Основні закономірності горіння та газифікації високозольного вугілля в різних модифікаціях киплячого шару: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / О.Ю. Майс

8

iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?A?IE

?inoeooo aaco

iaeno?aiei ieaenaiae? th??eiae/

oaee 662.61.747, 66.096.5

Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey a
??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.14.04 – I?iieneiaa oaieiaia?aaoeea

aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

ee?a–1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e
IAI Oe?a?ie

oa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio –

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

Ei?/aaie TH??e Iao?iae/, Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oeaio? aoa?eueieo

aia?aioaoiieia?e IAI Oe?a?ie oa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eaniaa Ethaia Ieaenaiae??aia, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
Oe?a?ie

«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo», caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Oaanooo?i TH??e ?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo aaco IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?aeaa? Ieaenaiae? Aa?aaiiae/, ?inoeooo caaaeueii? aia?aaoeee

IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa –

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A.I.I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e iiaeaethaaiiy oaieiaeo oa iaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 21 » aeiaoiy 1999?. i 14-00 aiaeei?

Ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.255.01 a ?inoeooo?
aaco IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252113, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aeaaoy??anueea, 39,
oae.456-44-71.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aaco IAI
Oe?a?ie (252113, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aeaaoy??anueea, 39).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 20 » aa?aniy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.E.?eue?iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Noai i?iaeaie. Oaa?aeiiaeeai? oaieia? aeaeo?inoaioe?? (OAN) Oe?a?ie, ia
yeeo ae?iaey?oueny a?eueoa 25% aeaeo?iaia?a?? e?a?ie, ciaoiaeyoueny o
oyaeeiio noai?, ui coiiaeaii: aeao?oeeoii an?o aeae?a iaeeaa; cieaeaiiyi
yeino? aoa?eey, cieuei?noue yeiai ia nooo iano
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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) c?inea aei 35-38%; iaiao?aei?noth aeei?enoaiiy aeey ai??iiy
aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey (AA) i?e?iaeiiai aaco aai iacooo, /anoea yeeo ii
oaieo neeaaea? 10-35%; iecueeith aoaeoeai?noth niaethaaiiy AA a
oaeaeueieo eioeiaa?aaaoao c cia/ieie aeiiii?/ieie ? aeieia?/ieie
caeoeaie; iaiao?aei?noth ?iaioe aoa?eueieo aia?aiaeie?a i?e ci?iieo
iaaaioaaeaiiyo c aaeeeith e?euee?noth coieiie; o?ce/iei oa ii?aeueiei
ciinii iaeaaeiaiiy OAN, a?eueo?noue c yeiai a?aei?aoethaaei na?e ?ano?n.

Aeo?ae ?c neooaoe??, ui neeaeany, iiaea aooe ciaeaeaii ia oeyoo
?aeiino?oeoe?? OAN c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e,
aei yeeo aeey AA a ia?oo /a?ao ne?ae a?aeianoe iaoiaee ai??iiy ?
aaceo?eaoe?? a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o (EO). ?o iniiaieie
ia?aaaaaie ?: aeniea aoaeoeai?noue ooee?caoe?? aoa?eey ??ciiai nooiaiy
iaoaii?o?cio, a oiio /ene? AA oa aeniein??/enoiai, aac aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeiiai aaco aai iacooo, aeieia?/ia /enoioa oaoiieia?e, iiaeeea?noue
?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy a iaiaa?iaiio ?aaeei? aac ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo
iieaciee?a i?ioean?a.

?nioth/? a na?o? oaoiieia?? EO noai?thaaeeny aeey ooee?caoe??
eai`yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey na?aaeiuei? cieueiino?
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 30-35%). Iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EO
?ic?iaeaii iaaeinoaoiuei, aea e ?o aoei noai?aii aeey oaa?aeeo iaeea,
ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aia?aaoe/iiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie ??aiai
cieueiino? oa ?aaeoe?eiith ni?iiiaei?noth eien?a. Aei oiai ae a?aenooi?e
aiae?c aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo oaoiieia?e EO aeey
ooee?caoe?? AA, ui no?eio? ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie coiiaeaii iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy iiaeo aoa?eueieo
aia?aioaoiieia?e EO, ye? ni?yiiaaii ia oa?i?/io ia?a?iaeo AA, c
iiaeaeueoei ?o aeei?enoaiiyi i?e cai?i? aai ?aeiino?oeoe?? eioaeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy OAN Oe?a?ie.

A?eueo?noue a?aeiieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii oa?i?/i?e ia?a?iaoe? AA a EO
iai?aaeaii ia ?ic?iaeo eiino?oeoe?e onoaiiaie. Na?aae ieo aeioe?eueii
aeae?eeoe onoaiiaee iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiai (IEO), aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai
(AEO), oee?eoethth/iai (OeEO) eeiey/eo, oiioaioth/iai (OO),
oee?eoethth/iai aa?ioiioaioth/iai (OeAOO), eeiey/iai i?ae oeneii (EOO)
oa oee?eoethth/iai eeiey/iai i?ae oeneii (OeEOO) oa??a. A iaoa??aeao
oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye i?aaeei, a?aenooi? aeai? ii aieeao cieueiino?,
nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, ai?noo n??ee, ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao??a ia oiiae
eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey, a oaeiae ia iaaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?? c aoaeoeaiino? oa
aeieia?/ii? /enoioe i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy ? aaceo?eaoe?? AA, ui ia
aeicaiey? ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?? aeey ?o ooee?caoe??.

Oe? ianoaaeie i?aee?aneththoue iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy iaoiae?a
oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA Oe?a?ie a EO. Caoiaee ii ?o ?ic?iaoe? iiaeii?
aeeth/aoe a naaa: noai?aiiy onoaiiaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey a EO; i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ?c e?iaoeee oa
aeeiai?ee aca?iiae?? aoa?eey oa eiai eien?a c NI2 ? I2, oaoiieia?/ieo
aenia?eiaio?a ii niaethaaiith oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA a ??cieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO; ?ic?iaeo ?iaeaia?ieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo aeaiaio?a
onoaiiaie, oaoiieia?/ieo noai i?ioean?a ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aeei?enoaiith iaoiae?a oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA a EO ia
OAN. Aeuaiacaai? ?iaioe ? neeaee iniiao aeena?oaoe??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oai?aoe/i? oa
i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??, io?eiaii
aaoi?ii i?e i?iaaaeaii? a Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio oeaio?? aoa?eueieo
aia?aioaoiieia?e IAI oa I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie (IOOeAA) athaeaeaoieo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o: “Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ia?a?iaee aoa?eey
oa ?ic?iaea aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aaceo?eaoe?? oa
niaethaaiiy aoa?eey” (??oaiiy Ath?i AOOIA AI O?N?, i?ioieie ?7 a?ae
3 a?oaeiy 1989 ?ieo), “Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiae?a aaceo?eaoe?? oa
niaethaaiiy aia?aaoe/iiai oa caaaeainiaiai aoa?eey a iioioe? oa
eeiey/iio oa?? i?ae oeneii c iaoith ?ic?iaee oaoi?/iiai caaaeaiiy ia
noai?aiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo ia?iaaciaeo onoaiiaie ia oaa?aeiio
iaeea?” (??oaiiy Ath?i AOOIA IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioieie ? 2 a?ae 8 ethoiai
1994 ?ieo), a oaeiae i?e aeeiiaii? aeiaiai??a c I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie, ye?
i?iaaaeaii ca?aeii Iaeac?a I?i?no?a aia?aaoeee oa aeaeo?eo?eaoe??
Oe?a?ie ? 116 a?ae 3 na?iiy 1993 ?ieo “I?i ?ic?iaeo i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e aeei?enoaiiy aoa?eey a aia?aaoeoe?” oa ? 234 a?ae 13 a?oaeiy
1995 ?ieo ”I?i nii?oaeaeaiiy aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee aeey
niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey i?ae oeneii”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
caeiiii??iinoae ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey a ??cieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o, c ciaoiaeaeaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a eiai eiiaa?n?? oa ?ic?iaeith
iaoiae?a aeei?enoaiiy AA a aia?aaoeoe?.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?? iinoaaeaii ianooii? caaea/?:

— noai?aiiy eaai?aoi?ieo, aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa i?eioieo
onoaiiaie aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a eiiaa?n?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a
??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO, ?ic?iaea aeey ieo iaoiaeee i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee oa aiae?co io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee aca?iiae?? AA oa eiai eien?a c NI2 oa I2 a
EOO c aecia/aiiyi aieeao nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e
aoa?eey, eiioeaio?aoe?? aaco-?aaaaioo ia oa?aeoa? oa oaeaee?noue
eiiaa?n?? eien?a;

— aecia/aiiy ?aaeei?a eiiaa?n?? oa e?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aca?iiae??
AA oa eiai eien?a c NI2 oa I2 a EOO, a oiio /ene? eiinoaio aeaiaioa?ieo
noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2 a iaaeeaeaii? Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ai??iiy AA a EOO c aecia/aiiyi oaiia?aoo?
eiai naiicaeiaiiy oa /ano aeai?aiiy;

— aecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ? aeieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, iioeiaeueieo
oiia oa iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ai??iiy ? aaceo?eaoe?? AA Oe?a?ie a EO;

— aaeaioaoe?y ?nioth/eo OeEO-oaoiieia?e aei AA Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaea ?iaeaia?ieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo aeaiaio?a onoaiiaie OeEO oa
OeEOO;

— ?ic?iaea oaoiieia?/ieo noai i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe??
aoa?eey a EOO ? OeEOO aeey aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0;

— ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aeei?enoaiith oaoiieia?e EO aeey
niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

— aia?oa ciaeaeaii e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aca?iiae?? AA Oe?a?ie oa
eiai eien?a c NI2 oa I2 a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie cieueiino?, nooiaiy
iaoaii?o?cio oaa?aeiai iaeeaa, ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo aaco-?aaaaioo aeey
aioo??oiueie?iaoe/iiai oa aioo??oiueiaeeooc?eiiai ?aaeei?a ?aaaoaaiiy,
i?e oeueiio iieacaii, ui cieaeaiiy ??aiy iaoaii?o?cio aoa?eey aaaea aei
ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n?? eiai eien?a, ui ciaoiaeeoue nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ciaioaii? aia?a?? aeoeaaoe??, a aeey ?aaeoe?? N+I2 ? a
ca?eueoaii? eiinoaioe oaeaeeino? (iaaeeaeaiiy A??ai?ona);

— iieacaii, ui o aioo??oiueiaeeooc?eiiio ?aaeei? ?aaaoaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeniaiiy ?aaeoe?e N+NI2 oa N+I2 ia iiaa?oith iaci-,
iae?iii? oa eiioo?io iiaa?oith /anoie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei noaoe?iia?iiai
oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae?? eien?a a iaeneioi? oaeaeeino? ?o eiiaa?n??, aei
oiai ae aia?oa ciaeaeaii, ui i?e aca?iiae?? eien?a AA c NI2 oa eien?a
aio?aoeeoiaiai ooeao (AO) ? aeiiaoeueeiai i?niiai aoa?eey (AeI) c I2
niinoa??aa?oueny noaoe?iia?ia oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iioi/ii? iane aoaeaoeth, a i?e eiiaa?n?? eien?a eai`yiiai oa ao?iai
aoa?eey c I2 – aei eiai ii/aoeiai? iane;

