Підготовка і ортопедичне лікування хворих із вторинними деформаціями зубних рядів: Автореф. дис… д-ра мед. наук / М.Д. Король, Укр. мед. стоматол. а

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?inueea iaaee/ia noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

EI?IEUe IEOAEEI AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 616. 314. 28

I?AeAIOIAEA ? I?OIIAAeE*IA E?EOAAIIss OAI?EO ?C AOI?EIIEIE
AeAOI?IAOe?ssIE COAIEO ?ssAe?A

14.01.22 — noiiaoieia?y

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Iieoaaa -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? i?iiaaeaaoeee i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? oa
i?oiaeiio?? Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai??, i. Iieoaaa
(?aeoi? – i?ioani? Ne?eii?eia I.N.)

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Iani?yaeueei

Aaea??e Iao?iae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai?

aeaaeai?ea I.I.Aiaiiieueoey

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?eciaeoa

Aaneeue ?aaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??
Oa?e?anueeiai

?inoeoooo oaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ea??a

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Iaaeaiei

Ieaen?e Aieiaeeie?iae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? Ee?anueei? aeaaeai??

i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe

— aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaeiae/

Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?

aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Aeaieea Aaeeoeueeiai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “1”/a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 44.601.01 Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii?
noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? ca aae?anith: 314024, i. Iieoaaa – 24, aoe.
Oaa/aiea, 23.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? aeaaeai?? ca
aae?anith:

314024, i. Iieoaaa – 24, aoe. Oaa/aiea, 23.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “29” ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiae. iaae. iaoe
I.A.Aieiaei

21

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. *anoeiaa a?aenooi?noue coa?a – iaeiioe?ai?oa
iaoieia?y coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie, yea ia aeoieo a?eueoino? aeine?aeiee?a,
neoaeeoue i?e/eiith ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a ? i?eeono.
I?ioa, aeaye? aaoi?e aeneiaethaaee aeoieo i?i iayai?noue eiiiainaoi?ieo
iiaeeeainoae coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie, a oiio iaaeioe?euei?noue onoiaiiy
aeaoaeo?a iaaaeeei? aeiaaeeie (N.A.Aaeueiai, 1935; A.ss.Eaooe, 1937;
E.E.Ooeueaiae/, 1968; A.E.Aa?aaea, 1972; E.I.Eooie?, 1972 oa ?i.). Oaea
noia?a/eea?noue noaeaeaiue iiynith?oueny ianaiia?aae oei, ui iaia?
iiaii? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?eiai? ii?ie coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie, ui oneeaaeith?
aeeoa?aioe?aeueio ae?aaiinoeeo ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e aeaoi?iaoe?? c
a?eiaeie ci?iaie. Iac’yniaaia oaeiae ieoaiiy i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue oe?iei
canoiniaoaaieo aeey e?eoaaiiy /anoeiai? ao?aoe coa?a iinoiiiae?aieo
i?ioac?a a?eiaiio noaoono iaoe??ioa ? i?i ?oi?e aieea ia coaiuaeaiio
nenoaio. Nooo?aei iaaeie?eii i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo iaoai?cio ooai?aiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a, ? ei?ioei/ani?noue ee?i?/ieo
niinoa?aaeaiue, a?aenooi?noue aeaieo i?i aeeiai?eo ii?oieia?/ii?
ia?aaoaeiae ia?iaeiioa oa ?aii?oaaiiy o?niiai ca’yceo i?ae oi?iith
(no?oeoo?ith) ? ooieoe??th.

Iaiao?aei?noue onoiaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo aeaoi?iaoe?e coaiiai ?yaeo
aeiaaaeaia aaaaoueia aaoi?aie. Iaeiei c ?? iniiaieo iaoiae?a ? ae?iaia
ieethc?y. I?ioa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?y ia?ai?uaoe coae iaeiaeiaei iaaaioaaeaiiyi
aac o?aooaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ?oiuei? ioeueie ? ia?iaeiioa
iaaeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaia. Aeai? ii?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(A.A.Iiiiia?aaa, 1974; A.TH.Ieeeeaae/, 1980) iieacothoue ?noioi?
a?aei?iiino? o aoaeia? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e ??ci?e aeaaiino?
a?aenooiino? ooieoe?? aeoaaiiy ? ??ciiio nooiai? ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe??
coaieo ?yae?a, aea ?acoeueoao?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e
oeueiio aeoaea iaei (A.E.Iaoaaaaa e niaao., 1982; I.A.Ii?ic, 1985). Oeei
iiynith?oueny ??ciee i?aeo?ae aei e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e: iaei? aaoi?e
?aeiiaiaeothoue ae?iaio aeacieethc?th ia eeoa i?e ia?o?e oi?i?
coaiaeueaaiey?iiai iiaeiaaeaiiy, aea ? i?e ae?oa?e oi?i?
(A.A.Iiiiia?aaa, 1974); ?io? — o?eueee i?e ia?o?e oi?i?
coai-aeueaaiey?iiai iiaeiaaeaiiy (A.I.Eiiaeeei, 1977). Oaeei /eiii,
e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaiiai ?yaeo ia ?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaia ?
ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ni?aa?aeianaia c iiaeeeainoyie oeaiei,
ye? ia?aaoaeiaothoueny.

?acii c oei, ?c aeina?aeo e?eoaaiiy aiiiae?e coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie
i?oiaeiioe/ieie aia?aoaie a?aeiii, ui ia?aaeicoaaiiy neee i?ecaiaeeoue
aei iaiai?ioieo ci?i o ioeuei? coaa ? oeaieiao ia?iaeiioa (E.I.?aaiia,
1971; A.N.Ieeeeei, 1980). O oeueiio ca’yceo, iaoiae ae?iaii?
aeacieethc?? iiaea aeeeeeaoe oneeaaeiaiiy ? iaa?oue aeyaeoeny
i?ioeiieacaiei. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue ciaiiy ia eeoa
ii/aoeiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio iii?ieo oeaiei coa?a, aea e oeaco?
ia aaaeeea?noue iino?eiiai eiiieaeniiai eiio?ieth ca ?oi?i noaiii i?ae
/an i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeey i?io?eaeoeee oneeaaeiaiue. E??i oiai,
?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a aein? ioe?iththoueny
o?eueee ca ee?i?/ieie iciaeaie, ? i?iaiic iiaeaeueoiai i?ioacoaaiiy
caeeoa?oueny iac’yniaaiei. Oiio iaiao?aei? a?aeaeaeai? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca
iane?aeeaie i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a ? aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo
?yae?a c eiiieaeniith ioe?ieith ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio iii?ieo oeaiei
coa?a.

Oni?oia ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue i?io?eaeoeee ? e?eoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a ?
aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a i?oiiaaee/ieie iaoiaeaie ia?aaeaa/a? no?iaa
ii?aeiaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae i?ioac?a a?aeiia?aeii aei noaio
iii?ieo oeaiei coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, a oaeiae
oeo, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th, iicaaaeai? aioaaii?no?a.

A?eueo?noue aaoi??a cacia/aee, ui ia??aeei o ia?iaeiio? a ae?eyioe?
iii?ieo coa?a ? coa?a-aioaaii?no?a aeieeathoue iaoieia?/i? i?ioeane,
iia’ycai? c iiieeeaie o ee?i?/i?e ioe?ioe? ?oi?o ?aca?aieo iiaeeeainoae,
?c iai?aaeeueiei aeai?ii e?eueeino? iii?ieo coa?a, eiino?oeoe?? i?ioaca
? iiieeeaie i?e ?o aeaioiaeaii?, (A.E.Aeieieeia, 1974; A.I.Eiiaeeei,
1986; E.N.Aaee/ei, 1987). Oeacoaaeiny, ui ianaiia?aae oea iia’ycaii c
a?aenooi?noth oi/ieo e?eoa???a aecia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeaiei
ia?iaeiioa, ine?eueee iayai? iaoiaee ioe?iee ia iiaiith i??ith aeathoue
oyaeaiiy i?i eiai eiiiainaoi?i? iiaeeeaino?.

Aeiiei? iaoiaee aecia/aiiy noaio iii?ieo oeaiei, a?aeiiaeaiiy ?
caa?aaeaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae ?oiueith no?oeoo?ith ? ooieoe??th, ia?aa?ao
eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e ?ic?iaeai? ua iaaeinoaoiuei.

Aea/aiiy aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e aa?oeeaeueiiio iaaaioaaeaii?
ca aeiiiiiaith aiaoiaeeiaiiiao??? inoaoi/ii ia c’yniaai?. I?ioa, aeai?
aaaaoueio aaoi??a i?i a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? i?ney i?ioacoaaiiy
iinoiiiae?aieie i?ioacaie noia?a/eea?.

I?e i?ioacoaaii? iaci?iieie eiino?oeoe?yie ? iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai
iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ia?aaoaeiae ia?iaeiioa a aeeiai?oe?
aaeaioaoe?? aei iinoiiiae?aieo i?ioac?a.

Oe? i?iaeaie iaa?oioiaothoue iaiao?aei?noue ia o?eueee aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e /anoeia?e ao?ao?
coa?a, aea e aenoaathoue i?e?iaeio aeueoa?iaoeao — aeei?enoaiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai o?aioaaiiy oeaiei ia?iaeiioa ia?aae i?ioacoaaiiyi c
iaoith iia?e?caoe?? eiai ?aca?a?a ? noeioethaaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo
iaoai?ci?a. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae c’ynoaaoe aeeiai?eo aaeaioaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano i?e i?oiiaaee/iiio e?eoaaii? aeaoaeoo coaiiai ?yaeo a?ae
ii/aoeiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio iii?ieo oeaiei, a oaeiae aeyaeoe
i?iaiinoe/i? e?eoa??? oa?aeoa?o ia?aaoaeiae oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?ney
e?eoaaiiy.

??ciiiai?oi?noue ee?i?/ieo oi?i aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a aeiaaa?
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy i?i onoiaiiy ?o
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aei i?ioacoaaiiy. Ii?aeiaiiy oaiiiaia Iiiiaa c ?ioeie
ci?iaie coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie, a oaeiae iiae?ai? oi?ie iaoieia??
noai?ththoue a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao o?oaeiiu? aeey ae?aaiinoeee, a ?iiae? e
caaaaeathoue cae/aeiei iaoiaeai i?ioacoaaiiy.

O ca’yceo c oeei i?aeaioiaea ii?iaeieie ?ioa aei i?ioacoaaiiy i?e
/anoeiaeo aeaoaeoao coaieo ?yae?a iiaeiia ni?yiiaoaaoeiue ye ia onoiaiiy
naii? aeaoi?iaoe??, oae ? ia ii?iae?caoe?th ooieoe?? ia?iaeiioa iii?ieo
coa?a, coa?a-aioaaii?no?a ? aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a.

Oaeei /eiii, i/aaeaeia iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy
ii?oieia?/ieo ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo ci?i i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a,
?ic?iaee iaoiae?a i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ? i?aeaeuaiiy yeino?
i?ioacoaaiiy i?e oe?e iaoieia??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iniiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e
i?iiaaeaaoeee i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? oa i?oiaeiio?? Oe?a?inueei?
iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? (i.Iieoaaa) ca ?i?oe?aoeaiith
iaoeiaith oaiith “Iniaeeaino? o?aoeiii? i?io?eaeoeee caoai?thaaiue
coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie c canoinoaaiiyi iiaeo iaoiaaiaoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a oa
oaoiieia?e”, ? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0197 U 02016420.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea iieacaiue aei ??cieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy oa
?aaa?e?oaoe?? oai?eo c aeaoi?iaoe?yie coaieo ?yae?a ia iniia? aea/aiy
ao?ieia??, iaoiaaiaco c o?aooaaiiyi ooieoe?iiaeueii-eiiiainaoi?ieo
iiaeeeainoae aeoaaeueiiai aia?aoo.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae?
iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1 — aecia/eoe /anoioo oa ao?ieia?th aoi?eiieo aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo
?yae?a;

i?iaanoe ?o nenoaiaoecaoe?th;

2 — aecia/eoe iaoiaaiac coaiuaeaiieo aeaoi?iaoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi a?eiaeo

iniaeeainoae oa nooiaiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo ii?ooaiue;

3 — aea/eoe ee?i?/i? oi?ie coaiuaeaiieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, caeaaei?noue ?o
a?ae

eiinoeoooe?? oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae aeoaaeueiiai
aia?aoo;

4 — i?iaanoe iaoaiaoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy niinia?a e?eoaaiiy ??cieo oi?i

aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a;

5 — aea/eoe oa?aeoa? i?ioean?a aaeaioaoe?? aei i?ioac?a ??ciiiai?oieo

eiino?oeoe?e;

6 — i?iaanoe ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy ? ?o

aoaeoeaiino?;

7 — i?iaanoe ii?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e ??cieo
oi?iao

aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe:

1. Oia?oa ca aeiiiiiaith ee?i?/ieo, a?iiao?e/ieo ? eiiieaeno
ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue onoaiiaeaii, ui c a?eii a?aeaoaathoueny
no?oeoo?i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie a coaiuaeaii?e nenoai?,
ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue in?a, ye? ao?aoeee ie?ai? coae (80% ?c ieo
neeaaeathoue iiey?e), o ca’yceo c /ei o 31,7% aeiaaee?a ?icaeaa?oueny
aeaoi?iaoe?y coaieo ?yae?a, ui aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ca ?aooiie aacieiino?eeoe?? ? iineaaeaiiy
aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy o coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue
aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo ? oeo, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th i?e
eiai aeaoi?iaoe??.

2. Ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co iieaciee?a e?eaecie naaiaio?a
aeoaaeueieo coa?a aecia/ai? o?e oeie aoaeiae coaieo aeoa: aeioeeee,
oa?aiooee ? i?yiee.

3. Aeyaeaia aeeiai?ea ci?i o ?ioaeoiiio coaiiio ?yae? i?e a?aenooiino?
coa?a ? ca iayaiino? iaci?iieo i?ioac?a, ui aeicaieeei aecia/eoe
?ioaineai?noue ia?ai?uaiiy coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai
?yaeo, ? aioaaii?no?a – i?e aoi?eii?e aeaoi?iaoe?? aioaaiioth/iai
coaiiai ?yaeo.

4. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e a?aenooiino? iiey??a aeieea? aaeeea e?euee?noue
aa??aio?a ci?ie iieiaeaiiy i?aiiey??a (iiai?io ii in?, ei?ionia ci?uaiiy
oa ?i.). Aaee/eia aa?oeeaeueiiai ia?ai?uaiiy coa?a i?e a?aenooiino?
aioaaii?no?a ia?aaoaa? o i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo, o yeiio
a?aeaoeiny aeaeaeaiiy coaa, ? aecia/a?oueny aeaai?noth ao?aoe coa?a. I?e
oeueiio a uaeaiii-eeoeueia?e nenoai?, cie?aia o aeoaaeueieo i’ycao,
a?aeaoaathoueny aaeaioaoe?eii-eiiiainaoi?i? ci?ie, ni?yiiaai? ia
caa?aaeaiiy aeeiiaiiy ?? iniiaii? (aeoaaeueii?) ooieoe??.

5. Ioe?iea aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy iieacaea o?e oeie
– neeueiee, na?aaei?e ? neaaeee. I?e aeaoaeo? coaiiai ?yaeo a ae?eyioe?
coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue oeae aeaoaeo, aeo?eaae?noue ?oi?o iii?ieo
oeaiei aei iaaaioaaeaiiy cieaeo?oueny i?e neeueiiio oei? a na?aaeiueiio
ia 5,7%, i?e na?aaeiueiio – ia 10,5%, i?e neaaeiio oei? – ia 22,7%.
Aeo?eaae?noue aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue iii?ieo oeaiei ?ee?a
a?eueo no?eea.

Ca oeiii aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy ianoaaeoaai?
?iciiae?eyeeny oaeei /eiii: neeueiee oei – 18,5%; na?aaei?e – 64,2%;
neaaeee – 17,3%.

6. Aecia/aii ??aaiue aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa coa?a iica ooieoe??th aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Caeaaeii a?ae nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo
ci?ith?oueny ??aaiue aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa coa?a iica ooieoe??th aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe??
aeo?eaae?noue aei iaaaioaaeaiiy ciaioo?oueny a?eueoa, i?ae i?e
aeaioiaeueaaiey?i?e, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cia/i? ii?ooaiiy eiiiainaoi?ieo
iaoai?ci?a oiane?aeie ciaioaiiy /anoeie oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e ?oi?e
ao?io??. Na?aaeiy aeo?eaae?noue ia?iaeiioa 6 coaa i?e aeaioaeuei?e
oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? neeaea 2403,12 I, oiae? ye iaeiieiaiiee coa i?e
aeaioiaeueaaiey?i?e oi?i? ni?eeiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy 2814,23 I, i?e oeueiio
??cieoey i?ae iieacieeaie noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??ia (? 0,01).

Ei?aeyoe?ei? ? ?aa?an?eiee aiae?ce iieacaee, ui aeaeo?icaoaeeea?noue
ioeueie coa?a, ye? o?eaaeee /an ia iaee iiaiioe?iieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, i?e aeaoaeoao ? aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a cieaeo?oueny,
? aaee/eia ?? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaaiino? ao?aoe coa?a-aioaaii?no?a ?
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo.

7. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaoaeoao coaiiai ?yaeo oa eiai aeaoi?iaoe?yo
cieaeo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ia?iaeiioa o ae?eyioe?
coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo ? oeo, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica
ooieoe??th.

8. Aecia/aii, ui i?e aeaioiaeueaaiey?i?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ci?ie noaio
?aa?iia?ieo noaeei – iai?ioi?, oiaoi iathoue ooieoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?,
i?e aeaioaeuei?e – iaiai?ioi?, ui aeaco? ia iayai?noue no?oeoo?ieo ci?i
o no?ieao ?aa?iia?ieo noaeei, /ei, i/aaeaeii, ? iiynith?oueny ao?io?y
oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo.

9. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaoaeoao coaiiai ?yaeo ? ?icaeoeia? eiai
aeaoi?iaoe?? c’yaey?oueny aneiao??y o ooieoe?iiaeuei?e aeoeaiino?
iaeiieiaiieo aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a, ui onoaa?oueny i?ney i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy i?ioyaii 6 i?nyoe?a.

10. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee iaoeiai
iaa?oiooaaoe aeei?enoaiiy iiia?aaeiueiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai o?aioaaiiy
aei iaaaioaaeaiiy oeaiei ia?iaeiioa c? cieaeaiith ooieoe??th i?e
aeaoaeoao ? aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a ? ioe?ithaaoe ?? aieea ia
ia?aa?a eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e c aieo coaiuaeaiii?
nenoaie o a?aeiia?aeue ia i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae
aiaoiaeeiaiia?ao?? aeicaieea ia’?eoeaii ioe?ithaaoe aeo?eaae?noue oeaiei
ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy.

11. Oia?oa iienai? aeaoi?iia? aieieia ca’yceiaiai aia?aoo coaa ?
e?noeiai? oeaieie aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea i?e iayaiino? aioaaii?noa,
aecia/ai? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie aeaoi?iiaeo aieieii ca’yceiaiai aia?aoo
coaa ? e?noeiai? oeaieie aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea i?e a?aenooiino?
aioaaii?noa, a oaeiae aeyaeai? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie aeaoi?iiaeo aieieii ?
aeaee ?aci?aoe?? e?noee aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ee?i?/iee niin?a io?eiaiiy
?aeaioe/ieo ca iniiaaie a?iniaeo iiaeaeae uaeai, yeee caaacia/o?
ii??aiyii?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeeiai?/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue. Iaa?oioiaaia
iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy ?ioaineaiino? ia?ai?uaiiy coa?a, ye?
iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo, ? aioaaii?no?a i?ae eiio?ieai aio?iiiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a i?e ??ci?e oiiia?ao?? aeaoaeo?a o a?oi? aeoaaeueieo coa?a
aeey aecia/aiiy no?ie?a i?ioacoaaiiy.

Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae
iii?ieo coa?a i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaci?iieo iinoiiiae?aieo i?ioac?a aeey
onoiaiiy aeeth/aieo aeaoaeo?a o ae?eyioe? aeoaaeueieo coa?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? e?eoa???a ioe?iee
ii/aoeiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e aeaoaeoao ?
aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a, ui aeicaiey? aeae?aoe iaoiae e?eoaaiiy ?
i?iaiicoaaoe oa?aeoa? aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie ia
i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy.

Aea/aiiy aeeiai?ee ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o ca’yceiaiio
aia?ao? coaa, a oaeiae o e?nooe? aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea iaaea?
iiaeeea?noue aeey oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?iaie o ee?i?oe? iiaeo
aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ae?aaiinoeee ? e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaiiai ?yaeo.

?ic?iaeai? noaie e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c ooieoe?iiaeueieie ? ii?oieia?/ieie
ii?ooaiiyie a coaiuaeaii?e nenoai? aiane?aeie /anoeiai? ao?aoe
aeoaaeueieo coa?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee eiiieaen ooieoe?iiaeueii-ae?aaiinoe/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey ioe?iee ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiiinoa/aiiy, noaio ioeueie
coaa ? aeo?eaaeino? iii?ieo oeaiei coa?a aei aeoaaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
i?e onoiaii? aa?oeeaeueieo oi?i aeaoi?iaoe??.

Iiaeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey caiia?aaiiy oneeaaeiaiyi o
i?ioean? onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e a?aeiieie niiniaaie.

Iaa?oioiaai? noaie eiio?ieth ca aoaeoeai?noth e?eoaaiiy ia iniia?
onoaiiaeaieo eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae oeaiei ia?iaeiioa
iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? ia eaoaae?ao i?iiaaeaaoeee
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? oa i?oiaeiio??, i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? c
eo?nii ?iieaioieia??, i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe e?ea??a-noiiaoieia?a
Oe?a?inueei? iaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?/ii? aeaaeai?? (i. Iieoaaa),
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? A?iieoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e nooaeaioai oa a ?iaioo iaeanieo
noiiaoieia?/ieo iie?ee?i?e Iieoaae, Iaeane ? *a?i?aiaa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii ia?niiaeueii i?iaiae?ciaaia iaoeiaa
e?oa?aoo?a c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie, i?iaaaeaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee
iiooe. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi c aeiiiiiaith iaoeiaiai eiinoeueoaioa
i?iaiaeeeenue aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa ee?i?ei-eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
i?iaaaeaia iaoaiaoe/ii-noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia
ia?niiaeueiiio eiii’thoa?? IBM PC/AT 486, iaienai? an? ?icae?ee ?iaioe,
noi?ioeueiaai? aeniiaee oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iaoa??aee ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia 1 Iaoe?iiaeueiiio eiia?an? aiaoii?a, a?noieia?a ?
oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie (i.?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1992), I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 80-??//th O.A.Cieioa?ueiai? (i.Iieoaaa, 1994),
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? e?ea??a-noiiaoieia?a (i.
Iieoaaa, 1996), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??” (i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995),
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii?
noiiaoieia??” (i. Iieoaaa, 1996), nai?ia??-ia?aae? caa?aeoaa/?a eaoaae?
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie (i.
Iieoaaa, 1997), iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (i. Iieoaaa,
1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 38 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, c
ieo 21 — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ca?aeii c aeiiaaie AAE Oe?a?ie, 3 — o
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 14 — o iaoa??aeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 263 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno oe?a?inueeith iiaith, neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 6 ?icae?e?a,
i?aenoie?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e,
yeee neeaaea?oueny ?c 338 aeaea?ae: 224 oe?a?inueeith ? ?in?enueeith ?
114 aeaea?ae ?iicaiieie iiaaie. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 36 oaaeeoeue ?
62 ?enoiee.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
aoei i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy 107 caei?iaeo in?a c ?ioaeoieie
coaieie ?yaeaie (eiio?ieueia a?oia) ? 217 in?a ?c /anoeiaith ao?aoith
coa?a ? ??cieie oi?iaie aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a, onueiai – 324 iniae
iaio noaoae a?eii a?ae 21 ?ieo aei 40 ?ie?a ?c caaa?oaiei oi?ioaaiiyi
coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie. Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iniae c i?oiaiaoe/iei aai i?yiei
i?eeonii, c ?ioaeoieie coaieie ?yaeaie, aac iaoieia?/ieo ci?i c aieo
ia?iaeiioa. A?eiaa iaiaaeaiiy iaoe??io?a iia’ycaia c aeeeth/aiiyi
a?eiaeo ci?i noaeeiii? nenoaie.

Caaaeueiii?eeiyo? ee?i?/i? iaoiaee ia?aaeaa/aee iieooaaiiy, iaeyae ?
ianoaaeaiiy i?aai?a ii?iaeieie ?ioa: coa?a, oeaiei ia?iaeiioa, coaieo
?yae?a, neeciai? iaieiiee.

Caaaeueia e?euee?noue ianoaaeaieo aoea ?iciiae?eaia ia o?noue a?oi.
Ia?oa a?oia (eiio?ieueia) neeaaeaeany ?c 107 in?a. Ae?oaa a?oia c I
nooiaiai aeaioi-aeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (aenoiaiiy coaa c
aeueaaiey?iei a?ae?inoeii o a?e a?aenooiueiai aioaaii?noa ia 2-3 ii) –
41 iniaa. O?aoy a?oia — ?c II nooiaiai aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie
aeaoi?iaoe?? (ia 4–5 ii) – 34 iniae. *aoaa?oa a?oia — 32 iaoe??ioe c III
nooiaiai aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (iiiaae 5 ii). I’yoa
a?oia neeaaeaeany ?c 52 in?a c aeaioaeueiith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? c I
nooiaiai ci?uaiiy coaa ia 2-3 ii c iaieaiiyi oeeee, a oinoa c 58 in?a –
?c II nooiaiai aeaioaeueii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (ia 4–5 ii).

Onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a i?iaiaeeee 2 niiniaaie:
i?oiaeiioe/iei iaoiaeii i?e aeaioiaeueaaiey?iie oi?i? ?-??? no. ( 2, 3 ?
4 a?oie) ? iaoiaeii c?oe?oiaoaaiiy oeaiei coaa i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i?
?-?? no. (5 ? 6 a?oie). Aeei?enoiaoaaee ci?ii? ? iaci?ii? aia?aoe.
Ci?ii? iaee iii?ii-oo?eioth/? aeaiaioe, ? iie?ia?ecaoe?th aacenii?
ieanoiane i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii eeooueiaiai i?anoaaiiy. O?enaoe?th
iaci?iieo aia?ao?a cae?enithaaee ooo/ieie ei?iieaie c i?aia?oaaiiyi ?
aac i?aia?oaaiiy iii?ieo coa?a ca aeiiiiiaith oeeie-oinoaoieo oa
iie?ea?aieneeaoieo oeaiaio?a. Onueiai i?iaaaeaii ae??aithaaiiy
ieethc?eii? iiaa?oi? 105 coa?a, cao?eniaaii 27 iaci?iieo ? 30 ci?iieo
e?eoaaeueieo aia?ao?a. No?iee niinoa?aaeaiue noaiiaeee 1, 2, 3 oeae., 1
i?n., 3 i?n., 6 i?n., 12 i?n. i?ney i?iaaaeaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Aeey ioe?iee iieiaeaiiy aeoaaeueieo coa?a o coaiiio ?yae? a?aeiinii
naa?oaeueii? ? o?ainaa?caeueii? ieiueie aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoaiaoe/iee
niin?a aiae?co aoaeiae coaieo aeoa ca iieacieeaie e?eaecie naaiaio?a
aeoaaeueieo coa?a o ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? ca iaoiaeeeith A.A.Eiein
(1986) o ?ioaeoiiio coaiiio ?yae?, ca a?aenooiino? coa?a ? ca iayaiino?
iinoiiiae?aieo i?ioac?a. Aeey a?eueo ?aoaeueiiai ooi/iaiiy oa?aeoa?o
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy coaieo ?yae?a, ieaioaaiiy ? eiio?ieth i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee ae?aaiinoe/i? iiaeae?.

Eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy iieyaaei o canoinoaaii? iaoiae?a ooieoe?iiaeueii?
ae?aaiinoeee — ?aiia?iaeiioia?ao??, aiaoiaeeiaiiiao???,
aiaoiaeeiaiia?ao??, aeaeo?iiaeiioiae?aaiinoeee ? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao??.

Aeey ioe?iee aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy o ae?eyioe?
coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, a oaeiae oeo, ye?
ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a,
aeei?enoiaoaaee aiaoiaeeiaiiiao??th, yeo i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith
aeaeo?iiiiai aiaoiaeeiaiiiao?a «A?ce?» (aei??thaaiiy neee cae?enithaaee
o iuethoiiao — I). Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiino? oeueiai iaoiaeo
i?iaiaeeee eiai ?a?no?aoe?th o /an?. I?e oeueiio aei??thaaee ia o?eueee
aaniethoio aaee/eio iaeneiaeueii? ieethc?eii? neee, aea ? /aniaee
ia?aiao?, a oaeiae ?oi? iio?aei? (na?aaei?e ? caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io
aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy).

