Підвищення якості зварних листових конструкцій за рахунок регулювання зварювальних деформацій: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / А.І. Гедрович, Нац. т

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aaae?iae/

Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/

OAeE 621.791.75.052

I?AeAEUAIIss ssEINO? CAA?IEO EENOIAEO EIINO?OEOe?E CA ?AOOIIE
?AAOETHAAIIss CAA?THAAEUeIEO AeAOI?IAOe?E.

05.03.06 —

caa?thaaiiy oa nii?iaeiaii oaoiieia??

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?i ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, i.
Eoaainuee. I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Oii?/ia Naa?e Eiinoaioeiiae/, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.03.06-“ Caa?thaaiiy oa nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??”,
aeioeaio, i?ioani? eaoaae?e caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiaioi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo»

I?oooeia Aieiaeeie? Aai?a?eiae/, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeue-i?noth 05.03.06 — “Caa?thaaiiy oa nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??”,
i?ioani? ca niaoe?aeuei?noth ”Oaoiieia?y oa iaeaaeiaiiy caa?thaaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa”,caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ?inoeoooo aeaeo?icaa?thaaiiy ?i.
A.I.Iaoiia IAI Oe?a?ie

?icieoey?a Ieaenaiae? Aeaieniae/, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.03.06 – “Caa?thaaiiy oa nii??aeiai? oaoiieia??”,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa I?eacianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

:

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – AAO Oe?IAe? I?iaeonoaeueeiino?oeoe?y, i. Ee?a,
a?aeae?e neeaaeaeueii- caa?thaaeueieo ?ia?o,

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 10 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15-00 aiae ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.002.15 IOOO «EI?» , 252056, i.
Ee?a-56 i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 37.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IOOO «EI?»

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 27 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

ae.o.i., i?io.
Aieiaei E.O.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. O ??cieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?: o?i?/iiio
iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?, aaaiiiaoaeoaaii?, noaeiiaoaeoaaii?,
aaoiiia?eaaoaeoaaii? oa ii. o aaeeeiio ianyc? aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoae
iaei? oiaueie. I?e oeueiio aaeeeina??eia ? ianiaa ae?iaieoeoai noaei
iiaeeeaei caaaeyee canoinoaaiith i?ia?aneaieo caa?thaaeueieo oaoiieia?e,
ui aeeth/athoue oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaoiiaoe/ieo niinia?a aeoaiaiai ?
eiioaeoiiai caa?thaaiiy. Aei oiieino?iieo iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e
a?aeiinyoueny: iaieiieia? iaoaeieiino?oeoe??, aaeiie ??ciiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ei?ione oiii/ieo aiia?aoia, ieine? eenoiai
iaoaeieiino?oeoe??, iaoeooy aaaii?a, no?iee o?aiaa?a ? oaieiaic?a ? oaea
iioa. Oe? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?? a?ae??ciythoueny oiaueiith iaoaeo,
aaaa?eoieie ?ici??aie, ia’?iii, ?icoaooaaiiyi caa?ieo oa?a ? ?ioeo
/eiiee?a. Any ?o noeoii?noue i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae aeaoi?iaoe?e ??cieo
oei?a: onaaei/i? iicaeiaaei? ? iiia?a/i?, eooia? ia?ai?uaiiy ?
«aoaeeii/ee». I?e/eiith iiyae on?o aeae?a aeaoi?iaoe?e ? ooai?aiiy ciie
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aai aeoeaii? ciie. Oiio i?iaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
caeiiiii?iinoae oi?ioaaiiy ciie ? c’ynoaaiith i?e/ei ?? iiyae,
aea/aiith caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? ia?ai?uaiue, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a
?aaoethaaiiy ? ea?oaaiiy ieie i?eae?ey?oueny aaeeea oaaaa.

Ia aeaeue, ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iaia? iaeiicia/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?aaoethaaiiy, ui iiynith?oueny ?icia?o?noth
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e, iaoa??ae?a, niinia?a caa?thaaiiy, a?iioac ?
iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeaiee /an o e?a?iao NIAe ? ca ?oaaaeai oe?e
i?iaeai? i?eae?ey?oueny cia/ia oaaaa. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?? aeaieo aaeocae aeaioiaeythoueny c canoinoaaiiyi
inianoee ? iaoai?ciaaieo niinia?a caa?thaaiiy, ??aaiue caeeoeiaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?e aaeeeee ? ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy i?eionoei? oaoi?/ieie oiiaaie.
Ana oea aeiaaa? aaeeeeo o?oaeicao?ao ia aeeiiaiiy i?aaeeueieo ?ia?o.
Iai?eeeaae, o?oaeii?noe?noue i?aaee ianaaee?nueeeo aaaii?a aeinyaa? 20 %
aiae caaaeueiie o?oaeii?noeino? aeaioiaeaiiy iaoaeieiino?oeoe??
eocia?a.

Aiae?c i?e/ei aeaoi?iaoe?e iieaco?, ui inoaii? aeieeeathoue ia
o?eueee a ?acoeueoao? oaeeo oaoiieia?/ieo iia?aoe?e, ye caeiaiiy,
ooaiioaaiiy, o?ainii?ooaaiiy e ?i., aea a iniiaiiio, ye ianeiaeie
oa?iiiaoaii/iiai aieeao caa?thaaiiy. O?oaeiiu? o iiia?aaeaeaii?
aeaoi?iaoeie, iia’ycaieo ?c caa?thaaiiyi, iaoiiaeai? niaoeeo?eith
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e. Oae, a?/i? no?iee oaieiaic?a iiaeooue aooe
ea?eaniiai i aacea?eaniiai oeio, aeiaaeeiith aei 20 i, o nai?io
neeaae? iiaeooueiinoeoe neeaaeii ca eiio?ao?aoe??th oi?ie a?eiiieo
i?i??c?a ? aio??a, c aeaiaioaie ciiiii? aei?noeino?. Iaa/aeee ??ciiai
i?ecia/aiiy iiaeooue aooe ae?aiao?ii a?ae 300 ii aei 3000 ii ?
aeiaaeeiith a?ae 300 ii aei eieueeio iao??a. Iniaeeai aino?ei iinoaei
ieoaiiy onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e o ca’yceo c canoinoaaiiyi iaoaeo oiaueiith
iaioa 3 ii. Iniiaiith i?e/eiith caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e oiieieenoiaeo
eiino?oeoe?e ? ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui oi?io?oueny a
?acoeueoao? oa?iiiaoaii/iiai aieeao aeaea?aea iaa??aaiiy. E??i oiai,
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, ui ?icaeaa?oueny o oae caaiie aeoeaiie cii?,
aieeaa? ia neoaeaia? oa?aeoa?enoeee caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy.

A aeaiee /an ?nio? aeineoue aaaaoi iaoiae?a ai?ioueae c
aeaoi?iaoe?yie ia o?i?o? aeaioiaeaiiy iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e: aeoeaia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, oieiaeia ? aa?y/a aeaoi?ioaaiiy, i?ieaooaaiiy ?ieeeaie oa
?i. Iaeiae i?e i?ecia/aii? ?aaeei?a ii?aoethaaiiy aeieeathoue o?oaeiiu?,
iia’ycai? c aaiiao???th iaoaeieiino?oeoe??, ?? aei?noe?noth, oiaueiith
iaoaeo e ?i. E??i oiai, iaaeaieiai?oa, a?aenooiy ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i ?ici??e
ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aai aeoeaii? ciie. ?nioth/? ?iaeaia?i?
iaoiaee ?? ioe?iee i?eaeeci?, aeathoue ??ci? ?acoeueoaoe o caeaaeiino?
a?ae i?eeiyoi? noaie ?ic?aooieo.

Ia?niaeoeaiei o oeueiio ieai? ? iaoiae ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iiein
(nioa) oaeo/ino? — ne?ae?a ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. Canoinoaaiiy
aeaiiai iaoiaeo aea? iiaeeea?noue aea/eoe eiiaoeeo oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaii?
ciie, iaae?eii aecia/eoe ?? ?ici??e ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ii
?aaoethaaiiy.

Aeooaeueieie ieoaiiyie ?ic?iaee iioeiaeueieo ?ano?nicaa?iaath/eo
iaoiae?a ?aaoethaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e, ia?ai?uaiue ? oaoiieia?? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy ?: ioe?iea i?ioean?a ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy o oa? e
aieyoiaiii ciie, ioe?iea iaae iiaeeeaiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo o
no/anieo oai??yo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oa ??cieo e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy
aeoeaii? ciie, iaea?aeaiiy aeaieo i?i i?ioeane cniaoaaiiy o oa? ? cii?
oa?ii/iiai aieeao, aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo /eiiee?a,
ii/aoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue, ooo/iiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ? oaea iioa ia ?icaeoie
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??; aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo eiino?oeoeaieo
/eiiee?a ( oeio oaa, c’?aeiaiiy, noaie cae??ieaiiy oa ?i.)ia ?icaeoie
oa?iiaeaoi?iaoeieieo i?ioean?a.

Iaoith ?iaioe aoei iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo
nioa oaeo/ino? (e?i?e eiacaiiy) aeey aecia/aiiy aeoeaii? ciie, aea/aiiy
ia?ai?uaiue iaoaeo a ieiuei? ?icoaooaaiiy ae?iao ? ic ieiueie, ?
?ic?iaea ?ano?ninaa?iaath/eo iaoiaeia ?o ?aaoethaaiiy, aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? caa?ieo eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1.Anoaiiaeoe iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy «aeoeaii?» ciie i?e aeeiiaii? oa?a
??cii? eiio?ao?aoe?? i?e caa?thaaii? eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeae,
i?iaiae?coaaoe iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai i?e ooai?aii? ??cieo
nenoai nioa oaeo/ino? ia aac? oai??? ieanoe/iino?.

2.Aeine?aeeoe oaiia?aoo?ii-neeia? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaii? ciie
i?e noai?aii? caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue ??cieo oei?a (noeeiaeo, aiaionoie,
oaa?iaeo ? ii.).

3. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe caeiiii??iino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ia?ai?uaiue
iaoaeo a ieiuei? ?icoaooaaiiy ae?iao ? c ieiueie; i?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea
ia e?aeeo ? ia eeno.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ?ici???a ciie ieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e caa?thaaii? ieaaeaiiyi ??cieo oei?a caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue,
o oiio /ene? ia?ai?iii? aei?noeino? , ? i?e iayaiino? ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa.

5. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea ia aeaoi?iaoeieii i?ioeane ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio
caa?thaaiiy, iiaoi?ieo i?ioiae?a, caci??a, ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa ? ?ioeo
oaoiieia?/ieo /eiiee?a.

6. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe iniaeeaino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e caa?thaaii?
iaoaeo ??cii? oiaueie ? oe?eie, aeaiaio?a ia?ai?iii? aei?noeino? ?
??cieo oiia cae??ieaiiy caaioiaie.

7. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e,
ia?ai?uaiue iaoaeo a ieiuei? ? c ieiueie i?e caa?thaaii? ieaaeaiiyi
i?ae oa?ii oethno e o na?aaeiaeu? caoenieo aac?a ? ai?iaaaeeoe o
ae?iaieoeoai.

I?e ae??oaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue ii/aoeia? aeai? e iniiai?
ia?aaeoiiae aacoaaeeny ia ?acoeueoaoao oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?.I.Iaoiia, I.I.Iea?aeiia, A.I.Ieeiea?aa, A.I.Iaoiaiea,
A.ss.Iaaein?ee, E.I.Eiaaiiaa, A.I.Aeiieo?iaa, A.I.Naaaeaae/a,
N.I.Eocueieiiaa, A.I.I?ioi?aiea, A?eai?yioea A.I. ,O?i/oia ?.I.,
Aaeeiaie ?.I., AEaeaiiaa?.I. ? ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Eiiieaeniee iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ee i?aeo?ae uiaei
ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue i?iaeaie ,ui ?ic?iaeyeany, aeicaieea
iaea?aeaoe aaoi?o iia? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe .

1.Aia?oa aeaia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy aeoeaii? ciie i?e
caa?thaaii? eiino?oeoeiiiieo noaeae ca nioaaie oaeo/ino? . Anoaiiaeaii
,ui iniiaiee aianie o aeaoi?iaoe?? oi?iici?ie caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy
aiineoue iaoai?ci aacaeeoocieii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ca ?aooiie eiacaiiy ?
ianiaiai aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia iiaa?oith oiea, ui aeaoi?io?oueny i?ae
ae??th iaeneiaeueii? aeioe/ieo iai?oa ,c ooai?aiiyi ??cieo n?iaenoa nioa
oaeo/ino? .

2.Aia?oa aeyaeaiee ? aeine?aeaeoaiee oaiia?aoo?ii-neeiaee iaoai?ci
?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea ia e?ae ? ia
eeno. Anoaiiaeaii oaiia?aoo?i? ? neeia? oiiae ooai?aiiy ??cieo nenoai
nioa oaeo/ino? ia iniia? oiiae ieanoe/iino? Aoaa?a-Iecana. Anoaiiaeaia
iaiaeii??aei?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a cii? oa?i?/iiai aieeao
caa?iiai oaa. Ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iiaai? ae?eyiee /a?aaothoueny c i?oaeii
aeaoi?iiaaieie ,ui oayco?ony ?c no/anieie oyaeaiiyie i?i aa?oith ?
ieaeith iaaeo oaeo/ino? ? no?eaeiiiae?aiei oa?aeoa?ii ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? , ui eieae?co?oueny a nioaao oaeo/ino?.

3.Aia?oa anoaiiaeai? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a iai?oaeaiiai noaio i?e
ooai?aii? ?aae?aeueieo, iiia?a/ieo ? ?ioeo nenoai oaeo/ino?, ui
aeicaieeee ca aeiiiiiaith oai??? ieanoe/iino? aecia/eoe
iai?oaeaiii-aeaoi?iiaaiiee noai i?e ooai?ai? ie?aii? nioae oaeo/ino? i?e
aeeiiaii? caa?iiai oaa. Anoaiiaeaii ,ui i?e iiaoi?iiio caa?thaaeueiiio
iaa??aaii? noaia ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy a cii? oa?i?/iiai aieeao
ci?ith?oueny c ooai?aiiyi nioa oeio -ia?aaie. Iieacaii,ui i?ii?aeia
aeniea a?aeionoea i?e aeeiiaii? aaaaoioa?iaiai caa?iiai oaa i?eaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ae/a?iaiiy
ieanoe/iino? iaoaeo ?icoaoiaaiiai a cii? oa?i?/iiai aieeao.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaii ? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aeey
ia?aooaaiiy ?ici???a ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaa??aaii? e
ioieiaeaeaii? c iae?eii oaieio?ce/aneeo, iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iniiaiiai iaoaeo, iiooaeiino? aeaea?aea oaiea, oa?aeoa?o oaieiaeiaeaiiy
? aei?noeino? caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy. Iieacaii, ui ?ici??e ciie ieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? ?ioaineai?noue aeaoi?iaoe?e o i?e caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy
neeiaiai aieeao ia oia aei caa?thaaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae i?e?iaee iai?oa
ui ?icoyaothoue aai noeneothoue (?ai?oa aeeiiai? oae, caeeoeia? iai?oae
a?ae ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo oa??a, i?eeeaaeaiiy ciai?oi?o coneeue ? o.ae).

