Підвищення зносостійкості підшипників ковзання стабілізацією протизношувальних показників змащувальних мастил: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / А.В.

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?aoooaiei Aiae??e A?eoi?iae/

OAeE 621.651

I?AeAEUAIIss CIININO?EEINO? I?AeOEIIEE?A EIACAIIss NOAA?E?CAOe??TH
I?IOECIIOOAAEUeIEO IIEACIEE?A

CIAUOAAEUeIEO IANOEE

05.02.02 — iaoeiiciaanoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aoae?aaeueieo, eie?eieo oa
aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo iaoei Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo I?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaioeaeue ?aaai Na?a?eiae/,
Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia

aeaaeai?y cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueieo
eie?eieo oa

aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeueieo iaoei

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeioeaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/,
Aea?aeaaiee

aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.?.AEoeianueeiai “OA?”

(i.Oa?e?a)

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Een?eia ?aaai Ieeieaeiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee

aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

ia?oee i?i?aeoi? c o/aiai? ?iaioe

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. aeaae.
A.I.

I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 6 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.10 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? (310002, i. Oa?e?a — 2, aoe.
O?oica,21).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “27 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ai?oiaee A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?aeoeiieee eiacaiiy (IE) ? iaa?ae’?iiith
/anoeiith eiino?oeoe?? iaoei (aeaeaoi?a aioo??oiueiai cai?yiiy,
a?ae?ii?eaiae?a, aa?noao?a, oiui). Iaeiei c iniiaieo eiino?oeoeaieo
aeaiaio?a, ui caaacia/o? ciinino?ee?noue IE, ? ciauoaaeueia ianoeei (CI)
ia iaooia?e iniia?.

I?e aeei?enoaii? a iaoeiao c CI a?aeaoaa?oueny ?yae i?ioean?a, ye?
iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaathoueny ia aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoyo CI, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? ?o cai?ie.

Iaeiei c oaeeo iniiaieo i?ioean?a ? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?enaaeie, ui
aeiaeathoueny aei CI aeey iie?ioaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae.
Iniaeeai caoaii iicia/a?oueny ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?ioeciiooaaeueii?
i?enaaeee (II), oiio ui aiia o cia/i?e i??? caaacia/o? ciinino?ee?noue
aeaiaio?a iaoei, o oiio /ene? IE. C ?ioiai aieo, ia? i?noea aeao?oeeo
iaooii?iaeoeo?a ia Oe?a?i? oa ?o aeniea aa?o?noue. Oiio /anoa cai?ia CI
i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao aenieoaooth/eo
i?aai?caoe?e.

O ca’yceo c aeeeaaeaiei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo iiaeo oaoi?/ieo
??oaiue, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? IE c iaeii/aniith
aeiiii?/iith aeo?aoith CI.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiaiio iai?yieo eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei?, eie?ei?
oa aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? iaoeie” (AEA?I) Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo (Oa?AeACO) ii i??i?eoaoiiio iai?yieo
iaoee ? oaoi?ee “Aeieia?/ii /enoa aia?aaoeea oa ?ano?nicaa??aath/?
oaoiieia??” (i?ia?aia “I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei ?
eiino?oeoe?e” iaaaaeaia o iinoaiia? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie ?2705 a?ae
16.10.92 c iine?aeoth/eie aeiiiaiaiiyie), a oaeiae aeeiioaaeanue a
?aieao iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e ca aea?aeathaeaeaoieie oaiaie
8/4-93A oa 8/4-96A.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe iaoei ca
?aooiie cieaeaiiy ciino ?o IE oeyoii aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy aei CI II
cai?noue ni?aoeueiaaii?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe aoei i?iaaaeaii a?aeiia?aei? oai?aoe/i?
oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy o eaai?aoi?ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
oiiaao, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy II aei CI c oi/ee ci?o iie?ioaiiy ?o
i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae oa i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aoce?a
oa?oy, a oiio /ene? IE.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— cai?iiiiiaaii ? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii iiaee iaoiae aeiciaaiiai
oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie aei CI a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iaoei;

— io?eiaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy iiaa?oiiue oa?oy IE i?e ianoaoe?iia?iiio
?aaeei? ?iaioe, yea aeicaieeea ?icoe?eoe ?nioth/? iiaeyaee iaoai?cio
ae?? II;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii aaee/eio i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeii?
eiioeaio?aoe?? II o CI, iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy yei? i?eaiaeeoue aei
iia??oaiiy ?o i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae;

— anoaiiaeaii caeiiii??i?noue ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II o CI i?ae /an ?o
aenieoaoaoe??;

— io?eiaii e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? IE oa
?ioeo aoce?a oa?oy e ca?eueoaiiy no?ie?a neoaeae CI i?e aeiciaaiiio
oaaaeaii? aei ieo II.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae
aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy II aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ciinino?ee?noue IE oa
?ioeo aoce?a oa?oy ? no?iee neoaeae CI, ui ni?ey? a?eueo aoaeoeaiiio
aeei?enoaiith iaoei i?e iaeii/ani?e aeiiii?? aeao?oeeoieo CI.

Iaoiae aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy II aoei ai?iaaaeaeaii ia AAO “Aeaeo?iiao”
i?noa Oa?eiaa ia iaoaeiia?iaieo aa?noaoao c a?ae?ii?eaiaeaie.
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
aoae?aaeueiiai oaeoeueoaoo oa ?inoeoooo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ?
ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a Oa?AeACO, a oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny o
aeeieiiiiio i?iaeooaaii?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii
iiaee iaoiae aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy II aei CI, a oaeiae ?ic?iaeaii
eiino?oeoe?th niaoe?aeueiiai eiioaeia?a, yeee aeicaiey? ?aae?ciaoaaoe
oeae iaoiae.

Anoaiiaeaii aiae?oe/iee ca’ycie i?ae oiaueiith ciioaiiai oa?o c
iaoa??aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiiue oa?oy IE, o oiio /ene?, c?
u?euei?noth aeeneieaoe?e, a oaeiae i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei onoaiiaeaiiy ei?aeyoe?? oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ooi/iaiee iaoai?ci ae?? II, yeee iieyaa? o ci?oeiaii?
iiaa?oi? oa?oy ca ?aooiie ?ioaineaiino? aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e o
i?eiiaa?oiaao ciio.

?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeee ? i?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ia?iaeaii (o oiio /ene?, ia IAII) ? i?iaiae?ciaaii io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe,
ia i?aenoaa? yeeo c?iaeaii a?aeiia?aei? aeniiaee ii ?iaio? oa
cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy eiioaeia?a
aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie aei CI.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny
ia 55 — 60 iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Oa?AeACO (1993 — 1998 ??.),
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?enay/ai?e 50 — ??//th
eaoaae?e “AEA?I” Oa?AeACO (1997?.), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Ciinino?ee?noue iaoei” (A?yinuee, 1993?.).