?aiia?iaeiioia?ao?th cae?enithaaee aeey ioe?iee ci?i ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
noaio ?aa?iia?ieo noaeei o ae?eyioe? coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo
coaiiai ?yaeo, a oaeiae oeo, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th i?e
a?aenooiino? aioaaii?no?a. Iaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia aeaeo?iaeia nenoaia
aeanii? eiino?oeoe?? i?e oao?aiiey?iiio iaoiae? ?aia?ao??. O ?ie?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?iae aeei?enoiaoaaee ooieoe?iiaeueii aeiciaaia
iaaaioaaeaiiy (OAeI) c neeith 20 I, yea cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
aiaoiaeeiaiiiao?a. ?aiia?iaeiioia?ao?th cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
?aiieaoeciia?aoa ?IA — 202 ? aeaeo?iea?ae?ia?aoa AEEA?. Aiae?c ?aia?ai
i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith a OeIAe?N (A.A. I?ioii/oeia e
niaao., 1980).

Aeaeo?iiaeiioiae?aaiinoeeo coa?a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th i?e
aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaiiai ?yaeo, i?iaiaeeee o aeeiai?oe? ?o e?eoaaiiy c
iaoith aeyaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ci?i o /ooeea?e ?iia?aaoe?? ioeueie a?ae
nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? ? niiniao ?? onoiaiiy. Iaoiaeeeo cae?enithaaee ca
aeiiiiiaith aia?aoa AIAe-2I ca iaoiaeeeith E.?. ?oa?ia.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy ii?ooaiue ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a
i?e aeaoaeoao ? aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo
?ioa?oa?aioe?eii? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao??. O ?ie? ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?iae
aeei?enoiaoaaee aeoaaiiy oiaoi/ea /i?iiai oe?aa ?ici??ii 1 ni3 ? aaaith
2 a. Iaoiaeeeo cae?enithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?eciaaiiai
aeaeo?ii?ia?aoa I-440 o??ie «Iaaeeei?».

Aeey iiia?aaeiuei? i?aeaioiaee coaiaeueaaiey?iiai eiiieaeno a ae?eyioe?
aeaoaeoo coaiiai ?yaeo ? i?e eiai aeaoi?iaoe??, a oaeiae aeey aea/aiiy
i?ioean?a aaeaioaoe?? aei iaci?iiiai i?ioaca canoiniaoaaee iaoiae
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai o?aioaaiiy. Aeey coa?a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica
ooieoe??th i?e a?aenooiino? aioaaii?no?a, aeei?enoiaoaaee neeo 20 I, yeo
eiio?iethaaee ca aeiiiiiaith aiaoiaeeiaiiiao?a. Aeey ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
o?aioaaiiy coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, ? ?oi?o
iii?ieo oeaiei aeei?enoiaoaaee iaeneiaeueio ieethc?eio neeo iaoe??ioa.
Eo?n o?aioaaiiy i?iaiaeeee i?ioyaii aeaio oeaei?a, uiaeaiii ii 1
oaeeei? aeeiai?/iiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Eiio?ieai neoaeeea
noaeeiia ?aaeoe?y, yeo ioe?ithaaee ca aeiiiiiaith ?aiia?iaeiioia?ao??.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

Iaei??th c i?e/ei, ye? cieaeothoue ooieoe?iiaeueio oe?ii?noue cai?uaiiy
aeaoaeo?a coaieo ?yae?a, ? iaaeinoaoi? a?aooaaiiy aeo?eaaeino?
ia?iaeiioa iii?ieo coa?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy 107 in?a c ?ioaeoieie coaieie ?yaeaie
aeicaieeee iai aeae?eeoe 3 oeie aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa:
neeueiee, na?aaei?e ? neaaeee. Ianoaaeai? iniae ?iciiae?eyeeny ca oeiaie
aeo?eaaeino? o oaeeo a?aenioeao a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?: 22,6 % —
neeueiee, 63,5 % — na?aaei?e, 15,9 % — neaaeee. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?y
oeaiei ia?iaeiioa o a?aeiia?aeue ia aieea iaaaioaaeaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia
naith i?ieea?noue, a?aeaoaa?oueny caaaeaee c? caa?aaeaiiyi naiai
aecia/aiiai ?aaeoeaiiai noa?aioeio.

Io?eiai? iaie ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ioaeoieo coa?a iaoiaeii
aiaoiaeeiaiia?ao?? aeicaieeee aeciaoe ??aiii?aaio cia/ei?noue aeae?eaieo
oei?a aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa. Neeueiee oei niinoa??aaee o 20,6%
aeiaaee?a, na?aaei?e – 63,5%, neaaeee – 15,9%. Oea ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy
aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o oeueiio iai?yieo, iieacoth/e
?ioaa?aeueiee noai neeaaeiiai, aea ooieoe?iiaeueii oe?e?niiai,
aeeiai?/iiai eiiieaeno, yeee caaaeyee /eneaiiei ca’yceai noai?th?
nai???aeiee “ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aai”.

E??i oiai, aac o?aooaaiiy a?aei?iiinoae o ae?yeueiino? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
ia’?eoa iiaeaethaaiiy ii?ie ? iaoieia?? i?e i?oiiaaee/iiio e?eoaaii?
??cieie aeaeaie i?ioac?a ? iaeiinoi?iii?i ? iaaeinoaoi?i aeey ae??oaiiy
oeo ieoaiue, ia ye? aiie ni?yiiaai?. Noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui aeey aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeaiei o ae?eyioe? coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue
aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, aai coaa, yeee ia?aaoaa? iica ooieoe??th,
iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue oaeoi??a aeey io?eiaiiy
aeinoia??ii? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iaie aoei i?iaaaeaia a?iiao?e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeaeae
? iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c ci?ie coaieo aeoa caeaaeii a?ae a?eo i?e ?ioaeoieo
coaieo ?yaeao ? ?o ii?ooaiiyo. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeaeae
uaeai i?iaiaeeee o no?iai ?aeaioe/ieo oiiaao. Iaie iniiaiei
i???ioe?ii aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeaeae aea?aia
e?eaie?i?eia iiaa?oiy oaa?aeiai i?aeiaa?iiy c aeaiia e?aeiaeie oi/eaie
ii naa?oaeueiiio i?aeiaa?iiiio oao ? aeaiia oi/eaie ia ??ai? ?ee?a. I?e
oeueiio iiaeaeue aa?oiuei? uaeaie aeyaey?oueny aei?noei i???ioiaaiith o
o?ueio ieiueiao — naa?oaeuei?e, ai?eciioaeuei?e ? o?iioaeuei?e. I?i
i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?aeue?oo oaa?aeiai i?aeiaa?iiy c
iaoith ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? na?ae/aoue aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio aaoi??a, ye?
i?e??aithaaee cia/ei?noue eiai a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?eiiio a?aeiioaii? aei
cia/eiino? a?aeaeoe?a iaeueoe?a.

Aiae?c na?aaei?o ?ici???a coa?a ? coaieo ?yae?a iieacaa iaeaaei?noue
on?o ianoaaeoaaieo aei iieaciee?a ii?iaeueiiai ii/aoeiaiai noaio
coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie. Caaaeath/e ia io?eiai? aeai? ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co, ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo, ui iaoai?ci ci?i o aoaeia? coaieo ?yae?a
coiiaeaiee iayai?noth aeaio i?ioean?a: “ciaioaiiy” ? “ca?eueoaiiy”
ee?i?/ii? ei?iiee oeaio?aeueieo ? aieiaeo coa?a, oiaoi iathoue i?noea
aeaa ia?aeaeuei? i?ioeane: noe?aiiy coa?a ? ?ao?aeoe?y ynaiiiai e?ath.
Oae, ia ieaei?e uaeai? a 37,4% ianoaaeoaaieo aecia/aii “ca?eueoaiiy”
aenioe ei?iiee an?o coa?a, o 25% in?a “ca?eueoaiiy” ii?aeioaaeiny c?
“ciaioaiiyi” aenioe ei?iieiai? /anoeie coaa, o 25% in?a niinoa??aaeiny
o?eueee aei?i/aiiy ? o 11,6% in?a aaniethoi? ??ai? caeeoaeeny
iaci?iieie.

A?iiao?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui c a?eii ci?iththoueny ?
o?ainaa?caeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee coaii? aeoae. Aiia a?ae??ciy?oueny oei,
ui o a?oe? 21-30 ?ie?a ?nio? iacia/ia ?icoe?aiiy o?iioaeueiiai naaiaioa
a ae?eyioe? ?ee?a, i?e/iio na?aaei? aaee/eie naaiaio?a 31|13 aecia/ai?
c i?ioeeaaeiei ciaeii, ui iiaeia iiynieoe, c iaeiiai aieo, aa?oeeaeueiei
noe?aiiyi i?ieneiaeueieo iiaa?oiiue o?iioaeueieo coa?a, a c ?ioiai —
iiyaith a?aenoai? i?ae oeaio?aeueieie ??coeyie ? ca?eueoaiiyi eooa
iaoeeo aa?oi?o oeaio?aeueieo ??coe?a.

Na?aaei? iieacieee oaiio i?e?inoo c a?eii (o 31-40 ?ie?a) aeiaaeeie
naaiaio?a aeoaaeueieo coa?a e?aiai ? i?aaiai aieo ca ciaeii
a?ae??ciyeeny i?ae niaith, i?ioa ?oi? e?euee?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeoaea
iae? ? i?iyae aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo i?ioean?a o e?i?eiiio aei??? iacia/i?.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui oe?eia coaii? aeoae ii aanoeaoey?iiio eiioo?o ia ??ai?
on?o coa?a ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei ?icoe?aiiy. ? oi/a e?euee?ni? cia/aiiy
iaaaeee?, aeeiai?/iee noai coaii? aeoae ia aa?oi?e uaeai? ia iiaeia
iacaaoe noaa?eueiei, ia ui naiai /ano aeacoaaa A.ss. Eaooe (1951), eiee
ienaa, ui iaa?oue i?aaeeueii a?oeeoethth/? coai? ?yaee aac ii?ooaiiy ?o
iaia?a?aiino? /a?ac e?eueea ?ie?a i?ae aieeaii ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o
oaeoi??a iiaeooue ci?uoaaoeny, ui oe?eeii o?c?ieia?/ii.

I?e iayaiino? aeaoaeoo coaiiai ?yaeo aiae?c aeeiai?/ieo eiao?oe??io?a
oaiio i?e?inoo aenioe ei?iiie o?iioaeueieo coa?a iieacaa i?iya aeaio
aeeiai?/ieo i?ioean?a: ?ao?aeoe?? ynai ? noe?aiiy, aea c i?aaaethaaiiyi
o e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? i?ioeano ?ao?aeoe??. Aaaaea?ii, ui oea
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae i?e?iaeieo o?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i iiaea aooe iane?aeeii
a?aeiiniiai ca?eueoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy, coiiaeaiiai ao?aoith coa?a o
??ci? oa?i?ie. O iaoe??io?a oe??? a?oie iaei i?noea aei?i/aiiy naaiaio?a
aeoaaeueieo coa?a ia ieaei?e uaeai?, ui noaei iane?aeeii iac?aeueiiai
ia?ai?uaiiy iiey??a. Ia aa?oi?e uaeai? i?ia?aeiith iciaeith ci?ie noaio
coaieo ?yae?a noaei aa?oeeaeueia ci?uaiiy coa?a /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
?oi?o aioaaii?no?a. Oa?aeoa? ci?uaiiy caeaaeaa a?ae oiiia?ao?/ieo
iniaeeainoae aeaoaeoo, aeaaiino? ao?aoe coa?a ? a?eo iaoe??ioa.

Iaeaeua ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiiy non?aei?o coa?a onoaiiaeaia a in?a ?c
?aii?i ia??iaeii (aei 20 ?ie?a) aeaeaeaiiy coa?a /e ci?uaiiy
coa?a-aioaaii?no?a, ui o 5,9 ?aca ia?aaeueei oaii iiaeaeueoiai ?o
ci?uaiiy o a?oe? 21-30 ?ie?a. Ia iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?e o
oeueiio ia??iae? aeacoaaee A.TH. Ieeeeaae/ (1980), S.Whoch (1983) oa ?i.
O in?a, ye? ao?aoeee coae o a?oe? 26-30 ?ie?a, ?ioaineai?noue ci?uaiiy
coa?a aoea iaioith ? aei??aithaaea oaiio iiaoi?iiai ci?uaiiy, yea
niinoa??aaeiny a in?a ?c ?aii?i aeaeaeaiiyi coa?a, ui ca?aaeiny o
a?eiaiio aniaeo?.

Ci?ie o naaiaioao aeoaaeueieo coa?a o iaoe??io?a c aeaoaeoii coaiiai
?y-aeo a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae oaeeo aea o a?oi? in?a c ?ioaeoieie coaieie
?yaeaie ca oa?aeoa?ii ?oiuei? e?eaecie. Cia/aiiy e?eaecie ia aa?oi?e
uaeai? aoee a?eueoeie, ui iia’ycaia c aa?oeeaeueieie ci?uaiiyie aa?oi?o
coa?a /a?ac a?aenooi?noue ?oi?o aioaaii?no?a. Ia ieaei?e uaeai? e?eaecia
aoea iaio ae?aaeaia, i?ae o ia?o?e a?oi?, ui noaei iane?aeeii
ii/aoeiaiai ai?eciioaeueiiai ci?uaiiy coa?a.

O aeeiai?oe? o?c?ieia?/ieo ci?i c a?eii ia aa?oi?e uaeai? e?eaecia iaea
oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy c a?eueoeie /eneiaeie cia/aiiyie, i?ae o
a?oi? in?a c aeaoaeoii coaiiai ?yaeo. Oaea ci?ia e?eaecie iia’ycaia c
??cieie ca ?ioaineai?noth aa?oeeaeueieie ia?ai?uaiiyie ? iaa?oue ca
oiiae noaa?e?caoe?? i?ioeano ci?uaiiy coa?a ?aae?on e?eaecie ia
a?aeiia?aeaa eiai a?eiaiio o?c?ieia?/iiio noaio.

Iniaeeai iii?oieie aoee a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio naaiaio?a
ia ieaei?e uaeai?. sseui o a?oi? in?a c ?ioaeoieie coaieie ?yaeaie
e?eaecia c a?eii ciaioo?oueny, oi i?e aeaoaeo? coaiiai ?yaeo —
ca?eueoo?oueny, ui ? iane?aeeii i?e?aeiaiiy aei ii/aoeiaeo
ai?eciioaeueieo ci?uaiue coa?a ?o iaoeeo a i?aeueiee a?e. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeeeinue iaoaiaoe/iei niiniaii aiae?co a?eiaeo ci?i coaieo aeoa.