5. Aeaii iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
caa?thaaiiy aeey iaea?aeaiiy i?i?iaeueieo ?ici???a ciie ieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e iaeiii?io?aeiii caa?thaaii? iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e ?c
oiieieenoiaiai iaoaeo. ?ic?iaeaii aiae?oe/i? ?iaiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy
aeoeaii? ciie ? o?eoeaii? onaaei/ii? neee aeey an?o oei?a caa?ieo
c’?aeiaiue. Iieacaii iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ?ici???a aeoeaii? ciie
oaoiieia?/ieie ? eiino?oeoeaieie caoiaeaie, iacaeaaeii a?ae
eiio?ao?aoe?? caa?iiai oaa.

6. I?aeoaa?aeaeaii iayai?noue cnoao iaoaeo aieyoiaiii ciie noiniaii
iaoaeo oaa. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui ia?ai?uaiiy iaoaeo a ieiuei? X — Y ia?
no?eaeiiiae?aiee oa?aeoa?, ca’ycaiee c iniaeeainoyie ieanoe/iiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy a ie?aieo nioaao, ? caeaaeeoue a?ae aei?noeino? caa?iiai
c’?aeiaiiy, i?eoaaoie, anooiieo ? aea?aeieo ieaiie, oei/aniaeo
e??ieaiue, e?eueeino? i?ioiae?a ? iai?yieo caa?thaaiiy: aei aei?noeino?
aai a?ae aei?noeino? ia?ai?ua?oueny caa?thaaeueiee iaeueiee.

7. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e caa?thaaii? oa?a iaiaaeaii? aeiaaeeie,
ia?ai?uaiiy c ieiueie caeaaeaoue a?ae noaie caa?thaaiiy: (iaieaaeaiiy
aaeeea ia e?aeeo aai ia eeno); aaiiao??? i?iieaaeaiiy (ii o?eeooieeo, ii
iiaeieo ? ae?.), iayaiino? caci??a o noeeo, oiia cae??ieaiiy ae?ia?a o
noaiae?. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e
iaoaeieiino?oeoe?? c ieiueie. Onoaiiaeaii, ui aeey ciaioaiiy ia?ai?uaiiy
? eooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeioe?eueia aeeiiaiiy caa?thaaiiy ia ca?eueoaieo
caci?ao, ?aeiiaiaeiaaieo AeNOO, a oaeiae c canoinoaaiiyi oei/aniaeo
aeoi/ie ? eaiaaie ia ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo oaao i?e aaaaoii?io?aeiii
caa?thaaii?.

8. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c neeaaeiaeo, ui oi?iothoue “aeoeaio” ciio i?e
caa?thaaii? (ciia i?iieaaeaiiy, ieiua iaieaaeaiiy ? ieiua ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoaeo i?e iaa??aaii?).Anoaiiaeaii, ui neeaaeia?
caeaaeaue a?ae iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iniiaiiai iaoaeo. C ca?eueoaiiyi
iioeiinoieo aeanoeainoae ?ieue oaa c?inoa?. Ia noaeyo eiino?oeoe?eieo
cae/aeii? yeino? aianie oaa aeey noeeiaeo oaia ia ia?aaieueooa 20 %,
aeey aiaionoie 4 %. Iniiaiee iai?yiie i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? caa?iiai
c’?aeiaiiy ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oa oea aieea ia
aieyoiaio ciio a ?ioa?aae? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy aei oaiia?aoo?e
cae?i/aiiy ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Ia oe?e iniia? cai?iiiiiaai?
i?ea?iaeuei? eiino?oeoi?nueei — oaoiieia?/i? ??oaiiy ii a?aae??ioiiio
ii?aoethaaii? caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue ?c cai?ioii? noi?iie c’?aeiaiiy
i?aeieie aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaeueieie aeaiaioaie aai ?ooeeaeie i?eno?iyie c
eeoeueiai? noi?iie c aeei?enoaiiyi ioieiaeaeoaa/a ia iniia? aiaee. Oaea
ii?aoethaaiiy aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe ye?ni? eenoiai eiino?oeoe?? c
caeeoeiaeie aeaoi?iaoe?yie a iaaeao aeiioneo.

I?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue noaiiaeyoue:

1. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? caa?ieo oa?a ?ic?iaeai? niiniae iaaaaeaiiy
caa?thaaeueiiai iaeueieea ia noee ? i?eno?i? aeey oi?ioaaiiy ei?aiy oaa
i?e iaeiii?io?aeiii caa?thaaii? ia iiaeii-oethnia?e i?aeeeaaeoe? ?
oethnia?e iiaeoooe?.

2. Eiiieaen ?iaeaia?ieo ?ic?aooie?a ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?
onaaei/ii? neee aeey ??cieo oei?a caa?ieeo c’?aeiaiue ? iaoiaeeeo
aecia/aiiy iai?oa ? ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o oe?e cii?, a oaeiae
eooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e caa?thaaii?.

3. Niiniae a?aae??ioiiai ii?aoethaaiiy caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy ca ?aooiie
iaa??aaiiy e ioieiaeaeaiiy iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio aeey i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e o a?eueiiio noai? ? c cae??ieaiiyi.

4. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a ? i?eno??e aeey ii?aoethaaiiy oaa c eeoeueiai?
iiaa?oi?, a oaeiae niin?a ? i?eno??e aeey ii?aoethaaiiy ciie oa?i?/iiai
aieeao, a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiiy — oaiia?aoo?a cae?i/aiiy
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ?c cai?ioiuei? noi?iie.

5. ?ic?iaeaii i?eno??e aeey oi?ioaaiiy oaa e iaeii/aniiai ii?aoethaaiiy
ciie oa?i?/iiai aieeao c? cai?ioiuei? noi?iie aeey ciaioaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e eenoiaeo iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e.

6. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a eiia?iiaaiiai ii?aoethaaiiy, ui aeeth/a? iaeii/ania
i?ieaooaaiiy ? ?icoya caa?iiai oaa.

7. Oaoiieia?/ia ?ino?oeoe?y c ?ic?aooieo i/?eoaaieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o
ieiuei? ? c ieiueie, iaoiae?a ?o ?aaoethaaiiy ca ?aooiie eieaeueiiai
ii?aoethaaiiy caa?iiai oaa ? “aeoeaii?” ciie ia?aaeaia i?aai?caoe??
“EoaaineIO??IAO” ? A?yinueeee iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae.

8. Noai?aii oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane neeaaeaiiy ? caa?thaaiiy, aeaioiaeai?
onoaiiaee aeey caa?thaaiiy caieeath/iai noeeo iaa/aae (caaiae o?i?/iiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy i. Ni?aeii?, Aeiiaoeueea iae.).

9. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean neeaaeaiiy ? caa?thaaiiy
aacea?eaniii a?/ii? no?iee oaieiaica 2OY121, ui aeeth/a? a?aae??ioia
ii?aoethaaiiy c iaea?aeaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?e o iaaeao aeiione?a (II
“Eoaaineoaieiaic”, i. Eoaainuee).

10. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoai? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? a
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? (i. Eoaainuee).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny e iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ?
aaeocaaeo iaoeiai -oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, ia?aaeao, nai?ia?ao, ia
ui??/ieo iaoeiai — oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1975 — 1997 a), ia i?aeia?iaeiie — Ee?a 1986,
1995, ia nithcieo — Eai?ia?aae 1985, A?eueithn — 1977, Iiaee?a — 1985 ?,
Ia?i — 1979, Oaoeaio — 1979, Aieaia?aae — 1980 ?, AEaeaiia — 1987, 1996,
ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e — Ai?ioeeiaa?aae — 1983.

O iiaiiio ianyc? aeena?oaoe?y aeiiia?aeaeany ? aoea noaaeaia ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e caa?thaaiiy ? eeo?y iaoai?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia eaoaae??
caa?thaaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa IOOO “EI?” — 1999 ?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii aea? iiiia?ao?? ? 46
?ia?o, o oiio /ene? 12 aaoi?nueeeo iina?ae/aiue, 5 ca?o?a i?i aeeiiaiiy
iaoeiai — aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a e ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?ony c anooio, naie
aeaa, caaaeueieo aeniiaeia oa ?acoeueoaoia ?iaioe ia 230 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aeiaeaoeiai aeeth/a? 151 iaethiie, 40 oaaeeoeue,
287 e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoie ia 17 noi??ieao.

Aaoi? caoeua? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? io?eiaa iniaenoi.

1. Iieiaeaiiy oai??? iae?ineii?/ii? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e
caa?thaaeueiiio iaa??aaii? e ioieiaeaeaii? a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy caa?ieo
c’?aeiaiue ?icieo oei?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi e?aieiaeo, ia?a?ea/anoeo ?
aacoieiieo oa?a ??cii? o?a?eoi???.

2. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?cio
oi?ioaaiiy oei/aniaeo ? caeeoeiaeo caa?thaaeueieo iai?oa i?e caa?thaaii?
ia i?io?ae i?e aeeiiaii? aaaaoii?io?aeiiai caa?iiai oaa ? c
canoinoaaiiyi i?ii?aeii? aeniei? a?aeionoee.

3. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ici???a
ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? e onaaei/ii? neee i?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea ia
e?aeeo ? ia eeno c iae?eii iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae noae? ? aei?noeino?
caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy.

4. Oai??th e ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ?ici??o eooiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e
i?e caa?thaaii? eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e c ??ciith oi?iith. i?iieaaeaiiy ?
iaoiaee ?oiueiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

5. ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaenieo yenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
aieeao ia i?ioeane ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ?
eiino?oeoeaieo iaoiae?a, o oiio /ene? ia?ai?iii? aei?noeino? ?
anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a ?aaoethaaiiy caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?
iai?oa.

6. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia?ai?uaiue iaoaeo
a?eyoiaii? ciie a ??cieo oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy ? noaie
cae??ieaiiy caa?iiai oaa.

7. Oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c neeiaiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy, a?aaeeaioiiio ? eiia?iiaaiiio ii?aoethaaiith caa?ieo
c’?aeiaiue aeey iaea?aeaiiy eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e caaeaieo ?ici???a
caa?aieo ??cieie niiniaaie.

8. ?ic?iaee ii i?iaeooaaiith oeiiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ? onoaiiaie
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ??cieo aeae?a eenoiaeo caa?iuo eiino?oeoe?e (iaa/a?e
??ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, ieineeo eiino?oeoe?e ? o.ae).

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Caaaeueiith iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith ?iaioe ? eiiieaeniee aiae?oe/iee i?aeo?ae i?e aecia/aii?
?ici???a aeoeaii? ciie ? i?ioean?a, ui o i?e a?aeaoaathoueny. Oea
ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey , ui
?ooa?oueny, c aeanieie aai ii/aoeiaeie iai?oaaie ? aei?noe?noueth
iniiaiiai iaoaeo ia an?o aoaiao oi?ioaaiiy caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy.
Oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny ia aac? iaoeiaeo iniia oai???
i?oaeiinoi iaoae?a, oai??? ieanoe/iino?, iaoai?ee oaa?aeiai o?ea,
oaieioiceee, oaieiia?aaea/i. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny a eaai?aoi??yo ? caaiaenueeeo oiiaao ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
no/aniiai onoaoeoaaiiy ? i?eeaae?a, a oaeiae ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a
ieaiiaiai aenia?eiaioo ? ?o ii?aoethaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee. I?e aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaee e?iiceiieo, oaiciiao?oaaiiy, iaoaeia?ao?/ia o?aaeaiiy ?
noaiaea?oi? iaoiaeeee c aecia/aiiy oaa?aeino?, caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ?
oa?i?/ieo oeeee?a.

Iniiaiie ciino ?iaioe

O aaaaeaii? ?ice?eoa aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iaa?oioiaaia
iaoa ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia e iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, yei
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Iniaeea?noth eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ? aaaa?eoi? ?ici??e, neeaaei?
aaiiao?e/i? oi?ie, aaeeea e?euee?noue caa?ieo oa?a, cia/ia
iiaeaoeea?noue iaoaeo, ui caa?th?oueny, oi?ioaaiiy ieineiai iai?oaeaiiai
noaio, iayai?noue ciai?oi?o ca’yce?a ? ?ai?oa aeeiiaieo oa?a. Oi?ioaaiiy
caa?iuo c’?aeiaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao eieaeueiiai iaa??aaiiy c
aaeeeei a?aae??ioii oaiia?aoo?e ? ??cii? aei?noeino? iniiaiiai iaoaeo.
Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy oei/aniaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui aecia/athoue
aaniethoiee ?ici?? ? oa?aeoa? caeeoeiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui ae?aaeathoueny
a ci?i? aaiiao??? caa?iie eiino?oeoe?? i?ney iiaiiai inoeaaiiy. An? oe?
ci?ie aaiiao??? eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e caiaeyoueny aei aeae?eueeio
aeae?a: aeaoi?iaoe?? i?iaeieueiiai ? iiia?a/iiai oei?i/aiiy, eooia?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeaoi?iaoe?? ao?aoe noieeino?. Ci?ia i?iaeoieo oi?i ?
?ici???a eiino?oeoe?? aeeeeea?oueny noeoii?noth ia?a?aoiaaieo aeae?a
aeaoi?iaoe?e. Ia??aiii??ii iaa??oee iaoae aeo?eio? aieeae c aieo ia
iaa??oiai iaoaeo. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae iai?oa ? aeaoi?iaoe?e. sseui
iai?oae a yeee — aai /anoeie ia?aoeio aeaiaioo aeinyaathoue iaae?
oaeo/ino?, oi c’yaeythoueny ieanoe/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? — oei?i/aiiy. I?e
inoeaaii? a?aeaoaa?oueny cai?ioiee i?ioean ?c ?icaeoeii ieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e iiaeiaaeaiiy.