Iiai?noth aeena?oaoe?y aeiiia?aeaeanue ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e
“Aoae?aaeuei?, eie?ei? oa aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? iaoeie” Oa?AeACO.

Ioae?eaoe??.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae, iaoiaee/i?
aeac?aee aeey nooaeaio?a niaoe?aeueiino? 7.090214, oace 2-o aeiiia?aeae
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?e, io?eiaii iaoaio ia aeiao?ae.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa aeniiae?a ii ?iaio?, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 175 noi??iie, o oiio /ene? 88
noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 16 oaaeeoeue, 47 ?enoie?a, nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee i?noeoue 110 iaeiaioaaiue oa 3 aeiaeaoee ia
29 noi??ieao.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny canoinoaaiiyi
i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiue o?ceee, o?i?? oa
ia??aiiaaaiai? oa?iiaeeiai?ee, ei?aeyoe??th ?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, canoinoaaiiyi IAII aeey iaoaiaoe/ii?
ia?iaee io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, iiceoeaiei aeina?aeii oi?iaaaeaeaiiy
aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy II AeO-11 aei ae?th/eo a?ae?ii?eaiae?a aa?noao?a
ia AAO “Aeaeo?iiao”.

Aaoi? aecia? ca na?e i?e?iiee iaia’ycie aeneiaeoe ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o
o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o I.A.Aeueoooea?o ca oe?ii? ii?aaee, io?eiai?
i?ae /an ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue ?icaeyiooi? oaie, ?? iaoeiaa
iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iaaaaeaia noenea
oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, aecia/aii iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi oiiae ciauoaaiiy IE i?e ianoaoe?iia?iiio
?aaeei? ?iaioe oa i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny c CI oa iaaaoeaii
aieeaathoue ia ?o aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeanoeaino?. Iaeiei c oaeeo i?ioean?a
? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy eaaoth/eo i?enaaeie o CI, yea coiiaeaii ianooiieie
i?e/eiaie: oo?a/aiiyi aeoeaieo eiiiiiaio?a i?enaaeie, ?iceeaaeaiiyi,
aeaiie?ia?ecaoe??th, aeiaae?iiyi i?enaaeie aei inaaeeo oa ?ioa.
Aiane?aeie oeueiai iia??oo?oueny oe?eee ?yae aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeanoeainoae CI, cie?aia, i?ioeciiooaaeuei?.

A?aeiii, ui iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii ni?aoeueiaothoueny i?enaaeee o CI o
ii/aoeiaee ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??. Iio?i oaeaee?noue ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy
i?enaaeie eaac?noaa?e?co?oueny. I?e oeueiio caeiiii??i?noue
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy i?enaaeie i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caeiiii??iinoyi ?aaeoe?e
ia?oiai, a ?iiae? ioeueiaiai ii?yaee?a. I?e oeueiio aoei anoaiiaeaii,
iai?eeeaae, ui aeey ca?eueoaiiy no?ieo neoaeae CI Oi-22 a 2 ?ace (ii
ni?aoeueiaoaaiith aioeieenethaaeueii? i?enaaeee ?iiie) iio??aii
ca?eueoeoe ii/aoeiao eiioeaio?aoe?th i?enaaeee a a2 ?ace, ui aeiiii?/ii
iaaeioe?eueii. C e?iaoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o aeioe?eueii ae?iaeoe i?ecia/aio
aeey CI e?euee?noue i?enaaeee ? ia??iaee/ii aeiaeaaaoe /a?aiao aeico
oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy, ui ia?aeiieeai iieacaii o
i?aoeyo a/aieo. Aeae? o ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny iienai? o e?oa?aoo??
aeaye? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie aei
iioi?ieo ianoee, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aenieo aoaeoeai?noue aeaiiai
iaoiaeo. Aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie aei iioi?ieo ianoee ?nio?
cia/ia e?euee?noue ??cieo i?eno?i?a. Aea an? aiie eiino?oeoeaii
neeaaei?, iathoue aenieo aa?o?noue, iio?aaothoue oaeeaaiiy
niaoe?aeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa iaoa??ae?a.

Aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie aei CI iaie aoei ?ic?iaeaii
eiioaeia? iiaeoeueii? eiino?oeoe??, aea?eueiaiiy II a yeiio
cae?enith?oueny /a?ac eai?ey?. Oaeee eiioaeia? aeineoue i?inoee,
iaae?eiee ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii o aoaeue-yeeo iaoeiao.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iei iniiaai aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy
i?enaaeie oa i?aeaeuaiith ciinino?eeino? aoce?a oa?oy.

Aeiciaaia oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaeia?o iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny aeaiia iaoai?ciaie: aeeooc??th aai a?ae?iaeeiai?eith.
Aecia/aeueiei o oeueiio ieoaii? ? iaiao?aeia oaeaee?noue aeiciaaiiai
oaaaeaiiy.

sseui anoaiiaeaii, ui iaiao?aeii aeiaeaaaoe iaaaeeeo e?euee?noue
i?enaaeee i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano, oi aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaoai?ci aeeooc??, ca?aeii yeiai e?euee?noue i?iaeeooiaeiaaii? i?enaaeee
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sseui oaeaee?noue iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?enaaeee aei CI ca aeiiiiiaith
aeeooc?? iaea, oi aeiciaaia oaaaeaiiy iiaeia cae?enithaaoe ca
aeiiiiiaith a?ae?iaeeiai?ee. Oiae? a?aeiia?aeii c ??aiyiiyi Ioacaeey:

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aea n — e?euee?noue eai?ey??a; p — ??cieoey oeneo ia iaio e?ioeyo
eai?ey?o; wmetafile8? ??Aeey cieaeaiiy ciino IE aei CI iaiao?aeii o
ia?oo /a?ao aeiciaaii aeiaeaaaoe II. I?e oeueiio aeoaea aaaeeeaei ?
anoaiiaeaiiy aieeao II ia oa?aeoa?enoeee i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a oa?oy IE,
a ioaea, ia ciinino?ee?noue. Aeey ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? aoea aeei?enoaia
oai?aia ?.I?eaiaeeia i?i iaaeeaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? nenoaie aei
noaoe?iia?iiai noaio, i?e yeiio ae?iaieoeoai aio?ii?? i?yio? aei
i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy. Aoei i?eiouaii, ui ia?a oa?oy “aae-i?aeoeiiee”
oea aeeiai?/ia aeeneiaoeaia nenoaia, o ye?e ?aae?co?oueny aeaa?aaeaoe?y
aia?a?? iae?iiaoai?/iiai ?ooo, oiaoi ae?iaey?oueny aio?ii?y. Aiane?aeie
i?iaaaeaieo oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea io?eiaia iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue ?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy I:

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???2n????G?D???u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2n#???O??? ???2nss???O???
???2THa???Ae?¬? ???2TH”
???I??????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-?????? ???2
????=????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2n%???2?a????u?y??????1/4??I??Times
New Roman Cyr?IY???-??????
???2Y???4??????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-??????
???2noe???a?# ???2n»???r? ???2n©???t?O?
???2thE???r????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I??
?-????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????,
(3)

aea V0, n0 — a?aeiia?aeii, na?aaei?e ia’?i oa ia’?iia eiioeaio?aoe?y
/anoie ciino a caci?? IE; k — noaea Aieueoeiaia; T — oaiia?aoo?a; —
eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino?; b — aaniethoia aaee/eia aaeoi?o Ath?aa?na;
ae — u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e o i?eiiaa?oiaa?e cii?; 0 — ?ioa?aae /ano;
— u?euei?noue; HB — oaa?ae?noue; G — iiaeoeue cnoao.