I/aaeaeii, ui i?e noeoiieo ci?uaiiyo aa?oi?o ? ieaei?o coa?a nenoaia
aioaaii?coth/eo aeoaaeueieo coa?a ia?aaoaa? o iaeneeaaei?oeo
a?iiaoai?/ieo oiiaao. Oiio ao?aoo coaa ?, ye iane?aeie, ci?uaiiy coa?a,
aeaoi?iaoe?th ieethc?eii? ieiueie ? e?eaecie aeoaaeueieo naaiaio?a ia
iiaeia iacaaoe ni?eyoeeaei oaeoi?ii.

A?eueoa oiai, i?e ii??aiyii? aeaieo ?ioaeoiiai coaiiai ?yaeo ?
a?aeiiaeaii? /a?ac o?eaaeee ia??iae a?aenooiino? coa?a
iinoiiiae?aieie aia?aoaie aoea aeyaeaia ??cea iaa?aeiia?aei?noue, yea
ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoue aeaoi?iaoe?th coaieo ?yae?a ye iane?aeie ??cieo
ci?uaiue coa?a, ui iiaea aeiiiaithaaoeny i?ioacoaaiiyi aeaoi?iiaaieo
coaieo aeoa. Oea ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye iiaea?eio iiieeeo e?ea?nueei?
oaeoeee. Aac iiia?aaeiuei? ia?aaoaeiae coaieo ?yae?a caaaeaee aoaeooue
aeieeaoe iiae?ai? neooaoe??, ?aeeiei aeoiaeii c yeeo ? i?ecia/aiiy
iaoiae?a aei?aaeaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaii? aeoae.

A?aeiii, ui oa?aeoa? ? ae?aci?noue ci?i o oeaieiao ia?iaeiioa coa?a,
iicaaaeaieo aioaaii?no?a, caeaaeaoue a?ae aeaaiino? a?aenooiino?
ooieoe?? ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe??, a oiio iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii ee?i?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy ? e?eoaaiiy iaoe??io?a ?c aeaiia oi?iaie aa?oeeaeueii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? – aeaioaeueiith ( 110 in?a) ? aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith ( 107
in?a).

Ia iniia? iaoiae?a ?aiia?iaeiioia?ao?? c ooieoe?iiaeueiith i?iaith,
aiaoiaeeiaiiiao??? ? aeaeo?iiaeiioiae?aaiinoeee aoee aeyaeai?
eiiiainaoi?i? iiaeeeaino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a ?
iaa?oioiaai? noaie e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e c eiio?ieai ca aoaeoeai?noth
cae?enithaaiiai e?eoaaiiy.

Ioe?iea iieaciee?a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ioeueie ? ia?iaeiioa coa?a,
ye? aa?oeeaeueii ia?ai?noeeeny, aeicaieeea aeyaeoe, ui aiie ?noioii
cieaeai? ii??aiyii c ii?iith. A?aeaoaa?oueny cieaeaiiy
aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie, ciaioaiiy aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy (oaae.1) ? ii?ooaiiy o?io?ee oeaiei ia?iaeiioa ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiiinoa/aiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy (Mm) aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a

caeaaeii a?ae /ano ao?aoe aioaaii?no?a

CoaeO?eaae?noue a?aenooiin-o? ooieoe?? (?iee)Aeo?eaae?noue (i)

?ioaeoiiai coaiiai ?yaeoAeo?eaa-e?noue (i)Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe??

(rxy)Neeueiee oeiNa?aaei?e oeiNeaaeee oei6 6,47
2,03492±5,1375±1,7242±4,9281 4,23-0,44 66,43 1,89254 3,820,267 7,06
1,63460±20,7340±10,8240±20,1298 3,540,57 76,14 2,07294 2,93-0,65

Ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae caeaaei?noth aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie
coa?a a?ae aeaaiino? ao?aoe ooieoe?? i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny i?iaaaeaiei
iaie ei?aeyoe?eiei aiae?cii ia aecia/aiiy o?niioe ca’yceo i?ae
aeine?aeaeoaaieie ia?aiao?aie. Io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? (a?ae
0,37 aei 0,61) na?ae/aoue i?i ?nioaaiiy aeia?i? ei?aeyoe?eii?
caeaaeiino? i?ae yaeuaie, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny.

Ii??aiyiiy aiaeia?/ii? caeaaeiino? aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa coa?a aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy a?ae aeaaiino? ao?aoe coa?a-aioaaii?no?a c aeaieie
A.N.Eaaeiie (1973) aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a ia?iaeiio?
iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a a?aeaoaa?oueny iaeiini?yiiaaiee i?ioean,
coiiaeaiee a?aenooi?noth ooieoe??.

Aiae?c ?IA-iieaciee?a, io?eiaieo o iaoe??io?a ?c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith ?
aeaioaeueiith oi?iaie aeaoi?iaoe?e, aeicaieea aeyaeoe ii?ooaiiy
e?iaiia?ao a ia?iaeiio?. Onoaiiaeaii, ui ae?aaeai?noue oeeo yaeu
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaaiino? ao?aoe ooieoe??, oi?ie ? nooiaiy ?icaeoeo
aeaoi?iaoe??.

Oae, iaea?eueo oyaee? ii?ooaiiy o ?aa?iia?i?e aaiiaeeiai?oe? iii?/ai?
i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ii??aiyii c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith
oi?iith (oaae 2).

Ooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee ia?eoa?e/iiai e?iaiia?ao oaea i?e I nooiai?
aeaioaeueii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (5a?.) iaaeeaeaeeny aei oaeiai i?e III
nooiai? aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (4 a?.).

Oaaeeoey 2.

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy (Mm) ?IA-iieaciee?a o iaoe??io?a ?c
aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith ? aeaioaeueiith oi?iaie aeaoi?iaoe??

I nooiaiy ? ?oi? ci?ie i?e OAeI

Oi?ia

aeaoi?iaoe??

Coae

Noai?IA-iieacieee?? (Ii)?A (%)ION (%)?II (%)

Aeaioi-

aeueaaiey?ia

n = 107

I?aiiey?eIi/aoeiaee0,06 0,0290,3 19,116,3 3,786,1 19,2O Ae I0,05
0,0287,2 20,318,7 6,289,1 21,3P 0,01 0,05 0,05 0,05

Iiey?eIi/aoeiaee0,06 0,0188,9 5,717,5 4,182,7 22,9O Ae I0,05
0,0285,1 20,217,9 3,981,2 25,5P 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05

Aeaioaeueia

n = 110

I?aiiey?e

Ii/aoeiaee0,04 0,0080,3 4,318,8 0,7105,0 4,4O Ae I0,03 0,0080,2
5,522,4 1,1103,0 5,8P 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05

Iiey?eIi/aoeiaee0,04 0,0078,7 4,622,3 1,3102,1 6,6O Ae I0,03
0,0181,0 5,625,7 1,7105,4 6,7P 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05I?ei?oea: P
aecia/aee noiniaii ii/aoeiaiai noaio

Aiaeii/an i?e I nooiai? aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? (2 a?.)
aoei aeyaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy oii?/ii? iai?oaeaiino? ?aa?iia?ieo noaeei.
Aeayea ao?aoa aeanoe/iino? noaeeiii? no?iee ca?a?no?iaaia ca
cieaeaiiyi ?iaeaeno aeanoe/iino? ? ca?eueoaiiyi iieaciee?a oiiono noaeei
— ION oa ?II.

Ia ia?o?e noaae?? ?icaeoeo aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? a in?a
c iaaaeeeith aeaai?noth ao?aoe ooieoe?? ia?aaaaeaee ooieoe?iiaeuei?
ii?ooaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee. Oiio aiie iiaeooue neoaeeoe ?aiiueith
ee?i?/iith iciaeith iaaeeaeaiiy e?noeiaeo ci?i.

I?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? oiai ae nooiaiy aeyaeaia cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? e?iaioieo a ia?iaeiio?, no?eea i?aeaeuaiiy oiiono noaeei.
Oaea iia??oaiiy e?iaiia?ao i/aaeaeii iia’ycaia c ii/aoeii i?ioeano
ao?io?? ? iaioeie eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieie iiaeeeainoyie
ia?iaeiioa. Ia iayai?noue eieaeueii? ao?io?? ia?iaeiioa i?e a?aenooiino?
ieethc?eiieo eiioaeo?a oeacoaaee e ?io? aaoi?e, ye? ciaoiaeeee o
ia?iaeiio? coa?a, iicaaaeaieo aioaaii?no?a, ao?io?/i? i?ioeane.

O in?a c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? II nooiaiy (3 a?.)
aoee io?eiai? iciaee cia/iiai i?aeaeuaiiy oii?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy
?aa?iia?ieo noaeei, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeiny aeaieie e?euee?niiai aiae?co
?IA. I/aaeaeii, noaeeiia no?iea i?e o?eaae?e a?aenooiino? ooieoe??
ao?a/a? aeanoe/i?noue, i?i ui

na?ae/eei ciaioaiiy ?iaeaeno aeanoe/iino?, a oaeiae cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy
/ano

i?aeeiio e?eai?. Ca?eueoaiiy ?iaeaeno ia?eoa?e/iiai iii?o i?aeoaa?aeeei
i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o e?iaioieo a a?oa??ieao ia?iaeiioa
iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue o noai? eiino?eeoe??. C?
ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a?i c?inoaa.

Cia/ia cieaeaiiy ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaiia?ao o oai?eo c aeaioaeueiith
oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? na?ae/eei i?i c?eae aaiiaeeiai?/iiai
eiiiainaoi?iiai iaoai?cio.

Aeae?ath/e iaoiae onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe??, ie ea?oaaeeny noaiii aeyaeaieo
ca aeiiiiiaith ?IA eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae ia?iaeiioa. Aeey aea/aiiy
?aaeoeaiino? noaeei o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeoaaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy aoea
aea?aia aaee/eia 20 I. sse iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oue ia oaeo
iacia/io ?? aaee/eio ?aaeoe?y noaeei ?icaeaaeany i?aeoe/ii a iiiaio
iaaaioaaeaiiy o in?a c ?ioaeoieie coaieie ?yaeaie.

O oai?eo c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith ? aeaioaeueiith oi?iaie aeaoi?iaoe?e
?aaeoe?? noaeei ia?iaeiioa ia OAeI aoee iaiaeiicia/ieie (oaae. 2).
Ianaiia?aae a?aei?ii?noue iieyaaea o /ania? ?icaeoeo iaeneiaeueii?
?aaeoe??, nooiai? ci?ie aaee/eie aiie?ooaee ?aia?ai ? o oa?i?iao
a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aiao??a e?iaiia?ao. Iniaeeai iieaciaei o a?aei?iiinoyo
ci?i noaeeiii? ?aaeoeaiino? noaa /an iiyae iaeneiaeueiiai ca?eueoaiiy
aiie?ooaee ?IA, ui iiaea neoaoaaoe iaae?eiei oanoii o aecia/aii?
noaeeiii? ?aaeoeaiino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeoaaeueia
iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oae, o iaoe??io?a c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith oi?iith
aeaoi?iaoe?? I nooiaiy (2 a?.) OAeI i?ecaiaeeei o 80 % aeiaaee?a aei
ca?eueoaiiy aiie?ooaee ?aia?ai, yea ianoaaaei /a?ac 1,5-3 oaeeeie. I?ney
i?eieiaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy /an ?? a?aeiiaeaiiy aoa o?eaae?oei ii??aiyii c
?ioaeoieie coaieie ?yaeaie. Oeae oaeo na?ae/eoue i?i ?iceaaee ?aaoeyoe??
e?iaiia?ao a ia?iaeiio?, ye?, iaeiae, ? iai?ioieie, i?i ui na?ae/eea
ii?iae?caoe?y eiioo?o ?aia?ao?/ii? e?eai?.

O oai?eo c aeaioaeueiith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? I nooiaiy (2 a?.) ?aaeoe?y
noaeei ia?iaeiioa, ?aeaioe/ia ca oa?aeoa?ii c ?aaeoe??th noaeei o
iaoe??io?a c aeaioi-aeueaaiey?iith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe??, ?acii c oei
ianoaaaea iaaaaaoi i?ci?oa, a?aeiiaeaiiy ?IA-iieaciee?a aoei o?eaae?oei
? eiiiainaoe?y iaaeinoaoiino? e?iaiia?ao oeaiei ia?iaeiioa iiai?noth ia
caaacia/oaaeany.

A?aenooi?noue ?aaeoe?? noaeei ia OAeI iae/ano?oa cono??/aee i?e
aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo. Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui
no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a noaeeiao ia?iaeiioa iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a i?e oe?e
oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icaeaathoueny oaeaeoa.

I?e ii??aiyii? iieaciee?a ?IA aei ? a iiiaio iaaaioaaeaiiy o oai?eo ?c
aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? II nooiaiy (3 a?.)
niinoa??aaee ua cia/i?oa ca?eueoaiiy cia/aiue ?IA-iieaciee?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue oiion noaeei ii??aiyii c oaeeie ae o eiio?ieuei?e (1
a?.) a?oi?. Ae?y OAeI o a?eueoino? oai?eo ?c II nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe?? (2
a?.) aeeeeeaea ca?eueoaiiy aiie?ooaee, aea aeieeaei aiii /a?ac 5-9
oaeeei ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai (1-1,5 oa.). I?ney i?eieiaiiy ae??
iaaaioaaeaiiy /an a?aeiiaeaiiy ?IA-iieaciee?a o 2 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaa oaeee
aea o iaoe??io?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Oaea oiia?eueiaia ?aaeoe?y iieaco?,
ui ci?ie a ?aa?iia?ieo noaeeiao iathoue iai?ioiee oa?aeoa?. I?ioa
cai?ciaiiy ?aaeoe?? ? cia/ia o?eaae?noue ?? ii??aiyii c a?oiith
eiio?ieth noaee ?acoeueoaoii cieaeaiiy ?aaeoeaiino? noaeeiii? nenoaie
ia?iaeiioa, aeeeeeaiiai o?eaaeith a?aenooi?noth ooieoe??,
aeao?aiiaai?noth ia?iaeiioa ? eiai noaeei (?en. 1).