— aia?oa ciaeaeaii eiinoaioe aeaiaioa?ieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2 a
iaaeeaeaii? Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea i?e aca?iiae?? eien?a AA c
aoaeaeeneei aacii a EOO, i?e oeueiio iieacaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? NI niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? ?o eiiaa?n?? a
NI2, a eiinoaioe aacioacieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae
nooiaith iaoaii?o?cio oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ? ? oi?aa?naeueieie;

— ciaeaeaii oaoiieia?/i? oa aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee niaethaaiiy AA
Oe?a?ie a IEO, OO, OeAOO oa OeEO; i?e oeueiio aeey i?ioean?a ai??iiy a
OeEO aia?oa iieacaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio oaa?aeiai
iaeeaa c?inoathoue iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e niaethaaiiy aoa?eey oa
ca`ycoaaiiy ieneae?a n??ee, /anoea ia?aeiiiai iia?o?y a aeooo?,
ciaioo?oueny ?ioaa?aeueia nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey oa ae?aiacii
?aaoethaaiiy iiooaeiino? onoaiiaie;

— aia?oa iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo niaethaaiiy AO ? AeI a OeEO i?e
ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e eienicieueiiai caeeoeo (ECC), yeee iiaa?oa?oueny a
oiieo, niinoa??aa?oueny iia??oaiiy ?aaeei?a ?o ai??iiy, ui i?eaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao aoaeaoeth a aeiii?e oa eaoe?e cie?;

— aia?oa ciaeaeaii, ui i?e niaethaaii? aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey a OeEO o
aeiaaeeo ca?eueoaiiy /anoee aaiiyeo, yeee iiaea?oueny a oiieo, ii?yae c?
ciaioaiiyi aeeeae?a ieneae?a n??ee (SOo) niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy
aeeeae?a ieneae?a acioo (NOx), i?e oeueiio aecia/aii iioeiaeuei?
a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?e:n??ea (Na/S), ye? caaacia/othoue i?i?i?caoe?th
aeeeae?a SOo oa NOx iaeii?aciai;

— iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? a IEO oa OeEO
aeioe?eueii i?e eiiaa?n?? aenieicieueiiai eai`yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey
Oe?a?ie, aeey yeeo aia?oa ciaeaeaii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? oa
aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a aaceo?eaoe??, a?aei?/aii, ui ??
canoinoaaiiy aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AO oa AeI ia aoaeoeaii a ca`yceo c
iecueeeie iieacieeaie oaieioe cai?aiiy neioac-aaco, o?i?/iiai
eiao?oe??ioo ei?enii? ae?? ? nooiaiy eiiaa?n?? aoaeaoeth a eaoe?e cie?;

— ?ic?iaeaii iia? oaoiieia?/i? noaie i?ioean?a aaceo?eaoe?? oa
niaethaaiiy AA a EOO oa OeEOO aeey aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0,
ye? a?ae??ciythoueny i?aai?caoe??th aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee
oaa?aeiai iaeeaa (i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y, i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy), a oaeiae
?aae?caoe??th, i?e iaiao?aeiino?, ?icae?eueii? iiaea/? aoa?eey (ae??aii?
o?aeoe?? – a o?aeo ?aoee?eoeyoe??, a a?oai? – a ?aaeoi?).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— ciaeaeai? a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaio?a e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aca?iiae?? AA oa eiai eien?a c NI2 ? I2 aeei?enoaii a ?ic?aooieao
i?ioean?a ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? i?e i?iaeooaaii? aia?aaoe/ieo
OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaie c ?aaeoi?aie EOO ?
OeEOO;

— ciaeaeaii oaiia?aoo?e naiicaeiaiiy oa /an aeai?aiiy AA a IEO ? EOO, a
oaeiae ?o caeaaei?noue a?ae ?ici??o /anoie, cieueiino?, nooiaiy
iaoaii?o?cio aoa?eey oa ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo eenith;

— aenia?eiaioaeueii aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue oni?oii? ooee?caoe?? AA a
??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO aac aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco aai iacooo
aeey eiai niaethaaiiy ? aaceo?eaoe?? ?c caaacia/aiiyi aeniei?
aoaeoeaiino? oa aeieia?/ii? /enoioe;

— aeeiiaii aaeaioaoe?th ?nioth/eo OeEO-oaoiieia?e aei AA Oe?a?ie,
?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o canoiniaaii i?e i?iaeooaaii? aia?aaoe/ieo
OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aenioe oiiie oa ae?aiao?o
oeeeeii?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a, ye? aeei?enoaii i?e noai?aii? ?iai/eo
i?iaeo?a OeEO-ia?iaaia?aoi??a aeey OAN Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaeaii aeo?aei? aeai? aeey noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiie?a-caiaethaa/?a OO
noiniaii aei ieeiaoa?eueieo iaeueiee?a oaeaeueiiai eioeiaa?aaaoo OI-100
? oaoi?/ia caaaeaiiy (OC) aeey i?iaeooaaiiy aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee
OeEO-1.0;

— ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith oaoiieia?e EO aeey
oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA, ye? aecia/athoue i??i?eoaoi?noue oeo /e ?ioeo
iaoiae?a aeey ooee?caoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa caaeaii? cieueiino? oa
nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio;