C ??aiyiiy (3) aeoiaeeoue, ui e??i ?ioeo oaeoi??a, aaee/eia
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eia iiaa?oiaa?e u?eueiino?
aeeneieaoe?e.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii iaoiaeeoe? oa ?acoeueoaoai eaai?aoi?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. I?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaie
aeei?enoiaoaaeanue II AeO-11, yea iaea?eueo /anoi canoiniao?oueny aeey
eaaoaaiiy CI.

C iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeii? eiioeaio?aoe?? II AeO-11,
a oaeiae aieeao ?? ia i?ioeciiooaaeuei? oa aioeo?eeoe?ei? aeanoeaino? CI
aoei i?iaaaeaii eaai?aoi?i? aei?iaoaaiiy ia iaoeiao oa?oy NIO-1
(/ioe?ueiooa?eeiaa noaia) ? NIOe-2 (noaia “eieiaeea-?ieee”). Aeey
ciauoaaiiy c?ace?a canoiniaoaaeenue na?aea aac i?enaaeee CI ?-A-A-32,
i?aoethaaei 200 aiaeei, CI IA-46-A (0,24% AeO-11) ? i?aoethaaei 2000
aiaeei CI ?-A-N-32 (0% AeO-11), a oaeiae oe? ae CI i?ney aeiaeaiiy aei
ieo AeO-11 o eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae 0,2 aei 1,5% a?ae ia’?io CI.

?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iieacaee, ui ii i??? ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
II ae?aiao? ieyie ciino ciaioo?oueny. Aea ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? II
a?eueo i?ae 0,4% cia/ii ia iie?ioo? i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae CI.
Oea aea? i?aenoaao oaaaeaoe, ui 0,4% ? i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiith
eiioeaio?aoe??th II AeO-11.Iiaeaeueoa cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
i?eaiaeeoue aei ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy ciino.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia iaoei? oa?oy NIOe-2, aea ?i?oo?oueny
?iaioa IE, iieacaee, ui oaaaeaiiy aei CI II AeO-11 cia/ii cieaeo?
eiao?oe??io oa?oy (o na?aaeiueiio a 1,36 ?ace) oa ca?eueoo?
ciinino?ee?noue c?ace?a (o na?aaeiueiio a 1,47 ?ace). sse i?eeeaae, ia
?en.1 iaaaaeaii a?aeiia?aei? a?aeiiino?, uiaei CI ?-A-N-32 i?e
aei?iaoaaiiyo eiai c? c?aceaie, aeaioiaeaieie c a?iice A?AAE9-4
(eieiaeea) ? noae? 18OAO (?ieee).

Noai i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a noaeaaeo ?ieee?a, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o
ciinieo aei?iaoaaiiyo ia iaoei? oa?oy NIOe-2, aeine?aeaeoaaany iaoiaeaie
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai e iaoaeia?ao?/iiai aiae?c?a, a i?ioean? yeeo
aecia/aeenue u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e, ?ici?? ae?eyiie eiaa?aioiiai
?icn?thaaiiy (IE?) oa i?e?ioaa?ae?noue i?eiiaa?oiaaiai oa?o.

Ci, a-1
f

0,011

20 15,44
0,010 0,0089

13,24

10
0,005

a)
a)

?en.1. Ci?ithaaiiy ciinino?eeino? a) oa eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy a) ia?e oa?oy
A?AAE9-4 ? noae? 18OAO

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui aeiaeaaaiiy aei CI II AeO-11
cieaeo? ?ici?? IE? ? ca?eueoo? u?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e, ui i?eaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino?, a ioaea ci?oeiaiiy iiaa?oiiue oa?oy,
oiaoi aei i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ciinino?eeino?. E??i oiai, a?aeaoaa?oueny
cieaeaiiy oi?noeino? iiaa?oiiue ?ieee?a.

sse i?eeeaae, o oaae.1 iaaaaeaii a?aeiia?aei? aeai?, ui a?aeiinyoueny
aei ?ieeea c? noae? OO-15 i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo eiai o eiioaeo? c eieiaeeith
c o??? ae noae? ia na?aeiio CI ?-A-A-32.

Oaaeeoey 1

?acoeueoaoe ciinieo aei?iaoaaiue oa oa?aeoa?enoeea o?eaiiiaa?oi? ?ieeea

NoaiCiinOaiia?aoo-Iieaciee iiaa?oi? oa?oyCI

?-A-A-32?iee-ea,

a?a iiaa?oi?

oa?oy

iai?ee?ioe?

aei?iaoaaiue, E?ici??

IE?,

wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy`??aeeneieaoe?e,

ae*10-11

ni-2i?e?ioaa?-ae?noue,

H 100oi?noe?noue,

Ra,

iei—460*1,42*815*0,32-0,38na?aea0,00523584481,568360,25-0,28na?aea

+ AeO-11

0,0033

356

435

2,7

898

0,2-0,25I?ei?oea. * — a?aeiiino?, uiaei c?acea o ii/aoeiaiio noai?.

Aeey ii??aiyiiy oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aoei i?eeiyoi,
ui on? ia?aiao?e, ui aoiaeyoue aei ??aiyiiy (3), noae? aaee/eie, e??i ae
? O . Oiae? (3) aoaea iaoe aeaeyae:

wmetafile8? ??K???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyya??°?? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????T
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???2AN????I??? ???2®G???A?. ???2®m???T?
???u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-??????
???2????Ae?¬????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????
???2A”???=????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-??????
???2®a???*?a????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-?????? ???2

TH???r????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???-?
????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????
?????????????yyy??????????????????????????????????????????????2?,

(4)

aea wmetafile8? ??)???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ????? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????™]???™???™”???™???+
m???? ???u??
???????»????-????????»y???-?????»???N?q???N?q
???N?O???u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-?
???2???A?. ???2ooe???V? ???2oa???n?oe? ???2o^ ???k?a?
???2bq???b?a????2b|???HB[.
???2b????G?D???2A???ninst?E?a?oe???????u?y??????1/4??I??T
imes New Roman Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2d???O??? ???2dA???o???
???2O/???Ae?¬? ???2Oa
???o??????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????
???2a???=? ???2N???=????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-??????
???2b???2?a????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-??????
???2™g???4??????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-??????
???2bN???a?# ???2b ???r? ???2bn???t?O?
???2oE???r????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???
-??????????????????????yyy?yyy?yyy????????????????????????????????
?yyy????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????.