A aeaiee /an aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ci? i?aeoiaee a ??oaii? caaea/? uiaei
?ici???a caa?thaaeueieo iai?oa ? aeaoi?iaoe?e. O caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeei?enoaieo cania?a ?o iiaeia eeaneo?eoaaoe ia: ?ic?aooieia?,
?ic?aooieiai — aenia?eiaioaeueii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii. Canoinoaaiiy oeeo
iaoiae?a aeicaieeei onoaiiaeoe ?yae iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae a ooai?aii?
? ?iciiae?e? caa?thaaeueieo iai?oa ? aeaoi?iaoe?e o no/anieo
eiino?oeoe?yo. Iaeiae /a?ac neeaaei? yaeua ia ?nio? ?aeeiiai iaoiaeo
aecia/aiiy caa?thaaeueieo iai?oa ? aeaoi?iaoe?e. I?ioa a?eueo?noue
aeine?aeaeaiue i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue ?icaeoie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
aecia/aiiai ?ici??o a cii? oa?i?/iiai aieeao. ?ici?? ieanoe/ii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ca ??cieie ioe?ieaie eieeaa?oueny a?ae 1 aei 5 %.
A?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aaaaeathoue, ui a na?aaeiueiio a e?i?? nieaaee
?ici?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeinyaa? 2 %. Ana oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa,
ui i?e/eiith aeaoi?iaoe?e oi?iici?ie iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e ? ciia
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. E??i oiai ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y oaeiai ?ici??o
aieeaaa ia neoaeaia? oa?aeoa?enoeee caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy: ci?iththoueny
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, oaiia?aoo?e ii/aoeo ? e?ioey ia?aoai?aiue ? o.i.
Canoiniaoaaia a ?iaeaia?ieo iaoiaeao ?ic?aooieo “onaaei/ia” neea
ca’ycaia c ?ici??aie aeoeaii? ciie — ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e 2bi.
Ia ?icaeoie iai?oa ? aeaoi?iaoe?e o ?aeii? caa?thaaeueii? aaiie
aieeaathoue iniiai? ? noiooi? /eiieee. Aei iniiaieo a?aeiinyoueny:
a?aae??o oaiia?aoo?e, aei?noe?noue iaoaeo, ii/aoeiaee noai iaoaeo, oei
caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy, ciai?oi? ca’ycee. ?ieue ? aieea ie?aiiai /eiieea
iaiaeiicia/ia ? iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoeny a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo.

Oiio coneeey aeine?aeiee?a aoee ni?yiiaai? ia ?ic?iaeo ?ic?aooieiaiai
iaoiaeo aecia/aiiy ciie caeeoeiaeo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e — ciio 2bi ,
ui caaoueny aeoeaiith ciiith. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?nioth/eo iiaeeeainoae
ioe?iee ?ici???a ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ?ic?aooieiaeie e
aenia?eiaioaeueieie iaoiaeaie, aieeae ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia
neoaeaia? oa?aeoa?enoeee caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy, iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?aaoethaaiiy ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iiaeeeainoae ?ic?iaee a?eueo
aeineiiaeeo iaoiae?a, ui caaacia/othoue:

· iie?ioaiiy oiaa?iiai aeaeyaeo caa?iie iaoaeieiino?oeoe??;

· cieaeaiiy aeo?ao ia i?aaeo;

· ciaioaiiy nooiaiy caeeoeiai? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??;

· i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? i?aoeacaeaoiino? iaoaeieiino?oeoe??;

· iioei?caoe?y iine?aeiaiino? caa?thaaiiy aeaiaio?a ia?ai?iii?
aei?noeino?.

A.N.Eanaoeiiei oa A.A.Aieeiaei onoaiiaeaia iayai?noue aoaeoo cnoao
iaoaeo a COA. A.A.Aeiieo?iaui iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue iae?eo
aeaoi?iaoe?e cnoao o cii? ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y iiaea ?icaeaaoeny ca aeeooc?eieie
? aacaeeooc?eieie iaoai?ciaie. A?aeiia?aeii aei Ashbe i?e
oaiia?aoo?ao aeua 0,5 Oie iiaeeeaee ?icaeoie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??
ca ?aooiie i?ineecaiiy, iiai?ioo ca?ia, ae?iaeaiiy ca?ia i oaea ii.
Iaeiae i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ? iaeiio /an? ?oiuei? ae?? iniiaiei
iaoai?ciii ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaoae?a ? nieaa?a c’yaey?ny
aioo?eca?ienoa cnoaia ia?ai?uaiiy iaeieo /anoei e?enoaeeoo uiaei ?ioeo.

Iniiaiei aianeii o aeaoi?iaoe?? oi?iici?ie ? i?ioeane, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e cii?.

O ?iaioao ?.A.Iaeeiaa, O.Iaeeeeeoiea e A.A?aiia iieacaii, ui i?e
aeinyaiaii? iai?oa, ui aei??aiththoue iaae? oaeo/ino?, ieanoe/iee noai
iaoaeo aeieea? a aocuee?e iaeano? c?acea. Oae? ae?eyiee eieaeueii?
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? iaceaathoueny nioaaie oaeo/ino?. Oaeei /eiii,
ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii i?inoaaiiy o?iioo oeeo nioa
i?e ?ici??? iai?oa s > sO. Iaoa??ae o oeae iiiaio iinoeoue a niai
i?oaeii ciie, ui neeaaeathoueny ?c cii ?ioaine? oaeo/ino?.

Aea/aiiy nioa oaeo/ino? ??cieie aaoi?aie i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ca?a iai?yieo
iaeneiaeueieo aeioe/ieo iai?oa ?c iai?yieii nioa oaeo/ino?. O ca’yceo c
/ei aeieea? iiaeeea?noue ca iayaiith n?oeith nioa ioe?ithaaoe ?ici??
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iai?oa o ieanoe/i?e iaeano?.

Oaeei /eiii, nioaa oaeo/ino? — e?i?y iae?ineii?/ieo ?ici???a ?icoaoiaaia
ia iiaa?oi? o?ea. Oe?eia e?i?? aei?iaith? aai a?eueoa ?ici??o ca?ia.
Aeo?aeia u?euei?noue ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoeie a iaoae? iecueea, e o
i?ioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny e?ooa ?o
?iciiiaeaiiy. ??cea ca?eueoaiiy /enea ?ooeeaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia ii/aoeo
ieanoe/ii? oaeo/ino? ca’ycothoue c ooai?aiiyi coaa ? ieiuaaeee
oaeo/ino?. Ieiuaaeea oaeo/ino? aecia/a?oueny ieaeiueith iaaeath
oaeo/ino? sOI, a coa oaeo/ino? — aa?oiueith iaaeath oaeo/ino? sOA.
Aa?oiy iaaea oaeo/ino? a?aeiia?aea? ieanoe/i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? e = 0,02 —
0,5 %.

O aeaoi?iiaaieo e?enoaeao ?nio? e?eoe/ia uieueiinoue aeeneieaoeie( rC
). Aaaaeath/e, ui ca?ii ia? oi?io noa?e ae?aiao?ii d ?ici?? rC? d
aeia?a ca?aa?oueny c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie aeey ieaeiuei? iaae?
oaeo/ino? ( rC? d = 1,5 * 107 ni -1). Aeey aa?oiuei? iaae? oaeo/ino?
oeae ?ici?? iaioa ( rC? d = 1,0*107 ni -1), ui iiynith?oueny a?eueo
aenieith neeith oaeo/ino?. U?euei?noue aeeneieaoe?e i?e iioe?aii? nioa
oaeo/ino? ii oe?ei? c?acea caeeoa?oueny iino?eiith. Ia oiiae aeieeiaiiy,
oa?aeoa? iioe?aiiy e i???ioaoe?th nioa oaeo/ino? aieeaathoue noai
iaoa??aeo, eiai oa?iiia?iaea, a oaeiae aeae iai?oaeaiiai noaio. Ii
n?ooe? nioa oaeo/ino?, iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe o?a?eoi??? aieiaieo
iai?oa. Ciath/e na?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy iiaeia eaaei aecia/eoe eiiiiiaioe
iai?oa sX, sY, tXY. N?oea nioa oaeo/ino? ia? ?yae aeanoeainoae, ui
aeiiiiaaathoue i?e ioe?ioe? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio.

I?e ieineiio iai?oaeaiiio noai? aeae n?oee nioa oaeo/inoi caeaaeeoue
a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio aieiaieo iai?oa s1 ? s2. O caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?oiueiai ciaeo iaeneiaeuei? aeioe/i? iai?oae ?icaeaathoueny ia
??cieo ieiuaaeeao. yeui s1/s2 < 0, oi noiniaii ieinei? aeaoi?iaoe?? tIAO = wmetafile8? ??AE???????????? ??????? ?„??? ?????„??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ``??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ???? ???&? ?MathType?? ? ???u?????????"????-??????@????? ???uAth??????? ae?? ii ieiuaaeeao, ii?iaeueieo aei iiaa?oi? ? ?icaeiey? iaai?e eoo i?ae s1 ? s2. Ia ieiuei? aoaeooue aeaa i?oiaiiaeuei? n?iaenoaa nioa oaeo/ino?. sseui ae s1 ? s2 iaeiaeia? ciaee ( s1>0; s2>0), oi iaeneiaeueia aeioe/ia iai?oaa aei??aith? tIAO
= 1/2* s1 ? ae?? ia ieiuaaeeao, ??aiia?aeieo in? s2 ? iaoeeaieo i?ae
eooii p/4 aei ieiueie. Ia inoaii?e caeeoa?oueny iaeei ne?ae. Iai?yiie
oaei? nioae oaeo/ino? ca?aa?oueny c iai?yieii s2.

Aei caaaeueiiai aeiaaeeo a?aeiinyoueny iiey e?i?e eiacaiiy,
ooai?aii aeaiia i?oiaiiaeueieie n?iaenoaaie ieaaieo e?eaeo e?i?e. Nthaee
aiaeiinyoueny aca?iii i?oiaiiaeueii oeeeei?aee, eiaa?eoi?/i? ni??ae? e
?io? a?eueo neeaaei? e?ea?.

Ia?ao?ae o ieanoe/iee noai iaoaeo iaoiiaeth?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi
i?ae iai?oaaie ? eiai iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie ca aeaieo
oaiia?aoo?ii-oaeaee?nieo oiiaao. Oiiaa ia?aoiaeo iai?oaeaiiai o?ea a?ae
i?oaeiiai noaio aei ieanoe/iiai iicia/athoue «oiiaith ieanoe/iino?».
Iaea?eueoa iaa?oioiaaia oiiaa ieanoe/iino? Aoaa?a-Iecana. I?e ieineiio
iai?oaeaiiio noai? ( s3 = 0).

(s1 — s2)2 + s22 + s12 = 2sO2

s12 + s22 — s1* s2 = sO2
(2)

I?e oeueiio aeiaeia c aieiaieo iai?oa ia iiaea ia?aaeueoe ?ici??e
(2/wmetafile8? ??i???????????? ??????? ?A???

?????A??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
`???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay®y@ ???&? ?MathType??0?
???u?????????»????-?????“H????r?? ???u??
???????»????-????z?????O????-?????a????Z?L???Z
?L???Z?7???u@th??????Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoea ia?aia
iaeiaoaeaoeaaa noaeue ANo3ni ?c aeia?a ae?aaeaiith ieiuaaeeith
oaeo/ino?. ?ici??e canoiniaoaaieo aeey aeineiaeaeaiue c?ace?a a?aeeny a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. C?acee ia?aae caa?thaaiiyi i?aeaeaaaee
oa?iiia?iaoe? c iaoith ciyooy caeeoeiaeo iai?oa, aeeeeeaieo
i?ieaooaaiiyi. Ne?aee ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? o aeae? nioa oaeo/ino?
aea/aee ia iie??iaai?e iiaa?oi? c?ace?a. E?iaoeeo aeineiaeaeoaaee ca
aeiiiiiaith oaeaee?niiai e?iici?iaiiy, caeeoeiao ea?oeio o?enoaaee
oioiaia?aoii «Caieo-3I»,i?e aei??? oaiia?aoo?e, oaa?aeino? e ?ioeo
aeanoeainoae aeei?enoiaoaaee noaiaea?oii iaoiaeeee.

Ia ia?aoei? o?ea ? ia iiaa?oi? nioae oaeo/ino? aeyaeyee ca
aeiiiiiaith ?aaeoeao O?E. Neeaae ?aaeoeao: 120 ni3 HCl; 90 a CuCl2.
10 ni3 — I2I.

Eeiaoeeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aea/aee, aeeiioth/e an? oeie caa?iuo
c’?aeiaiue i?e canoinoaaii? oi/ie, ia?a?ea/anoeo oa?a, o oiio /ene?
e?oaiaeo. I?e aeeiiaii? oi/ie o ia?oee iiiaio ooai?youeny e?i?? eiacaiiy
o aeae? eiioeaio?e/ieo eie. Ooai?aiiy ?o aeeeeea? oa?i?/iei oaea?ii o
iiiaio ii?ooaiiy aeoae. Iio?i oi?iothoueny ?aae?aeuei? nioae i?ae
ae??th oaiia?aoo?ieo iai?oa, aeeeeeaieo iioe?aiiyi oaiea ii ae?iao. I?e
inoeaaii? ?icaeaathoueny eiaa?eoi?/i? ni??ae?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e iaieaaeaii? oaa ii oeaio?o ieanoeie iiney iiaiiai
inoeaaiiy caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy a aieyoiaiie cii? oi?io?oueny neeaaeia
n?oea nioa oaeo/ino?. Nioae oaeo/ino? iathoue ?icio oi?io e i???ioaoe?th
noiniaii ain? oaa. Nioae oaeo/ino? aoee eeaneoieiaaii ca oi?iiith: 1
-eiioeaio?e/i? eiea; 2, 3 — ?aae?aeuei?; 5 – eiaa?eoii/ii nii?aei; 4 —
iiia?a/i?; 6 – eeeiiaeaeii. Ia?o? o ?acoeueoao? oa?i?/iiai oaea?o
c’yaeythoueny eiioeaio?e/i? eiea, a?ae ieo i?ae ae??th oaiia?aoo?iiai
iiey ?icaeaathoueny ?aae?aeueii iieine. E?iaoeue ? ii/aoie oaa ?
ae?eyieaie, iaaeiei yeeo oi?iothony nioae oaeo/ino? aeaio aca?iii
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieo n?iaenoa i?oiaiiaeueiiai eiaa?eoi?/iiai oeio. I?e
iiaiiio inoeaaii? oaa c’yaeythoueny aeineoue oe?ie? nioae oaeo/ino?,
?icoaoiaai? ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei oaa. Oe?eia iioe?aiiy oeeo nioa oaea
ciie iioe?aiiy nioa ?aae?aeueiiai oeio. Oiio iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui
?aaeiaeueii nioae oaeo/ino? aecia/athoue ciio ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoeie
i?e iaa??aaii? (2bII), a iiia?a/i? — aiaeia?/io ciio i?e ioieiaeaeaii?
(2bII). A?aeiioaiiy 2bi0 aei 2bII cae/aeii neeaaea? 0,7 — 0,8.
E?iiceiiee ? caien oa?ie/ieo oeeeeia a ??cieo ae?eyieao c?acea
aeicaieeee aea/eoe iniaeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy, aecia/eoe /an ? oaiia?aoo?i?
iaeano? ca?iaeaeaiiy i ?icaeoeo ie?aieo nioa.

a a

?en.1 Nioae oaeo/inoi aiey oaa: a- eeoeaaay noi?iia; a- cai?ioiy
noi?iia.

Nioae oaeo/ino? — ?acoeueoao ianiaiai aeoiaeo aeeneieaoe?e ia iiaa?oith
iaoaeo c ooai?aiiyi ?aeue?oo. Aoee i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe c
iaea?aeaiiyi i?ioieia?aie ii aeiaaeaii ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia
??ci?e a?aenoai? a?ae ain? oaa ca aeiiiiiaith i?ioieiiao?a iiaeae? I-
304. I?ioieia?aie i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue, ui ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y
?icaeaa?oueny eieaeueii c ooai?aiiyi niaoeeo?/iiai ?aeue?oa. Aenioa
?aeue?oo ciaioo?oueny a iai?yieo cae?i/aiiy ciie 2bi.