— iaa?oioiaaii aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a
niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? oaa?aeeo iaeea a EO ia OAN ye i?e iiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa?, oae ? i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo aia?aiaeie?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoe?: eioaeueiiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeey Noa?iaao?anueei?,
Eoaainueei? oa Ie?ii?anueei? OAN (aeuaiacaai? noaioe??, o??ie
“Eo?a?-Eaioue?n” (I?ia//eia), “?aoaei” (Iieueua), Oaaea?aeueiee
aia?aioaoiieia?/iee oeaio? NOA (OAOOe), Aeaia?oaiaio aia?aaoeee (NOA);
oaoi?/ieo oa ?iai/eo i?iaeo?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a (Oa?e?anueea
oeaio?aeueia eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie (OOeEA)); ?iai/eo
i?iaeo?a aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaie EOO oa OeEOO (AeEA “I?aaeaiia”
(i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee), Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oaieiaia?aaoeee
I?iaia?ai Oe?a?ie (i.Ai?e?aea) (IAe?OA)).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iioae?eiaai? iaoeia? i?aoe? iieyaa? a:
aiae?c? noaio aia?aaoeee; i?aeaioiaoe? iaeyae?a c niaethaaiiy oa
aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey a OeEO oa EOO; iienaii? eiino?oeoe?e aeine?aeieo
onoaiiaie, ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a ia ieo, aiae?c? io?eiaieo aeaieo,
iaienaii? oaeno?a noaoae oa aeniiae?a ii ?acoeueoaoai e?iaoe/ieo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue; ia?iaoe? aeaieo aenia?eiaio?a, o/ano? a
iaienaii? ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a a noaooyo, ye? iioae?eiaaii ca
ei?aeiiii; iien? oaoiieia?/ieo noai onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0; o/ano? a
neeaaeaii? nenoai ??aiyiue, aiae?c? oa iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a a noaooyo c iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
oa ?ic?iaie aaoi?a iaaiai?thaaeeny ia 26 i?aeia?iaeieo oa
?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao, na?aae ieo: I?aeia?iaeiee
oi?oi “Oaieiianiiai?i-92” (I?inuee, (A?ei?on?y), 1992); Ia?oee
(Oaeuen?ie? (O?ieyiae?y), 1993), O?ao?e (Oe?e (Iieueua), 1995),
*aoaa?oee (AEaiaaa (Oaaeoea??y), 1996) neiiic?oie aenia?o?a III ii
/enoei aoa?eueiei oaoiieia?yi; nai?ia? “?ic?iaea iiaeo aoa?eueieo
oaoiieia?e aeey iio?aa aia?aaoeee” (Ee?a, 1994); I?aeia?iaei?
aia?aaoe/i? oi?oie “Power-Gen’95 Americas” (Aiaoaei (NOA), 1995),
“Power-Gen’96 Europe” (Aoaeaiaoo (Oai?ueia), 1996), “Power-Gen’98
International” (I?eaiaei (NOA), 1998); Oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeee nai?ia?
“Iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua oa aia?aaoeea” (Ee?a, 1995); I’yoa i?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y ii OeEO (Iae?i (Eeoae), 1996); Ia?oa aia?eeaii-oe?a?inueea
eiioa?aioe?y “Caoeno aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y a?ae aeeeae?a OAN” (Ee?a,
1996); *ioe?iaaeoeyoa i?aeia?iaeia eiioa?aioe?y ii ai??iith a EO
(Aaieoaa? (Eaiaaea), 1997); Oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeee neiiic?oi “I?iaeaie
oa ia?niaeoeae ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa oaoi?/iiai ia?ainiauaiiy OAN Oe?a?ie”
(Ee?a, 1997); nai?ia? “No?aoaa?/i? iai?yiee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo
oaoiieia?e i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa iiaea?i?caoe?? OAN” (Ee?a, 1997);
Oe?a?inueei-aia?eeainueea ia’?aeiaia eiioa?aioe?y “Iiaeeeaino?
iiaea?i?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo aoa?eueieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e” (Ee?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii a 82 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo, na?aae yeeo: 25 noaoae a oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao Oe?a?ie (6
?c ieo aac ni?aaaoi??a), 5 noaoae a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao e?a?i NIAe, 2
noaoo? a ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 31 noaooy a ca??eao i?aoeue
i?aeia?iaeieo oa ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?e, 1 noaooy aeaiiiiaaia, 7
i?ai?eio?a, 5 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoa, 6 oac aeiiia?aeae ia
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
?? caaaeueiee ianya 469 noi??iie. C ieo ia 289 noi??ieao ciaoiaeeoueny
iniiaiee oaeno, ia 126 ie?aieo noi??ieao – 93 iaethiee oa 72 oaaeeoe?,
ia 28 noi??ieao – nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ?c 286 iaeiaioaaiue, ia
26 noi??ieao – 15 aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?iaioe, i?aaenoaaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i ?aae?caoe?th iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, ai?iaaoe??, ioae?eaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ia iniia? aiae?co neooaoe?? a aia?aaoeoe? Oe?a?ie
?icaeyiooi oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa
ia aeaeo?inoaioe?yo. Iieacaii, ui aoa?eey, yea iinoaaey?oueny ia OAN, a
iniiaiiio ? aenieicieueiei ? aeey eiai oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aeioe?eueii
canoiniaoaaoe oaoiieia?? EO, a ca’yceo c /ei aeeiiaii iaeyae iaoiae?a
niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO
oa iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?o ?ic?iaee aeey AA Oe?a?ie.
I?aee?aneaii, ui oaeo ?iaioo ia iiaea aooe cae?eniaii aac i?iaaaeaiiy
e?iaoe/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey a
EO c aeei?enoaiiyi io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e oa
noai?aii? iiaiai aia?aaoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Aiae?c aaeainiaeo caian?a oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a Oe?a?i? (52,5 ie?ae.o)
iieaco?, ui i?e ??aiyo eiai aeaeiaooeo a 100-110 iei.o ia ??e ?nioth/eo
caian?a aenoa/eoue ia 470-520 ?ie?a. Aeaiee oaeo aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe
aoa?eey, ye aieiaiee i?noeaaee aia?aiiin?e i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A
oie aea /an ye?noue oaa?aeiai iaeeaa, ui iinoa/a?oueny ia OAN, ia
a?aeiia?aea? ?ic?aooieiaei aeiiaai. A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a eiai
cieuei?noue ia ?iai/o iano
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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) neeaaea? 32-35%
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 35-38%), a ieae/a oaieioa cai?aiiy –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=
17-19 IAeae/ea. A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui aia?aaoe/i? eioeiaa?aaaoe ?ic?aoiaaii
ia aeei?enoaiiy aoa?eey c
picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00240021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbcffffff000200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200cc79040000002d01000008000000320a37018e0101000000
720008000000320a7002860101000000690017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000
00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc79040000002d010100
04000000f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffff
ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374
656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff
ffff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
4f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d00=
24-27 IAeae/ea, i?e oa?i?/i?e ia?a?iaoe? a ieo iaeea c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 < 21 IAeae/ea aeey caaacia/aiiy no?eeeo ?aaeei?a niaethaaiiy iaiao?aeii aeiaeaaaoe aeniei?aaeoe?ei? i?e?iaeiee aac aai iacoo, /anoea yeeo ii oaieo neeaaea? 10-35%. Oea i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe ia?iaaia?aoi??a ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao aoaeaoeth o eaoe?e cie?, c?inoaiiy aeeeae?a NOx, i?aeaeuaiiai ciino eioaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui a?eueo?noue eioeiaa?aaao?a OAN a?aei?aoethaaee na?e ?ano?n ? iio?aaothoue ?aeiino?oeoe?? aai cai?ie. Ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie, ui neeaeany, iiaea aooe ciaeaeaii ia oeyoo ca?eueoaiiy ia’?i?a aoaeacaaaa/aiiy, aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oaoiieia?e niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa, ?ic?iaee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e. Aoaeacaaaa/aiiy ? aeiiii?/ii aei?aaaeaiei iaoiaeii i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy AA, aea a ca’yceo c oei, ui o a?aeoiaeao caaaa/aiiy caeeoa?oueny aei 20% a?ae aeaeiaooiai aoaeaoeth, eiai ia?niaeoeae aac ci?ie oaoiieia?e iaiaaeaii. Aaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa, a?aoiaoth/e no/aniee o?iainiaee noai aia?aaoeee, aeooaeueii ia iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao. I?e oeueiio aeioe?eueii aeeiiaoe: iiaea/o ieeo aeniei? eiioeaio?aoe?? c i?ae?a??aii iia?o?y aei 650-720 E; iiaea?i?caoe?th ieei?a c? ca?eueoaiiyi oiieino? iiiieo; canoinoaaiiy ?ic?ieiooeo noai i?aeaioiaee ieeo (aeey AO oa AeI), onoaiiaeo iiaeo iaeueiee?a, a oiio /ene? c iiia?aaeiueith oa?i?/iith i?aeaioiaeith aoa?eey. Caoiaee, ye? ia?ae?/aii aeua, ii?yae c eai?oaeueiei ?aiiioii eioeiaa?aaao?a iiaeooue iiaeiaaeeoe no?ie ?o aenieoaoaoe?? ia 10-20 ?ie?a oa /anoeiai i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ai??iiy a ieo aoa?eey. Aea aiie ia aeicaieythoue aeeeth/eoe i?e?iaeiee aac aai iacoo c i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy AA oa nooo?ai ia ci?iththoue aeieia?/ieo iieaciee?a eiai ooee?caoe??. Aeey ca?eueoaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ia OAN, i?aeaeuaiiy aeieia?/ii? /enoioe i?ioean?a eiai oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee, caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy a iaiaa?iaiio ?aaeei? iaiao?aeii ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e, aei yeeo a ia?oo /a?ao ne?ae a?aeianoe: no/ani? oaeaeuei? oaoiieia?? c nenoaiaie n??ei- oa acioii/enoee; iaoiaee niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a eioeiaa?aaaoao c iea/iaeie oiieaie oa aeo?iaeie ia?aaeoiieaie; oaoiieia?? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO, ? a ia?oo /a?ao OeEO, EOO oa OeEOO. Aiae?c ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeeo oaoiieia?e a na?o? iieaco?, ui no/ani? oaeaeuei? oaoiieia?? aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey cieuei?noth picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 4f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 25%, iaoiaee niaethaaiiy a iea/iaeo oiieao oa aeo?iaeo ia?aaeoiieao – aeey eiiaa?n?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa c picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc79040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc79040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d00 = 20-30%, a oaoiieia?? EO – aeey ooee?caoe?? AA c picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 4f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d00 30%. A?aoiaoth/e ia oa, ui cieuei?noue aoa?eey, yea iinoa/a?oueny ia OAN Oe?a?ie, ia?aaeuo? 30%, ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?e EO ia? aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aia?aaoeee. ?o iniiaieie ia?aaaaaie ?: iiaeeea?noue aenieiaoaeoeaii? ooee?caoe?? aac aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco aai iacooo AA ??ciiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio ? a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/aiiy c picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc7c040000002d01000008000000320a3701900101000000 640008000000320a7002780101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7c040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 4f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d00 80%; aeieia?/ia /enoioa oaoiieia?e; oe?ieee ae?aiacii ?aaoethaaiiy iiooaeiino? onoaiiaie; aeniea iai?oaeaiiy ia’?io oiiee a cii? EO. Oe? ia?aaaae i?eaaee aei ?ioaineaiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ca inoaii? 20 ?ie?a oaoiieia?e EO. Ia nueiaiaei? ia aeaeo?inoaioe?yo oa eioaeueiyo aaaaoueio e?a?i na?oo i?aoeth? aeecueei 2000 eioeiaa?aaao?a IEO oaieiaith iiooaei?noth a?ae 3 aei 100 IAoo (c ieo a?eueoa 50 ia Oe?a?i?), ye? a iniiaiiio aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey na?aaeiuei? cieueiino?. Aeaye? c ieo niaeththoue ? a?aeoiaee aoaeacaaaa/aiiy aeuaaeacaieo iaeea. Ni?iae noai?eoe IEO-eioeiaa?aaaoe a?eueoi? iiooaeiino? (350-380 IAoo) ia aei?aaaeaee naaa, ui iia’ycaii c i?iaeaiaie i?aai?caoe?? ?aaeei?a ai??iiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ia aaeeeeo ieiueiao EO. ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee iecueei?aaeoe?eiiai aoa?eey iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaia a ca’yceo ?c cia/ieie aeo?aoaie aoaeaoeth a eaoe?e cie?. Ia i?ioyc? 1970-1990 ?ie?a aoei noai?aii a?eueoa 100 eioeiaa?aaao?a AEO oaieiaith iiooaei?noth aei 30 IAoo aeey niaethaaiiy eai’yiiai aoa?eey oa aio?aoeeoo c A1d 55%. A inoaii?e /an ?icaeoie aeaii? oaoiieia?? i?ecoieiaii, ui coiiaeaii iecueeith aoaeoeai?noth i?ioean?a ooee?caoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa oa iacaaeia?eueieie aeieia?/ieie iieacieeaie ?iaioe AEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a. Iaoiaee oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a OO oa OeAOO ?ic?iaeyeeny c ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a aeey ooee?caoe?? neaioe?a, eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey. Oe? ?iaioe i?ieoee noaae?th a?aei?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?e ia aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaeao. ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeeeai i?ney i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeaieo i?ioean?a. Oaoiieia?? niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a OeEO ii a?aeiioaiith aei iaoiae?a eiai ooee?caoe?? a IEO oa AEO a?ae??ciythoueny ?yaeii ia?aaaa, a naia: iiaeeea?noth oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee iecueei?aaeoe?eiiai aoa?eey, a oiio /ene? aenieicieueiiai oa aeniein??/enoiai; a?eueo aenieeie aoaeoeai?noth oa aeieia?/iith /enoioith niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa, ye? aeinyaathoueny ca ?aooiie caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? oaiia?aoo?e oa iaiao?aeiiai /ano ia?aaoaaiiy iaeeaieo /anoie a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii?; iiaeeea?noth noai?aiiy eioaeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy aaeeei? iiooaeiino?; a?eueo oe?ieei ae?aiaciiii ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaie aac ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a i?ioean?a eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey. ?icaeoie OeEO-oaoiieia?e a?aeaoany ca inoaii? 15 ?ie?a. Ca oeae ia??iae noai?aii aeecueei 200 aia?aaoe/ieo OeEO-ia?iaaia?aoi??a oaieiaith iiooaei?noth a?ae 50 aei 580 IAoo oa i?iaeoeoeai?noth ii ia?o aei 750 oii ia aiaeeio. I?e ?o nii?oaeaeaii? aoei canoiniaaii oae? oaoiieia??: “Eo?a?”, “I??ioeio”, “Oee?eioeth?ae”, “Ioeueo?nie?ae”, o??ie “Aaaeie A?eeien” (NOA) oa ?io?. Oe? eioeiaa?aaaoe aeei?enoiaothoue aeey niaethaaiiy oaa?ae? iaeeaa na?aaeiuei? cieueiino? ??ciiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio (a?ae e?ai?oo aei aio?aoeeoo). Aeaye? c ieo i?enoiniaaii aeey ooee?caoe?? AA oa a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/aiiy, aea, ye i?aaeei, oae? iaeeaa a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae aia?aaoe/iiai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie ai?noii n??ee oa ?aaeoe?eiith ni?iiiaei?noth eien?a. Oaoiieia?? niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? a EOO ? OeEOO aeey ia?iaaciaeo onoaiiaie (IAO) ia oaa?aeiio iaeea? ? ianooiiei e?ieii ?icaeoeo EO-oaoiieia?e. Aiie iathoue a?eueo aenieee EEAe oa aeieia?/io /enoioo, i?ae iaoiaee aoiinoa?iiai EO. Ia nueiaiaei? oaoiieia?th niaethaaiiy eai’yiiai ? ao?iai aoa?eey na?aaeiuei? cieueiino? a EOO aeiaaaeaii aei i?iieneiai? ?aae?caoe?? ia aia?aiaeieao aeaeo?e/iith iiooaei?noth 70-360 IAoa (200-800 IAoo) (?ic?iaea o??ie “AAA ea?aii”). Cae?enith?oueny noai?aiiy iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy eai’yiiai aoa?eey a OeEOO oa iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? eai’yiiai ? ao?iai aoa?eey a EOO oa OeEOO aeey IAO ia oaa?aeiio iaeea?, ye? iaeaeeae/? ?iee ieaio?oueny ?aae?coaaoe ia aia?aiaeieao iiooaei?noth 100-400 IAoa. Aeuaia?ae?/ai? iaoiaee oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee noai?aii a iniiaiiio aeey eiiaa?n?? eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey c cieuei?noth picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff0000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 4f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 30-35%. ?o a iiai?e i??? ia iiaeeeai canoinoaaoe i?e ooee?caoe?? AA Oe?a?ie, aeey yeiai iio??aii ?ic?iaeyoe iia? aai aaeaiooaaoe ?nioth/? oaoiieia?? EO. Oea a ia?oo /a?ao noino?oueny AO ? AeI, a oaeiae euea?anueei-aieeinueeiai aaciaiai aoa?eey (E-A(A)), yea ? neeaaeiei iaeeaii. Oae ye i?ioeane niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? a EO a?aeaoaathoueny i?e a?aeiinii iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao (1000-1250 E), ?ic?iaeo oaoiieia?e ia iiaea aooe aeeiiaii aac i?iaaaeaiiy e?iaoe/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo aenia?eiaio?a c ciaoiaeaeaiiyi iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae eiiaa?n?? AA. C o?aooaaiiyi aeuacacia/aiiai ? aoei aecia/aii iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? i?aaenoaaeaii a caaaeuei?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeena?oaoe??. O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii: aenia?eiaioaeuei? onoaiiaee ?NE-?-Ae, ?NE-??-Ae, O-0.05, O-0.05-OeEO, OeEO-0.02,EOO-0.2; iaoiaeeee e?iaoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo a EOO, oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a OO, OeAOO, IEO oa OeEO, aecia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e naiicaeiaiiy (Onc), aeeiai?ee ai??iiy oa /ano aeai?aiiy (a) aoa?eey a EOO. Ooo oaeiae i?aaenoaaeaii iaoiaee aecia/aiiy ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e, i?iaaaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aiae?c?a oa ioe?iee oi/iino? ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a. Eaai?aoi?io onoaiiaeo ?NE-?-Ae (iae.1) noai?aii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee aca?iiae?? aoa?eey oa eien?a c aacaie-?aaaaioaie (NI2 ? I2) a EOO i?e oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie oeneo a ?aaeoi?? (? = 0.1-2.51 IIa) oa oaiia?aoo?e eiiaa?n?? (Oa,n= 600-1500 E). ?? iniiao neeaaea? oeee?iae?e/iee ?aaeoi? EO, yeee aeeiiaii c aea?ino?eei? noae? ? ?icoaoiaaii a aeaeo?iia/?. A na?aaeei? ?aaeoi?a a ?cioa?i?