I?e i?iaaaeaii? OAeI o in?a c aeaioaeueiith oi?iith aeaoi?iaoe?? ??
nooiaiy (6 a?.) aoei iii?/aia cia/ia cieaeaiiy ?aaeoeaiino?, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeo eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae noaeeiii? nenoaie i?e
oe?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe??. *an a?aeiiaeaiiy ia?aiao??a ?IA o 3 ?ace
ia?aaeuoaaa oaeee aea o iaoe??io?a c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith oi?iith
aeaoi?iaoe?? oiai ae nooiaiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aoei onoaiiaeaii, ui eiiiainaoi?i? ?aca?ae ia?iaeiioa ?
eiai noaeeiii? nenoaie o ae?eyioe? iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a aoee aeyaeai?
ca aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?iae ?, ye iieacaei aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aiie iathoue ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iane?aee?a
i?oiaeiioe/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

?en. 1. ?aia?ao?/i? iieacieee aa?oiuei? uaeaie o in?a c ?ioaeoieie

coaieie ?yaeaie aei ? i?ney OAeI

I?aeaeuaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?iaeiio coiiaeth? ca?eueoaiiy
?ioaineaiino? e?iaioieo, a noaeeiia nenoaia aeyaey?oueny iani?iiiaeiith
caaacia/oaaoe e?iaiiinoa/aiiy oeaiei o iaiao?aeiiio ia’?i?. I?aeaeuaia
iaaaioaaeaiiy

ia ia?iaeiio, yea noai?th?oueny e?eoaaeueiei i?ioacii, iiaeia
?icaeyaeaoe ye nai???aeia OAeI. Ioaea, yeui ?aaeoe?y ia OAeI aoea cia/ii
cieaeaiith aai cian?i a?aenooiueith, oi iiaeia aoei ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui ?
ca?eueoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy e?eoaaeueiei aia?aoii oaeiae ia iineeeoue
?ioaineai?noue e?iaioieo a ia?iaeiio?.

Ae?enii, ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaeiaio? eiiiainaoi?i?
iiaeeeaino? ia? ia?iaeiio i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? I ? II
nooiaiy (5,6 a?.). Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui aeei?enoaiiy i?oiaeiioe/iiai
iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy, ui a?oioo?oueny ia noai?aii? i?aeaeuaiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ia?iaeiio, yeee ia ia? eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae,
iiaeiia aooe iaiaaeaiei.

O ca’yceo c oeei aeey onoiaiiy aa?oeeaeueii? aeaioaeueii? oi?ie
aeaoi?iaoe?? I ? II nooiaiy (5,6 a?.) ie canoinoaaee iaoiae
c?oe?oiaoaaiiy aenoiaieo coa?a ? onoiaiiy aeaoaeo?a iaci?iieie
iinoiiiae?aieie i?ioacaie. Iao? aeai? uiaei aeai?o iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy
aeaioaeueii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aeoieith A.I. Eiiaeeeia (1977), yeee aaaaea?, ui i?aeaeuaia
ooieoe?iiaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy aeeee/a iineeaiiy i?ioeano ao?io?? i?e
oe?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe a?aeaeaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue /a?ac
1, 3 ? 6 i?nyoe?a iieacaee i?aeaeuaiiy aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia 43% i?e an?o o?ueio oeiao, i?aeaeuaiiy
aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie coa?a iica ooieoe??th ia 51% ? iineeaiiy
e?iaiia?ao ca ?? ia 39,6 %. *a?ac 1 ??e iieacieee iaaeeceeeny aei ii?ie,
ui na?ae/eei i?i i?aaeeuei?noue aea?aiiai iaoiaeo.

I?e onoiaii? aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? aoa canoiniaaiee
iaoiae ae?iaii? aeacieethc??, caaaeath/e ia iayai?noue eiiiainaoi?ieo
iiaeeeainoae ia?iaeiioa c iaeeaaeaiiyi ci?iieo ? iaci?iieo i?ioac?a.
Ia?aaaaith iinoiiiae?aiiai i?ioaca ? eiai iaea aeiaaeeia ? iaae?ei?noue
o?enaoe??. Ie caiaei? c E.I. Ia?caoeaae/ai (1975) uiaei ieoaiiy i?i
oaeaeeo aaeaioaoe?th oai?eo aei iaci?iieo eiino?oeoe?e i?ioac?a.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e I nooiai? aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe??
(2 a?.) ia?aa?a e?eoaaiiy a?eueo aoaeoeaiee, ia ia? oneeaaeiaiue i?e
?ic’?aeiaii? i?eeono ia 2 ii. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ??aiii??ia i?aeaeuaiiy
?ioaineaiino? ?aa?iia?iiai e?iaioieo (ca ??) o ca’yceo c? ca?eueoaiiyi
aiie?ooaee ?IA. I?e oeueiio aeyaeeiny, ui iaci?ii? eiino?oeoe?? aia?ao?a
aeeeeeathoue a?eueo ae?aaeai? c?ooaiiy o aaiiaeeiai?oe? ia?iaeiioa, i?ae
ci?ii?. I/aaeaeii, i?e aeei?enoaii? ci?iieo aia?ao?a noai?th?oueny
a?eueo uaaeiee ?aaeei iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?iaeiioa. O oeueiio ca’yceo
oa?i?ie e?eoaaiiy iaci?iieie eiino?oeoe?yie aoee ei?iooeie o 1,5 ?aca.
Ci?ie iieaciee?a AAeI a?aeaoaaeeny iaioith i??ith, i?ae ia?aiao??a AIAe,
ui iiaeia iiynieoe a?eueoith /ooeea?noth aei iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aiaiai
aia?aoo ioeueie, i?ae ia?iaeiioa. I?ioa e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ia?iaeiioa
iaaiith i??ith iiaea caeaaeaoe a?ae noaio ioeueie coaa ? ia??iaeiioa,
aiaoiii-oiiia?ao?/ia noiae?noue yeeo coiiaeth? oaeaeeee ia?ao?ae
?aaeoeaieo ? caiaeueieo i?iya?a c iaei??? oeaieie ia ?ioo.

sse aoei anoaiiaeaii i?e II nooiai? aeaioiaeueaaiey?ii? oi?ie
aeaoi?iaoe?? (3 a?), eiiiainaoi?i? iiaeeeaino? ia?iaeiioa aoee cieaeai?.
Oiio a 60% aeiaaee?a ?ic’?aeiaiiy ia 2 ii noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny ?icaeoeii
oneeaaeiaiue, ui na?ae/eei i?i iaa?aeiia?aei?noue aaee/eie ae?th/i? neee
ooieoe?iiaeueiei iiaeeeainoyi ia?iaeiioa. Oea aeyaeyeiny aai o aeaeyae?
??cei? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? e?iai-ia?ao aai, iaaiaee, o aeaeyae? ?oai??.

Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?e oeueiio ii?ooaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee /anoi ia
noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ee?i?/iith neiioiiaoeeith ia?aaaioaaeaiue,
noa’?eoeaieie nea?aaie oai?eo ? iiaeooue aooe aeyaeai? o?eueee
ooieoe?iiaeueieie iaoiaeaie ae?aaiinoeee. Ie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?ii aeai? A.A
Iiiiia?aaie (1974) i?i oa, ui i?aeaeuaiee oene ia coae, iicaaaeai?
aioaaii?no?a, i?e ?ic’?aeiaii? i?eeono e?eoaaeueieie aia?aoaie ia
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aieueiaith ?aaeoe??th.

O aeiaaeeao ii?ooaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee aeey ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
ia?iaeiio ii/eiaee ei?aeoe?th ?ic’?aeiaiiy i?eeono, ciaiooth/e eiai
ia 0,5-1 ii ? cai?ithth/e i?e oeueiio iaci?iiee aia?ao ia ci?iiee.
Iiaeaeueoee eiio?ieue ca aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeea i?aaeeuei?noue oe??? oaeoeee e?eoaaiiy.

Ca?aene aeieeaa?, ui i?ia?aeia ?ieue o caaacia/aii? aeinoaoiueiai
e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ia?iaeiioa o i?ioean? i?oiaeiioe/iiai e?eoaaiiy
aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo iaeaaeeoue eiiiainaoi?iei ?aca?aai noaeeiii?
nenoaie ia?iaeiioa, noai yeiai caeaaeeoue, ca iaoeie aeaieie, a?ae
aaee/eie aeaoi?iaoe?? ? aeaaiino? ao?aoe ooieoe?? (oiaoi ?o ii/aoeiaiai
noaio).

Eiaeia aeoeaaoe?y e?eoaaeueiiai aia?aoa noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany ?aaeoe??th
noaeei ia?iaeiioa ia i?aeaeuaia iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iieyaaea o aeayeiio
i?aeaeuaii? ?oiueiai oiiono e o ca?eueoaii? ia?eoa?e/iiai iii?o.
A?ia?ai?y ia oii? oii?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy noaeei iiaea aooe iiyniaia
aeeth/aiiyi aeiaeaoeiaeo noaeei o caaaeueiee e?iaio?e (?iai/a
a?ia?ai?y). Ca?eueoaiiy noia?iiai i?ina?oo ooieoe?iioth/eo noaeei iiaeia
iiynieoe i?aeaeuaiiyi ia?eoa?e/iiai iii?o, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi ?II.

Iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? ci?ie e?iaiia?ao a ia?iaeiio? niinoa??aaee o oai?eo
?c III nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe?? (4 a?.), ye? iaee ia?aae ii/aoeii
i?oiaeiioe/iiai e?eoaaiiy cia/i? ii?ooaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee, iia’ycai? c
o?eaaeith a?aenooi?noth ooieoe?? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, cia/iith
aeao?aiiaai?noth ia?iaeiioa ? eiai noaeei. Eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe??, ye?
aecia/athoue o?niee ca’ycie i?ae noaiii aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie
coa?a, ?oiuei? aeo?eaaeino? aei iaaaioaaeaiiy ? /ano ao?aoe ooieoe??,
aoee aeineoue aenieeie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oaeo ?o aca?iicaeaaeiino?.

Iaaaeaeaaoia ?aaeoe?y noaeei ia?iaeiioa, aeyaeaia a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao,
iiynith?oueny ?oiueith cieaeaiith ?aaeoeai?noth aai ? ?acoeueoaoii ae??
i?aeaeuaiiai aeoaaeueiiai oeneo. Aiane?aeie a?aeaoaa?oueny aaeaioaoe?y
iaoaii?aoeaioi??a ia??iaeiioa aei neee ? o?eaaeino? oeneo. Oeei aea
iiaeia iiynieoe aeieeiaiiy oyaeeeo oeaieiieo ci?i i?e iaaaioaaeaii?
coa?a ooieoe?iiaeueii ae?th/eie aia?aoaie. Aa?oi aeiaeaoe ? oa, ui a
cii? i?aeaeuaiiai oeneo a?aeaoaa?oueny cia/ia ?aci?aoe?y, ui ioiieth?
an? oeaieie ia?iaeiioa, cie?aia ? ia?aiaee aia?ao.

Oaeei /eiii, a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoa ia aaeaioaoe?y, a ?oeioaaiiy
ia?aiai-?aoeaioi?iiai aia?aoo, yeee oiane?aeie oeueiai ia iiaea
aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe, /ei ? iaaacia/ia iaaei??ia iaaaioaaeaiiy.

O ca’yceo c oeei ie aaaaeaee ca aeioe?eueia a?aoiaoaaoe ye aaee/eio
?ic’?aeiaiiy i?eeono, oae ? ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai oeaiei, ye?
i?aeaeathoueny aieeao, ine?eueee ooieoe?iiaeueiee noai i?aaia aecia/a?
eiai aeeoo?caeaoi?noue ? ?acenoaioi?noue aei aieeao iani?eyoeeaeo
oaeoi??a, a oaeiae eiai ?aaaia?aoi?i? iiaeeeaino?.

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo aeaieo iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui aeoaaeueia iaaaioaaeaiiy
na?aaeiuei? ?ioaineaiino? ia? o?aioaaeueiee aieea ia ia?iaeiio,
aeeeeeath/e i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?. ?ioaineaia
iaaaioaaeaiiy aeeeeea? ii?ooaiiy aaeaioaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ui
i?iyaeythoueny ii?ooaiiyi iaoaaie?cio ee?oei ? oeaiei. Uaaeiee ?aaeei
aieeao, oiaoi ?iaeea?aeoaeueia caaeuaiiy i?eeono c ia??iaeii
noaa?e?caoe?? e?iaiia?ao, ?noioieo ci?i iieaciee?a ?IA ia aeeeeea?.
Oaeei /eiii, aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui e?eoaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e coaiiai
?yaeo i?ney /anoeiai? ao?aoe coa?a iiaeiia aooe no?iai ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
? i?iaiaeeoeny i?ae eiio?ieai eiiieaeno ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoith i?io?eaeoeee oneeaaeiaiue i?ae /an e?eoaaiiy.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aeuaaeeeaaeaia, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oeie
aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iiai?oa aea/eoe ?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? coaiuaeaiii?
nenoaie oa ?oi? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iniaeeaino? ? oei naiei oi/i?oa
i?iaiicoaaoe eiai noai i?ney aieeao ??cieo oaeoi??a, cie?aia, i?e
/anoeia?e ao?ao? coa?a ? i?e onoiaii? aeaoaeoo coaieo ?yae?a iaci?iieie
iinoiiiae?aieie i?ioacaie.

Ca iaoeie niinoa?aaeaiiyie, coae, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai
?yaeo, ci?iththoue iieacieee o?c?ieia?/iiai noaio a /?oe?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae ii/aoeiaiai ??aiy. Aoa aeyaeaiee o?niee ca’ycie i?ae oeiii
aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy ? nooiaiai cieaeaiiy
iieaciee?a AAeA.

Aaaeeeai cacia/eoe, ui o i?aiiey??a ? iiey??a ca iayaiino? oaiaeaioe??
aei cieaeaiiy aaee/eie aeo?eioaaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e an?o oeiao
aeo?eaaeino? eiao?oe??io na?aaeiuei? aeo?eaaeino? ia cieaeoaaany, a iaa
oaiaeaioe?th aei ca?eueoaiiy a iaaeao a?ae 3,6 aei 8,6 %. Oea,
i/aaeaeii, iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei?
?aaeoe??, ye? caaacia/othoue aiiainoac, ?icai?oathoueny ia o?e aea, ui ?
a ii?i?, no?oeoo?i?e iniia? ?, ye i?aaeei, c a?eueoith, i?ae cae/aeii,
?ioaineai?noth.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aiaoiaeeiaiia?ao?? iieacaee, ui i?e
/anoeia?e ao?ao? coa?a aeinoia??ii cieaeo?oueny iieaciee ii?iaa
aieueiai? ?aoeaioe?? (o na?aaeiueiio aeey i?aiiey??a — ia 10,2%), i?ioa
??aaiue cieaeaiiy aoa aca?iiiia’ycaiee ?c oeiii aeo?eaaeino?: i?e
neeueiiio oei? — iaeiaioee, a i?e neaaeiio oei? – iaea?eueoee (oaae. 3).