Ciia 2bi yaey? niaith iaoae, ui i?noeoue i?oaei? ? ieanoe/ii
aeaoi?iiaai? ae?eyiee. Aei??e oaa?aeino? iieacaee, ui i?e IV = 121 — 125
iaeeieoeue aeey iniiaiiai iaoaeo a nioaao IV = 135 — 140 iaeeieoeue.
Oaeei /eiii, o nioc? a?aeaoaa?oueny ae/a?iaiiy ieanoe/iino? iaoaeo ?
eiai ci?oeiaiiy. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai oaeoo, ui ?aae?aeuei? nioae
ca’ycai? c oaiia?aoo?iei iieai, ui ?ooa?ony, ? ?acoeueoaoii
aeine?aeaeaiue ne?ae?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e ?on? aeaea?aea oaiea
ca e?eaie?i?eiith o?a?eoi???th, iacaeaaeii a?ae yeii caaaeaee
oi?iothoueny ?aae?aeuei? ? iiia?a/i? nioae oaeo/ino?.

I?ae nioaaie oaeo/ino? ? cnoaaie a aieyoiaiie cii? ?nio? aecia/aiee
aca?iica’ycie. Aiae?coth/e ??aiaiue iai?oa ii oai???
Aoaa?a-Iecana,anoaiiaeaii ianooiia. sseui ia? iinoea niiaaiaeiioaiiy s2
= ks1 ? sI = hs1 i?e h = Oek2- k+1, iioaineaiinoue iai?oa sI = sO oa
a?aooaaoe cia/aiiy k = 0,58 aeey ?aae?aeueii? nioae ? k = 0,5 aeey
iiia?a/ii? nioae, oi iaea?aeeii, ui i?e ooai?aii? ?aae?aeueii? nioae,
aeey aeaii? noae? s1 = -166 IIa, s2 = -313 IIa, i?e ooai?aii?
iiia?a/ieo nioa s1 = 310IIa, s2 =155 IIa. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa,
ui iiaeiaaei? caeeoeia? iai?oae ia?aaeuothoue cia/aiiy iaae? oaeo/ino?
iniiaiiai iaoaeo. ??aaiue aeaoi?iaoe?? ? cnoae a eiaei?e nioc? ??ci? o
caeaaeiino? a?ae i???ioaoe?? nioae uiaei ain? oaa ? cia/aiiy
iioaineaiinoi aeaoi?iaoe?? ei.

Aiae?coth/e iai?yiie nioa oaeo/ino? ia ia?aoei? iaoaeo ?
iieiaeaiiy nioa ia iiaa?oi? caa?iiai c’?aeiaiiy iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui eiioeaio?e/i? ie?oaeiino?, ?aae?aeuei? ? iiia?a/i? nioae
oi?iothoueny i?e ni?aa?aeiioaii? s1 / s2 >0, a ni??ae? i?e s1 / s2
<0. I?e ooai?aii? iiia?a/ieo nioa oaeo/ino? s1 ca?aa?oueny c iiaeiaaei?ie iai?oaaie sO, a s2 - ?c iiia?a/ieie sY. I?e oeueiio s1 ? sO; 0< s2 < sO. Iaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? iaieaaeaiiy ii an?e aeiaaeeii ae?iao i?e iayaiino? anooiieo ? aea?aeieo ieaiie ea?oeia nioa ni?iuo?oueny. I?e aeinoaoi?e aei?noeino? oi?io?oueny aeaa oeie nioa: ?aae?aeuei? ? iiia?a/i?. Aiaeia?/i? nenoaie iathoue i?noea i?e aeeiiaii? e?oaiaeo oa?a. ?icaeyaeath/e iniiai? oeie caa?ieo c'?aeiaiue, iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa aa??aioe aeaoi?iaoeieiiai i?ioeano - iaieaaeaiiy ii oeaio?o eenoa (iieea oaa?iaiai c'?aeiaiiy, ieaei?e eeno c'?aeiaiiy aiaionoie) ? iaieaaeaiiy ia e?ae aeaiaioa (caa?thaaiiy noeeiaiai c'?aeiaiiy, aa?oi?e eeno c'?aeiaiiy aiaionoie, iaeaeaa aeaiaioe eooiaiai c'?aeiaiiy ? aa?oeeaeueiiai eenoa oaa?iaiai c'?aeiaiiy). *eneaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?e iaieaaeaii? ia e?aeeo oi?iothoueny ?aae?aeuei? nioae i?e oaiia?aoo?? O = 300 °N, ui iiynith?oueny iaioith aei?noe?noth. I?e iaieaaeaii? ii oeaio?o ieanoeie O =200°N. a a ?en.2 Nioae oaeo/inoi aiey e?eaieiiieieo oaia: a- aio?iaaia iieea oaa?a; a-e?oaiaee oia. O caaaeueiiio aeae? ?ici?? ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaa??aaii? 2bII ? i?e ioieiaeaeaii? caeaaeeoue a?ae noaie aaaaeaiiy oaiea (iaieaaeaiiy ia e?aeeo aai ia eeno, a?ae iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae - Es ? aei?noeino? aeaiaioia, ui c'?aeiothoueny -Eae). Aeey cae/aeieo noaeae Es = 1, aeey noaeae i?aeaeuaii? o?eaeino? < 1. Aeey oe?ieeo eeno?a ? i?e caa?thaaii? c aei?noeei e??ieaiiyi Eae = 1, a i?e caa?thaaii? o a?eueiiio noai? aeaiaio?a e?ioeaaeo ?ici???a Eae < 1. wmetafile8? ??v??????????? ??????? g!??? ????g!??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ? ??? ???????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy`??F?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????‹????U???uAth?????? wmetafile8? ??v??????????? ??????? gue??? ????gue??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ????? ???????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy@??F?? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-??????^????±???uAth??????aea OIAeIE - oaiia?aoo?a cae?i/aiiy ?aae?aeueieo nioa i?e iaa??aaii? e?aeie; OIAeIE - oa ae i?e caa?thaaeueiiio iaa??aaii? eenoa. O ?iaeaia?ieo iaoiaeao ?ic?aooieo caaaeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?e aeei?enoiao?oueny oeeoeaia onaaei/ia neea ?ON. A no?oeoo?o ?ON aoiaeyoue: ieiua ieanoe/ii aeaoi?iiaaiiai iniiaiiai iaoaeo Fiae, ieiua oaa Fo ? iaaea oaeo/ino? iniiaiiai iaoaeo so. Ine?eueee onaaei/ia neea aeieeaaea?oueny aei caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy i?e iiaiiio inoeaaii?, oi a ?ic?aooieao iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ciio ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui oi?io?oueny i?e inoeaaiii-2Aii. Ieiua ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio c'?aeiaiiy, oiaueie, i?aeaiooaaiiy e?aeie, oa?aeoa?o oaieiaeeaaeaiiy. O oaeee niin?a ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? onaaei/ia neea iiaeii? aecia/aoeny a eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. I?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea ia e?aeeo wmetafile8? ??u??????????? ??????? eV??? ????eV??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? A???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayy@m ???&? ?MathType??p????u?th??????I?e iaieaaeaii? ia eeno wmetafile8? ??E??????????? ??????? AAeey iaeiii?io?aeiiai noeeiaiai caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy ni?aaaaeeeaa ae?aaeaiiy (2.6) ye iaieaaeaiiy aaeeea ia aea? e?aeee. Aeey caa?thaaiiy anoee oe?ieeo eeno?a ia?ii wmetafile8? ??z??????????? ??????? >§ ???

????>§ ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayy@m ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????eiai iiaeia caienaoe

wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? 3/4U???

????3/4U??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
?@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayy?- ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aeey aeiaaeeo canoinoaaiiy iiooaeiiai
oaeaeeiae?th/iai aeaea?aea, aeey iaieaaeaiiy ia e?aeeo eenoa

wmetafile8? ??_??????????? ??????? oe????

????oe???????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
AA??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay«y?k ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????–??????u?th??????Ieiua oaa Fo
aei??aith? noi? ieiu iaieaaeaiiy Fi ? i?iieaaeaiey Fi?. Ieiua
iaieaaeaiiy anoaiiaeth?oueny ca eiino?oeoeaieie aeaiaioaie
i?aeaioiaeaieo e?aeie aeaoaeae, ui caa?ththoueny, a?aeiia?aeii aei AeNOO
ia oei c’?aeiaiiy ? ii eiino?oeoaieie aeaiaioaie oaa. Iaeiae o
caaaeueiiio aeae? eiio?ao?aoe?y ciie i?iieaaeaiiy aaaaoioaeoi?ia
yaeua. Iniiaieie /eiieeaie, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ici??e ? oi?io oaa ?:
Ina, Uae Vna, dye. I?e oeueiio oi?ia i?iieaaeaiiy iiaea aooe ??ciith.

Anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo aaiiao??? ciie i?iieaaeaiiy c ia?aiao?aie ?aaeeio
cae?enithaaeiny ca aeiiiiiaith iiaiiai oaeoi?iiai aenia?eiaioo.
Iacaeaaeieie /eiieeaie aoee: Ina — X1; uae — X2;Vna — X3; dye — X4.
Caa?thaaiiy cae?enithaaee o aoaeaeeneiio aac? o?aeoi?ii AAeA-502.
C’?aeiaiiy cae?aee aac caci?a. Aei?? I, a ? ia?eiao?o ? ?iaeee i?ae
i?e?ineiiii AIE-1. Aa?aoe eiao?oe??ioe w ? q, ui aecia/athoue
eiio?ao?aoe?th ciie i?iieaaeaiiy ( w ? q — 2 iai?aie?oaei?noue, w =
1, q = 2 — ia?aaiea, w = q = 1 — o?eeooiee), io?eiai? ??aiyiiy
?aa?an??:

y = 3,39-0,27X1+0,33X2 -0,25X3 +0,11X4 +0,11X1* X2 *X4 ;

q = 0,628-0,007X1 +0,11X2 +0,34X3 +0,11X4 +0,11X1 *X3 +0,009X2 *X4 ;
(10)

w = 0,78+0,06X2 +0,5X4 +0,02X1 X2 -0,04X3 *X4 ;

I = 2,52+0,04O1 +20,26X3 -0,11X1 X2 *X4 .

Caeiaeiaaii /eiieee ca’ycai? c ia?aiao?aie ?aaeeio ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie:

wmetafile8? ??.??????????? ??????? U ???

????U ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
?@??? ???????&??yyyy?????AyyyFyyy???#?? ???&?
?MathType??°? ???u?????????»????-??????
????a???uAth??????A inoaoi/iiio i?aenoieo aeey noeeiaiai
c’?aeiaiiy ?on aei??aith?

wmetafile8? ??ss??????????? ??????? ’I?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea ia
eeno aeei?enoiao?oueny ??aiyiiy

wmetafile8? ??’??????????? ??????? z????

????z???????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
@ ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay¬y`i ???&?
?MathType?? ????uyTH?????Ieiua iaieaaeaiiy

Fi= 0,73*a*g (14)

Ieiua i?iieaaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny ii ae?aaeaiith

wmetafile8? ????????????? ??????? ?e ???

?????e ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? A`
??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayy m ???&?
?MathType??p????u?th??????aea d-oiaueia eenoa.

?icaeyaeath/e iniaeeaino? aaaaeaiiy oaiea o caa?ia c’?aeiaiiy
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia?a?iciiae?e aoaeoeaii? iiooaeiino? aeaea?aea
i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie. Aeey iae?eo oaeiai ia?a?iciiae?eo ?ic?aooieiaa
oiaueia aeey noeeiaeo c’?aeiaiue di=2*d1 (i?e d1 = d2), aeey aiaionoie
di= 2*d1 + d2, aeey oaa?iaeo di=2di + dn ? o. ae.

Ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e oei?i/aiiy i?e iaa??aaii? biie aeey
aa?oiueiai eenoa c’?aeiaiiy aiaionoie

wmetafile8? ??n??????????? ??????? ?3/4???

?????3/4??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
? ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay®y`® ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????]»???]B???]“???]_???u?th
??????aeey ieaeiueiai eenoa

wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? p:???

????p:??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A`??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y r ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????,???o???D??????u?t
h??????Ae?aaeaiiy (16) ? (17) ni?aaaaeeea? ? aeey oaa?iaiai c’?aeiaiiy.

Aeey iaeiii?io?aeiiai eooiaiai c’?aeiaiiy di= d1 + d2. Oiae? ciia
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a?aeiia?aeii noaiiaeoue

wmetafile8? ??E??????????? ??????? b9???

????b9??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@r ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????»???B???“???????u?th
?????? wmetafile8? ??E??????????? ??????? b9???

????b9??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
A???? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y@r ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????»???B???“???????u?th
??????O i?aenoieo ae?aaeaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy o?eoeaii? onaaei/ii? neee
iathoue oaeee aeae.

Caa?thaaiiy anoee oe?ieeo eeno?a aai c aei?noeei ?o cae??ieaiiyi i?e
iiaiiio i?iieaaeaiii c oi?ioaaiiyi cai?ioiueiai aaeeea

wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? Fl???

????Fl??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
?A??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y?8 ???&? ?MathType??0
???u?????????»????-?????1/2????1/2>???u?th??????

I?e aace?ia/i?e aei?noeino? Eae= 1. Aeey noaeae cae/aeii? yeino?
Es=1. Oiae?

wmetafile8? ??l??????????? ??????? ’ ???

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?@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayµy?5 ???&? ?MathType??0
???u?????????»????-?????1/2Aeey noeeiaeo c’?aeiaiue c iaeiei
eenoii e?ioeaaeo ?ici???a I2 (Eae< 1) wmetafile8? ??y??????????? ??????? 'N5??? ????'N5??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ?`)??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ay?y )8 ???&? ?MathType??0 ???u?????????"????-?????1/2????1/2X ???1/2© ???1/2N ???1/2"???1/2U???1/2|???1/28???1/2‰???1/2± ???1/2 ???1/2? ???u?th??????Aeey c'?aeiaiiy a iaionoie d0 = d1 + 2 d2 wmetafile8? ??[??????????? ??????? a6??? ????a6??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ` a/??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy /?? ?? ???&? ?MathType??  ???u?????????"????-?????^N???^? ???^o ???^!???^C'?aeiaiiy a oaa? wmetafile8? ??¤?? ????????? ??????? U_>???

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?yyyy????Word?Microsoft Word??? z?????
???????u?????????????I???Courier
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wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? ?n???