/i?e cii? ciaoiaeeoueny a?aoea EO, ia ye?e ia?aae ii/aoeii aenia?eiaioo ?ici?uothoue iaaaaeeo aoa?eey aai eieno o?eniaaii? iane. A ieaei?e /anoei? eiai c’?aeiaii c nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee, i/enoee, cai??o aeo?aoe oa iiaea/? aac?a ?ia?oo oa ?aaaaioo (NI2 aai I2). I?e oeueiio iiaeeeaa ye aacia?a?aia, oae ? ?iioeuenia iiaea/a NI2 oa I2. Ia aeoiae? ?c onoaiiaee ?icoaoiaaii nenoaie: i/enoee aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? a?ae ieeo, ?o ioieiaeaeaiiy, ae?in?ethaaiiy aei aoiinoa?iiai oeneo, aecia/aiiy aeo?ao oa o?iiaoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co neeaaeo. Oaiia?aoo?a a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii? aei??th?oueny oa?iiia?aie, ye? ?icoaoiaaii a iaaaaeoe? oa a?aooe?, a oene – ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao??a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a ieaei?e oa aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aaeoi?a. Aaca?aae??ioi?noue i?ioeano eiiaa?n?? caaacia/o?oueny iaeith ianith iaaaaeee, ?? oaieiiai?iii a EO oa i?aeai?ii ?aaeei?a aca?iiae?? c iecueeeie eiioeaio?aoe?yie i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??. Aeey ciaioaiiy eiai ianoaoe?iia?iino? cai?iaaaeaeaii ?iioeuenio iiaea/o aaco-?aaaaioo. Oaiia?aoo?iee a?aae??io i?ae ?aaaoth/ith /anoeith oa aacii ciaoiaeeoueny ia iniia? aaeainieo ??aiyiue oaieiiai?io ? a?aoiao?oueny i?e ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo. Oaeaee?noue aca?iiae?? eien?a, yeo a?aeianaii aei ii/aoeiai? iane aoaeaoeth a iaaaaeoe? (Wo), ciaoiaeeoueny i?e iino?eieo oaiia?aoo?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? aaco-?aaaaioo ia iniia? aeaieo ii eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe??, aeo?ao? NI2 aai I2 oa /ano ?aaaoaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aoaeothoueny caeaaeiino? ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? a?ae /ano aca?iiae?? (picscalex100010009000003f5000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02e00220061200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffa1ffffffe0050000810200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000600017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320aa20145050100000 0320017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65772 0526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a520 1810302000000d1ce08000000320a52013303010000002c0008000000320a52017101020 00000d1ce08000000320a9002740101000000ee0017000000fb0240fe000000000000900 1000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d0 1000004000000f001010008000000320a2002300001000000d1000a00000026060f000a0 0ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc01020222537 97374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000ffffff000000000000000000000000= f(e)). O aeiaaeeo aca?iiae?? eien?a c NI2 aaee/eia Wo aecia/a?oueny c ae?aco: (1) a aeey ?aaeoe?? N+I2 – ?c caeaaeiino?: (2) aea: n = 12 ea/eiieue, iieaeoey?ia iana aoaeaoeth; VCO,picscalex100010009000003dd000000020017000000000005000000090200000000 0400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000 050000000b0200000000050000000c02a00200041200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000 10000000c0ffffffb5ffffffc0030000550200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479 70650000800017000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a600229030100 0000320017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a 1002650102000000434f17000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc040200105469 6d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000004000000f0010100 08000000320aa0013b000100000056000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000000000000000043000000000000004f00 00006a000001000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000201– aeo?aoe NI oa NI2 a i?iaeoeoao ?aaeoe??, i3/n; Vi=22.4 i3/eiieue; Go–ii/aoeiaa iana aoaeaoeth a iaaaaeoe?, ea. Aeae? ca aeiiiiiaith a?ao?/iiai aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy aoaeothoueny caeaaeiino? Wo a?ae e oa nooiaiy eiiaa?n?? aoaeaoeth (O) – Wo=f(e) ? Wo=f(X), a oaeiae oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, yeo a?aeianaii aei iioi/ii? iane aoaeaoeth a?ae O – Wo=f(X). A?eueo?noue c oeeo caeaaeiinoae ia? eieieieiiiae?aiee aeae c eaac?noaoe?iia?iith ae?eyieith a iaeneioi?. E?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaaoaaiiy eien?a c NI2 oa I2 a EOO aecia/aeeny ia oe?e ae?eyioe? aeey eiaeiiai ie?aiiai c?acea i?e ?iioeueni?e iiaea/? aaco-?aaaaioo oa nooi?i/aoiio ca?eueoaii? oaiia?aoo?e aca?iiae?? aai eiioeaio?aoe?? NI2 /e I2. Oea aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii ciaeoe cia/aiiy oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n?? a iaeneioi? (picscalex100010009000003ce000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c020003a0031200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffbcffffff60030000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a37010a020100000 06d0008000000320a7002cd0201000000f20008000000320a70027402010000002c00080 00000320a7002cd01010000006f0017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d0101000400000 0f001000008000000320a00023b000100000057000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010 00000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00c c040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000000000f fffff00000000000000000000000000ffffff000000000000430000006d0000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0000000000000000) ? e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeoe?e N+NI2 ? N+I2, iniaeeai aeey AA. I?e oeueiio ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?iaeyeeny noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaeeaeaiue A??ai?ona: , (3) aai Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea (?aaeoe?y N+NI2, iaoai?ci A): picscalex100010009000003540000000000120000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600240011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffff00010000150200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 000060000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000003000000000000ffffff0000 00000000000000ffffff0000000000000000000270030000740000000000000074000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 , (4) aea: Ni – eiioeaio?aoe?y aaco-?aaaaioo i?e ii?iaeueieo oiiaao, ea/i3; Oi = 273 E; no – o?eniaaia eiioeaio?aoe?y NI2 aai I2, ea/i3; n – ii?yaeie ?aaeoe??; O/ – oaiia?aoo?a ?aaaoth/i? /anoee, E; R = 8.314 eAeae/(iieueE); picscalex100010009000003260100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02a002e00a1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffffa00a0000550200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a10020d0a01000000 6f0008000000320a1002e40601000000700008000000320a10028e0101000000ee001700 0000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001a3080100 00004b0008000000320aa001d50501000000530008000000320aa001400001000000ca00 10000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 2d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8a01360a01000000a20008000000320a8a01 fe0901000000a20008000000320aa001f10701000000d70008000000320aa0013f050100 0000d70008000000320aa001120401000000620008000000320aa001cb02010000003d00 08000000320a8a017f0101000000a2000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01010004000000f001000003000000000000006f000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0201000000000000000000ffffff0000000000000000, eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, i3/(ean); Aa – aia?a?y aeoeaaoe??, eAeae/iieue; – noao?iiao?e/iee eiao?oe??io; Sp – ?aaaoth/a iiaa?oiy, i2/ea; picscalex100010009000003de0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffff40020000150200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a10028f0101000000 ee0017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001 400001000000ca0010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8a01b90101000000a200 08000000320a8a01810101000000a2000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01010004000000f0010000030000000000000000000000430000006d0000004f000000 6a00000000000000320a0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000– o?i?/ia eiinoaioa , i/n; E10, E20, E30 – eiinoaioe aeaiaioa?ieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2, 1/(IIan), 1/IIa; picscalex100010009000003d60000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600260021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffff20020000150200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a1002730101000000 320017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001 400001000000c50010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8a01650101000000a200 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d00000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ff ffff00000000= A1-A3; picscalex100010009000003d60000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02600240021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb5ffffff00020000150200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc89040000002d01000008000000320a10026e0101000000 330017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200cc89040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa001 400001000000c50010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a8a01630101000000a200 0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02 000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000006d0000004f000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000= A2-A3; A1, A2, A3 – aia?a?? aeoeaaoe?? aeaiaioa?ieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2, eAeae/iieue;picscalex100010009000003f40000000300170000000000050000000902 000000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102 01000000050000000b0200000000050000000c028002e0031200000026060f001a00ffff ffff000010000000c0ffffffafffffffa00300002f0200000b00000026060f000c004d61 7468547970650000600009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000 0500000014025100400005000000130251002b0117000000fb0220ff0000000000009001 000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01 010008000000320a3402180301000000320017000000fb02c0fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d010200 04000000f001010008000000320ae401540102000000d1ce17000000fb0240fe00000000 00009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc690400 00002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ac001400001000000d0000a0000002606 0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102 022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001010003000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a00000000000000000000ffffff 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 , picscalex100010009000003cd0000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400240031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffadffffff00030000ed0100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000400009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 5300400005000000130253002b0117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7a040000002d01010008000000 320ae401500102000000d1ce17000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc04020010 54696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7a040000002d01020004000000f001 010008000000320ac001400001000000d0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000 000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0400 00002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000 – na?aaei? cia/aiiy ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo NI ? NI2 a ?aaeoi??, IIa. Eaai?aoi?ia onoaiiaea ?NE-??-Ae a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iiia?aaeiuei? iayai?noth oethciai? eaia?e aeey aaaaeaiiy oaa?aeeo /anoie, nenoai aeaiaeo, a?aeie?aieaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy ECC. I?e aecia/aii? oaiia?aoo?e naiicaeiaiiy iaaaaeea aoa?eey iiaea?oueny a ?aaeoi?, aea anoaiiaeaii caaeaio oaiia?aoo?o oa oene aaco-?ia?oo. Iio?i cai?noue aaco-?ia?oo aaiaeeoueny aac-?aaaaio. I?e oeueiio i?i?iaeueia oaiia?aoo?a c?acea, ii/eiath/e c yei? a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii? niinoa??aa?oueny ?? c?inoaiiy, ? i?eeia?oueny ca Onc. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeeiai?ee ai??iiy aoa?eey a EOO ci?iaeeny caeaaeiino? picscalex100010009000003350100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00200071200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa1ffffffc0060000810200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600010000000fb02c0fc0701000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320a1c022e00010000005b0010000000fb02c0fc07010000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320a1c026a06010000005d0017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc 0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d0100000400 0000f001010008000000320a52016d0402000000d1ce08000000320a52011f0401000000 2c0008000000320a5201c70102000000d1ce08000000320a9002ca0101000000ee001700 0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e2043797200cc69040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320aa2018b030100 0000320017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a 2002860001000000d1000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02 1400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0101000400 0000f0010000030000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000010 546900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000=f(e), ia iniia? yeeo ca iaoiaeeeith e?iaoe/iiai aenia?eiaioo aecia/aany /an aeai?aiiy /anoie aei caaeaiiai nooiaiy eiiaa?n??. O aeiaaeeo ciaoiaeaeaiiy a i?e O 0.9 (a0.9) i?iaiaeeeiny iiaia aeai?aiiy aocueeeo o?aeoe?e aoa?eey i?e On=1123-1223 E, a aeey ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeei?enoiaoaaeany caeaaei?noue: a0.9 = A(?i/?i)n, (5) aea: A – /an aeai?aiiy /anoie aei O 0.9 i?e ?i=0.108 IIa, n; ?i – oene iia?o?y a ?aaeoi?? EOO i?e aenia?eiaio?, IIa; n –ii?yaeie eiiaa?n??, yeee niinoa??aa?oueny. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? onoaiiaee O-0.05, O-0.05-OeEO, OeEO-0.02 oa i?eioia – EOO-0.2 noai?aii aeey oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue eiiaa?n?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a EO. Onoaiiaea O-0.05 aeei?enoiaoaaeany a aenia?eiaioao ii niaethaaiith oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA a OO oa OeAOO. Aiia neeaaea?oueny c oeee?iae?e/ii-eii?/ieo aaceo?eaoi?a (OA) oa oiiee (OO) aenioith I=1.1 i oa aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii dai=0.1 i (OA) oa 0.07 i (OO), ye? aeaioiaeaii c aea?ino?eei? noae?. Ia aeoiae? c aaceo?eaoi?a oa oiiee anoaiiaeaii oeeeeiie. A OA iiaea?oueny aoa?eey oa iia?o?y, a OO – iia?o?y oa ECC c OA, a ciea c OO iiaa?oa?oueny a OA. Iiaeeeaa ?iaioa ? iaeiiai ?aaeoi?a, oiae? i?ioeane eiiaa?n?? aeeiiothoueny a OA. I?iaeoeoeai?noue onoaiiaee – aei 50 ea AA ia aiaeeio. Onoaiiaeo O-0.05-OeEO i?enoiniaaii aeey ooee?caoe?? aoa?eey a IEO ? OeEO. ?? iniiao neeaaea? oeee?iae?e/iee ?aaeoi? c I=1.3 i oa dai= 0.1 ii, yeee aeaioiaeaii c aea?ino?eei? noae?. A eiai ieaei?e /anoei? ciaoiaeyoueny a?aoea EO, nenoaie iiaea/? iia?o?y, iaeeaa, aaiiyeo, aeioneo ciee; a na?aaeei? – iao?oaie aeey iiaea/? iia?o?y; ia aeoiae? – oeeeeii, o?aeoe iiaa?iaiiy ECC oa aeoiaeo i/euaiiai aaco, eaia?a aeiiaeaiiy aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a. I?iaeoeoeai?noue onoaiiaee ii aoa?eeth–25 ea ia aiaeeio. Onoaiiaea OeEO-0.02 a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae onoaiiaee O-0.05-OeEO aenioith ?aaeoi?o I=2.6 i, iayai?noth aeaio nooiai?a i/enoee aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a a?ae ieeo (aa?oeeaeuei? oeeeeiie) oa aeaio o?aeo?a iiaa?iaiiy ECC a oiieo, a yeeo anoaiiaeaii aiaeyi? oieiaeeeueieee oa i?eno?i? aeey cai??o e?eueeino? iaoa??aeo, yeee ?aoee?eoeth?. I?eioio onoaiiaeo EOO – 0.2 (iae.2) noai?aii aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey a IEO oa OeEO. Aiia ia? oooa?iaaio aiaeiioieiaeaeoaaeueio oiieo c I= 3.6 i oa dai= 0.4 i ? a?ae??ciy?oueny eiino?oeoe??th a?aoee EO, yeo aeeiiaii c? ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? iia?o?y, ui iiaea?oueny a oiieo, a?ae ia?eoa??? aei oeaio?o oa ?icoaooaaiiyi a oeaio?? a?aoee oeee?iae?e/ii-eii?/iiai i?eno?ith OO aeey aeiiaeaiiy ECC. Eiino?oeoe?y onoaiiaee caoeuaia a.n. N?N? ? 1638455. ?? i?iaeoeoeai?noue ii oaa?aeiio iaeeao – aei 500 ea ia aiaeeio, a oaieiaa iiooaei?noue – aei 1.2 IAo. I?e aeeiiaii? oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue cai??yeeny aeo?aoe iia?o?y, iaoaio, aoa?eey, aaiiyeo, aeiiii? oa eaoei? ciee, oaiia?aoo?e oa ia?aiaae oeneo a ?aaeoi??; aecia/aeeny neeaae aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a (ianniaeo?iiao?e/i? oa o?iiaoia?ao?/i? iaoiaee), aeeeaee SOx oa NOx (niaeo?aeuei? oa ianniaeo?iiao?e/i? iaoiaee) ia aeoiae? c onoaiiaie; ciaoiaeeeeny aeiey aoaeaoeth a cie?, nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey oa ca’ycoaaiiy c’?aeiaiue n??ee. Aeeeaee SOx oa NOx ia?a?aoiaoaaeeny ia 6% I2 a aeeiiaeo aacao. A ?ac? i?iaaaeaiiy aaeainiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeaeeny iaoa??aeuei? ? oaieia? aaeaine i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi aeo?ao oaieioe o iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue e?iaoeee oa aeeiai?ee aca?iiae?? AA Oe?a?ie c aacaie-?aaaaioaie a EOO, ye? io?eiaii ia onoaiiaeao ?NE-?-Ae oa ?NE-??-Ae. Ia ?o iniia?: aecia/aii aieea nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, cieueiino? aoa?eey, ?ici??o /anoie, oaiia?aoo?e ?aaaoaaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe?? NI2 ? I2 ia oa?aeoa? ? oaeaee?noue eiiaa?n?? eien?a; ciaeaeaii ?aaeeie ?aaaoaaiiy oa e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aca?iiae?? eien?a c aacaie-?aaaaioaie a iaaeeaeaii? A??ai?ona; iieacaii aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? NI ia ci?io oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n?? eien?a a NI2 ? aecia/aii eiinoaioe aeaiaioa?ieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2 a iaaeeaeaii? Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea; ciaeaeaii oaiia?aoo?e naiicaeiaiiy, aeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ai??iiy oa /an aeai?aiiy AA, aeae?eaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? eiiaa?n?? AA a EOO. I?e i?iaaaeaii? e?iaoe/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a yeino? ia’?eoa aenia?eiaio?a aoei aea?aii aia?aaoe/ia aoa?eey Oe?a?ie, ui iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiao?oueny ia OAN – AO, AeI, E-A(A), aeiiaoeuee? aaciaa (ANO) oa aeiaaiiieoi’yiaaa (AeAe), ieaenaiae??enueea ao?a (IA) c ?ici??ii /anoie =0-6 ii, picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000 0000000220ff000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000=18-55%, oa ai?noii n??ee picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00220021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe00100007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d01000008000000320a37012d0101000000 640008000000320a7002140101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a000224000100000053000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000 0000000220ff00ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000=1.0-2.8%. ?yae aenia?eiaio?a aeeiiaii ia iaeicieueieo c?aceao, a?aeoiaeao aoaeacaaaa/aiiy oa aeniein??/enoeo AOn, AeIn, ANOn c picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00220021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe00100007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d01000008000000320a37012d0101000000 640008000000320a7002140101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7f040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a000224000100000053000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff000220ff00ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000=3.4-4.8%. I?e i?aeaioiaoe? eien?a cae?enithaaany i??ie?c aoa?eey a oioe? aae?th i?e O=1123 E oa ?= 0.108 IIa. Ia iae.3 i?aaenoaaeaii caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?o eiiaa?n?? eien?a ANO (= 0.4-0.6 ii, picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000020100ff ffff000220ff00ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000= 40.3%) c NI2 a EOO a?ae ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? NI2 oa oaiia?aoo?e a ?aaeoi??. 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00000000000000000000000000000< 60%); AO – 733-743 E, ANO oa E-A(A) – 628-653 E. Aiie aeia?a ni?aiaaeathoue c? cia/aiiyie Onc, ye? aecia/aii a EOO i?e ?i= 0.108 IIa. Oaiia?aoo?a naiicaeiaiiy a OO aeua, i?ae a IEO ia 20-160 E, i?e/iio a?eueoa ??cieoey a?aeiineoueny ? aei aeueo cia/aiue picscalex100010009000003be0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff400200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d01000008000000320a37019d0101000000 640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a00023b000100000041000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000ffffff0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000. Aecia/aii cia/aiiy /ano aeai?aiiy ECC AO, ANO ? E-A(A) (=1.0-1.6 ii) a IEO, yea a?aeiia?aea? aiaeia?/iiio, ui io?eiaii a EOO i?e ?i=0.108 IIa. Oea aeicaiey? aiai?eoe i?i iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy a a ?ic?aooieao i?ioean?a ai??iiy a eeiey/iio oa?? (e??i OO). *an aeai?aiiy ECC AA a OO a 1.2-1.8 ?ace aeua, i?ae a IEO, ui iiynith?oueny ??ciith eiioeaio?aoe??th I2 ii ia?a??co ?aaeoi?a. I?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue ii niaethaaiith AA a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO ia onoaiiaeao O-0.05, O-0.05-OeEO, OeEO-0.02 oa EOO-0.2 cae?enithaaeeny ye iiooeia?, oae ? aaeainia? aenia?eiaioe. ?o iaeaaaeeea?o? ?acoeueoaoe aeaii a oaae.4. Ooo, ii?yae c iaoa??aeaie ii iiaeeo?eaoe?? oa?o, oeio aoa?eey, picscalex100010009000003d50000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c002a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffff600200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 b8004000050000001302b800840117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010008000000 320a3701ad0101000000640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000fb0240fe 0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 cc66040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a000243000100000041000a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc020000 00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000043000000000000004f000000 6a0000000000000000000000000000000000, , Ua, On i?aaenoaaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th ii eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey – ?ioaa?aeuei?e (O) oa a eaoe?e cie? (Oe), a oaeiae ii aeeeaeai SOx ? NOx. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaiey? a?aei?oeoe ianooiia. 1. A IEO io?eiaii caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe ii ooee?caoe?? aenieicieueieo ANO ? E-A(A) (O 0.925). I?e oeueiio aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ?o eiiaa?n?? oa i/?eoaai? cia/aiiy aeeeae?a NOx. Ui noino?oueny AO, oi /anoeiaa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiai aeei?enoaiiy a IEO iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie iiaa?iaiiy aeianaieo c oiiee iaeeaieo /anoie a ciio EO, aea a ca’yceo c iecueeei nooiaiai i/enoee aeeiiaeo aac?a a?ae ae??aieo o?aeoe?e a naia?aoi??, oea ??oaiiy ia? iaiaaeai? ia?niaeoeae. 2. A OO ia aaeaeiny caaacia/eoe iaiao?aeiiai nooiaiy eiiaa?n?? AA (O< 0.9), ui, a ia?oo /a?ao, iiynith?oueny iaaeinoaoi?i /anii ia?aaoaaiiy iaeeaieo /anoie a ?aaeoe?ei?e cii?. A oie aea /an i?e i?iaaaeaii? oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeai? aia?aoe aeia?a ca?aeiiaiaeoaaee naaa ye caiaethaa/? aoa?eey oa aeiiaethaa/? ECC. 3. I?e niaethaaii? ANO oa E-A(A) a OeAOO io?eiaii a?eueo aenie? nooiai? eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey (O= 0.91-0.93), i?ae a OO, a i?e aeainooiaiaa?e oa?i?/i?e ia?a?iaoe? E-A(A) (aaceo?eaoe?y-niaethaaiiy) a OeAOO – ? a?eueo aenie? (O= 0.935-0.94), i?ae a IEO. A oie aea /an i?e niaethaaii? AO ia aeinyaiooi iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy eiai ooee?caoe?? (O 0.83), ui iiynith?oueny iecueeei ??aiai ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ECC a OeAOO. 4. A OeEO, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?ioeo oaoiieia?e EO, aeinyaiooi iaea?eueo? nooiai? eiiaa?n?? AA (O 0.97), e?au? aeieia?/i? iieacieee niaethaaiiy aoa?eey (e??i E-A(A)) oa iaea?eueo oe?ieee ae?aiacii ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaie (a?ae 40-50 aei 100%) aac ci?ie oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a i?ioean?a eiiaa?n??. Aenia?eiaioe ii niaethaaiith E-A(A) aeiaaee, ui i?e iioeiaeueieo oaiia?aoo?ao ai??iiy eai’yiiai aoa?eey a OeEO, On=1113-1133 E, caaacia/eoe no?ee? ?aaeeie eiai ooee?caoe?? ia aaeaeiny, ui iiynith?oueny aaeiia?aoe??th /anoie a cii? EO niieyieie aeae?eaiiyie. O aeiaaeeo On=1143-1163 E ciaeaeaii i?eeiyoi? ?aaeeie aca?iiae?? E-A(A) c I2. I?e oeueiio aeey iueiai io?eiaii a?eueo aenie?, i?ae aeey ?ioeo AA, aeeeaee SOx oa NOx. Oaaeeoey 4 – Iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy AA a EO Oei aoa?eeypicscalex100010009000003d5000000030017000000000005000000090200000 0000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000 000050000000b0200000000050000000c02c002a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0 00010000000c0ffffffbcffffff600200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685 47970650000600009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d01000005000 0001402b8004000050000001302b800840117000000fb02c0fe000000000000900100000 0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc69040000002d0101000 8000000320a3701ad0101000000640008000000320a7002840101000000310017000000f b0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204 3797200cc69040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a0002430001000000c 0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000b c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004 f0000006a00000000000000000000000000, %, iiUr, i/nOn, EOOeNOx ia/ii3SOx ia/ii3IEOAO43.80-31.3-2.61158-11880.85-0.890.78-0.82< 220–ANO44.20-51.3-2.61113-11430.925-0.940.88-0.90< 210–E-A(A)40.00-51.4-2.51133-11680.93-0.9350.88-0.90< 220–OOAO43.80-31.9-2.81193-12180.71-0.730.65-0.67< 250–ANO44.20-51.9-2.81153-11780.86-0.880.83-0.85< 240–E-A(A)40.00-51.9-2.91173-11930.85-0.880.81-0.85< 250–OeAOOAO43.80-35.0-5.41188-12030.81-0.830.75-0.77< 230–ANO44.20-54.2-5.41133-11730.91-0.9350.89-0.92< 220–E-A(A)40.00-54.2-5.81158-11830.91-0.930.89-0.91< 220–aeainooiaiaaa oa?i?/ia ia?a?iaea a OeAOO ( aaceo?eaoe?y-niaethaaiiy)E-A(A)41.91.0-2.53.6-4.21183-11930.935-0.94–<19 0–OeEO (Na/S =1.8-2.5, S1d =1.4-1.8% (AO, AeI, AeAe), S1d =2.2-2.8% (ANO, E-A(A), IA)AO43.80-33.0-6.01153-1193> 0.9700.94-0.96< 160< 190AeI40.10-32.7-6.01133-1173> 0.9750.95-0.97<190< 185ANO44.20-52.4-6.01123-1143> 0.9800.96-0.98< 195< 225AeAe24.20-52.4-6.01123-1143> 0.9800.96-0.98< 180< 200E-A(A)40.00-52.4-6.01143-1163> 0.9800.95-0.98< 225< 310IA41.80-52.4-6.01093-1123> 0.9850.97-0.98<170< 270OeEO (aeniein??/enoa aoa?eey, Na/S =2.0, S1d =3.4-4.8 %)AOn34.10-2.53.9-6.01153-1173> 0.9400.90-0.92< 270< 815AeIn33.40-33.6-6.01143-1163> 0.9550.91-0.94< 220< 740ANOn35.40-33.3-6.01133-1143> 0.9700.94-0.96< 225< 6605. I?e ai??ii? AA a OeEO c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio aoa?eey c?inoaee iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e eiai niaethaaiiy oa ca’ycoaaiiy ieneae?a n??ee, aeiey ia?aeiiiai iia?o?y a aeooo?, ciaiooaaeeny ?ioaa?aeueia nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ? ae?aiacii ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? onoaiiaie. 6.I?e niaethaaii? aeniein??/enoeo AOn, AeIn oa ANOn a OeEO io?eiaii caaeia?euei? oaoiieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?o eiiaa?n??, ye? aeecuee? aei oeo, ui aoee ciaeaeaii aeey ?o aiaeia?a c iaeei ai?noii n??ee. I?e Na/S= 2.0 (nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy niieo/aiue n??ee = 90-93%) ??aaiue aeeeae?a SOx neeaaeaa 600-1100 ia/ii3, a ca?eueoaiiy a?aeiioaiiy Ca/S, ii?yae c? ciaioaiiyi SOx, i?eaiaeeei ? aei ca?eueoaiiy NOx. Aeey iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a niaethaaiiy aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey a OeEO aeeiiaii aeiaeaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aoei iai?aaeaii ia i?i?i?caoe?th aeeeae?a SOx oa NOx iaeii?aciai (SOx, NOx < 400 ia/ii3). Ia iniia? ?o ?acoeueoao?a ?aeiiaiaeiaaii ne?aeoth/e a?aeiioaiiy Na/S: 4.0 (AOn), 3.0-4.0 (AeIn), 3.0-3.5 (ANOn). I?e i?iaaaeaii? oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii niaethaaiith AA a OeEO ciaeaeaii, ui c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy oa eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a aeeiiaeo aacao niinoa??aa?oueny ? ca?eueoaiiy aeeeae?a NOx. Aeey AO oea iieacaii ia iae.13. Aeaiee oaeo a?aoiaaii i?e ciaoiaeaeaii? iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ooee?caoe?? AA a OeEO. Aeey ioe?iee aeioe?eueiino? aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiieo OeEO-oaoiieia?e i?e oa?i?/i?e ia?a?iaoe? AA Oe?a?ie i?iaaaeaii oeeee aenia?eiaio?a ii aecia/aiith aieeao caoieiaeaeaiiy ieeiaaciaiai iioieo o aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aaeoi??a oa ECC a o?aeo? ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ia aoaeoeai?noue ai??iiy aoa?eey ??ciiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaee, ui i?e cieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e a aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aaeoi?a aei On< 1103 E aeey AO oa On < 1073 E aeey AeI ia caaacia/othoueny no?eee ?aaeeie ?o ooee?caoe??, i?e oeueiio c?inoa? aeiey aoaeaoeth o eaoe?e cie?. Oea iaiaaeo? iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy OeEO-oaoiieia?e “I??ioeio” oa o??ie “Aaaeie A?eeien” aeey niaethaaiiy AO oa AeI /a?ac ciaioaiiy ae?aiaciio ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? eioeiaa?aaao?a, a oaeiae i?aee?aneth? iaaeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?? “Oee?eioeth?ae” aeey eiiaa?n?? iecueei?aaeoe?eieo iaeea. Oaoiieia?y o??ie “Eo?a?” aeaea?oueny iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiith aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AO ? AeI a OeEO i?e oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?iaaia?aoi??a, a oaeiae aeey niaethaaiiy aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey. Inoaii? coiiaeaii ca?eueoaiiyi aeeeae?a SOx i?e ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy a aa?oi?e /anoei? oiiie OeEO-onoaiiaie, ui a ia?oo /a?ao aaaeeeai aeey ooee?caoe?? AOn, AeIn oa ANOn. Aieeao ciaioaiiy oaiia?aoo?e a aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aaeoi?a ia aoaeoeai?noue ai??iiy ANO, E-A(A),AeAe, IA ia aeyaeaii. I?e ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e ECC a o?aeo? ?aoee?eoeyoe?? OeEO-onoaiiaie aeey AO ? AeI niinoa??aaeiny iia??oaiiy oiia eiiaa?n??. O aeiaaeeo aeinyaiaiiy OECC< 923 E aeey AO oa OECC< 803 E aeey AeI oea oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny ca?eueoaiiyi /anoee aoaeaoeth a aeiii?e oa eaoe?e cie?. I?e OECC< 823 E aeey AO oa OECC< 703 E aeey AeI no?eeeo ?aaeei?a niaethaaiiy aeaieo iaeea a OeEO ciaeaeaii ia aoei. Oea iiynith?oueny aeacaeoeaaoe??th ?aaeoe?eii? iiaa?oi? ECC i?e eiai ioieiaeaeaii?. Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeaiiai aeniiaeo ia onoaiiaoe? ?NE-?-Ae i?e On= 973 E ? ?i= 0.108 IIa ciyoi e?ea? eiiaa?n?? eien?a AO oa AeI ? ?o ECC, ye? acyo? c o?aeoo ?aoee?eoeyoe?? onoaiiaee O-0.05-OeEO i?e OECC=903 E (AO) oa OECC= 733E (AeI) c I2. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeaii ia iae.14. Aeaeii, ui ia ii/aoeo eiiaa?n?? Wo ECC a 1.8-2.5 ?ace ieae/a, i?ae eien?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iayai?noue aeacaeoeaaoe?? ?aaaoth/i? iiaa?oi? ECC aeaieo iaeea i?e ?o ioieiaeaeaii?. Aeai? iaoa??aee a?aoiaaii i?e aaeaioaoe?? oaoiieia?? “Eo?a?” aei AO ? AeI. Aieeao ci?ie OECC ia aoaeoeai?noue ai??iiy ANO, E-A(A), IA ia ciaeaeaii. ?iaioe ii aaeaioaoe?? a?aeiieo OeEO oaoiieia?e aei AA Oe?a?ie aeeiiaii ia oaoiieia?/ieo onoaiiaeao IOOeAA ? aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaeao iiooaei?noth 1.8-2.5 IAoo o??i “Eo?a?” (I?ia//eia), “A?eo?o eiae” (Aaeeeia?eoai?y), “Aaaeie A?eeien”. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? io?eiaii ia onoaiiaeao IOOeAA, i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ia aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaeao aeuaiacaaieo o??i ? aeei?enoaii: Noa?iaao?anueeith, Eoaainueeith OAN, Aeaia?oaiaioii aia?aaoeee NOA, OAOOe, o??iith “Eo?a?-Eaiouean-Aaaeie” i?e i?aeaioiaoe? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iaa?oiooaaiue oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeuaiacaaieo noaioe?e; OOeEA, o??iaie “?aoaei” (Ie?ii?anueea OAN) ? “Eo?a?-Eaioue?n” (Noa?iaao?anueea OAN) i?e noai?aii? oaoi?/ieo oa ?iai/eo i?iaeo?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a i?iaeoeoeai?noth 160-670 oii ia?e ia aiaeeio. Oe? eioeiaa?aaaoe ieaio?oueny canoinoaaoe aeey niaethaaiiy AO, AeI oa a?aeoiae?a ?o caaaa/aiiy. I?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a aeei?enoaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a ii ca?eueoaiith oaiia?aoo?e ai??iiy, aeie? ia?aeiiiai iia?o?y a aeooo?, aenioe oiiie oa ae?aiao?o oeeeeii?a eioe?a. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/aii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? niaethaaiiy AA a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO, ye? iaaaaeaii o aeniiaeao. O i’yoiio ?icae?e? iienaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ii /anoeia?e aaceo?eaoe?? AA a OO, OeAOO oa IEO, eiai iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? a IEO ? OeEO, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, a?aei?/aii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano aaceo?eaoe?? a EO. Oe? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ia onoaiiaeao O-0.05, O-0.05-OeEO ? EOO-0.2. Aenia?eiaioe c /anoeiai? aaceo?eaoe?? AA iieacaee, ui: i?e eiai aca?iiae?? c i?iaeoeoaie niaethaaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco oa ?o noi?ooth c iia?o?yi aei Oaoae 0.3 a?aeaoaa?oueny ?ic?iaea ii?enoi? no?oeoo?e oaa?aeeo /anoie; o aeiaaeeo [I2] 2.0 % oa Oa 1173 E eaoe? i?aeoe/ii ia ai?youe o ?aaeoe?ei?e cii?, i?e oeueiio niinoa??aa?oueny eaac?noaoe?iia?iee oa?aeoa? eiiaa?n?? ECC; aeainooiaiaaa oa?i?/ia ia?a?iaea AO, AeI, E-A(A) oa AeAe (aaceo?eaoe?y-niaethaaiiy) a IEO, OO oa OeAOO ? aeey aeaieo iaeea a?eueo aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii ooee?caoe??, i?ae aaciina?aaei? niaethaaiiy; /anoeiaa aaceo?eaoe?y aenieicieueiiai E-A(A) iie?auo? oiiae ianooiiiai ai??iiy eiai aoaeenoiai neaioeth ca ?aooiie ia?aaaaeii? eiiaa?n?? ia noaae?? aaceo?eaoe?? niiee oa iai?aeieno aaciaiai aoa?eey. Oe? iaoa??aee aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo noai i?ioean?a aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey a EOO oa OeEOO, a oaeiae iaoiae?a ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo eioeiaa?aaao?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoiieia?e EO. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EO i?iaiaeeeeny aeey aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy neioac-aaco a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?, a oaeiae i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeo?aeieo aeaieo aeey ?ic?iaee i?ioean?a aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EOO oa OeEOO. Aeey caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai /ano ia?aaoaaiiy iaeeaieo /anoie a ?aaeoi?? aenia?eiaioe cae?enithaaeeny a IEO oa OeEO. Ia iae.15 i?aaenoaaeaii iaoa??aee ii caeaaeiino? oaieioe cai?aiiy neioac-aaco (picscalex100010009000003ce000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a370191010100000 0720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c00080 00000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d0101000400000 0f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010 00000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00c c040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000000000000000000000000), o?i?/iiai EEAe (o?i), nooiaiy eiiaa?n?? aoaeaoeth a aeiii?e (Oae) oa eaoe?e cie? a?ae aeo?ao aoa?eey (GA) ? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?a??co ?aaeoi?a (GS) o aeiaaeeo aaceo?eaoe?? ANO a OeEO ia onoaiiaoe? O-0.05-OeEO. Aeaeii, ui iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy Oe, picscalex100010009000003ce0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a3701910101000000 720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c000800 0000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000oa o?i aeinyaiooi i?e GS=2900-3200 ea/(i2aiae), a Oae ciaioo?oueny c eiai ca?eueoaiiyi. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? ianooii? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii ia i?eioi?e onoaiiaoe? EOO-0.2, yea ia? a?eueoo aenioo oa i?eno??e aeey aeiiaeaiiy ECC a aeiii?e cie?. A oeeo aenia?eiaioao aeiaeaoeiai: a ?aaeoi? iiaeaaaany aaiiye i?e Na/S= 2.5, i?iaiaeeeiny niaethaaiiy neioac-aaco i?e eiao?oe??io? iaaeeeoeo iia?o?y =1.1, aecia/aeeny nooi?iue ca’ycoaaiiy ieneae?a n??ee oa aeeeaee NOx. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue i?e iioeiaeueieo oiiaao eiiaa?n?? AA a OeEO i?aaenoaaeaii a oaae.5. Oaaeeoey 5–Oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee i?ioeano iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? AA a OeEO (=0-3 ii, GA=280-400 ea/aiae, GS=2300-3150 ea/(i2aiae), Na/S=2.5, Ur=4.4-6.9 i/n) Oei aoa?eeypicscalex100010009000003d5000000030017000000000005000000090200000 0000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000 000050000000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0 00010000000c0ffffffa4ffffff40020000640200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685 47970650000400009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d01000005000 0001402d3004000050000001302d300740117000000fb02c0fe000000000000900100000 0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc96040000002d0101000 8000000320a4f01980101000000640008000000320a6402810101000000310017000000f b0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204 3797200cc96040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a40023b00010000004 1000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000b c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000 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Epicscalex100010009000003e5000000030017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02400320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffa4ffffffe0020000e40200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000800009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000140 2d3004000050000001302d300630117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc040 2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d0101000800000 0320a4f01900101000000720008000000320ab802530201000000e30008000000320ab80 2eb01010000002c0008000000320ab802870101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000 000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040 000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a400230000100000051000a000000260 60f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010 2022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00102000300000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, IAeae/ii3o?ipicscalex100010009000003cd0000000300170000000000050000000902 000000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102 01000000050000000b0200000000050000000c026002a0021200000026060f001a00ffff ffff000010000000c0ffffffadffffff600200000d0200000b00000026060f000c004d61 7468547970650000500009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000 0500000014025300400005000000130253007a0117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001 000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc5f040000002d01 010008000000320ae401a70101000000e40017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc5f040000002d010200 04000000f001010008000000320ac0013b0001000000d5000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000000000004300 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000picscalex100010009000003 cd0000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400000002010100050000000102 ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050000000b020000000005000000 0c024002a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffadffffff6002 0000ed0100000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000400009000000fa020000 01000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402530040000500000013025300 7a0117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720 526f6d616e2043797200cc81040000002d01010008000000320ae401aa0101000000eb00 17000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200cc81040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac0013b00 01000000d5000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900 00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001 020003000000000000000000000000004300000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000picscalex1000100090000039f0000000300120000000000050000000902 000000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102 01000000050000000b0200000000050000000c02200280011200000026060f001a00ffff ffff000010000000c0ffffffadffffff40010000cd0100000b00000026060f000c004d61 7468547970650000300009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000 050000001402530040000500000013025300310110000000fb0240fe0000000000009001 000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320ac00135000100 000073000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02140009000000 0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100 030000000000000000004f00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000, %NOx, ia/ii3ANO44.212285.5959.00.890.748695AeAe24.212235.4756.20.900.7585109E- A(A)40.012185.3554.00.880.738898IA26.811934.6560.80.920.799271AeI40.1124 32.3216.40.860.4284–AO43.812480.90––0.38––Aiae?c oeeo iaoa??ae?a iieaco?, ui iia?o?yio aaceo?eaoe?th a IEO oa OeEO aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e eiiaa?n?? aenieicieueiiai eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey. Iaeneiaeuei? cia/aiiy oaieioe cai?aiiy neioac-aaco picscalex100010009000003ce0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a3701910101000000 720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c000800 0000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000=5.3-5.6 IAeae/ii3 aeey ANO, AeAe oa E-A(A) ? picscalex100010009000003ce0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a3701910101000000 720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c000800 0000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000000000000000=4.6 -4.7 IAeae/ii3 – aeey IA, io?eiaii i?e Oae = 0.88-0.92, Oe=0.73-0.79, o?i=54- 61%, oaiia?aoo?ao aaceo?eaoe?? Oa=1203-1233 E (ANO, E-A(A), AeAe) ? Oa=1183-1203 E (IA) oa aeoiae? nooiai aaco a ia?a?aooieo ia ai?th/? a aoa?ee? – 2.9-3.3 ii3/ea. I?e aeiaeaaaii? aaiiyeo a EO caaacia/oaaeiny ca’ycoaaiiy ieneae?a n??ee a?eueoa, i?ae ia 85 %, a aeeeaee NOx i?ney eaia?e niaethaaiiy neioac-aaco ia ia?aaeuoaaee 110 ia/ii3. Ci?ia GS a?ae 2200 aei 3600 ea/(i2aiae) ia aieeaaea ia oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee aaceo?eaoe?? ANO a OeEO, a i?e eiai ciaioaii? aiie iia??ooaaeeny. Ciaeaeai? aaee/eie picscalex100010009000003ce0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a3701910101000000 720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c000800 0000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000000000000000aeec uee? aei iaeneiaeueieo i?e iia?o?yi?e aaceo?eaoe?? AA. Ca?eueoaiiy o?i oa O iiaea aooe aeinyaiooi ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo a ?aaeoi?? oa c?inoaiiy eiai aenioe. Aeei?enoaiiy iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? a IEO ? OeEO aeey ooee?caoe?? AO oa AeI ia aoaeoeaii a ca’yceo c iecueeeie cia/aiiyie o?i, Oe oa picscalex100010009000003ce0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01000008000000320a3701910101000000 720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed01010000002c000800 0000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010004000000 f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc 040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000000000000000000000000000. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EO oaeiae a?aei?/aii o aeniiaeao. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue c aaceo?eaoe?? AA a OeEO ? IEO aeei?enoaii IOOeAA i?e ?ic?iaoe? OC aeey aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 ? IAe?OA i?e noai?aii? ?iai/iai i?iaeoo aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee aeey aaceo?eaoe?? a eiia?iiaaiiio EOO. O oinoiio ?icae?e? iienaii oaoiieia?/i? noaie aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 a ?aaeeiao aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee (i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y, i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy) oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a OeEOO, eiai niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? a EOO ? OeEOO. I?aaenoaaeaii: ?iaioe ii iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith i?ioean?a eiiaa?n?? aoa?eey a OeEO oa OeEOO; ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aenioe oiiee oa ae?aiao?o oeeeeii?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a oa OeEOO-?aaeoi??a; ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo ia?iaaia?aoi??a c aeei?enoaiiyi oaoiieia?e EO; ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii canoinoaaiith oaoiieia?e EO aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA ??ciiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio, aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo aoa?eueieo oaoiieia?e a aia?aaoeeo, aeai? ii aeei?enoaiith ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?ic?iaie caeiaoaa/a. Aeaiiino?aoe?eia onoaiiaea OeEO-1.0 noai?th?oueny ia oa?eoi??? IOOeAA ca?aeii Iaeaco I?i?no?a aia?aaoeee oa aeaeo?eo?eaoe?? Oe?a?ie ?234 a?ae 13 a?oaeiy 1995 ?ieo. OC ia ?ic?iaeo eiino?oeoe?? onoaiiaee aeeiiaii i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a, a ?iai/ee i?iaeo – AeEA “I?aaeaiia” oa ?inoeoooii “Aia?aii?iaeo” (i.Ee?a). Oaieiaa iiooaei?noue onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 – 10 IAoo, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue ii iaeeao – aei 2 oii aoa?eey ia aiaeeio. Ione onoaiiaee caieaiiaaii ia 2000 ??e. Ia i?e ieaio?oueny a?aei?aoethaaoe oaoiieia?? aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee, niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EOO oa OeEOO, i?ney /iai aeei?enoaoe iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?iai/eo i?iaeo?a aia?aaoe/ieo IAO ia oaa?aeiio iaeea? iiooaei?noth aei 100 IAoa. Iniaeea?noth aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 ? iiaeeea?noue i?aai?caoe?? aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey (i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y, i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy), a oaeiae eiai ?icae?eueii? iiaea/?; ae??aii? o?aeoe?? a o?aeo ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ECC, a a?oai? – a ?aaeoi?. Eiino?oeoe?y a?aoee EO ?aaeoi?a caoeuaia a.n. N?N? ? 1638455. A ?aaeei? i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y a onoaiiaeo aoiaeyoue nenoaie: iiaea/? iaeeaa, aaiiyeo ? oaa?aeiai ?ia?oo; iiaea/? oa i?ae?a??ao iia?o?y; iaea?aeaiiy neioac-aaco (i??ie?ca?, o?aeo iiaa?iaiiy ECC, ?aaeoi?, aeiiaethaa/ ECC OO a aeiii?e cie?, oeeeeii ia?oiai nooiaiy, ci?ooaa/ i??ie?ciiai oa aaia?aoi?iiai aaco); i/enoee i?iaeoeo?a aaceo?eaoe?? (oeeeeii ae?oaiai nooiaiy); aeaiaeo ciee oa ECC; niaethaaiiy neioac-aaco i?ae oeneii; ae?in?ethaaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy aaciiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a. Iiaea/a oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ieaio?oueny a i??ie?ca?, aea ca ?aooiie eiioaeoo c cieith aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny eiai oa?iieiioaeoiee i??ie?c. I?ney oeueiai ECC iai?aaeyoeiaoeny a ?aaeoi? EO, eoaee oaeiae iiaeaaaoeiaoeny iia?o?y. Ia aeoiae? ?c aaciaaia?aoi?a aaciiiae?ai? i?iaeoeoe aoaeooue i/euaoeny a?ae ieeo, ci?ooaaoeny c i??ie?ciei aacii, i?ioiaeeoe ae?oao nooi?iue i/enoee a?ae oaa?aeeo /anoie, niaethaaoeny a eaia?? cai?aiiy neioac-aaco, iai?aaeyoeny ia ae?in?ethaaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy ? aeaiaeeoeny c onoaiiaee. ECC ?c ieaeiuei? /anoeie aaciaaia?aoi?a ieaio?oueny aeaiaeeoe a aeiiaethaa/ OO, a io?eiaio cieo cae?aoe a ie?aiee aoiea?. Ca’ycoaaiiy niieoe n??ee aoaea cae?enithaaoeny a EO ca ?aooiie iiaea/? a ?aaeoi? aaiiyeo. Ooieoe?? aaciai? oo?a?ie, ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiioaaoeiooue nenoaie ae?in?ethaaiiy oa ioieiaeaeaiiy aaco. O aeiaaeeo ?iaioe onoaiiaee a ?aaeei? iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey a EOO oa OeEOO ?c aeuaiienaii? noaie ieaio?oueny aeeeth/eoe i??ie?ca?, a iiaea/o aoa?eey cae?enieoe a o?aeo ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ECC oa a a?aeiiaethaaeueio ciio EO. Aiaeia?/io noaio cai?iiiiiaaii ? aeey niaethaaiiy aoa?eey a EOO oa OeEOO. I?e ?iaio? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 a ?aaeei? i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy (iae.16) a aa?oi?e /anoei? ?aaeoi?a ? ia o?aeo? ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ECC aeiaeaoeiai aoaeooue ?ici?uai? aiaeyi? oieiaeeeueieee, a eaia?a niaethaaiiy neioac-aaco ia?ai?uaia a o?aeo i??ie?ciiai aaco. E??i oiai ieaio?oueny iiaea/a aoi?eiiiai iia?o?y a ?aaeoi?. ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeei?a eiiaa?n?? AA a OeEOO noiniaii aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 i?eaaaeaii a oaae. 6. Ooo, ii?yae c iaoa??aeaie ii ?aaeeio eiiaa?n??, oeio aoa?eey, eiai cieueiino?, oeneo ? oaiia?aoo?e a ?aaeoi??, oaeaeeino? ieeiaaciaiai iioieo, aeo?ao? aoa?eey i?aaenoaaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th ii O, picscalex100010009000003e50000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02400320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa4ffffffe0020000e40200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000800009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 d3004000050000001302d300630117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010008000000 320a4f01900101000000720008000000320ab802530201000000e30008000000320ab802 eb01010000002c0008000000320ab802870101000000690017000000fb0240fe00000000 00009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc660400 00002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a400230000100000051000a0000002606 0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102 022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000 6a000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, aeeeaeai NOx, ? iiooaeiino? onoaiiaee (N). Oaaeeoey 6 – ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeei?a eiiaa?n?? AA a OeEOO ia aeaiiino?aoe?ei?e onoaiiaoe? OeEO-1.0 (= 0-3 ii) Oei aoa?eeypicscalex100010009000003d5000000030017000000000005000000090200000 0000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000 000050000000b0200000000050000000c02c00280021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0 00010000000c0ffffffa4ffffff40020000640200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685 47970650000400009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d01000005000 0001402d3004000050000001302d300740117000000fb02c0fe000000000000900100000 0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d0101000 8000000320a4f01990101000000640008000000320a6402810101000000310017000000f b0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204 3797200cc68040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a40023b0001000000c 0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000b c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, %?, IIapicscalex100010009000003cd0000000300170000000000050000000902000000000 400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000 50000000b0200000000050000000c02400260021200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001 0000000c0ffffffafffffff20020000ef0100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797 0650000400009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001 4025100400005000000130251007e0117000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0 402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01010008000 000320ae901af0101000000720017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc04020 01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc66040000002d01020004000000f 001010008000000320ac00140000100000055000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000 000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc0 40000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000, i/npicscalex100010009000003a60000000300170000000000050000000902000000000 400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000 50000000b0200000000050000000c02000280011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001 0000000c0ffffffadffffff40010000ad0100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797 0650000200009000000fa02000001000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001 4025300400005000000130253003c0117000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0 402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d01010008000 000320ac001300001000000d2000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000 000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010 20004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000, EGA, ea/aiaeOpicscalex100010009000003ce00000002001700000000000500000009020000 00000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100 0000050000000b0200000000050000000c02000320031200000026060f001a00ffffffff 000010000000c0ffffffbcffffffe0020000bc0200000b00000026060f000c004d617468 547970650000800017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d01000008000000320a37019101 01000000720008000000320a7002550201000000e30008000000320a7002ed0101000000 2c0008000000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010000 00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d010100 04000000f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00ffff ffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374 656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f001010003000000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000, IAeae/ii3N, IAooaaceo?eaoe?y a OeEOO (picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040 0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050 000000b0200000000050000000c02c00240021200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100 00000c0ffffffbcffffff000200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706 50000600017000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e6 57720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d01000008000000320a370191010100000 0720008000000320a7002890101000000690017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000 000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc68040000002d01010 004000000f001000008000000320a000230000100000051000a00000026060f000a00fff fffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc010202225379737 4656d00cc040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000201000 0000000ffffff00ffffff0000000000000000=17.7 IAeae/ea, o?i=69-73 %, Na/S=2.5, >0.91, NOx140 ia/ii3)ANO40,20.812.101203810>
0.945.823.98ANO40,22.501.6212031920> 0.975.979.44