Ioaea, i?e neeueiiio oei? aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy
o?eaaeee /an iiaea ia i?iyaeyoeny a?aenooi?noue non?aeiueiai coaa, oiae?
ye i?e neaaeiio oei? ci?ie (o aeae? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy) ianoaiooue oaeaeoa.
Ca?aene aeieeaa? i?aeoe/iee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui i?ney aeaeaeaiiy coaa
i?e neaaeiio oei? aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa ia?aaeaa/oaaieo iii?ieo coa?a
i?ioacoaaiiy iiaeiia i?iaiaeeoeny o yeiiiaa ?aii? no?iee.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e /anoeia?e ao?ao? coa?a
onoaiiaeth?oueny iiaee ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee noai coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie,
ia noaoe/iee, a aeeiai?/iee, ??aiiae?eiee i?e ae?aeaeoe/i?e aca?iiae??
aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo a?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a — ?oeioaaiiy no?oeoo?
coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie ye ?aeeiiai oe?eiai i?ae aieeaii ??ciiiai?oieo
oaeoi??a ? oai?aiiy, oiaoi coneeey nenoaie ni?yiiaai? ia e?ea?aeaoe?th
iane?aee?a ?? ii?ooaiiy aai ia ci?io, ineaaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ae??
iaoiaaiiiai oaeoi?a ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ooieoe?? ia iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao
aaee/eio. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui oey noaae?y aai oaca no?eei? eiiiainaoe??
?icoyao?oueny ia o?eaaeee /an ? ? aeeiai?/iei noaiii.

Oaaeeoey 3

Na?aaei? cia/aiey (Mm) iieaciee?a aeo?eaaeino? i?aiiey??a aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy a aeeiai?oe? aaeaioaoe??

aei iinoiiiae?aieo i?ioac?a i?e ??cieo oeiao aeo?eaaeino?

Oei aeo?eaaeino?Ii??a aieueiaiai a?ae/oooy

(I)*an iaeneiaeueii? aeo?eaaeino?

(n)aei

e?eoaaiiy/a?ac

1 oeae./a?ac

1 i?n./a?ac

6 i?n./a?ac

1 ??eaei

e?eoaaiiy/a?ac

1 oeae./a?ac

1 i?n./a?ac

6 i?n./a?ac

1 ??e

Neeueiee253

1,7251

2,1266

3,0271

3,2270

2,9750

7,7754

7,1765

6,9791

8,1793

7,9

Na?aaei?e194

1,3171

0,9172

1,4189

2,1191

2,3513

2,9452

4,9474

4,7493

4,9503

5,3

Neaaee102

1,279

0,980

1,289

1,186

1,3245

1,2203

1,1208

1,9218

2,0216

2,9

29

O ieai? ioe?iee no?oeoo?iiai caaacia/aiiy eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeueieo
?aaeoe?e coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie noaiiaeei ?ioa?an aea/aiiy noaeeiii?
nenoaie a ia?iaeiio? coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo,
ine?eueee noaeeiia nenoaia ia? aenieo ieanoe/i?noue — caeaoi?noue
ia?aaoaeiaoaaoeny, i?aeaeaaaoeny a?ia?ieac?? /e, iaaiaee, ?aaeoeoe??
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?ieeaeo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeaieie aai i?aaia.

Iniaeeai aenieith caeaoi?noth aei ?aia?aoeaii? ?aaaia?aoe?? ?
a?ia?ieac?? a?ae??ciythoueny ae??ai? noaeeie oeio eai?ey??a,
i?aeai?ey??a, aaioe. Aaaaoueia aeine?aeieeaie a?iioaoe/ii ?ai?oa
ia?aaeaa/aeiny, ui noaeeiia nenoaia – noiaeua eaia?aeueieo ee?oeiieo
aeaiaio?a, ye? aeeoa?aioe?ththoueny i?e ??cieo oiiaao o oie /e ?ioee
??ciiaeae niieo/ii? oeaieie. Oea aeiaaaeaii o?eueee inoaii?ie ?ieaie
caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith oeueo?ano/anieo iaoiaeee. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaee, ui aia?iaaiac ? inoaiaaiac — i?ioeane ia c ia?aeaeueiei
ia?aa?aii, a iia’ycai? i?ae niaith a?eueo aeeaiei, a?noiaaiaoe/ii a oiio
?icoi?ii?, ui ia?eoeeoa?i? ee?oeie iiaiooai?aieo noaeei ? iaeii/anii ?
aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy inoaiaeano?a /a?ac noaae?th o?a?iaeanoe/ii?
ee?oeie, yea noa? ca iaaieo oiia aeaea?aeii ?aia?aoeaii? ?aaaia?aoe??
e?noeiai? oeaieie. Oaeei /eiii, noaeeie ? ia?eaaneoey?ia ae?eyiea
noaiiaeyoue niaith iniiao o?c?ieia?/ii? ?aaaia?aoe?? niieo/ii? oeaieie,
oiaoi iaeae??ai?o? noaeeie neoaeaoue aeaea?aeii iiiaeaiiy i?eeaaei?
oeaieie.

O ca’yceo c oeei noaeeiia nenoaia — oea ia iaeei ?c ??aiicia/ieo
eiiiiiaio?a niieo/ii? oeaieie, ui caaacia/o? o?eueee ?? e?iaiiinoa/aiiy
? iai?ii? i?ioeane, a oeaio?aeueia ?? no?oeoo?a, iaaeiei yei?, ye
iaaeiei noa?aeiy, ?icai?oathoueny ??ciiiai?oi? ca nai?i
aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiyi ?aaaia?aoi?i? oa ieanoe/i? i?ioeane.

Oiio iaie aoa ia?aiee iaoiae i?eaeeoo?aiai aea/aiiy noaio aaiiaeeiai?ee
a ia?iaeiio? i?e /anoeia?e ao?ao? coa?a ? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo
aeey eiio?ieth aoaeoeaiino? i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy.

I?e ?aia?ao?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? aaiiaeeiai?ee a ia?iaeiio? aoei
ca?a?no?iaaii cia/ia iai?oaeaiiy noaeeiiiai oiiono ? cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiino? e?iaioieo aei ieaei?o iaae ii?ie.

I?e oeueiio a ae?eyioe? coa?a, ye? ia?aaoaathoue iica ooieoe??th, ?
coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, ?? noaiiaeee 0,03-0,04
Ii. ION eieeaaany o iaaeao 20-24%, ui ia?aaeuo? cia/aiiy ii?iaeueiiai
oii?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy noaeeiieo no?iie. Aacieiino?eeoe?y
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeany ?acoeueoaoaie ioe?iee ia?eoa?e/iiai iii?o ?
aeanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae noaeei ia?iaeiioa. I/aaeaeii, ui iaee i?noea
iane?aeee o?eaaeiai ciaioaiiy aeoaaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue, ye?, ye
a?aeiii, ? ?aaoeyoi?aie iai?iieo i?ioean?a ? i?noeaaiai e?iaiia?ao.

A?aenooi?noue aaeaeaaoiiai aeoaaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy i?ecaaea aei
caoaeaiiy i?ina?oo noaeei ? ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? e?iaiia?ao.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia iaoai?/ia i?iaa aeicaieeea onoaiiaeoe, ui i?e /anoeia?e
ao?ao? coa?a aeieeathoue iaiai?ioi? ci?ie a noaeeii?e nenoai?
ia?iaeiioa.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaoiae?a aoa aeyaeaiee o?eaaeee aieea
o?aioaaiiy ia?iaeiioa ia e?iaiia?a o oeaieiao iii?ieo coa?a, ui ua ?ac
i?aeoaa?aeeei iai?ioi?noue ci?i o ?aa?iia?ieo noaeeiao.

?c ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co aeaieo ?IA caeaaeii a?ae oei?a aeo?eaaeino?
ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e neaaeiio oei? ia?
i?noea cieaeaiiy oiiono ?aa?iia?ieo noaeei, a i?e neeueiiio oei? —
i?aeaeuaiiy oiiono.A in?a aac o?aioaaiiy ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ION c?inoaa ia
4–5% (?<0,05), ?II – o na?aaeiueiio ia 60% (?<0,05), ?A cieaeoaaany ia 14% (?<0,05), oiae? ye a in?a c o?aioaaiiyi ION ci?ithaaany ia 1% (?<0,05), ?II – aei 8% (?<0,05), a ?A – aei 4% (?>0,05). Oea aeicaiey?
i?eionoeoe, ui a oaeeo aeiaaeeao iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
aaeooi-eiii?an?eiee ianaae aai ?io? o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/i? i?ioeaaeo?e aeey
ii?iae?caoe?? oiiono noaeei.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a aoei
onoaiiaeaii, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny ii?iae?caoe?y iieaciee?a aei 6 i?nyoey
i?ney i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeaoaeoo coaiiai ?yaeo (?en.2)

?en. 2. A?ao?e aeeiai?ee ci?i ia??iaeo aeoeaiino? (Oa) ? ia??iaeo
niieith (On) aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a i?ney i?ioacoaaiiy

Ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy i?ioyaii 1
?ieo iieacaea /?oeo caeaaei?noue ia?aa?ao aaeaioaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a?ae
ii/aoeiaiai noaio oeaiei ia?iaeiioa.

Iii?/aii, ui i?ney iaeeaaeaiiy i?ioac?a iaeneiaeueia cieaeaiiy eiai
aeo?eaaeino? niinoa??aa?oueny o iaoe??io?a c? neaaeei oeiii, i?i?iaeueia
— c neeueiei oeiii.

Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui a in?a, ye? i?aeaeaaaeeny ooieoe?iiaeueiiio
o?aioaaiith, ia?iaeiio iia?e?coaaa nai? ?aca?ae, caaacia/oth/e
no?oeoo?io iniiao aaeaioaoe??.

I?e aea/aii? aaeaioaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo a iaeaeeae/? no?iee aoei iii?/aii,
ui aei e?ioey 1 i?nyoey ei?enooaaiiy iinoiiiae?aieie i?ioacaie iieacieee
AAeA i?iyaeee oaiaeaioe?th aei i?aeaeuaiiy ? noaa?e?coaaeeny aei 3
i?nyoey (oaae. 2).

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiaieo ye o
iaeaeeae/?, oae ? o a?aeaeaeai? no?iee, aeicaiey? iiceoeaii ioe?ieoe
canoinoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueiiai o?aioaaiiy aeey noeioethaaiiy
aaeaioaoe?eii-eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae ia?iaeiioa i?e aeaoaeo?
coaiiai ?yaeo.

I?iaaaeaia ioe?iea iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy o?aioaaiiy aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
?acenoaioiino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa aei i?aeaeuaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iaioa
iieacaea eiai iiceoeaia cia/aiiy aeey aaeaioaoe??, aea e ia?
iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy, ine?eueee a ee?i?oe? i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??
aein? ?nio? aeoiea, ui iaci?iia i?ioacoaaiiy a?aeiiaeth? ooieoe?th
aeoaaiiy, iiaiioe?iii onoaa? an? ii?ooaiiy. Aiane?aeie i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noaei i/aaeaeii, ui ao?o/aiiy o i?ioean aaeaioaoe??
oeyoii iiia?aaeiueiai noeioethaaiiy ?aca?aieo iiaeeeainoae iii?ieo
oeaiei coa?a ia o?eueee iieacaia, aea e iaiao?aeia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy aeaoaeo?a coaiiai ?yaeo oa ?oi?o
aeaoi?iaoe?e.

AENIIAEE

1. Aoi?eii? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a, ui ?icaeaathoueny aiane?aeie
aeaeaeaiiy coa?a ? ianai?/aniiai i?ioacoaaiiy, cono??/athoueny o 66,97%
aeiaaee?a.

2. Ii?oieia?/i? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? ci?ie, ye? aeieeathoue o coaiuaeaii?e
nenoai? caeaaeii a?ae a?eo, iiaeeaeththoueny ca ?aooiie aeaoaeo?a coaieo
?yae?a o i?ioean? i?enoinoaaiiy aei iiaeo oiia. Iaoiaaiaoe/i? i?iyae i?e
aoi?eiieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo caiaeyoueny aei ?aa?iia?ii? aacieiino?eeoe?? ,
yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei no?oeoo?ieo ci?i noaeeiieo no?iie; cieaeaiiy
aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

3. Aei iayaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?e coaieo ?yae?a ne?ae aeiaeaoe
?iciiae?e ?o ca nooiaiai i?iyao ia 1, 2 ? 3, a ca aeo?eaae?noth
ia?iaeiioa — ia neeueiee, na?aaei?e ? neaaeee oeie. I?e /anoeia?e
aaeaio?? o coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaeo, cieaeothoueny
aaniethoi? ? /ania? ia?aiao?e ?o aeo?eaaeino? aei iaaaioaaeaiiy; ??aaiue
cieaeaiiy iaeiaioee i?e neeueiiio oei? aeo?eaaeino? ? iaea?eueoee i?e
neaaeiio; ?ioaa?aeuei? iieacieee aeo?eaaeino? o a?oi? aeoaaeueieo coa?a
ca?eueoothoueny, ui oa?aeoa?eco? eiiiainaoi?ii-i?enoinoaaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie.

4. Iaoaiaoe/iee aiae?c aoaeiae coaieo aeoa aea? iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe
ii/aoeiaee oei ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? e?eaecie naaiaioa ia?aaei?o ? aieiaeo
coa?a. Anoaiiaeaii o?e oeie e?eaecie naaiaio?a coaiiai ?yaeo: aeioeeee,
oa?aiooee, i?yiee. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui e?eaecia naaiaio?a ci?ith?oueny
caeaaeii a?ae a?eo, ?ici???a, oiiia?ao?? aeaoaeo?a ? oa?i?io ao?aoe
coa?a, oea ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe i?e aeai?? eiino?oeoe?? i?ioaca ?
iiaeaethaaii? i?ii?aeii? /anoeie.

5. I?e e?eoaaii? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo aeei?enoaiiy iaci?iieo
eiino?oeoe?e oaeaeoa ? a?eueoith i??ith iineeth? e?iaiiinoa/aiiy
ia?iaeiioa, i?ae aeei?enoaiiy ci?iieo eiino?oeoe?e; i?e III nooiai?
aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo ?aa?iia?i? noaeeie a?aeiia?aeathoue
iaaaeaeaaoii ia i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy, ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
iiia?aaeiuei? i?aeaioiaee coaiaeueaaiey?iiai eiiieaeno aei
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue.