?????n??????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
`@??? ???????&??yyyy?????AyFy? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????1/2<???1/2¬ ???1/2e ???1/2e ???u?th?????? Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e cae?i/aiiy ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaieaaeaii? ia e?aeeo i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue noiniaii aei iaeiii?io?aeiiai caa?thaaiiy noeeiaeo c'?aeiaiue. Caa?thaaiiy ?iaeee ca ??cieie noaiaie o aeny/iio iieiaeaii?, ia i?aeeeaaeoe? , ui caeeoa?oueny, ia i?aei?e i?aeeeaaeoe? ? ia oethnia?e iiaeoooe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?e iaoai?ciaaiiio caa?thaaii? i?ae oethnii AI - 348A, ae?ioii Na - 08, o?aeoi?ii AAeO. Aenia?Eiaioaeueii ciio ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e bii aecia/aee ca ?aae?aeueieie nioaaie oaeo/ino?.Aeoeaia ciia 2Bii aei??aith? 2Biei = 2biie + a (eeoeueiaa noi?iia), 2AIII = 2biie + a1 (cai?ioia noi?iia). Caa?thaaiiy aeeiioaaee a noaiae? c aei?noeei i?eoeneaiiyi eeno?a. Noeee cae?aee c eeno?a 0,4-0,4 i. Ciio bii aecia/aee i?eeaaeii ECA - 2 o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy /a?ac 5ii. ?iaeee 50 aei???a. sse aeiyoie aieeao e?aeiaiai aoaeoo eiioeaai ae?eyiee aeiaaeeiith 75ii ia ?icaeyaeaee. Eiaeiee oeii?acii? caaa?thaaee o?e/?. Oiio na?aaei? cia/aiiy ?ici??o ciie bii iaea?aeoaaee ca 150 niinoa?aaeaiiyie. Aeey aiae?co canoiniaaia noaoenoe/ia ii?aoethaaiiy [44]. Anoaiiaeaii aeenia?n?th 0,6ii, a aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae 1,8ii. ?ic?aooieiaa ioe?iea ?ici???a ciie bii ?iaeeany a i?eiouaii?, ui ciia iioe?aiiy ?aae?aeueieo nioa oaeo/ino? iaiaaeaia oaiia?aoo?ith OIAe = 300 °N. Ciio biir aecia/aee ca oai???th iioe?aiiy oaiea I.I.?eeaeiia aeey aeiaaeeo caa?thaaiiy iiooaeiei aeaea?aeii , ui oaeaeei ?ooa?oueny , ( Es = 1, Eae = 1). Ciio bii aecia/aee ye ae?eyieo a?ae e?i?? nieaaee aei cae?i/aiiy ?aae?aeueii? nioae c OIAe= 300 °N. ?ic?aooieii aeoeaio ciio ioe?ithaaee ca ?iaiyiiyi 9. Cae?aiiy i?ae caa?thaaiiy ? ?ici??e caa?ieo oa?a a?aeiia?aeaee c'?aeiaiith N4 a?aeiia?aeii aei AINOo 8713 - 79. A?ao?/ia oyaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe, ui i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? aeoeaii? ciie caaacia/o? caa?thaaiiy o aeny/iio iieiaeaii?. Iaeiae ia aa?aioo? i?iaa? o ei?ai? oaa. Caa?ia c'?aeiaiiy c aa?aioiaaiei i?iieaaeaiiyi i?e oiauei? iniiaiiai iaoaeo a?eueoa 6 ii ia i?aei?e i?aeeeaaeoe? ? ia oethnia?e iiaeoooe? aeathoue ??ci? ?acoeueoaoe. Ia oiaueiao aei 7ii i?aaaao aa?oi a?aeaeaoe caa?thaaiith ia i?aei?e i?aeeeaaeoe?, a i?e oiauei? a?eueoa 7ii- caa?thaaiith ia oethnia?e iiaeoooe?. Oaea iieiaeaiiy iiaeia iiynieoe a?eueo aenieith aoaeoeai?noth oi?ioth/iai aeaiaioo , ui aiaeaiaeeoue oaiei , ia iaeeo oiaueiao (?en.3). Ciia 2bii i?e caa?thaaii? c aa?aioiaaiei oi?ioaaiiyi ei?aiy oaa c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie iniiaiiai iaoaeo. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeineoue aeia?a iiaiaeaeothony c yenia?aiaioaeueieie aeaieie. ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy aoiaeyoue o aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae cia/aiue io?eiaieo o ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaio?a. Aiae?c ieiu ui aoiaeyoue o ciio ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e ioieiaeaeaii? aeicaiey? c'ynoaaoe ?ieue ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e e?i?eiiio caeii? ca?eueoaiiy onaaei/ii? neee c? ca?eueoaiiyi oiaueie iniiaiiai iaoaeo i?aeoe/ii a?aeaoaa?oueny e?i?eia ca?eueoaiiy ieiu Fo, Fi, Fi?. Aeey aeiaaeeo iaieaaeaiiy ia eeno a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?aaeaiiy (3) ?ici??e aeoeaii? ciie ca'ycai? c iiaiiiith aia?a??th iaa??aaiiy ? oiaueiith iaoaeo. Aeey ia?aa??ee i?eiouaiiy i?i oiiae ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaieaaeaii? aaeeea ia eeno aoei i?iaaaeai? aenia?aiaio ii caa?thaaiith c'?aeiaiiy aiaionoie I1 iioeeei aeaeo?iaeii. Aeeiioaaee caa?thaaiiy i?ae oethnii caa?thaaeueiei ae?ioii ae?aiao?ii 2ii ia ia?ai?iiiio no?oi?. Caa?thaaeuei? iaoa??aee a?aeenue o? ae. nai?.Oiaueia eenoia ui c'?aeiothoueny, 8ii. Onaaei/io neeo aecia/aee ca ?iaiyiiyi (23). Es = 1. Caa?thaaiiy aeeiioaaee c aei?noeeie i?eaeeiaie eeno?a (EAE = 1). Ciio ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aecia/aee: o aa?oiueiio eeno? biir1 = 1,53* 10 -2 *wmetafile8? ????????????? ??????? U??? ????U??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ?@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy???"?? ???&? ?MathType??°? ???u?????????"????-??????@?????a???uAth??????o ieaeiueiio eeno? biir2 = 2,29* 10 -2 *wmetafile8? ????????????? ??????? U??? ????U??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ?@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy???"?? ???&? ?MathType??°? ???u?????????"????-??????@?????a???uAth??????Aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieaco?, ui i?e iino?ei?e oiauei? eeno?a ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi eaoaoa oaa. Aianie aa?oiueiai eenoa neeaaea? 40 %, a ieaeiueiai 60 % a?ae caaaeueii? ieiu? Fiae. Aianie oaa ia ia?aaeuo? 4 %.Oaeei /eiii, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue noeeiaeo ? c'?aeiaiue aiaionoie na?ae/aoue, ui o?aaa a aeaeaaaoe ia?aaaao ?aaoethaaiith ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a cii? oa?i?/iiai aieeao (?en.4). ?en.3 Aeoeaia ciia ia iaoaei ?en.4 Caeaaeiioue Pon a?ae oiaueie ?iciii oiaueie (caa?thaaiiy ia iiaeiie iiaeeeaaeoei). ?ici?? ciie 2bi caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio /eiiee?a. Iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie ? ?aaeei caa?thaaiiy ? oaoiieia?y caa?thaaiiy. Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie ?aaeeio i?eeiyoi aaaaeaoe aoaeoeaio ieoiio iiooaei?noue qi oa oaeaeeinoue caa?thaaiiy (Vna). Ci ca?eueoaiiyi qi ca?eueoo?oueny oe?eia 2bi. Ca?eueoaiiy Vna i?e iino?ei?e iiaiii?e aia?a?? qi i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy 2bi. E?iaoeea oi?ioaaiiy ciie ia ci?ith?oueny. I?e iaci?iiiio Ina ? Uae ci?ia Vna ?c 16 i/aiaeeie aei 81 i/aiaeeie i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy 2bii. Caeaaei?noue iae?i?eia. Iaaooue, i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? Vna oe?eia ciie 2bi caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith, a an? oa?iiiaoaii/ii i?ioeane aoaeooue i?io?eaoe o aocuee?e iaeano?, ui i?eeyaa? aei iaoaeo oaa. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a iiaiaeaeothoueny c oai???th ?iciiae?eo oaiea. Aea c? ci?iith oaeaeeino? caa?thaaiiy ci?ith?oueny oa?aeoa? oi?ioaaiiy ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. Oea i?iyaey?oueny a oiio, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi Vna ci?ith?oueny i???ioaoe?y nioa ?aae?aeueiiai oeio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?acoeueoao? aeeiiaiiy iiaoi?iiai iaa?iao ooai?th?oueny iiaee oei nioa, ui iathoue oi?io ia?aaie. Aeieeathoue aiie ca aeaea?aeii iaa??aaiiy, ui ?ooa?oueny. Nioae oeueiai oeio i???ioiaai? ii ii?iaei aei iiaa?oi? ae?iao. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a iiiaio ?o ooai?aiiy ia? i?noea ieineee iai?oaeaiee noai ?c iai?oaaie s1 > 0; s2 < 0. Aenia?eiaioe iieacothoue, ui i?e iiaoi?iiio caa?thaaeueiiio iaa?iai i?aenoiiaothoueny iai?oae, ?icoyaoth/?, ui caeeoeeeny i?ney aeeiiaiiy ia?oiai oa?o ? noeneath/eo, ye? aeeeeeathoueny aeaea?aeii iaa??aaiiy, ui ?ooa?oueny. I?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoeii i?e neeiaiio aieea? ia iaoae, ui caa?th?oueny. O ?iaioi aieea ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa aea/aee aenia?eiaioaeueii ia c?aceao ?c noae? ANo3 ?ici??ii 740?740 ii oiaueiith 3ii. I?ney i?eaa?ee aeaiaio?a caoiieaiiy c?acee i?aeaeaaaee a?aeionooe?. Iaaaioaaeoaaiiy cae?enithaaee a niaoe?aeuei?e onoaiiaoe?, ui aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe ii/aoeia? iiaeiaaei? s1 ? iiia?a/i? s2 iai?oae. Caa?thaaiiy aeeiioaaee a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? c?acea aeaeo?iaeii , ui ia ieaaeoueny , a a?aii? ia ?aaeei?: Ina= 160A, Uae = 10 A, Vna = 16 i/aiaeeia. Oe?eia oaa neeaea 7 - 8 ii. ?ici?? ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa eiio?iethaaee i?aeieiiaeie aeaoi?iiiao?aie ia aac? 25 ii. Ii/aoeia? iai?oae ci?ithaaee a?ae 0 aei 200IIa. Iaaaioaaeaiiy neeaeaee i?ney cae?i/aiiy caa?thaaiiy. Aoa iinoaaeaiee ieaiiaee aenia?eiaio, aiaeoai?aiiy aenia?eiaio?a ioe?ithaaeany ca e?eoa???i Eio?aia. O iaoeo aenia?eiaioao a?i neeaa 0,9669. O ?acoeueoao? iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??: bii = 27 - 14X1 + 3X2 - 16X1O2 bii = 47 - 6X1 + 3,5X2. (26) C?noaaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a ?c ?ic?aooieii ? ia?aai?ea aaeaeaaoiinoi iiaeae? ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa??th Oioa?a aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iiaeaeue aaeaeaaoia. (O1 /eiiee aa??thaaiiy s1; X2- /eiiee aa??thaaiiy s2). Aeey ioe?iee ?ioaineaiino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaa??ai oa ioieiaeaeaii? io?eiaii: n = 6 - 2,5X1 - 2,5X2 n = 5,4 - 0,6X1 - 0,4X2 - 1,9X1O2. (27) Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao iiaiiai i?iieaaeaiiy i?e caa?thaaiii oiieieenoiaiai iaoaeo iiaeeeaa ?aaoethaaiiy ciie 2bi ? ?ioaineaiino? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ??aiai ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa. Ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e ioieiaeaeaii? 2bii oaeiae caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy s1 ? s2. Iiaeiaaei? iai?oae ciaioothoue ??, a iiia?a/i? caieueoothoue. ?ioaineai?noue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ye i?e iaa??aaii?, oae i i?e ioieiaeaeaii?, caeaaeeoue a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ?icoyaoth/eo iai?oaeaiue. Iiiaio ciyooy iaaaioaaeaiiy aieeaa? ia ia?aiao?e ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ia caaaeueio ea?oeio nioa oaeo/ino? , ui ooai?youeny. Neeiaei aieeaii aeine?aeaeoaaee iiaeeeaino? a?aaei?ioieo iaoiae?a, ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii. Ca ia?oei aa??aioii i?ney caa?thaaiiy ae??a iaa??aaee ca iaaeath ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? 2bi aei oaiia?aoo?e ao?aoe iaoaeii iii?o aei ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy. Oe?eia ciie iaa??aaiiy N ia ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/iiai cia/aiiy 2bie? > 2N. Io?eiaii
cia/aiiy 2bie?

2bie?= wmetafile8? ?????????????? ??????? ei ???

????ei ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? `?
??? ???????&??yyyy?????AyyycyyyA???? ???&? ?MathType?? 
???u?????????»????-?????k‚???k1/2???k???k 
???u?????????»????-?????@?????®???uAth??????aea sE? —
e?eoe/ia iai?oaa, IIa; F — ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?aoeio,i2; D —
oeee?iae?e/ia aei?noe?noue; E — eiao?oe??io, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici???a. Aoaeoeai?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ciie 2bii aeinyaa? 80
% (?en5,a).

?ioei aa??aioii caa?thaaiiy e?aeee ae?iao cae?iiethaaee iaaeaie ciie
2bii. O i?ioean? caa?thaaiiy o ae?iai ii iiia?a/iiio ia?aoei?
noai?th?oueny a?aae??io oaiia?aoo? oeyoii ioieiaeaeaiiy oaa aei iiaiiai
inoeaaiiy ae?iao a iiia?a/iiio ia?aoeii. Anoaiiaeaii ui iiooaei?noue
aeaea?aea ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaeiia aooe ia iaioa iiooaeiino?
caa?thaaeueiiai aeaea?aea. ?ici??e ciie 2bii aecia/athoue
cacaeaeaa?aeue. Aoaeoeai?noue ?aaoethaaiiy ?ici???a ciie 2bii aeinyaa?
80 % (?en.5,a).

a a

?en.5 A?aaei?ioia ia?iaea caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue: a-iaa?ia ciie A;

a- ioieiaeaeaiiy ciie 2bii.

sse iieacieee aei?noeino? aeine?aeaeo?oueny oe?eia,oiaueia iaoaeo ui
caa?th?oueny, ciai?oi? ca’ycee e aeaiaioe iaoai?/iiai e??ieaiiy aei
inianoee aeaoaeae ui caa?ththoueny.