niaethaaiiy a OeEOO
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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16.4-20.4 IAeae/ea, Na/S=1.8,
>0.94, NOx150 ia/ii3)AO42.80.812.061173320>
0.985–1.64AO42.81.201.931173445> 0.985–2.27AO35.11.201.501173281>
0.985–1.60AO42.82.501.621173775> 0.990–3.96ANO40.01.201.501173350>
0.990–1.59

i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy a OeEOO
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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16.4-20.4 IAeae/ea, NOx150
ia/ii3)AO35.11.201.501173300> 0.985–1.70AeI35.11.201.501173320>
0.99–1.78ANO40.01.201.501173410> 0.99–1.86 Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a iieaco?, ui o aeiaaeeo eiiaa?n?? ANO a ?aaeei?
i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y ii a?aeiioaiith aei eiai aaceo?eaoe?? a OeEOO iiaea
aooe aeinyaiooi ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0 a
1.15-1.25 ?ace i?e ?= 0.81 IIa ? a 1.03-1.05 ?ace i?e ?= 2.5 IIa.
Inoaii? iiynith?oueny cieaeaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? i??ie?co a cae?eoeo
nenoaiao c ?inoii oeneo ? iaa?oioiao? ia?niaeoeai?noue i?ioeano
i??ie?c-aaceo?eaoe?y aeey ooee?caoe?? eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey i?e ?
0.81 IIa. I?e ?> 1.2 IIa aeey aeaieo iaeea aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe
aaceo?eaoe?th a EOO ? OeEOO.