Oiae? iiaeia caienaoe:

wmetafile8? ??y???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?`
???&??yyyy?????iyyy?yyyN ????? ???&? ?MathType???
???u?????????»????-?????„
???„*???„9???„@???u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-? ???2????A?. ???2?F???A?. ???2?S???A?.
???2«I ???I??? ???2P???O?  ???2«g???I??? ???2P4???O?
???2?A ???const?E?a?oe???????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2pB???I??? ???2p_ ???i???
???2???O??????2x???AeI¬??? ???2A.???I???
???2=???n??????2n???AeI¬?AE?
???2Al???n??????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-??????
???2?!???=? ???2?®???=? ???2?’???=? ???2?°???=?
???2?AE???=????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2«???*?a? ???2«???*?a????u@th??????

aea ?iaeaenii «0» iicia/aii ia?aiao?e, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei CI aac
i?enaaeee, a ?iaeaenii «n» — aei CI c II.

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ii ??aiyiith (5) iieacaee, ui /enaeuei? cia/aiiy
e?ai? oa i?aai? /anoie ??aiyiiy aeey iaeiaeiaeo iaoa??ae?a ?ieee?a
aeineoue aeecuee? iaeei aei iaeiiai: a na?aaeiueiio, ?ica?aei?noue
neeaaea? a?ey 30 % (ye i?eeeaae, aeea. oaae.2. ?io? aeai? ?ic?aooie?a
iaaaaeaii o aeena?oaoe??).

Iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ia o?eueee i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
i?aaaeea?noue ??aiyiiy (3), aea e aeicaieythoue, aeoiaey/e c nooiino?
yaeu, ui a?aeaoaathoueny, ?icoe?eoe oa iiaeeaeoe iaoai?ci ae?? II. sse
a?aeiii, i?ae eiiiiiaioaie II oa iaoaeii a?aeaoaathoueny o?i?/i?
?aaeoe??, aiane?aeie /iai ia iiaa?oiyo ooai?th?oueny caoenia ie?aea, ui
aeo?eio? aaeee? iai?oaeaiiy ? ?icae?ey? iiaa?oi?, caiia?aath/e ?o
aca?ii?e aaeaac??, ioaea, ?o noiiethaaiith oa ca?aeaiith. Iaeii/anii c
oeei iiaa?oiaai-aeoeai? ?a/iaeie (IA?), ui i?noyoueny o II,
caaacia/othoue ?ioaineaiee aeo?ae aeeneieaoe?e o i?eiiaa?oiaao ciio
oa?oy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iiaa?oi? oa?oy ci?oeiththoueny, a ?o
ciinino?ee?noue ca?eueoo?oueny.

Oaaeeoey 2

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a ii ??aiyiith (5)

Noai

CI

I-A-A-32Iaoa??ae:

eieiaeee

?ieeeawmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy???????????yyy?????yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy??o???t????
???????y??????????????????????yyy?????????????????yyy????yyy?????????I
???????????wmetafile8? ??°???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?`
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy»yyy ??»?? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????t@????t???u@th??????a/ni2
Ewmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy???????????yyy?????????yyy?yyy?yyy??o???t????
??yyy??y??????????????????????yyy????????????????????????yyy?????????I
?????????y??wmetafile8? ??°???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ??
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyyA????? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????t@????tE???u@th??????a/ni2 E

na?aeaNoaeue OO15

Noaeue OO15

22,8

25,02

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aenieoaoaoe?eiei aei?iaoaaiiyi
a?ae?ii?eaiae?a (AI) aa?noao?a.

AI iaie aoei aea?aii oiio, ui o eiai neeaae? ? cia/ia e?euee?noue
aoce?a oa?oy, ye? eiino?oeoeaii i?aaenoaaeythoue IE (aeiee oeee?iae??a
aen?aeueii-ii?oiaaeo ianin?a ? a?ae?iiioi??a, ui iaa?oathoueny o
ei?ion?, ?o i?aei’yoieee, ?iciiae?euei? oaeae, ieanoeie eiiaoieo ianin?a
i?e eiioaeo? c? noaoi?ii, i?iaeia? e?aie aeey ea?oaaiiy iioieaie ?iai/i?
??aeei? (??) oa ?ioa) aai iai?yii? eiacaiiy (a?ae?ioeee?iae?e, ieoiaea?e
aen?aeueii-ii?oiaaeo a?ae?iianin?a ? a?ae?iiioi??a, cieioieee
?iciiae?eueiee?a oa ?ioa).

Ciinino?ee?noue oeeo aoce?a oa?oy caeaa?eueoiai aecia/a? aeo?aei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee AI, cie?aia, EEAe ianin?a.

Iaoith aenieoaoaoe?eieo aei?iaoaaiue aoei anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iino?
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II AeO-11 o ?? ?-A-N-32 i?ae /an aeei?enoaiiy ?? o AI
aa?noao?a, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy AeO-11
ca aeiiiiiaith eiioaeia?a c oi/ee ci?o ciinino?eeino? aoce?a oa?oy oa
no?ie?a neoaeae ??.

Aei?iaoaaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia AAO “Aeaeo?iiao” (i. Oa?e?a) ia
ieineioe?ooaaeueieo (iiaeaeae 3A722, 3Ae725) ? aioo??oiueioe?ooaaeueieo
(iiaeaeae 3A229, 3E227A) aa?noaoao. I?ioyaii 1000 aiaeei aei?iaoaaiue
(no?ie neoaeae ??) c AI /ioe?ueio aa?noao?a ia??iaee/ii i?iaiaeeany
a?aea?? i?ia ??, a yeeo aecia/aee eiioeaio?aoe?th II AeO-11.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a iieacaee, ui o ii/aoeiaee ia??iae aenieoaoaoe??
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ioaineaia ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II. Iio?i oaeaee?noue
cieaeaiiy ?? eiioeaio?aoe?? ciaioo?oueny. I?e oeueiio /a?ac 1000 aiaeei
iayai?noue i?enaaeee o ?? neeaaea? 0,06 — 0,12%, ui cia/ii ieae/a
i?i?iaeueii aeiionoeiiai cia/aiiy (0,4%). Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a
ia?iaeyeeny i?ia?aiiei i?iaeoeoii Excel 7,0 o??ie Microsoft, a iane?aeie
/iai oaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe, ui ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II AeO-11 o ?? ?-A-N-32
i?aeeyaa? aeniiiaioe?ei?e caeaaeiino?. Oae iai?eeeaae, a?aeiia?aeia
??aiyiiy aeey ?? c AI aa?noaoa ?1 (oiiaiee iiia?) ia? aeaeyae:

wmetafile8? ??1/2???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy???1?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-??
???2a$????N?. ???2a!???a?E????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2c
???t?F????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2ae???=????u?y??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2 ???-?“????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-???????
???2aU???0?a????2a“???7875a?a?a?a????u?y??????1/4??I??Times
New Roman Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2©
???0??????2‡???0023???????????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-???????
???2aX???,?p????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-???????
???2L???,?@????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???-
???????????????yyy?????yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?????yyy?yyy?????yyy?????
yyy?????yyy?yyy?????yyy?????????????yyy?yyy?????????yyy?yyy??????????,
(6)

aea N — eiioeaio?aoe?y i?enaaeee; t — /an ?iaioe ?? o AI.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ai?ieneioth/eo ??aiyiue aoei ?ic?aoiaaii na?aaei?e /an
?iaioe ?? ?-A-N-32, i?ioyaii yeiai a i?e ni?aoeueiao?oueny II AeO-11 aei
eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,4%. Aeey oeueiai aoei caienaii ona?aaeiaii ii /ioe?ueii
AI ??aiyiiy caeiiii??iino? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II:

wmetafile8? ??1/2???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy ??1?? ???&?
?MathType??P????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-??
???2a$????N?. ???2a:???a?E????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2»
???t?F????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2ae???=????u?y??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2/ ???-?“????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-???????
???2aU???0?a????2a????8412a?a?a?a????u?y??????1/4??I??Times
New Roman Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2A
???0??????2 ???0023???????????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New
Roman Cyr?IY???-???????
???2aX???,?p????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-???????
???2e???,?@????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???-
???????????????yyy?????yyy?????????????????yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?
????????????????yyy?????????yyy?yyy?yyy?????yyy?????yyy?yyy?????yyy??
(7)

sseui o (7) i?eeiyoe N = 0,4%, oi io?eia?ii, ui na?aaei?e /an
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy AeO-11 neeaaea? i?eaeecii 300 aiaeei, ui a?eueoa i?ae o
3 ?ace iaioa ?aeiiaiaeiaaiiai no?ieo neoaeae ?? ?-A-N-32.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e io?eiai? ??aiyiiy, aoei aecia/aii oaeaeeino?
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy AeO-11:

wmetafile8? ??§???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy`??‘?? ???&?
?MathType???????u@th??????1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-??
???2a$????N?. ???2a???C?.
???2aE???e?E????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-??????? ???2o ???t?F????u@th??????1/4??I??Times
New Roman Cyr?IY???-???????
???2aC???’?????u@th??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2a???=?
???2a~???-????u?y??????1/4?????Symbol????-???????
???2®???-?“????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-???????
???2a™???b????u?y??????1/4????Symbol????-???????
???2_ ???b?“????u?y??????1/4??I??Times New Roman
Cyr?IY???-???????
???2P2???0??????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???
-???????????????yyy?????????????????????????yyy?????????yyy?yyy?yyy
?????????????????yyy?????yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy?????yyy?????yyy?yyy?yyy?yyy????
,
(8)

aea wmetafile8? ??‰????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy`??

?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th??????1/4????Symbol????-??
???2 :????b????&??yyyy????????u??????1/4???I»System?I???
-????????????H???????
’@??????????????/=?R3/4?????????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????yyy?yyy??????????? — eiinoaioa
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy; N0 — ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y i?enaaeee.

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
``???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy ???? ???&? ?MathType??
???u?????????»????-?????Ae¤???Ae
???Ae#???Ae‹???u!y
????1/4?????Symbol????-????2uA???(????u!y
????1/4?????Symbol????-?????????2uth???)????u@th??????
1/4??I??Times New Roman Cyr?IY???-?????? ???2@$????N?. ???2

aea t1 — /an aei?iaoaaiiy AI.

Aeoiaey/e c na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy AeO-11 o
?? c eiaeiiai AI, aoei ?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao?e eai?ey??a eiioaeia??a, ui
caaacia/othoue a?aeiia?aeio oaeaee?noue aea?eueiaiiy c ieo II oa
i?aeo?eiothoue ?? eiioeaio?aoe?th o ?? ia ??ai? ia iaioa i?ae 0,4%. Ia
i?aenoaa? oeueiai aoei aeaioiaeaii /ioe?e eiioaeia?a c iio??aieie
ia?aiao?aie eai?ey??a. Oe? eiioaeia?e c i?enaaeeith AeO-11 aoei
anoaiiaeaii o AI /ioe?ueio aa?noao?a, a ?io? /ioe?e aa?noaoe (oaeeo aea
iiaeaeae) i?aoethaaee c na??eieie AI. Aeei?enoiaoaaeanue na?aea ??
?-A-N-32. Aa?noaoe, ui ii??aithaaeeny, aenieoaooaaeeny a iaeiaeiaeo
oiiaao, ye? caaacia/oaaee a?aeiinii ??ai? iaoai?/i? ? oaieia?
iaaaioaaeaiino? AI. Ia??iaee/ii i?iaiaeeeiny a?aea?? i?ia ?? aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ?o aiae?co, a oaeiae aecia/aiiy EEAe ianin?a. I?e oeueiio ??
o na??eieo AI aenieoaooaaeeny 1000 aiaeei, a a AI c eiioaeia?aie — 2000
aiaeei.

Ia ?en.2 ? 3, ye i?eeeaae, iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a ?? c AI
aa?noao?a ?5 c na??eiei AI ? ?1 c eiioaeia?ii aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy
i?enaaeee, a oaeiae aeai? ii a?aeiiniiio ia’?iiiio EEAe.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a iieacaee, ui i?e canoinoaaii? aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy
AeO-11 ia? i?noea ne?aeoth/a:

1.Iayai?noue II o ?? i?ioyaii onueiai ia??iaeo aei?iaoaaiue neeaaea? ia
iaio i?ae 0,4%. Aiane?aeie oeueiai o ii??aiyii? c na??eieie AI
cieaeo?oueny ciin IE (ii oaeaeeino? iaae?iiy ia’?iiiai EEAe — o
na?aaeiueiio a 2,6 ?ace) oa ?ioeo aoce?a oa?oy (ii iayaiino? cae?ca a ??
— o 1,66 ?ace, ii eiioeaio?aoe?? iaoai?/ieo aeii?oie iai?aai?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy o 1,33 ?ace, ii aaee/ei? eiao?oe??ioa i?ioeciiooaaeueieo
aeanoeainoae ?? — o 1,42 ?ace).

2.Ca ?aooiie iie?ioaiiy i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae eean /enoioe ca
AINO17216-71 ?? ia 1 — 2 iaeeieoe? aeua, i?ae ?? c na??eieo AI.