Aieea oiaueie (d) aeine?aeaeoaaee ia c?aceao, ui iathoue oi?io eeei?a
i?e aaoiiaoe/iiio iaieaaeaii? aaeeea W-aeaeo?iaeii o na?aaeiaeu?
a?aiio ocaeiaae iiaeiaaeiuei? a?n? c?acea. I?e iino?eiiio ?aaeei?
iaieaaeaiiy ca?eueoaiiy d i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ciie 2bi. Oaeei
/eiii,ca?eueoaiiy d i?e iino?eiiio ?aaeei? iaieaaeaiiy i?eaiaeeoue aei
eieae?caoe?? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a ?aeii? oaa. Aeei?enoiaoth/e
?ic?aooieiao iiaeaeue, io?eiaio aeey aeiaaeeo iaieaaeaiiy iiooaeiei
aeaea?aeii, ui ia?ai?uo?oueny ii iiaa?oi? eeeiiai? i?iae aaeaeiny
anoaiiaeoe, ui iiiaio ia?aoiaeo a?ae ieinei-aeaoi?iiaaiiai aei
ieinei-iai?oaeaiiai noaio a?aeiia?aea? iiiaioo iiaiiai i?iieaaeaiiy aeey
an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a. Aa?aoe oa?i?i oaii ia?inoaiiy aei?noeino?
ye a?aeiioaiiy ia?inoaiiy oiaueie ia iaeeieoeth aeiaaeeie c?acea ?d =
Dd/DL. Anoaiiaeaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi ?d ciia 2b ciaioo?oueny. I?e
oeueiio ci?ith?oueny eoo aeoiaeo ?aae?aeueii? nioae a?ae e?i??
nieaaeaiiy. Oea icia/a?, ui cia/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e eO, eY ciiith?oueny.
Ia i?aeoeoei aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue c’?aeiaiiy aeaiaio?a ia?ai?iii?
aei?noeino?. Ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a oeeo oiiaao
i?aeoe/ii ia aea/aia.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaee ia aeaiaioao ia?ai?iii? oe?eie eeeiiaeaeii?
oi?ie aeaio oei?a. Caa?thaaiiy aeeiioaaee a iai?yieo ca?eueoaiiy e o
iai?yieo ciaioaiiy aei?noeino?. ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeyee ia AII. A, on?o
aeiaaeeao aeyaeaiee ia??aiii??iee ?iciiae?e ciie 2bii ocaeiaae caa?iiai
oaa. Ci ca?eueoaiiyi ?h (I — oe?eia; L — aeiaaeeia aeaiaioa), ciia
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? c?inoa? ( ?h= DI / D L) .

