieeaie II oaieiaica, iniauaia aeine?aeieie naeoe?yie ?aae?aoi?a
ii??aiyii c na??eieie iathoue:

— aeey i?aeieo naeoe?e oe?eio o?iioo, iano ? aa?o?noue iaioa ia 0,3 i,
260 ea oa 900 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii;

— aeey eaooiieo naeoe?e iaeiaeia? aaaa?eoe, a iano i?ae? ? aa?o?noue
iaioa ia 300 ea ? 1700 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii;

— aeey noaeaaeo naeoe?e oe?eio o?iioo a?eueoa ia 0,45 i, a iano i?ae? ?
aa?o?noue iaioa ia 500 ea ? 4060 a?i. a?aeiia?aeii.

7. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? o OE
«Eoaainueeoaieiaic», a oaeiae o AAO «Ethaeeiiaioaieiaic».

1. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea oaieiioaeathuae iiaa?oiinoe nao/aoiai oeia // Aanoiee
Ainoi/iioe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa. Ecae-ai AOAO. Na?ey
o?ainii?o. –Eoaaine, 1996. – N. 148-152.

2. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
ioeaaeaeathuaai ono?ienoaa oaieiaica n o/aoii i?eiaiaiey iiuoiuo naeoeee
?aaeeaoi?a // I?eaeiai?ianeee iao/iue aanoiee. Na?ey iaoeiino?iaiea.
— Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1997. — ?52(61). -N.41-44.

3. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Ia?niaeoeaiua eiino?oeoeee
oaieiiaiaiiuo aiia?aoia aeey nenoai ioeaaeaeaiey oaieiyia?aaoe/aneeo
onoaiiaie o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa // I?eaeiai?ianeee iao/iue aanoiee.
Na?ey iaoeiino?iaiea. — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1997. — ?52(61). -N.37-41.

4. Iao. 2052758 ?O, IEE A61N 5/02 “Niinia iioeiecaoeee iiaa?oiinoe
oaieiiaiaia n aeene?aoiuie oo?aoeecaoi?aie”. Cayae. 25.12.91. Iioa.
20.01.96. — AE ?4. — 3 n. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A.

5. Eaoii A.A., Eoeeeia TH.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue
nao/aoiai i?aa?aiey oaieiiaiaiieea ieanoei/aoi-?aa?enoiai oeia. Aeai. a
AIOA Oe?aeiu, ?1866-Oe95.

6. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. ?aoeeiiaeueiia
eniieueciaaiea oaieiaie yia?aee ia oaieiaica // Ainoi/iioe?. ain.
oi-o. -Eoaaine, -1994. –18 n. — ?on. – Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 15.05.94.
?991-Oe94.

7. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Eouaiei A.A., Oea/aiei E.O., Aueaaei?ia
A.A. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou eniieueciaaiey aeeoioeyoi?a oaieiou ia oaieiaica
// Ainoi/iioe?. ain. oi-o. –Eoaaine, 1995. –8 n. — ?on. – Aeai. a AIOA
Oe?aeiu 25.07.95. ?1863-Oe95.

8. Eaoii A.A., Eoeeeia TH.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeannia,
i?ienoiaeyueo i?e oa/aiee aaca a iiaeaeyo eaiaeia oeia
aeeoooci?-eiiooci?, iaoiaeii aecoaeecaoeee. EINE, Eoaaine, 1992. -12 n.
— ?on. – Aeai. a Oe?EIOYE 12.08.92 ?1206-Oe92.

9. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
eiino?oeoeee aiaeiaicaeooiuo naeoeee ?aaeeaoi?a. Oacenu aeieeaaeia.
I?iaeaiu ?acaeoey eieiiioeaino?iaiey. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey ii
i?iaeaiai ?acaeoey eieiiioeaino?iaiey. Iiai/a?eanne, 1994. — n.

10. Eoeeeia TH.A., Eaoii A.A., Aueaaei?ia A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea ?aaiou
I.O. oaieiaica n naeoeeyie n nao/aoui i?aa?aieai. Oacenu aeieeaaeia.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay eiioa?aioeey ii i?iaeaiai ?acaeoey eieiiioeaino?iaiey.
E?ui, Aeoooa. 1995. — n.

AIIOAOe??

Aeeaaei?ia A.A. “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oaieiaic?a oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy a ioieiaeaeoaath/iio i?eno?i? naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c
n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi”: — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.07 – ?ooiiee neeaae cae?cieoeue ? oyaa ii?cae?a.
– No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Eoaainuee, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ae??oaiith caaaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
oaieiaic?a oeyoii aeei?enoaiiy a nenoai? ioieiaeaeaiiy aiaeiiia?o?yieo
naeoe?e ?aae?aoi?a c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi, ye? aeicaieyoue caanoe aei
i?i?ioio aeei?enoaiiy aino?iaeao?oeeoieo eieuei?iaeo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeo
oaieiaic?a, ye? iniauai? iiaeie ?aae?aoi?aie c n?o/anoei i?aa?aiiyi.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaieiaic, oaieiaia?aaoe/ia onoaiiaea, ioieiaeiee
i?eno??e, ?aae?aoi?e, n?o/anoa i?aa?aiiy.

Aueaaei?ia A.A. “Iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oaieiaicia iooai
eniieueciaaiey a ioeaaeaeathuai ono?ienoaa naeoeee ?aaeeaoi?a n nao/aoui
i?aa?aieai”. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.07 – iiaeaeaeiie ninoaa aeaeaciuo aei?ia e oyaa
iiacaeia. – Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao,
Eoaaine, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?aoaieth caaea/e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
oaieiaicia iooai eniieueciaaiey a nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey aiaeiaicaeooiuo
naeoeee ?aaeeaoi?a n nao/aoui i?aa?aieai, a eioi?uo iiaeii naanoe e
ieieioio i?eiaiaiea ino?iaeaoeoeeoiuo oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia e nieaaia.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?eiaiaiea i?e i?iaeoe?iaaiee iiauo
oaieiaicia, iniauaiiuo iiauie ?aaeeaoi?aie n nao/aoui i?aa?aieai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieiaic, oaieiyia?aaoe/aneay onoaiiaea,
ioeaaeaeathuaa ono?ienoai, ?aaeeaoi?u, nao/aoia i?aa?aiea.

Bukadorov V.V. “Increase of efficiency locomotive by use radiator with
mesh in a cooling device ”. – Manuscript

The dissertation on of a scientific degree of the candidate of
technical sciences on a speciality 05.22.07 – rolling – stock of
railway and traction of train. – Eastukrainian State University ,
Lugansk, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to the decision of a problem of increase of a
efficiency by use in a system of cooling with mesh, in which it is
possible to reduce to an minimum application of color metals and
alloys. The main results of work have found application at designing new
locomotive, equipped with a cooling device with mesh.

Key words: locomotiv , heatenergetial installations locomotives,
cooling system, basis of account and designing.

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