3.Cieaeo?oueny oaeaee?noue ieeneaiiy ??, a ioaea, iayai?noue o i?e
iaoai?/ieo aeii?oie i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

4.No?ie neoaeae ?? (ii eiioeaio?aoe?? o i?e II AeO-11) iiaea aooe
i?iaeiaaeaii i?i?ioi aei 1600 aiaeei, ui aeoiaeeoue c a?aeiia?aeieo
ai?ieneioth/eo ??aiyiue. Ca ?ioeie o?ceei-o?i?/ieie iieacieeaie /a?ac
1600 aiaeei ?? ua ia aeinyaee a?aeiia?aeieo cia/aiue o eiio?ieueieo AI
1000 aiaeei.

a)
a)

?en.2. Ci?ithaaiiy a) eiao?oe??ioa Ej i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae ??
oa a) a?aeiiniiai ia’?iiiai EEAe wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyy`??

?? ???&? ?MathType??`????u@th?????? -i-i-i- ?1 c eiioaeia?ii; —-
?5 — eiio?ieueiee

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
canoinoaaiiy eiioaeia??a aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee o ?? AI.

Ca aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai eiioaeia?a iiaeia oaiaeeoe ?io? ??aee?
i?enaaeee, ye? canoiniaothoueny o ??. Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy ?ioeo i?enaaeie iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ia aoee iaoith aeaii? ?iaioe.

Aeniiaee.

1.Ciinino?ee?noue IE a i?ioean? ?o aenieoaoaoe?? e??i ?ioeo oaeoi??a
cieaeo?oueny ca ?aooiie ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy a CI II. Ca?eueoaiiy i?ae /an
ia?iaee CI ii/aoeiai? e?eueeino? II c iaoith i?aeo?eiaiiy ??
eiioeaio?aoe?? ia iaiao?aeiiio aeey caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai
ciiooaaiiy ??ai? ? aeiiii?/ii iaaeioe?eueiei.

2.C e?iaoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii ii i??? ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy
oaiaeeoe i?enaaeee a CI aeiciaaii. ?nioth/? o oaia??oi?e /an iaoiaee
aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy oa i?eno?i?, ui ?o ?aae?cothoue, iaaeoi neeaaei?
eiino?oeoeaii ? oaoiieia?/ii, i?noyoue o nia? aei?ia? aeaiaioe oa
iathoue ?io? iaaeie?ee.

?en.3. Ci?ithaaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo iieaciee?a ?? o AI aa?noao?a:

-i-i-i- ?1 c eiioaeia?ii; —- ?5 — eiio?ieueiee;

Iii , Iii — iaoai?/i? aeii?oee i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy ? iai?aai?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii; Ni? — eiioeaio?aoe?y II; E./. — eeneioia
/enei; Fe — aeii?oee cae?ca

3.Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie a CI ?
eiioaeia?, yeee ?aae?co? oeae iaoiae. Aea?eueiaiiy II c eiioaeia?a
cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aeeooc?? aai a?ae?iaeeiai?ee (o
caeaaeiino? a?ae iio??aii? oaeaeeino? aea?eueiaiiy).

4.Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue aea?eueiaiiy II c eiioaeia?a c
iio??aiith oaeaee?noth.

5.?ic?iaeaii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue,
yea iia’yco? ciinino?ee?noue IE i?e ianoaoe?iia?iiio ?aaeei? ?iaioe c
aeayeeie iaoaiaoe/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiiue oa?oy. Onoaiiaeaii,
cie?aia, ui ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eia iiaa?oiaa?e
u?eueiino? aeeneieaoe?e. Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieeee ?icoe?eoe ?nioth/?
iiaeyaee i?i iaoai?ci ae?? II.

6.Aenia?eiaiaeueii ia iaoei? oa?oy onoaiiaeaii, ui i?i?iaeueii
aeiionoeiith eiioeaio?aoe??th II AeO-11 o ?? ? 0,4%. Ia?aaeuaiiy
cacia/aii? eiioeaio?aoe?? ia aaeaeaaoii aieeaa? ia cieaeaiiy ciino, a
ciaioaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai eiai ca?eueoaiiy.

7.?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue ia iaoeiao oa?oy o eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao
i?aeoaa?aeeee i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? IE i?ae /an ?iaioe ?o o
na?aaeiaeu? CI, a yeiio i?aeo?eioaaeanue eiioeaio?aoe?y II AeO-11 ia
??ai? 0,4% (o na?aaeiueiio a 1,52 ?ace), a oaeiae cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa
oa?oy (o na?aaeiueiio a 1,36) o ii??aiyii? c CI a yeeo II
ni?aoethaaeanue. Onoaiiaeaii oaeiae ci?oeiaiiy i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a IE
i?ae /an ?iaioe ?o ia CI c II AeO-11 (ii u?eueiino? aeeneieaoe?e o
na?aaeiueiio a 1,64 ?ace).

8.Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenieoaoaoe?eieo aei?iaoaaiue AI aa?noao?a, aei
neeaaeo yeeo aoiaeyoue eiino?oeoeai? aeaiaioe oeio IE oa iai?yiieo
eiacaiiy, onoaiiaeaia caeiiii??i?noue ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy II AeO-11 a ??
?-A-N-32. Ia i?aenoaa? oe??? caeiiii??iino? aoei ?ic?aoiaaii ia?aiao?e
eiioaeia??a, ye? aoei aeaioiaeaii ? onoaiiaeaii o AI aa?noao?a.

9.Ii??aiyeuei? aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy c eiioaeia?aie iieacaee, ui
o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieueieie AI i?e aeiciaaiiio oaaaeaii? i?enaaeee
AeO-11 ciinino?ee?noue aoce?a oa?oy i?aeaeuo?oueny (cie?aia ianin?a ii
oaeaeeino? iaae?iiy ia’?iiiai EEAe o na?aaeiueiio a 2,6 ?ace, ii
iayaiino? cae?ca a ?? o na?aaeiueiio a 1,66 ?ace, ii eiioeaio?aoe??
iaoai?/ieo aeii?oie iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy — o na?aaeiueiio a 1,33
?ace, ii aaee/ei? eiao?oe??ioa i?ioeciiooaaeueieo aeanoeainoae ?? — o
na?aaeiueiio a 1,42 ?ace). Iaeii/anii ia iaio i?ae a 1,6 ?ace
i?aeaeuo?oueny no?ie neoaeae ??.

10.Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy eiioaeia?a aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy
II AeO-11 a ?? AI.

11.?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe oi?iaaaeaeai? o a?ae?inenoaiao /ioe?ueio
aa?noao?a AAO “Aeaeo?iiao”. E??i oiai, i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i ia?aaaaeaiiy
onueiai ia?eo a?ae?io?eiaaieo aa?noao?a oeueiai i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?iaioo
c eiioaeia?ii aeey aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeie.