6. I?e onoiaii? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo ii/aoie i?oiiaaee/iiai
e?eoaaiiy noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cieaeaiiyi aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie
ia?ai?uoaaieo coa?a ? aeo?eaaeino? ?oiueiai ia?iaeiioa aei
iaaaioaaeaiiy; iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy /ooeeai? ?iia?aaoe?? coaa ?
aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa a?aeaoaa?oueny ia 6 i?nyoe? i?ney cae?i/aiiy
e?eoaaiiy, ui ae?aaea?oueny o noaa?e?caoe?? oeeo iieaciee?a.

7. Iiia?aaei? ooieoe?iiaeueia o?aioaaiiy coaiaeueaaiey?iiai eiiieaeno c
neeueiei oeiii aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy aeicaiey?
aeeeeeaoe ?icneaaeaiiy oiiono ?aa?iia?ieo noaeei, ciaioeoe nooi?iue
aacieiino?eeoe?? ? ca?eueoeoe ?ioaineai?noue ?aa?iia?iiai
e?iaiiinoa/aiiy, ui ni?ey? oaeaee?e aaeaioaoe?? ?aaoeyoi?ieo iaoai?ci?a
aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaaaioaaeaiue i?e i?iaaaeaii? iaci?iiiai
i?ioacoaaiiy.

8. Onoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aeaioaeuei?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? a?aeaoaathoueny
ii?oieia?/i? ii?ooaiiy oiaeo aeaoi?iiaeo aieieii oee?eoey?ii? oa
ai?eaeueii? ca’ycie ?c aeaaeeith ?aci?aoe??th e?noee o aeaeyae?
o?a?eii?aeiiai iaa?yeo, aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea ? aaneoey?ii?
?aci?aoe?? e?noeiai? oeaieie c iaeiie/aiiyi eeneeo ae?eicai?iiae?eai?a o
ae?eyioe? aa?o?aee ei?aiy coaa.

9. Aeyaeaii, ui i?e aeaioiaeueaaiey?i?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe??
a?aeaoaathoueny aeano?oeoeai? ci?ie a aeaoi?iiaeo aieieiao onueiai
ca’yceiaiai aia?aoo coaa, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny aaneoey?iith
?aci?aoe??th e?noee aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea, a oaeiae ?aci?aoe??th
inoaieeano?a e?noeiai? oeaieie a ae?eyioe? ei?aiy coaa c ?icaeoeii
a?oaiaieieienoi? niieo/ii? oeaieie.

I?AEOE*I? ?AEIIAIAeAOe??

1. Aeey aeyaeaiiy ?aii?o iciae aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo i?e eiai
aeaoaeo? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/aoe e?eaecio naaiaioa aeoaaeueieo coa?a
ia ae?aaiinoe/ieo iiaeaeyo, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoe/iiai
aiae?co aoaeiae coaieo aeoa, ye? aeathoue ciiao io?eiaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th
i?i iieiaeaiiy aeoaaeueieo coa?a noiniaii aeaio ieiuei — naa?oaeueii? ?
o?ainaa?caeueii?.

2. Aeey ioe?iee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio ? eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoae
ia?iaeiioa iaooieoe?iioth/eo coa?a i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaiiai ?yaeo
iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe eiiieaenia ianoaaeaiiy iaoiaeaie
?aiia?iaeiioia?ao?? c ooieoe?iiaeueii aeiciaaiei iaaaioaaeaiiyi,
aiaoiaeeiaiiiao???, aeaeo?iiaeiioiae?aaiinoeee ? aeaeo?ii?ia?ao??
aeoaaeueieo i’yc?a.

3. Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aeo?eaaeino? ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a?ao?/io ?a?no?aoe?th iaeneiaeueii? ieethc?eii? neee,
yea aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe ia o?eueee ?? aaee/eio, aea ? o?eaae?noue
aeo?eioaaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui ?iaeoue ooieoe?iiaeueio ae?aaiinoeeo
a?eueo oi/iith.

4. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy aaeaioaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae ia?iaeiioa o eiiieaen
caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaioiaee ii?iaeieie ?ioa aei i?ioacoaaiiy i?e aeaoaeo?
coaiiai ?yaeo iaiao?aeii aeeth/aoe ye iaeei ?c niinia?a, ui noeioeth?
eiiiainaoi?i? iaoai?cie, ooieoe?iiaeueia o?aioaaiiy iii?ieo oeaiei
coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue oeae aeaoaeo.

5. Aeeniaina?iee iaaeyae i?ney i?iaaaeaiiai i?oiiaaee/iiai e?eoaaiiy
aeaoaeoo ? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo i?iaiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiyi oeio
aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa aei iaaaioaaeaiiy, i?e neaaeiio oei? — ia
??aeoa 2 ?ac?a ca ??e, i?e ?ioeo oeiao — 1 ?ac ca ??e.

6. I?e aeaioiaeueaaiey?i?e oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? I nooiaiy aeei?enoiaoaaoe
i?oiaeiioe/iee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy ci?iieie ? iaci?iieie e?eoaaeueieie
aia?aoaie i?e ?ic’?aeiaii? i?eeono ia 2 ii. I?e ?? nooiai? —
aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiae ae?iaii? aeacieethc?? c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
?ic’?aeiaiiyi i?eeono iaioa 2 ii ia ci?iieo ? iaci?iieo e?eoaaeueieo
aia?aoao i?ae eiio?ieai iaoiae?a ooieoe?iiaeueii? ae?aaiinoeee. I?e ???
nooiai? — canoiniaoaaoe iaci?ii? aia?aoe c ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
?ic’?aeiaiiyi i?eeono i?e aeinoaoi?o eiiiainaoi?ieo iiaeeeainoyo
ia?iaeiioa ? eiai noaeeiii? nenoaie.

7. Onoiaiiy aeaioaeueii? oi?ie aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai ?yaeo 1 nooiaiy
iiaeeeaa oeyoii c?oe?oiaoaaiiy oaa?aeeo oeaiei aenoiaieo coa?a c
iiaeaeueoei i?ioacoaaiiyi. I?e 2 nooiai? ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe??
aeioe?euei?oa eiia?ioaaoe c?oe?oiaoaaiiy ?c noeioeyoe??th ?
canoinoaaiiyi eiino?oeoe?e, ui ni?eythoue ci?uaith aenoiaieo coa?a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Ninoiyiea nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey i?e aoi?e/iuo aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiuo
?yaeia (iaci? eeoa?aoo?u) // A?niee noiiaoieia??. – 1998. — ? 4, N. 77
– 79.

2. Ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie iaaeieicoaieo oeaiei i?e aeaioi-aeueaaiey?i?e

oi?i? aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a // A?niee noiiaoieia??. — 1999. —
? 1. –

N. 4 – 6.

3. A?aoe/aneay ?aaeno?aoeey iaeneiaeueiie ieeethceiiiie neeu eae

eioaa?aeueiue iieacaoaeue ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey
coai/aethnoiie

nenoaiu // Iiaia a noiiaoieiaee.- 1998.- ? 7 .- N. 57 – 59.

4. Aiciiaeiinoe ooieoeeiiaeueiie o?aie?iaee i?e aoi?e/iie /anoe/iie

aaeaioee // Iiaia a noiiaoieiaee.- 1998.- ? 10 .- N. 72 – 73.

5. Eciaiaiey a ?aaeiiaeueiii e?iainiaaaeaiee i?e ?acee/iie noaiaie
aoi?e/iie aeaoi?iaoeee // Iiaia a noiiaoieiaee. — 1998. — ? 9. — N.
43 – 44.

6. *anoioa aicieeiiaaiey aoi?e/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo ?yaeia (iaci?
eeoa?aoo?u) // A?niee noiiaoieia??. – 1998. — ? 4, N.75 – 77.

7. Iaoiii?oieia?/i? ci?ie oe??e aenia?eiaioaeueieo oaa?ei i?ae aieeaii
aacenieo ae?eeiaeo ieanoian // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. –
1998, ? 22. – N.16 – 21, (E?iae?e Ae.Ae., Aieiao?a I.A).

8. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae o?enoth/eo
oeaiaio?a ia noene // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie.–1998. — ?
25.–N.101– 104. (Iaeaeoaaenueea I.Ae., Aeioeaiei A.?).

9. Aaeaaceai? aeanoeaino? oeaiaio?a aeey o?enaoe?? iaci?iieo coaieo
i?ioac?a // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1998, ? 24. – N.
126 – 128.

(Iaeaeoaaenueea I.Ae., Aeioeaiei A.?)

10. E aii?ino i iaoaieciao ?acaeoey aoi?e/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo
?yaeia (iaci? eeoa?aoo?u) // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. –
1998. — ? 21. – N.12 – 22.

11. I?oiaeiioe/aneea iaoiaeu ea/aiey aoi?e/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo
?yaeia

// A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1998. — ? 22. – N.7 –
12.

12. Yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ieiaeiianoeee ii iaoiaeo
aeieiae/aneie ia?aoiie nayce a i?aeoeea i?oiaeiioee // A?niee
noiiaoieia??.-1999.- ? 1.- N. 43 — 44 (Nooiieeiiaa O.ss., Aaee/ E.A.,
Aieiaei N.A.)

13. ?aia?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey ninoiyiey e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia aeue

aaiey?iuo io?inoeia /aethnoae o eeoe n eioaeoiuie coaiuie ?yaeaie
//

A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1998. — ? 23. –
N. 115 – 118.

14. Ninoiyiea e?iaaiaiieiaiey ninoaeia aeueaaiey?iuo io?inoeia /aethnoae
o eeoe n eioaeoiuie coaiuie ?yaeaie // I?iaeaie aeieia?? oa iaaeeoeeie.
– 1998. — ? 5 – 6. – N.75 – 77.

15. Iaoaiaoe/aneee aiaeec no?iaiey coaiuo aeoa e aeiiao?e/aneea
enneaaeiaaiey aeeaaiinoe/aneeo iiaeaeae /aethnoae // I?iaeaie aeieia??
oa iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. — ? 1 – 2. – N. 99 – 104.

16. Eciaiaiey auiineeainoe ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea o iaooieoeeiie?othueo
coaia i?e aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiiai ?yaea // I?iaeaie aeieia?? oa
iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. — ? 1 – 2. – N. 110 — 114.

17. Aic?anoiua eciaiaiey ninoiyiey coaiuo aeoa // A?niee i?iaeai
a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. — ?. 7 – N. 117 – 121.

18. Auiineeainoue ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea o coaia, ia?aie/eaathueo aeaoaeo
coaiiai ?yaea // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. — ?.
4 – N. 89 – 93.

19. Ooieoeeiiaeueiua iaoiaeu ea/aiey aoi?e/iuo aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo
?yaeia // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. — ?. 4 – N. 9
– 11.

20. Ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? iaaeieicoaieo oeaiei i?e iayaiino?
coa?a-aioaaii?no?a // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1999.
— ?. 6. – N. 100 – 105.

21. Ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey ieieicoaiuo oeaiae i?e aeaioaeueiie oi?ia
aeaoi?iaoeee // A?niee i?iaeai a?ieia?? ? iaaeeoeeie. – 1999. —
?. 5. – N. 63 – 68.

22. Ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey a oeaiyo iieinoe ?oa i?e aoi?e/iuo

aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiuo ?yaeia // Aii?inu ?aeiino?oeoeaiie
noiiaoieiaee.

 Na.iao/. no.- Aui.1. — Aeiiaoee, 1999. – N. 70 – 73

23. Ioeaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe a i?ioeanna

aaeaioaoeee e nuaiiui eiino?oeoeeyi coaiuo i?ioacia.- Aeooaeuei?

ieoaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia?? // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
iaoeia.-

i?aeo. eiio. 10 aeiaoiy 1996 ?. — Iieoaaa,1996, n. 38 – 40.

(Oaneaiei A.E., Eeiaeee Ae.Ae.)

24. E aii?ino i coai/aethnoiuo aeaoi?iaoeeyo e iaoiaeao eo ea/aiey
(iaci? eeoa?aoo?u) // Ieoaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??. Ca.iaoe.i?.-
Iieoaaa, 1997, C. 48 – 53.

25. Niin?a iie?ia?ecaoe?? aacenii? ieanoiane // Iaoeiaa eiio., i?ena.
70-

??//th i?io. I.O.Iaeneiaiea (Oace aeiiia?aeae) T. 1. — Iieoaaa,
1992. —

N. 83 — 84. (Eaa?oia I.I., A?e?eia I.A.).

26. ?aaeoeey oeaiae iieinoe ?oa ia nuaiiue ieanoeii/iue i?ioac //

Iaoeiaa eiio., i?ena. 70-??//th i?io. I.O.Iaeneiaiea (Oace

aeiiia?aeae) T. 2 Iieoaaa, 1992. — N. 114.

27. Aeeyiea nuaiiuo ieanoei/aouo i?ioacia ia neecenooth iaiei/eo

i?aaeaeaa?ey iieinoe ?oa // ? Iaoe?iiaeueiee eiia?an aiaoii?a,
a?noieia?a,

aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie. (8-19 aa?aniy 1994 ?.).

?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994. – C. 152. (?oaaiaiei A.A.)

28. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea aeaaaoaeueiiai aeaaeaiey ia oeaie

iieinoe ?oa iiae nuaiiuie i?ioacaie // ? Iaoe?iiaeueiee eiia?an
aiaoii?a,

a?noieia?a, aia??ieia?a ? oiiia?aoiaiaoii?a Oe?a?ie. (8-19 aa?aniy

1994 ?.). — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1994. — N.88. (?oaaiaiei A.A.,
Naaai A.A.).

29. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ninoaeia ia?aoiaeie neeaaeee i?aaeaeaa?ey iieinoe ?oa

iiae nuaiiuie i?ioacaie. — ?iaeea?aeoaeueia aiaoii?/ia
i?ieea?noue

i?aai?a, nenoai, oeaiei ethaeeie ? ?? cia/aiiy aeey i?aeoeee //
Iaoa??aee

i?aei.iaoe.eiio., i?ena. 80-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeae. i?io.
Cieioa?ueiai? O.A.),

Iieoaaa, 1994th — N. 120 — 121. (Iaaeaiei A.O., Eaai/aiei E.I).

30. Ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e aoi?eiieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo

coaieo ?yae?a // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??:
Iaoeia-

i?aeo. eiio. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995. — N. 42.

31. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iieeia?ecaoeee aaceniuo ieanoiann.-

Iniiai? noiiaoieia?/i? caoai?thaaiiy, ?o i?io?eaeoeea oa
e?eoaaiiy.

Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?.e?ea??a-

noiiaoieia?a, 26-27 aa?aniy 1996 ?. — Iieoaaa,1996. — C.210
–211.

(E?iae?e Ae.Ae., ss?eiaie A.A., Iaeth/aiei I.I.)