Oe?eia eenoia ( 2I) , yei caa?thaaee, iaea aieea ia ?icii?e ciie 2b
aei cia/aiiy 400ii. Iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy oe?eie eenoa ia aieeaaa ia 2b.
Oea aea? iiaeeeainoue aaanoe eiaoioei?io Eae, yeee ioeiith?
aei?noeinoue ( I < 400ii). Eae = 0,3 + 0,0022I. O ?acoeueoao? i?iiiiothoueny o?e iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aei?noe?noue: oiaueia, oe?eia eeno?a, oaii ci?ie aei?noeino?, yei iiaeia onoaiiaeoe ca io?eiaieie ??aiyiiyie ?aa?an??. Aeineiaeaeaiiy c?iaeaii ia eiino?oeoeieieo noaeyo 14A2,15AN, 10A2N, 10ONIAe oa iioeo iieacaee, ui ooai?ththoueny oaei naii nioae oaeo/inoi. Aea ciia io ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ciaiueooaony caeaaeii aiae iioeiinoi noaei.*ei iioeii oa noaeue (aieueoa so), oei iaioa ciia 2bi. Oey ianoaaeia i?eioneea ciaeoe eiaoioeiaio Es, yeee ?aaao? ia iioeiinoue noaei. Es =1,44 – 0,00176 so. Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y aaciina?aaeiuei ca'ycaia c ia?ai?uaiiyie ie?aieo ae?eyiie caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy. ?ai?oa aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?ioean? ioieiaeaeaiiy caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy iaoae oaa ci?ua?oueny a iai?yieo ?ooo caa?thaaeueii? aeoae, a iaoae a?eyoiaiii ciie a - i?ioeeaaeiiio iai?yieo. O aeine?aeaeaiiyo A.I.Aeiieo?iaa, E.I.Eiaaiiaa iieacaii, ui iaaeiei caa?thaaeueii? aaiie ?nio? ieinea iiea iai?oa i?e caa?thaaii? ieanoei ?c iiaiei i?iieaaeaiiyi. Oiio a ?iaio? aeine?aeaeoaaee ia?ai?uaiiy a ieiuei? O-Y. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaoaaee 2 eii?aeeiaoiee eiiaeainaoi?iee aeao/ee. Aeao/ee i?aoeth? a aaoiiaoe/iiio ?aaeei? c caienii iieacaiue ia 2 eaiaeueiee naiiienaoeue. ?a?no?aoe?y ia?ai?uaiue a?aeaoaa?oueny a?ae ii/aoeo caa?thaaiiy aei iiaiiai inoeaaiiy. ?icoeo?iaoaaiiy aeaieo aeeiio?ony ca aeiiiiiaith oa?oaaeueieo a?ao?e?a. Caa?thaaiiy aeeiioaaee ia niaoe?aeueiie onoaiiaoe?, ui caaacia/oaaea iaoai?/ia e??ieaiiy c?aceia o caaeaieo oi/eao. Aeaoi?iiiao? onoaiiaethaaany iacaeaaeii a?ae c?aceia oaeei /eiii, ui ca'ycie i?ae ieie caeienithaaany o?eueee /a?ac aieueo?aiiao aieeo i?eeaaeo. Aei?? ia?aiiuaiue e?aeie aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeaiaio?a ?iaeee ca aeiiiiiaith 2-o nenoai ?iaeoeoe?eiiai oeio iiaeae? 214 ? aeao/eeaie aeanii? eiino?oeoe?? c oi/i?noue aei???a 2 iei. Oi/i?noue aeie?ia 2-o eii?aeeiaoiei aeao/eeii 3 iei. I?e caa?thaaii? noeeiaeo c'?aeiaiue ?c aa?aioiaaiei caci?ii iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny aeaei ieanoei i?e iaa??aaii?, ?ice?eooy caci?a ? iaaiaee - nei?i/aiiy caci?a ca ?aooiie ia?ai?uaiiy e?aeee ? iiia?a/ii? onaaeee. Oiio a ?iaio? aoee i?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe ii aeineiaeaeaiith caeiiii??iinoae ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ee, ?icoaoiaaii? a aieyoiaiie cii? ? a?ey e?i?? nieaaee a na?aaeeiiiio ia?aoei? e o e?ioe? oaa aeey /ioe?ueio iaoa??ae?a: oaoi?/ii? i?ae? (I1), aethi?i??aiai nieaao (AIa-6), noaeae (ANo3) ? (10ONIAe). Anoaiiaeaia aeoaea neeaaeia o?a?eoi??y ia?ai?uaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo oi/ie o ieiuei? X-Y. Iiney cae?i/aiiy caa?thaaiiy aeine?aeaeoaai? oi/ee a ii/aoeiaa iieiaeaiiy ia iiaa?oathoueny. E?iaoeue oaa ia?ai?uo?oueny ii iai?yieo caa?thaaiiy e o iai?yieo caci?a. I?ney cae?i/aiiy caa?thaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?aa iai?yieo ?ooo ye ii in? O, oae ? ii in? Y. Ia?ai?uaiiy iaoaeo a na?aaeeiiiio ia?aoei? ? iai?ee?ioe? oaa a?ae??ciythoueny ca ?ici??ii ? ca ciaeii (?en.6). ?en.6. Ia?aiiuaiiy oi/ee I: ?en.7 Ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ee I i?e caa?aaii?: 1- na?aaeeiiee ia?aoei, 2-eiiaoe oaa. 1-aei aei?noeino?; 2-a?ae aei?noeino?. I?e caa?thaaii? noeeiaiai c'?aeiaiiy aac caci?a ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ee, ?icoaoiaaii? a na?aaeeiiiio ia?aoei? iae? ? caeeoeia? ia?ai?uaiiy ia ia?aaeuothoue 50 iei. Ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ee a e?ioei oaa ii a?n? caa?thaaiiy aeinyaathoue cia/aiue 125 ie. Ia?ai?uaiiy oi/ee a na?aaeeiiiio ia?aoei? i?e iiaoi?iiio iaa??aaii? iiaoi?th? o?aaeoi??th ia?ai?uaiue i?ney ia?oiai i?ioiaeo, iaeiae a?aeaoaa?oueny aacoieiia iaeiie/aiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ? aeine?aeaeoaaia oi/ea a on?o aeiaaeeao o aeo?aeiee noai ia iiaa?oa?oueny. Ia iiaoi?iee caa?thaaeueiee iaa?ia ?aaaothoue ? e?aeee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea. Ia?ai?uaiiy iaoaeo caeaaeeoue a?ae noaie e??ieaiiy ? iai?yio caa?thaaiiy a?ae aei?noeino? aai aei aei?noeino? (?en.7). Ia?ai?uaiiy c ieiueie iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ye noio o?ueio neeaaeiaeo: b1 - eooia? ia?ai?uaiiy, o ?acoeueoao? ia??aiii??iiai iaa??aaiiy iaoaeo ii oiauei?; b2 - ca'ycaii c ia??aiii??iei iiia?a/iei oei?i/aiiyi; b3 - ?acoeueoao ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aiey caa?ii? aaiie, aecia/a?oueny ?ici??ii ciie 2bi ? oa?aeoa?ii ?iciiae?eo eIE o iaaeao ciie. Oa?aeoa? ci?ie b1 o /an? aecia/a?oueny: iaieaaeaiiyi ii oeaio?o eenoa aai ia e?aeeo i?e caa?thaaii? anoee. I?e caa?thaaii? i?ioyaeieo oa?a b1@ 0.Neeaaeiaa b2 caeaaeeoue a?ae a?aeiinii? aeeaeie i?iieaaeaiiy h/ d. C ciaioaiiyi aeeaeie i?iieaaeaiiy aianie b3 c?inoa? (h - aeeaeia i?iieaaeaiiy). Aenia?eiaioe ii ioe?ioe? eooiaeo ia?ai?uaiue cae?enithaaee ca aeinooiiith noaiith c cae??ieaiiyi iaei??? /anoeie c'?aeiaiiy a ie?aieo oi/eao, ia ia?ae?o/oth/e oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia. Eooia? ia?ai?uaiiy ?a?no?oaaee aeaoi?iiiao?aie iaoai?/iiai oeio ? iiaeoeoeieieie aeao/eeaie ia?ai?uaiue (iiaeaeue 214). Eooia? aeaoi?iaoe?? a eiaeiiio ia?aoei? aecia/aee ca oi?ioeith b = arctgZI/S'. aea ZI - e?i?eia ia?ai?uaiiy aeioeoeueiiai aeaiaioa; S' -iea/a aei???a. I?e ii?aoethaaii? aeaieo aeey eiaeiiai c?acea ia/enethaaee bINO = 1/3 wmetafile8? ????????????? ??????? ?•??? ?????•??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? @@??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy???a?? ???&? ?MathType??a????uAy??????Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey o?eeooii? oi?ie i?iieaaeaiiy b = a*OA*a/h, aeey ia?aaie?/ii? b = 0,8 a*OA*O/ I, aeey iai?aeiea b = 0,71 a*OA*a/h (a - eiao?oe??io e?i?eiiai oei?i/aiiy). O caaaeueiiio aeae? b = Ea*OA*y (E - eiao?oe??io, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae oi?ie i?iieaaeaiiy, E =0,71 - 1,0, y - eiao?oe??io oi?ie oaa). ?ici?? caeeoeiai? eooiai? aeaoi?iaoe?? b i?e caa?thaaii? a aei?noeiio i?enoinoaaii? ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeiaaeeie oaa. Iaieaaeaiiy e ioieiaeaeaiiy aeaiaio?a, ui caa?ththoueny a i?eno?i?, iiaea i?eaanoe aei ooai?aiiy caeeoeiaeo eooiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e, ui ia?aaeuothoue ca ?ici??ii aeaoi?iaoe??, ui iathoue i?noea i?e iaieaaeaii? ia ieanoeie, a?euei? a?ae ciai?oi?o ca'yce?a. Oea ca'ycaii c ia?a?iciiae?eii neeaaeiaeo b2 ? b3. Eooia? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e aaaaoii?io?aeiiio caa?thaaii? iiaeia aecia/eoe ye aeaaa?a?/io noio b a?ae eiaeiiai i?ioiaeo. b = ami *bi ( bi -eooiaa ia?ai?uaiiy a?ae i-ai i?ioiaeo; mi - eiao?oe??io, cia/aiiy yeiai caeaaeeoue a?ae iiia?a aeeiioaaiiai i?ioiaeo). Ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie iaoaeo i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie eiao?oe??ioa mi a?ae 1 aei 0,75. Noia?ia eooiaa aeaoi?iaoe?y iiaea aooe iiaeaia o aeae? b = 0,8a*Oi yEeAi Ei + wmetafile8? ??µ??????????? ??????? ?) ??? ?????) ??????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? @ ??? ???????&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyya ??a?? ???&? ?MathType??a? ???u?????????"????-?????0m???0O ???u y??????aea Oi - oaiia?aoo?a, i?e eio??e iaoae ao?a/a? i?oaei? aeanoeaino?, °N. Aeineiaeaeaiiy uiaei ooo/iiai ioieiaeaeaiiy aeicaieeee c'ynoaaoe, ui ia- eaieueo aoaeoeaiith ? ia?iaea caa?ieo c'aaeiaiue oaoii/iith aiaeith. Ooo/ia ioieiaeaeaiiy iiaeia aanoe ca o?ueiia iai?yieaie: ioieiaeaeoaaoe oia, oia oa aieyoiaio ciio, ioieiaeaeoaaoe o?eueee aieyoiaio ciio, aea iiaea ?icaeiooenue ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoeiy (Oiae=300 N aai Oiae=200 N). Oaea ia?iaea ia iio?aao? neeaaeiiai onoaoeoaaiiy oa aeo?ao aia?ai?. ?ic?iaeaii ?ano?nicaa?iaath/i i?eno?ii, yei i?e ia?iaoei aieyoiaiii ciie cieaeothoue caeeoeiai aeaoi?iaoei? ia 80% (?en.8) i ciaiueoothoue caeeoeiai iai?oaeaiiy (?en.9). a a ?en.8 I?eno?ii aeey ioieiaeaeoaaiiy i?e caa?thaaiii: a- eeoeueiaii noi?iie a- cai?ioiueii noi?iie. a a ?en.9. Yith?a caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue iiney ioieiaeaeaiiy aieyoiaiii ciie a iaaeao Oie-Oiae:a-i?ney caa?thaaiiy, a-i?ney ci?iaiiy i?eoene?aa/?a. CAAAEUeII AENIIAEE OA ?ACOEUeOAOE ?IAIOE 1.I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? caa?ieo eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e cao?eioaaeinue /a?ac iaaeinoaoi? aea/aiiy i?ioean?a ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy a a?eyoiai?e cii?. Aeey aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ?aaoethaaiiy caa?thaaeueieie aeaoi?iaoe?yie oa iai?oaaie iio??aia aoei aea/aiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e caa?thaaii? ??cieo oei?a caa?ieo c'?aeiaiue. 2. Aeine?aeaeai? oa?iiiaoai?/i? i?oeane, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a?ey caa?iiai oaa, i?eaiaeyoue aei ooai?aiiy ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e iaa??a? ? ioieiaeaeaii?. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oe??? ciie i?e caa?thaaii? eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ? iaiaeii??aei?-ieanoe/i? ae?eyiee, ui aeaoi?iothony oa /a?aaothony c i?oaeieie. I?ioean aeaoi?ioaaiiy aei??th?oueny noaiith iaieaaeaiiy ia e?ae aai ia eeno. I?e iaieaaeaii? ia e?ae caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy iiaeooue aeinyaaoe iaae? oaeo/ino? noae?. I?e iaieaaeaii? ia eeno caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy ia?aaa?oothoue cia/aiiy iaae? oaeo/ino? ia 15%, ui a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai ieanoe/iino? Aoaa?a – I?cana. Oaieia? oiiae oaae aecia/athoueny noaiith iaieaaeaiiy.Oaiia?aoo?a cae?i/aiiy ciie ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?e iaieaaeaii? ia e?ae 300 N oa 200 N i?e iaieaaeaii? ia eeno. 3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeeiiaii? caa?iiai oaa o aeoeai?e cii? neeaaea?ony neeaaeia n?oea nioa: eiioeaio?e/i? eiea, aeoae eiea, ?aae?aeuei?, I?e inoeaaii?: eiaa?eoi?/i? ni??ae? oa iiia?a/i?. Oey ianoaaeia aeaco? ia aeinoaoiuei neeaaeia i?oaeiuei-ieanoe/ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy iaoaeo a?eyoiaii? ciie. On? nenoaie nioa oaeo/ino? oi?iothony i?e aecia/aiiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? eiiiiiaio?a aieiaieo iai?oaeaiue ? ca?aathoueny c iai?yieii aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue. I?e aeeiiaii? i?ioyaeiiai oaa ooai?ththoueny o?eueee ?aae?aeuei? oa iiia?a/i? nioae oaeo/ino?. 4.Anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy ciie ieano?/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia caeaaeeoue a?ae o?a?eoi??? ia?ai?uaiiy iaeueieea a?ae i?yiie?i?eiiai aei e?oaiaiai. C iniiaieo oaeoi??a ia oa?iiiaoai?/i? i?ioeane iaea?eueoee aieea ia? oiaueia iaoaeo, yea aecia/a? noaio iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio: i?e iiaiiio i?iieaaeaii? ia? i?noea ieinei-iai?oaeaia, a i?e iaiiaiiio i?iieaaeaii? - ieinei-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai c eieae?caoe??th ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?ey caa?iiai oaa. 5.Oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?e iaieaaeaii? ia eeno i?e iaa??a? a a?eyoiai?e cii? noeneoth/? iai?oaeaiiy nyaathoue iicia/ee 1,15 iaae? oaeo/ino? iaoaeo.I?e inoeaaii? caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy iiaeooue iaoe aaee/eio a?eueoa iaae? oaeo/ino? (1,15so). I?e iaieaaeaii? ia e?ae caeeoeia? iai?oae ia aeinyaathoue cia/aiiy iaae? oaeo/ino?. 6.?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii anoaiiaeaii, ui ciia ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e oa onaaei/ia neea aecia/athoueny oeiii c'aaeiaiiue: noeeiaa, oaa?iaa, oaeiaa oa ?i. Aianie a onaaei/io neeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ieiu? ieanoe/ii caeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoaeo oa ieiu? oaa. Oaeee aiae?c aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a ia?iaee caa?ieo c'?aeiaiue. Aeeaae neeaaeiaeo caeaaeeoue a?ae oeio c'?iaiiy, aei?noeino? eeno?a oa aeanoeainoae iniiaiiai iaoaeo. C? ca?eueoaiiyi i?oeiino? iniiaiiai iaoaeo aianie caa?iiai oaa ca?eueoo?oueny. 7.Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii, ui i?e iiaoi?aii? caa?iiai iaa??ao iae?ineii?/ia ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y ?icaeaa?oueny c ooai?aiiyi iiai? nenoaie nioa oaeo/ino? ia?aaie, i???ioaoe?y oe?a? nenoaie ia ieiuei? aecia/a?oueny iieai caeeoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue, aeieeath/eo i?ney aeeiiaiiy ia?oiai oa?o oa ianoaoe?iia?iei iieai iai?oa, yea oi?io?oueny a?ey aeaea?aea iaa??ao, ui ?ooa?oueny, i?e aeeiiaii? ae?oaiai oa?o. 8.Aeine?aeaeaii,ui iaoae aeoeaii? ciie i?e caa?thaaeueiiio iaa??a? oa inoeaaii? ia?ai?uo?oueny ca neeaaeiith o?aaeoi???th, yea aecia/a?oueny noaiith cae??ieaiiy oa iai?yieii caa?thaaiiy: i?e caa?thaaii? o iai?yieo a?ae aea?noeino? ia?ai?uaiiy iaoaeo iathoue aeaa aoaie (ca iai?yieii ?ooo aeoae ? a i?ioeeaaeiiio iai?yieo), caa?thaaiiy ca iai?yieii aei aei?noeino? i?eaiaeeoue aei aeieeiaiiy o?ueio naiino?eieo aoai?a ( ca iai?yieii ?ooo aeoae, iacaae ? ciiao o iai?yieo caa?thaaiiy).I?e inoeaaii? iaoae aeoeaii? ciie o an?o aeiaaeeao ia?anoaa?oueny o iai?yieo ciai?oi?o cayce?a. ?ici?? aeoeaii? ciie, nooi?iue ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Caeeoeia? ia?anoaaiiy a?eueoa i?e caa?thaaii? o iai?yieo aei aei?noeino?. 9.Aenia?eiaioaeueii ? oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaia i?e?iaea eooiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ,ye? c'yaeythoueny i?e aeeiiaii? oaa ne?i/aiieo ?ici???a i?e iaieaaeai? ia e?ae ? ia eeno. Oi?ioaaiiy eooiaeo aeaoi?iaoe?e i?ioiaeeoue aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo o?ao neeaaeiaeo: eooiaiai iiai?ioa caa?thaaieo ie?aee?a, ia??aiii??iiai i?oaeii- ieanoe/iiai nei?i/aiiy iaoaeo o cii? i?iieaaeaiiy oa ia??aiii??iiai nei?i/aiiy iaoaeo ieanoe/iiai aeaoi?iiaaiiai a aeoeai?e cii?.Caeeoeia? eooia? aeaoi?iaoe?? caeaaeaoue a?ae aeiaaeeie caa?iiai oaa, caci?a i?ae ie?aeeaie, oi?ie ciie i?iieaaeaiiy, ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio caa?thaaiiy, cae??ieaiiy ae?iao oa /ano ciyooy i?eoeneoaa/?a. 10.Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aieeao ia ?icaeoie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ii/aoeiaeo iai?oaeaiue aeaee ciiao ?ic?iaeoe a?aae??ioi? iaoiaee ia?iaee caa?ieo c'?aeiaiue c canoinoaaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaiai iaa??ao aeoeaii? ciie oa ioieiaeaeaiiy iaoaeo caa?iiai oaa ca aeaea?aeii iaa??ao, ui ?ooa?oueny, ui aea? ciiao cieceoe caeeoeia? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa iai?oaeaiiy a eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?yo. 11.Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiy ioieiaeaeoaa/?a aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith ? aiaea. Ia oe?e i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeai? ?ano?nicaa??aath/? niiniae oa i?eno?i?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia ciio ieao?/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caanoe aei i?i?ioio ? oaeei /eiii cieceoe caeeoeia? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? iai?oaeaiiy ca ?aooiie ooo/iiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ia 80% ? i?aeaeueoe ye?noue caa?ieo eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e. ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane c ?aaoethaaiiy ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? caaaeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?e iaoaeieiino?oeoe?e i?e iaeiii?io?aeiiio caa?thaaiii ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy a i?iieneiaino?. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie ia i?aei?e?inoaao aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe cia/iee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a oaeeo ?iaioao: 1. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey i?e naa?ea. – Eoaaine, AOAO, 1998, - 237n. 2. Eaethaeiue A.A., Aaae?iae/ A.E. Eiioeaaua o?aueiu i?e naa?ea anoue eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee./ - Ai?ioeeiaa?. iaoeiino?ieo. ei – o, - Ai?ioeeiaa?aae, 1980, - 66n. – Aeaeeia?. 96 iaca. – ?on. – Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE 01.07.86, ?1535 – Oe86Ae. 3. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey a naa?iii niaaeeiaiee i?e i?eiaiaiee i?iiaaeooi/iiai ioionea./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, N11, 1994 a. 4. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey "aeoeaiie" ciiu a naa?iuo niaaeeiaieyo. / Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, N11, 1995a. 5. Aaae?iae/ A.E. I?eiaiaiea iaoiaea eeiee neieueaeaiey aeey aiaeeca iai?yaeaiii–aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey a “aeoeaiie” ciia i?e naa?ea./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1998 a., ?3 6. Aaae?iae/ A.E. ?an/ao ciiu ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee a naa?iii niaaeeiaiee yeaiaioia ia?aiaiiie aeanoeinoe./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1998, ?9, 15 - 17 n. 7. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Aeeyiea iiey ia/aeueiuo iai?yaeaiee ia ?acia? “aeoeaiie” ciiu i?e naa?ea./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1998, ?10 8. Aaae?iae/ A.E. ?aaoee?iaaiea aeaoi?iaoeee oiieieenoiauo naa?iuo eiino?oeoeee i?e iiiiue a?aaeeaioiie ia?aaioee. Ainiee NOAeO, ?ano?nicaa?iaath/i oaoiieiaii ae?iaieoeoaa oa ia?iaee oeneii iaoa?iaeia o iaoeiiaoaeoaaiii., Aeaeaaieoeoai NOAeO, Eoaaine, 1997 a., ?1 9. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Eanaoeei A.N. ?acaeoea ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee ia iaoaeea ?aciie oieueiu./ Naa?i/iia i?iecaiaenoai, 1974, N5. -n.7 - 8. 10. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Eanaoeei A.N. Eeiaoeea iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey i?e eieaeueiii iaa?aaa. Aeieeaaeu AI ONN?, N5. 1974. 11. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Eanaoeei A.N. Aeeyiea aeeeiu oaa ia ?acaeoea iae?ineiie/aneie ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee. Aanoiee EIE, na?ey "Iaoeiino?iaiea", N11, 1974 a 12. Eanaoeei A.N., Eiaaiia E.I., Aaae?iae/ A.E. Iai?yaeaiii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea i?e naa?ea i?iau "?uaee neaeao".// Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea. - 1977, N8. -n.32 - 36. 13. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Inoaoi/iua oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee i?e iaieaaea ei?ioeeo aaeeeia./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1986, N 4. - n. 9 - 13. 14. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Aeeyiea caci?a iaaeaeo e?iieaie ia oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee noueiauo niaaeeiaiee i?e aeoaiaie naa?ea iiae oethnii./ Aaoiiao. naa?ea, 1987, N 15 - n. 78 - 79. 15. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Aeeyiea eiino?oeoeaii – oaoiieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia ia?aciaaiea oaeiauo aeaoi?iaoeee i?e aeoaiaie naa?ea iiae oethnii./ Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1990 a., ?11, n 11 – 13. 16. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Ae?theia A.I., Caoa?ia A.A. Eiioaeoiay naa?ea eaooie ni noaeueth. / Aaoiiaoe/aneay naa?ea, 1977., ? 5, n. 72 – 73. 17. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Na?aa?yeia A.E., Ae?theia A.I. Aiciiaeiinoe i?iaiice?iaaiey aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea oceia oaooiiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Na. "Eiino?oe?iaaiea e i?iecaiaenoai o?ainii?oiuo iaoei". Aui. 10., Oa?ueeia , Aeu. oe., 1978 a. 18. A.n. 1177111 A NNN?, IEE A23E 37/06. Iiaeeeaaeea aeey naa?ee./ A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/, I.E.THoii, - (NNN?) - ? 3726929/25-27., Cayaeaii 06.04.84; Iioae. 07.09.85. Athe. ? 33, - 2 n. 19. A.n. 1729720 A1 NNN?, IEE A23E 28/02. Niinia oiaiueoaiey naa?i/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee e iai?yaeaiee./ A.E.Aaae?iae/, I.I.Oea/aiei, I.I.Iieauoe. – (NNN?) - ? 4760371/08., Cayaeaii 20.11.89; Iioae. 30.04.92. Athe. ? 16, - 4 n. 20. A.n. SU 1277509 A3 NNN?, IEE A23E 33/08, 28/00. Niinia iiiaineieiie naa?ee./ A.E.Aaae?iae/, E.A.Oa?a?u/eei, A.A.Eaethaeiue. – (NNN?) – 3869812/25-27, Cayaeaii 19.03.85; Iioae. 15.08.86 a. , 4 n. 21. A.n. SU 1564867 A1 NNN?, IEE A23E 9/16. Ono?ienoai aeey naa?ee. / E.A.Oa?a?u/eei, A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/ – (NNN?) - ? 4422963/31-27., Cayaeaii 12.05.88; Iioae. 14.03.89. 4 n. 22. A.n. SU 1196195 A NNN?, IEE A23E 28/00. Niinia aeoaiaie naa?ee anoue iaa/aae./ E.A.Oa?a?u/eei, A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/ – (NNN?) - ? 369881/25-27., Cayaeaii 02.12.83; Iioae. 07.12.85. Athe. ? 45, - 2 n. 23. A.n. SU 1655745 A1 NNN?, IEE A23E 37/06. Iaaeii-oethniaay iiaeeeaaeea./ A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/, I.E.*a?iiii?ia, E.A.Nieinaieiaa – (NNN?) - ? 4703495/-27., Cayaeaii 08.06.89; Iioae. 15.06.91. Athe. ? 22, - 4 n. 24. A.N. 1139597 NNN?, IEE A23E 28/II. Niinia ono?aiaiey naa?i/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee e iai?yaeaiee a oiieieenoiauo eiino?oeoeeyo./ A.E.Aaae?iae/, E.A.Oa?a?u/eei, A.A.Eaethaeiue.- (NNN?) – ? 3560885/25-27., Cayaeaii 09.03.83; Iioae. 15.02.85. Athe. N6. – 4 n. 25. A.n. 1606178 A1, IEE A23E 9/10. Niinia aaoiiaoe/aneiai neaaeaiey ca noueii./ A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/, A.A.Caoa?ia – (NNN?) - ? 4620268/31-27., Cayaeaii 13.12.88; Iioae.15.11.90. Athe. ?42, - 3 n. 26. A.n. 1278169 NNN?, IEE A23E 37/04, 28/00. Niinia oeenaoeee aeaoaeae i?e naa?ea noueiauo niaaeeiaiee./ A.A.Eaethaeiue, A.E.Aaae?iae/, E.A.Oa?a?u/eei. - (NNN?) - ? 3817843/25-27., Cayaeaii 07.10.84; Iioae. 23.12.86. Athe. N 47. – 3 n. 27. A.n. 1804993 A1 NNN?, IEE A23E 37/06. Ono?ienoai aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aoiie noi?iiu naa?iiai oaa./ A.A.Eaethaeiue, I.I.Iieauoe, A.E.Aaae?iae/, A.Ae.Ea?oaoia. - (NNN?) - ? 4819262/08., Cayaeaii 25.04.90; Iioae. 30.03.93. Athe. N 12, - 5 n. 28. A.n. 1698021 A1 NNN?, IEE A23E 28/02. Niinia oiaiueoaiey naa?i/iuo iai?yaeaiee e aeaoi?iaoeee./ Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oaa/aiei I.I., Oea/aiei A.I., Iieauoe I.I. - (NNN?) - ? 4786387/27., Cayaeaii 29.01.90; Iioae. 15.12.91. Athe. N 46, - 4 n. 29. A.n. 1085724 NNN?, IEE A23E 28/00. Niinia ono?aiaiey naa?i/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee e iai?yaeaiee./ A.E.Aaae?iae/, I.I.Iieauoe, A.I.Aieioaaa, A.A.Eaethaeiue. - (NNN?) - ? 3442067/25-27., Cayaeaii 24.05.82; Iioae. 15.04.84. Athe. N 14, - 3 n. 30. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A., Eaethaeiue A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea eeiaoeee oaeiaie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?i/iii iaa?aaa ieanoei. Ai?ioeeiaa?aae. iaoeiino?ieo. ei-o, 1983. - 13 n.: Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE 22.06.83. N 571-Oe-Ae83. 31. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Aeeyiea oi?iu oaa ia oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea ieanoei anoue. a. Ai?ioeeiaa?aae, iaoeiino?. ei-ooo., 1984 a. - 13 n. Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE 23.04.84. N 3508 Oe-Ae84. 32. Aaae?iae/ A.E.,Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Aeeyiea aeoaeiu e oi?iu i?iieaaeaiey ia oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee i?e iaieaaea aaeeea ia ieanoeio. Ai?ioeeiaa?aae. iaoeiino?ieo. ei-o. 1981. - 13 n. Aeai. a Oe?IEEIOE 23.04.82, N 3507-Ae82 Aeai. 33. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea oaeiauo aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee. Ai?ioeeiaa?aae. iaoeiino?ieo. ei-o., 1983. - 10 n.: Aeai a Oe?IEEIOE 27.01.83. N 54-Oe-Ae83. 34. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Oa?a?u/eei E.A. ?an/ao e ?aaoee?iaaiea oaeiauo aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea niaaeeiaiee n ei?ioeeie oaaie. Na. aeiee. "Iaoiaeu iiauoaiey oi/iinoe ecaioiaeaiey naa?iuo eiino?oeoeee", Eeaa., 1986 a. 35. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Iieauoe I.I. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aiauaiee iaoaeea i?e naa?ea aieiauo noaiie oaieiaica. AOAO, a. Eoaaine, 1994. - 10 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 18.04.94. N 696 Oe094. 36. Aaae?iae/ A.E. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea ia?aiauaiee i?e naa?ea iaoa?eaeia n ?acee/iuie iaoaie/aneeie e oaieioece/aneeie naienoaaie. AOAO, a.Eoaaine, 1994 -12n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu, 19.04.94, N 697-Oe94. 37. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aiauaiee i?e ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo e?aieaiey naa?eaaaiuo e?iiie. AOAO, a. Eoaaine, 1994. - 7 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 18.04.94, N 743-Oe94. 38. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Enneaaeiaaiea ia?aiauaiee i?e naa?ea yeiiiiiieaae?iaaiiuo noaeae. AOAO, a. Eoaaine, 1994. - 13 n. Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 18.04.94, N 742-Oe94. 39. A.N. Eanaoeei, Aaae?iae/ A.E. Iniaaiiinoe ?acaeoey iae?ineiie/aneie ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e auiieiaiee e?oaiauo oaia ia ieineinoe. Na. aeiee. “Iaania/aiea oi/iinoe naa?iuo eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee a i?ioeanna eo i?iaeoe?iaaiey, ecaioiaeaiey e yenieoaoaoeee”, Eeaa, 1975 a. - 32-34. 40. Aaae?iae/ A.E., Iieauoe I.I. Enneaaeiaaiea iniaaiiinoae ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee a i?ioeanna naa?ee i?e iaee/ee aeoeaiie iaa?ocee. Na. aeiee. "Iooe onei?aiey oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe naa?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa a ?anioaeeea", a. Aeeueithn, 1977 a., - 84. 41. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey i?e naa?ea eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae. Na. aeiee. "Eiioa?aioeey, iinayuaiiay 125-eaoeth ni aeiy ?iaeaeaiey I.A.Neaayiiaa", a. Ia?iue, 1979 a., - 79. 42. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Ieceioaiia?aoo?iay ieanoe/aneay aeaoi?iaoeey eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae i?e naa?ea. Na. aeiee. Oaieioeceea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, Oaoeaio, 1984 a. – 62-66 n. 43. Aaae?iae/ A.E. Iniaaiiinoe aeaoi?iaoeee naa?iuo niaaeeiaiee i?e naa?ea ia iiauoaiiuo nei?inoyo. O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Iaoiaeu iiauoaiey oi/iinoe ecaioiaeaiey naa?iuo eiino?oeoeee”, Eeaa, 1986 a., - 51-53 n. 44. Iieauoe I.I., Aaae?iae/ A.E. Nieaeaiea inoaoi/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee e iai?yaeaiee eieaeueiui ioeaaeaeaieai ecaeaeee a i?ioeanna naa?ee. O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Naa?iua eiino?oeoeee”, Eeaa, 1996 a, 125 – 126 n. 45. Aaae?iae/ A.E. ?aaoee?iaaiea ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee. O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Naa?iua eiino?oeoeee” Eeaa, 1995 a. 46. Aaae?iae/ A.E., *a?iiii?ia I.E. ?aaoee?iaaiea ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee i?e naa?ea oiieieenoiauo iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee a?aaeeaioiuie iaoiaeaie. O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee "I?ia?anneaiay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?iaiey, i?eai?ino?iaiey e naa?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa" – oii. IV, a. Eeaa, 1998, n 56 – 58. 47. Aaae?iae/ A.E., *a?iiii?ia I.E. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa iaeiaaaa?eoiuo oaieiiaiaiiuo aiia?aoia iioeiecaoeeae oaoiieiaee naa?ee // O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee "I?ia?anneaiay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey iaoeiino?iaiey, i?eai?ino?iaiey e naa?i/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa" – oii. IV, a. Eeaa, 1998, n 103-105. A I I O A Oe ? ss Aaae?iae/ A.?. Iiaeaeuaiiy yeinoi caa?ieo eenoiaeo eiino?oeoe?e ca ?aooiie ?aaoethaaiiy caa?thaaeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?e. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 05.03.06. - "Caa?thaaiiy ? nii?iaeiaii oaaoiieia??". Iaoeiiiaeueiee oaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao Oe?aiie “EII “, Eeia, 1999 ?. Aeena?oaoeiy aiiuo? oai?aoe/ii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaiiy caa?i/ieo aeaoi?iaoeie. Anoaiiaeaii o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaii? ciie, ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? 2b, i?e yeaeo?iaeoaiaiio iaieaaeaiii ia ieanoeio ii oeaio?o ? ia e?aeeo i?e ci?i? ia?aiao??a ?aaeeio caa?thaaiiy, e?eueeino? i?ioiae?a, iai?yieo caa?thaaiiy, caeeoeiaeo iai?oa, ?ici??a ae?iao, a?ae noaie cae??ieaiiy, aea?aeieo ieaiie, oiia ioieiaeaeaiiy, ii/aoeiaeo iai?oa. Aea/aii eiiaoeeo ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??, ia?ai?uaiue iaoaeo a ieiuei? ? c ieiueie i?e aeeiiaii? oa?a ??cii? eiio?ao?aoe??. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaieie oaoiieia?/ieie /eiieeaie, ui aieeaathoue ia ?ici??e ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e iaa??aaii?, ? ieoiia aia?a?y iaa??aaiiy, oaeaee?noue caa?thaaiiy ? caeeoeia? caa?thaaeuei? iai?oae. Anoaiiaeaii o?e /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue aei?noe?noue caa?iiai c'?aeiaiiy: caaaeueia, eieaeueia ? oaii ci?ie aei?noeino?; aeaoi?iaoe?y oi?iiciiie , cnoa iaoaeo a aeoeai?e cii? caeaaeeoue a?ae noaie, nooiaiy cae??ieaiiy aeaoaeae, ui caa?ththoueny, ? a?ae iai?yieo caa?thaaiiy: aei aei?noeinoi aai aiae aei?noeinoi iinoaa?oueny iaeueiee. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e ??cieo oiiaao iaeiii?ioiaeiiai caa?thaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaai? ?iaiyiiy aeey aecia/aiiy onaaei/ii? neee aeey ?icieo oeiia caa?ieo c'?aeiaiue. Cai?iiiiiaaii niiniae oa i?eno?ii aeey iaaaaeaiiy aeoae ia noee ? ?aaoethaaiiy ciie ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e caa?thaaii? a?aae??ioiith ia?iaeith oa ioieiaeaeaiiyi. Eeth/iai neiaa: caa?thaaiiy, ciia ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?e, ia?ai?uaiiy iaoaeo a ieiuei?, eooiaa aeaoi?iaoe?y, ?aaeei caa?thaaiiy, aei?noe?noue, ii/aoeia? iai?oae, eieaeueia ioieiaeaeaiiy. A B S T R A C T Gedrovich A.I. Increasing of welded sheets constructious quality by means of welding deformations regulating.-Manuscript/ The disertation for a competition of Doctor's scientific degree ( Engineering ) on speciality 05.03.06.- welding and the lire proccesses. National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”,Kieiv,1999. The disertation constat of theoretical and experimental researches to develop welding deformations. Physical regularities of forming "active zone", zone of plastic deformation 2b i in electric-arc built-up welding on a plaste in the center and edge under chenging of welding parameters, number of passes, the direction of welding, residual strains scheme of fastening, width of a part , method of mounting, removed strips (bars), the conditions of cooling, starting strains have been de termined. Kinetics of plastic deformation developmen, travels of metal on plane and from plane in welding varions welds configurations have been studied. Has been established that the main technological factors influencing the size of plastic deformation zone under heating are specific energy of heating, speed of welding and residial welding strains. Three factors determining rigidness hardness of welding joint have been determined: general, local and rate of hardness chenging; deformation of form chenging, metal shift in "active zone" depend on the scheme, form of fastening welded parts and direction of welding. Methods of defining zone of plastic deformation and angular deformation under various conditions of indirect welding have been offered. Methods and devices for arc pointing on the weld (joint) and regulating of plastic deformation zone in welding have been offered. Key words: welding, zone of plastic deformation, welding parameter, rigidness hardness, starting stress (strein), artificial cooling. AIIIOAOeEss Aaae?iae/ A.E. Iiauoaiea ea/anoaa naa?iuo eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee ca n/ao ?aaoee?iaaiey naa?i/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee. –?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.03.06 – naa?ea e ?iaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu "EIE", 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo oai?aoe/aneea e yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii ii?aaeaeaieth ciiu ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee aeey ethaiai oeia naa?iuo niaaeeiaiee. Enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee i?e iaieaaea ia e?iieo e ia eeno. Onoaiiaeaiu oaiia?aoo?ii-neeiaua oneiaey ?acaeoey iaiaeii?iaeiie ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee, caeiiiia?iinoe eioi?ie ia caaenyo io oeia naa?iiai oaa: i?yiieeiaeiue, e?eaieeiaeiue, e?oaiaie. Noi?ioee?iaaiu oneiaey ia?aciaaiey inoaoi/iuo iai?yaeaiee e eo o?iaaiue. Iieacaii, /oi i?e iaieaaea ia eeno inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey iiaoo i?aauoaoue cia/aiea i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe iniiaiiai iaoaeea. Iieacaiu oneiaey ia?aciaaiey ieinei-iai?yaeaiiiai e ieinei-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai ninoiyiey a ?aeiia naa?iiai oaa. Eco/aiu aiciiaeiinoe oi?aaeaiey ?acia?aie ciiu ieanoe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneeie ia?aie. I?e iaeiii?ioiaeiie iaeiinoi?iiiae naa?ea ia ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo ?aaeeiao oi?aaeyoue ?acia?aie ciiu iiaiiiie yia?aeae i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii. Ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeannia a ciia oa?ie/aneiai aeeyiey ii iieinai oaeo/anoe iieo/aiu au?aaeaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ciiu ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia naa?iuo niaaeeiaiee e iieo/aiu au?aaeaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oeeoeaiie onaaei/iie neeu. Noi?ioee?iaaiu iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey aeey iiauoaiey ea/anoaa naa?iuo eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee, eioi?ua naycaiu n ieieiecaoeeae ?acia?a ciiu ieanoe/aneeo aeaoi?iaoeee. Aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey aa ?acia?ia i?aaeeiaeaiu ?ano?ninaa?aaathuea iaoiaeu iniiaaiiua ia a?aaeeaioiie ia?aaioea, n iieo/aieai ?anoyaeaathueo iai?yaeaiee iinea naa?ee e eieaeueiiai ioeaaeaeaiey a i?ioenna naa?ee. Yooaeoeaiinoue yoeo iaoiaeia nieaeaiey aeaoi?iaoeee e iai?yaeaiee aeinoeaaao 80%. Enneaaeiaaiu caeiiiia?iinoe ia?aiauaiee a ieineinoe naa?eaaaiuo eenoia. Iaa?aa naa?eaaaiie e?iiee i?eaiaeeo e ia?aiauaieyi iaoaeea a iai?aaeaiee caci?a. Iaa?aa eenoa aeaao aieaa neiaeiua oa?iiiaoaie/aneea i?ioeannu, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony ?aniieiaeaieai enneaaeoaiie oi/ee a n?aaeeiiii na/aiee iia iaoiaeeony eee o eiioea oaa e noaiie e?aieaiey e aeanoeinoueth niaaeeiaiey. Nicaeaia ?an/aoiay iiaeaeue e i?iaaaeaiu iiiai/eneaiiua yenia?eiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ia?aciaaiey oaeiaie aeaoi?iaoeee oaia eiie?aoiie aeeeiu. Iieacaii iaee/ea aeaoo noai ?acaeoey i?ioeanna ai a?aiaie. Oaeiaua aeaoi?iaoeee caaenyo io noaiu e?aieaiey e iiiaioa niyoey e?aieaiey (oi/a/iuo i?eaeeiia), aaiiao?ee naa?iiai oaa e oi?iu i?iieaaeaiey. Iieo/aiu au?aaeaiey aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oaeiaie aeaoi?iaoeee a caaeneiinoe io ia?aiao?ia ?aaeeia naa?ee. ?ac?aaioaiiua iaoiaeu iiauoaiey ea/anoaa naa?iuo eenoiauo eiino?oeoeee iaoee i?eiaiaiea ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo. Eeth/aaua neiaa: naa?ea, ieanoe/aneea aeaoi?iaoeee, ia?aiauaiey, a?aaeeaioiay ia?aaioea, ioeaaeaeaiea, ea/anoai.

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