12.I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae oi?iaaaeaeaiiy eiioaeia??a
neeaaea? o na?aaeiueiio 275 a?i ia ??e ia iaeei aa?noao.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1.Aeueoooea? I.A., Aaioeaeue A.N., Aaoooaiei A.A. Iiauoaiea
eciininoieeinoe o?eaioceia aeice?iaaiiui aaiaeii i?enaaeie a ianea e
?aai/ea aeeaeeinoe // Oaeineiiaeaiiy cania?a iaoai?caoe?? ia o?ainii?o?
oa i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaiaio?a iaoei. I?aeaoc. ca. iaoe. i?.,
i?enay/aiee 50 — ??//th eaoaae?e “Aoae?aaeuei?, eie?ei? oa
aaioaaeii-?icaaioaaeoaaeuei? iaoeie”. — Oa?e?a, 1997. — Aei.30. — N. 87
— 89.

2.Aa?aciyeia A.E., Aaioeaeue A.N., Aaoooaiei A.A. Oa?iiaeeiaie/aneee
aiaeec acaeiinayce eciina n iiaa?oiinoiie ieioiinoueth aeeneieaoeee //
O?aiea e eciin. — 1994. — O.15, ?2. — N. 181 — 185.

3. Aaioeaeue A.N., Aaoooaiei A.A. Iiauoaiea eciininoieeinoe oceia
o?aiey aeae?ii?eaiaea e n?ieia neoaeau ?aai/eo aeeaeeinoae aeice?iaaiiui
aaiaeii i?enaaeie // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiiai oaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Na. iao/. o?. —
Oa?ueeia,1998. — Aui.7. — N. 36-38.

4.Aaioeaeue A.N., Aaoooaiei A.A. Oaaee/aiea n?ieia neoaeau ?aai/eo
aeeaeeinoae a aeae?ii?eaiaeao aeice?iaaiiui aaaaeaieai i?enaaeie //
I?eaiaeiay oaoieea. — 1998. — ?5. — N.14-16.

5.?aoooaiei A.A., Aaioeaeue ?.N., Aa?aciyeia A.?. Aei iaoai?cio ae??
i?ioeciiooaaeueii? i?enaaeee aei ianoee // Oi?aae?iiy oaoi?/iith
aenieoaoaoe??th ?ooiiiai neeaaeo. I?aeaoc. ca. iaoe. i?. Oa?e?a, 1998. —
Aei.34. — N. 50 — 54.

6.Aeueoooea? I.A., Aaioeaeue ?.N., ?aoooaiei A.A. Aeiciaaia aaaaeaiiy
i?enaaeie aeey iie?ioaiiy i?ioeni?aoeueiaoaaeueieo aeanoeainoae iioi?ieo
ianoee oa ?iai/eo ??aeei // Cae?cie/iee o?ainii?o Oe?a?ie. – 1998. —
?4-5. – N.36 – 39.

7.Iao.21514A Oe?a?ia, IEE6 F 01 M 9/02. I?eno??e aeey iiaea/? i?enaaeee
o iioi?i? ianoeea oa ?iai/? ??aeeie / I.A. Aeueoooea?, A.?. Aa?aciyeia,
?.N. Aaioeaeue, A.A. ?aoooaiei (Oe?a?ia).

8.?aoooaiei A.A. I?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?aeoeiiie?a eiacaiiy //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea,
caei?iauea. Na. iao/. o?. OAIO — Oa?ueeia,1999. — Aui.7. *.2 — N.
102-105.

9.Aaioeaeue ?.N., ?aoooaiei A.A. Aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? i?enaaeee o
ianoeeao oa ?iai/eo ??aeeiao ia ciin o?eaiaoce?a // Oace aeii. 57 iaoe.
— oaoi. eiio. eaoaae? aeaae. oa niaoe-o?a cae?ci. o?-oo ca i?aeia?.
o/anoth (21 — 23 eenoiiaaea 1995 ?ieo). Oa?e?a, 1995. — N. 38.

10.Aaioeaeue A.N., Aeueoooea? I.A., Aaoooaiei A.A. Oeo/oaiea
i?ioeaieciiniuo naienoa ?aai/eo aeeaeeinoae aeice?iaaiiui aaiaeii
i?enaaeie // Oac. aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.- oaoi. eiio.
“Eciininoieeinoue iaoei”. A?yine, 1994. — N. 84.

11. Aaioeaeue A.N.,Aii/a?ia A.I., Aaoooaiei A.A., Oaa/aiei I.A. Iaoiaeu
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe no?ieoaeueiuo, iooaauo e iia?oci/ii-?ac-a?oci/iuo
iaoei. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey ii eo?no “Iniiau iaaeaaeiinoe NII?I” aeey
nooaeaioia anao oi?i iao/aiey niaoeeaeueiinoe 1504
“Iiaeuaiii-o?ainii?oiua, no?ieoaeueiua e aei?iaeiua iaoeiu e
iai?oaeiaaiea”, anie?aioia, a oaeaea aeey eiaeaia?ia, iiauoathueo a
aeaaeaiee naith eaaeeoeeaoeeth. Oa?ueeia, 1995. – 35 n.

AIIOAOe?ss

?aoooaiei A.A. I?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?aeoeiiee?a eiacaiiy
noaa?e?caoe??th i?ioeciiooaaeueieo iieaciee?a ciauoaaeueieo ianoee. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.02 — iaoeiiciaanoai. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?aeoeiiee?a
eiacaiiy oa ?ioeo aoce?a oa?oy iaoei oeyoii aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy
i?ioeciiooaaeueii? i?enaaeee aei ciauoaaeueieo ianoee.

O ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny iiaee iaoiae aeiciaaiiai oaaaeaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith
eiioaeia?a, aea?eueiaiiy i?enaaeee o yeiio cae?enith?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith aeeooc?? aai a?ae?iaeeiai?ee. Cai?iiiiiaaii oai?aoe/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeicaieythoue aea?aoe eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e
eiioaeia?a ? anoaiiaeoe aca?iica’ycie i?ae aeayeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
iiaa?oiiue oa?oy c ?o ciinino?ee?noth. Iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ? ?acoeueoaoe
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo aei?iaoaaiue, ye?
i?aeoaa?aeeee aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaea, ui i?iiiio?oueny, aeey aeiciaaiiai
oaaaeaiiy i?enaaeee. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy ia AAO “Aeaeo?iiao” i. Oa?eiaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aeoeiiee eiacaiiy, ciauoaaeueia ianoeei, i?enaaeea,
eiioaeia?, ciin, ciinino?ee?noue, aocie oa?oy.

Yevtushenko A.V. The increasing of sliding bearings wear resistance by
stabilization of lubricating oils antiwearability indicators. —
Manuscript.