32. Yeaeo?iieia?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe o eeoe n
eioaeoiui coaiui ?yaeii // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu noiiaoieiaee: Oac. aeiee.
eiio. iina. 70-eaoeth einoeoooa. Iieoaaa oii 1. — 1991 a.- C. 95.

(?oaaiaiei A.A., Ainay E.O., Oaneaiei A.E.e ae?.)

33. Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea o?enoth/eo iaoa??ae?a aeey iaci?iieo
eiino?oeoe?e coaieo i?ioac?a ?c oioiiie?ia??a // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??: Iaoeia-i?aeo. eiio. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee,
1995. — N. 41. (Iaeaeoaaenueea I.Ae.).

34. Iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea a i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey /anoe/iiai
nuaiiiai ieanoeii/iiai i?ioace?iaaiey // Aeooaeueiua aii?inu
noiiaoieiaee: Oac.aeiee. eiio., iina. 70-eaoeth ei-oa.– Iieoaaa, 1991. —
N.96 — 97.

35. Iniaeeaino? aeaioiaeaiiy ci?iieo ieanoei/aoeo i?ioac?a iaoiaeii
eeooueiaiai i?anoaaiiy // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue iaoeia.-i?aeo. eiio. 10 aeiaoiy 1996 ?.-
Iieoaaa, 1996, — C.32 – 34. (E?iae?e Ae.Ae.).

36. Aeeyiea ieanoeii/iuo i?ioacia ia oaiia?aoo?iua iieacaoaee oeaiae
i?ioaciiai eiaea. – Iniiai? noiiaoieia?/i? caoai?thaaiiy, ?o
i?io?eaeoeea oa e?eoaaiiy // Iao.aeii.Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio.
e?ea??a-noiia-oieia?a, 26-27 aa?aniy 1996 ?. – Iieoaaa, 1996. –
N.211-212. (E?iae?e Ae.Ae.).

37. Iaoiaeeea iieeia??caoe?? ae?eeiaeo ieanoian // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
i?oiiaaee/ii? noiiaoieia??: Iao. iaoeia-i?aeo. eiio. —
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995. — N. 43. (E?iae?e Ae.Ae.).

38. Ooieoeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea ninoaeenoiai ?onea i?ioaciiai eiaea i?e
i?ioace?iaaiee ieanoeii/iuie i?ioacaie // Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oai?aoe/ii?
oa ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie ia no/aniiio ??ai?: Iao. aeii. iaoe. eiio. 20
o?aaiy 1996 ?. – Iieoaaa, 1996. — N. 192.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ei?ieue I.Ae. I?aeaioiaea ? i?oiiaaee/ia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ?c aoi?eiieie
aeaoi?iaoe?yie coaieo ?yae?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.22 – noiiaoieia?y, Oe?a?inueea iaaee/ia
noiiaoieia?/ia aeaaeai?y, i. Iieoaaa, 1999.

?iaioa i?enay/aia eiiieaeniei (ee?i?/iei, a?iiao?e/iei, ii?oieia?/iei ?
ooieoe?iiaeueiei) aeine?aeaeaiiyi. Ianoaaeaii 324 iniae a?eii a?ae 21
aei 40 ?ie?a. Aeyaeaii 107 in?a c aeaioiaeueaaiey?iith ? 110 in?a c
aeaioaeueiith oi?iaie aeaoi?iaoe?e.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui c a?eii a?aeaoaathoueny no?oeoo?i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
ci?ie a coaiuaeaii?e nenoai?, ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue in?a, ye?
ao?aoeee ie?ai? coae. O 31,7% aeiaaee?a ?icaeaa?oueny aeaoi?iaoe?y
coaieo ?yae?a. Aecia/ai? o?e oeie aoaeiae naaiaio?a coaieo aeoa:
aeioeeee, oa?aiooee ? i?yiee, a ca oeiii aeo?eaaeino? oeaiei ia?iaeiioa
aei iaaaioaaeaiiy: neeueiee oei – 18,5%; na?aaei?e – 64,2%; neaaeee –
17,3%.

Onoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia aeaeo?icaoaeeeaino? ioeueie coa?a caeaaeeoue
a?ae aeaaiino? ao?aoe coa?a-aioaaii?no?a ? nooiaiy aeaoi?iaoe?? coaiiai
?yaeo. Cieaeo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue e?iaiiinoa/aiiy ia?iaeiioa o
ae?eyioe? coa?a, ye? iaiaaeothoue aeaoaeo, ? oeo, ye? ia?aaoaathoue
iica ooieoe??th: oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
aeiciaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (OAeI) oeaiei ia?iaeiioa. Aia?oa iienai?
aeaoi?iia? aieieia ca’yceiaiai aia?aoa coaa, aecia/ai? ?oi? ii?oieia?/i?
? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, aeaee ?aci?aoe?? e?noee aeueaaiey?iiai a?ae?inoea.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaeoe e?eoa??? ioe?iee
ii/aoeiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio oeaiei ia?iaeiioa i?e aeaoaeoao ?
aeaoi?iaoe?yo coaieo ?yae?a, ui aeicaiey? aeae?aoe iaoiae e?eoaaiiy ?
i?iaiicoaaoe oa?aeoa? aaeaioaoe?eieo ?aaeoe?e coaiuaeaiii? nenoaie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaoi?iaoe?? coaieo ?yae?a, aeaioaeueia oi?ia,
aeaioi-aeueaaiey?ia oi?ia, ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ooieoe?iiaeueia o?aioaaiiy, aeaoi?iia? aieieia, ci?ii? i?ioace, iaci?ii?
i?ioace.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ei?ieue I.Ae. Iiaeaioiaea e i?oiiaaee/aneia ea/aiea aieueiuo n
aoi?e/iuie aeaoi?iaoeeyie coaiuo ?yaeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.01.22 – noiiaoieiaey, Oe?aeineay iaaeeoeeineay
noiiaoieiae/aneay aeaaeaiey, a. Iieoaaa, 1999.

?aaioa iinayuaia eiiieaeniui (eeeie/aneei, aeiiao?e/aneei,
ii?oieiae/aneei e ooieoeeiiaeueiui) enneaaeiaaieyi i?e aoi?e/iuo
aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiuo ?yaeia. Ianeaaeiaaiu 324 /aeiaaea a aic?anoa io 21
aei 40 eao. Auyaeaii 107 /aeiaae n aeaioiaeueaaiey?iie e 110 /aeiaae n
aeaioaeueiie oi?iaie aa?oeeaeueiuo aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo ?yaeia.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi n aic?anoii i?ienoiaeyo no?oeoo?iua e ooieoeeiiaeueiua
eciaiaiey a coai/aethnoiie nenoaia, oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai /aeiaae,
eioi?ua oo?aoeee ioaeaeueiua coau (80% ec ieo ninoaaeytho iiey?u), a
nayce n /ai a 31,7% neo/aaa ?acaeaaaony aeaoi?iaoeey coaiuo ?yaeia, /oi
niinianoaoao nieaeaieth eioaineaiinoe ?aaeiia?iiai e?iainiaaaeaiey ca
n/ao aacieiino?eeoeee e nieaeaiey auiineeainoe ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea
coaia, eioi?ua ia?aie/eaatho aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaea e oao, eioi?ua
iaoiaeyony aia ooieoeee i?e aai aeaoi?iaoeee.Ii?aaeaeaiu o?e oeia
no?iaiey coaiuo aeoa: auioeeue, aiaiooue e i?yiie.

Ii oeiai auiineeainoe oeaiae ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea ianeaaeiaaiiua
?ani?aaeaeyeenue oaeei ia?acii: neeueiue oei – 18,5%; n?aaeiee – 64,2%;
neaaue – 17,3%. I?e aeaoaeoa coaiiai ?yaea a iaeanoe coaia, eioi?ua
ia?aie/eaatho yoio aeaoaeo, auiineeainoue eo iii?iuo oeaiae e iaa?ocea
nieaeaaony i?e neeueiii oeia a n?aaeiai ia 5,7%, i?e n?aaeiai oeia — ia
10,5%, i?e neaaii – ia 22,7%. N?aaeiyy auiineeainoue ia?iaeiioa iiey?ia
i?e aeaioaeueiie oi?ia aeaoi?iaoeee ninoaaeea 240±3,12 I, a i?e
aeaioiaeueaaiey?iie oi?ia – 281±4,23 I.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaee/eia yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiinoe ioeueiu coaia caaeneo
io aeaaiinoe iioa?e coaia-aioaaiienoia e noaiaie aeaoi?iaoeee coaiiai
?yaea, a oaeaea nieaeaaony eioaineaiinoue e?iainiaaaeaiey ia?iaeiioa a
o/anoea coaia, eioi?ua ia?aie/eaatho aeaoaeo e ia ooieoeeiie?othueo
coaia.

Aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia YIAe-iieacaoaeae ninoiyiey coaia, iaoiaeyueony aia
ooieoeee auyaee, /oi iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, aeeythuei ia ninoiyiea
coaia-aioaaiienoia, yaeyaony aeeeoaeueiinoue ia?aie/aiey eo ooieoeee. Ia
yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ?acoeueoaou ii?aaeaeaiey yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiinoe
ioeueiu 80 coaia, eeoaiiuo aioaaiienoia. Ec ieo o 40% iaia?oaeaia
iiieaeaiiay yeaeo?iaicaoaeeiinoue.

I?e ?aia?aoe/aneii enneaaeiaaiee aaiiaeeiaieee a ia?iaeiioa auei
ca?aaeno?e?iaaii cia/eoaeueiia iai?yaeaiea ninoaeenoiai oiiona e
nieaeaiea eioaineaiinoe e?iaioiea aei ieaeieo a?aieoe ii?iu. I?e yoii a
iaeanoe coaia, eioi?ua iaoiaeyony aia ooieoeee, e coaia, eioi?ua
ia?aie/eaatho aeaoaeo coaiiai ?yaea, ?E ninoaaeye 0,03-0,04 Ii, a ION
eieaaaeny a i?aaeaeao 20-24%, /oi i?aauoaao cia/aiey ii?iaeueiiai
oiie/aneiai iai?yaeaiey ninoaeenouo noaiie.

Ec ?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca aeaiiuo ?IA caaeneii io oeiia aeiineeainoe
ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e neaaii oeia eiaao ianoi
nieaeaiea oiiona ?aaeiia?iuo ninoaeia, a i?e neeueiii oeia – iiauoaiea
oiiona. Yoi iicaieyao aeiionoeoue, /oi a oaeeo neo/ayo iiaeii
?aeiiaiaeiaaoue aaeooi-eiii?anneiiiue iannaae eee ae?oaea
oeceioa?aiaaoe/aneea i?ioeaaeo?u aeey ii?iaeecaoeee oiiona ninoaeia.

Iao/ii iainiiaaiiue iaoiae i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ooieoeeiiaeueiie
aeice?iaaiiie iaa?ocee (OAeI) oeaiae ia?iaeiioa ni nieaeaiiie ooieoeeae
i?e aeaoaeoao e aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiuo ?yaeia iicaieee iauaeoeaii
ioeaieaaoue auiineeainoue oeaiae ia?iaeiioa e iaa?ocea.

?acoeueoaou YIA-enneaaeiaaiey aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe iieacaee, /oi nionoy 1
ianyoe iinea oeenaoeee iinoiaeaeiuo i?ioacia iaaethaeaee iiauoaiea
n?aaeiaai cia/aiey aeiiioaioeeaea aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe n 67,4±2,1 aei
80±2,5 ieA. Ioiioaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe ia?eiaeia aeiyeaeo?e/aneie
aeoeaiinoe e iieiy aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe eciaieeinue iacia/eoaeueii. Aua
aieaa au?aaeaiiia oeo/oaiea ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey iuooe
caoeene?iaaii /a?ac 6 ianyoeaa iinea ea/aiey. N?aaeiaa cia/aiea
aeiiioaioeeaea aeaaaoaeueiuo iuooe iiauneeinue aei 126±4 ieA (ia 57% ii
n?aaiaieth n enoiaeiui).

Aia?aua iienaiu yeaoieiiaua aieieia nayci/iiai aiia?aoa coaa,
ii?aaeaeaiu eo ii?oieiae/aneea e no?oeoo?iua eciaiaiey e aeaeu
?aci?aoeee einoe aeueaaiey?iiai io?inoea.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aeaee aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue e?eoa?ee
ioeaiee ia/aeueiiai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ninoiyiey oeaiae ia?iaeiioa i?e
aeaoaeoao e aeaoi?iaoeeyo coaiuo ?yaeia, eioi?ua iicaieytho auae?aoue
iaoiae ea/aiey e i?iaiice?iaaoue oa?aeoa? aaeaioaoeeiiiuo ?aaeoeee
coai/aethnoiie nenoaiu ia i?oiiaaee/aneia ea/aiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeaoi?iaoeee coaiuo ?yaeia, aeaioaeueiay oi?ia,
aeaioiaeueaaiey?iay oi?ia, ooieoeeiiaeueiua iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey,
ooieoeeiiaeueiay o?aie?iaea, yeaoieiiaua aieieia, nuaiiua i?ioacu,
ianuaiiua i?ioacu.

SUMMARY

M.D. Korol. The preparation and orthopedic treatment of patients with
secondary deformations of dentitions. – A Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences to
Speciality 14.01.22 – Stomatology, the Ukrainian Medical Stomatological
Academy, the city of Poltava, 1999.

The work is devoted to the complex (clinical, biometrical,
morphological and functional) research at secondary deformations of
dentitions. 324 patients at the age from 21 to 40 were examined. 107
patients with dentoalveolar and 110 patients with dental forms of
deformations were found.

It has been established that structural and functional changes in
tooth-jaw system takes place with aging, the number of people having
lost separate teeth is increased. In 31,7% of cases the deformations of
dentitions has developed. Three types of dental arch segment
constructions have been found: convex, concave and straight.

It has been determined that the value of electro-excitability of dental
pulp depends on the remoteness of the opposite tooth removal and the
level of the dentition deformations. The intensity of the parodontum
blood supply at the area of the teeth that limit the defect and of the
disfunctional teeth is decreased. The method of the primary functionally
dosaged stress (FDS) of the parodontum tissues is proposed.

For the first time elaunine tissues of the tooth ligament complex are
described, their morphological and structural changes and the resorption
kinds of the alveolar process bone are defined.

The results of the research have given the possibility to develop the
criteria of the parodontum tissue initial functional state evaluation at
dentition defects and deformations, it permitting to choose the way of
treatment and prognosticating the character of tooth-jaw system
adaptation reactions at orthopedic treatment.

Key words: dentition deformations, dental form, dentoalveolar form,
functional training, elaunine tissues, removable denture, unremovable
denture.

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