The thesis for awarding the degree of the candidate of technical
sciences accords the speciality 05.02.02 – mechanical engineering.
Kharkov State Polytechnic University, Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to questions increasing the sliding bearings wear
resistance and other machine friction knots by introducing the antiwear
additive into the lubricating oils.

The author of the work offers the practically new method of input with
the help of special container in which release of the layer takes place
by the method of hydrodynamics or diffusion. We also offers the
theoretical research which helps to find the constructive size of the
container and to arrange the connection between the characteristics of
friction surface and their level of wear resistance. We offer the
methods and the results of the laboratory research, which confirmed the
effectiveness of the offered method. The main results of the thesis
found their practical usage at “Electromash” society of Kharkov.

The key words: sliding bearings, lubricating oil, the layer, container,
wear, wear resistance, knot friction.

Aaoooaiei A.A. Iiauoaiea eciininoieeinoe iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey
noaaeeecaoeeae i?ioeaieciiniuo iieacaoaeae niaci/iuo ianae. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.02 — iaoeiiaaaeaiea. — Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey eciininoieeinoe iiaeoeiieeia
neieueaeaiey e ae?oaeo oceia o?aiey iaoei iooai aeice?iaaiiiai aaiaea
i?ioeaieciiniie i?enaaeee a niaci/iua ianea.

Ecaanoiua ec eeoa?aoo?u ono?ienoaa aeey aeice?iaaiiiai aaiaea i?enaaeie,
i?aaeiacia/aiiua a iniiaiii aeey aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey, a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aeinoaoi/ii yooaeoeaiu. Iaeiaei yoe ono?ienoaa
eiatho nouanoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee (aunieoth noieiinoue, neiaeiinoue
eiino?oeoeee e ae?.), /oi ia?aie/eaaao eo i?eiaiaiea.

A ?aaioa i?aaeeaaaaony iiaue iaoiae aeice?iaaiiiai aaiaea n iiiiuueth
eiioaeia?a, aunaiaiaeaeaiea i?enaaeee, a eioi?ii inouanoaeyaony i?e
iiiiue aeeooocee eee aeae?iaeeiaieee. Auai? iaoaiecia aunaiaiaeaeaiey
caaeneo io iaiaoiaeeiie nei?inoe aeice?iaaiiiai aaiaea, eioi?ay a naith
i/a?aaeue, caaeneo io nei?inoe n?aaaouaaiey i?enaaeee a niaci/iii ianea.
I?aaeeiaeaiu oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, iicaieythuea aua?aoue
eiino?oeoeaiua ia?aiao?u eiioaeia?a e onoaiiaeoue acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo
iaeioi?uie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaa?oiinoae o?aiey aeaoaeae iaoei n eo
eciininoieeinoueth. N iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee
onoaiiaeaii, a /anoiinoe, /oi eioaineaiinoue eciaoeaaiey ia?aoii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia iiaa?oiinoiie ieioiinoe aeeneieaoeee, /oi auei
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii yenia?eiaioaeueii.

A ?acoeueoaoa eaai?aoi?iuo enneaaeiaaiee ia iaoeia o?aiey NIO-1 auea
ii?aaeaeaia ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey i?enaaeee AeO-11 a
niaci/iuo ianeao E-A-A-32, IA-46-A, E-A-N-32, aaee/eia eioi?ie ninoaaeea
0,4% io iauaia. Aeaeueiaeoaa oiaiueoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee i?enaaeee
i?eaiaeeo e ?aceiio oaaee/aieth eciaoeaaiey. E?iia oiai, auei
iiaeoaa?aeaeaii iiauoaiea eciininoieeinoe ia?acoeia, ?aaioaaoeo ia
iaoeia o?aiey NIOe-2, eieoe?othueo ?aaioo iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey, a
n?aaea, a eioi?ie iiaeaea?aeeaaeanue eiioeaio?aoeey i?ioeaieciiniie
i?enaaeee AeO-11 ia o?iaia 0,4% (a n?aaeiai a 1,52 ?aca) e iiieaeaiea
eiyooeoeeaioa o?aiey (a n?aaeiai a 1,36 ?aca). Yoi iaoneiaeaii oai, /oi
i?ioeaieciiniay i?enaaeea niinianoaoao oi?i/iaieth iiaa?oiinoae
(iiauoaaony ieioiinoue aeeneieaoeee a i?eiiaa?oiinoiie ciia a n?aaeiai a
1,64 ?aca).

Onoaiiaeaia caeiiiia?iinoue n?aaaouaaiey i?ioeaieciiniie i?enaaeee
AeO-11 a ?aai/ae aeeaeeinoe E-A-N-32 i?e aa yenieoaoaoeee a
aeae?ii?eaiaeao, niaea?aeaueo cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai iiaeoeiieeia
neieueaeaiey (ianinu, iai?aaeythuea e o.i.). Ia iniiaaiee yoie
caeiiiia?iinoe auee ?an/eoaiu ia?aiao?u eiioaeia?ia, eioi?ua auee
ecaioiaeaiu e onoaiiaeaiu a aeae?ii?eaiaeu niioaaonoaothueo noaieia.

N?aaieoaeueiua yenieoaoaoeeiiiua eniuoaiey n eiioaeia?aie iieacaee, /oi
a n?aaiaiee n eiio?ieueiuie (na?eeiuie) aeae?ii?eaiaeaie noaieia i?e
aeice?iaaiiii aaiaea i?enaaeee AeO-11 eciininoieeinoue oceia o?aiey, a
/anoiinoe iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey, iiauoaaony (a oii /enea, ianinia ii
nei?inoe iaaeaiey iauaiiiai EIAe a n?aaeiai a 2,6 ?aca, ii iaee/eth
aeaeaca a ?aai/ae aeeaeeinoe a n?aaeiai a 1,66 ?aca, ii eiioeaio?aoeee
iaoaie/aneeo i?eianae iai?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey – a n?aaeiai a
1,33 ?aca, ii aaee/eia eiyooeoeeaioa i?ioeaieciiniuo naienoa ?aai/ae
aeeaeeinoe – a n?aaeiai a 1,42 ?aca). Aianoa n yoei ia iaiaa, /ai a 1,6
?aca, iiauoaaony n?ie neoaeau ?aai/ae aeeaeeinoe a aeae?ii?eaiaeao aei
caiaiu.

Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia oai?aoe/aneeo e yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaiu i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii iiauoaieth
eciininoieeinoe iiaeoeiieeia neieueaeaiey e ae?oaeo oceia o?aiey n
iiiiuueth aeice?iaaiiiai aaiaea i?ioeaieciiniie i?enaaeee AeO-11.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?aeoe/aneia i?eiaiaiea ia IAI
“Yeaeo?iiao” a. Oa?ueeiaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiaeoeiiee neieueaeaiey, niaci/iia ianei, i?enaaeea,
eiioaeia?, eciin, eciininoieeinoue, ocae o?aiey.

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