A ?aaeei? i??ie?c-niaethaaiiy ii a?aeiioaiith aei niaethaaiiy a AA
OeEOO i?e ?=1.2IIa aeinyaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy iiooaeiino? onoaiiaee a
1.06 ?ace aeey AO ? a 1.17 ?ace –aeey ANO. Oea iiynith?oueny ??ciith
aoaeoeai?noth ?o i??ie?co ? aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeaio noaio aeey
ooee?caoe?? eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey. Ui noino?oueny niaethaaiiy a
OeEOO, oi aiii aeioe?eueii aeey anueiai AA ?, a ia?oo /a?ao, aeey AO oa
AeI.

?iaioe ii iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith i?iaiaeeeeny aeey noai?aiiy
iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo i?ioean?a ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey a OeEO ?
OeEOO oa iiaeaethaaiiy eiiaa?n?? iaeeii/ieo eieniaeo /anoie. O ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo aeei?enoiaoaaany ciiiee iaoiae ?ic?aooieo, aea ie?aii
?icaeyaeaeenue: eeiey/ee oa?, iaaeoa?iaee i?ino??, oeeeeii, i??ie?ca? ?
o?aeo ?aoee?eoeyoe??. Aieiaio oaaao aoei i?eae?eaii iaaeoa?iaiio
i?inoi?o ?aaeoi?a, aeey yeiai iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue iiaoaeiaaii ia ??ai?
iaoai?ee nooe?eueieo na?aaeiaeu. Aiia i?aaenoaaey? niaith nenoaio
iaeiii??ieo aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue ia?aiino iane, ?iioeueno ? aia?a??.
O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo iaoiae ?ic?aooieo a?aoiao? aoaeoeaio aeeooc?th,
oaieii?ia?aei?noue, aaoa?iaaii? o?i?/i? ?aaeoe?? aca?iiae?? eien?a c NI2
oa I2 a ?aieao eaac?aiiiaaii? iiaeae? ii?iaiai i?inoi?o. Aaoi? i?eeiaa
o/anoue o neeaaeaii? nenoai ??aiyiue, iaaiai?aii? oa aiae?c?
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a, ye? aeei?enoaii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? OC
aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0.

I?e niaethaaii? iecueei?aaeoe?eieo iaeea a OeEO ia caaaeaee
caaacia/o?oueny ia-iao?aeiee /an ia?aaoaaiiy iaeeaieo /anoie a oiioe? ?
iio??aia nooi?iue ?aoee?eoeyoe?? ECC, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy Oe.
Aeey onoiaiiy aeaiiai iaaeie?eo aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo aenioe oiiee ? ae?aiao?o oeeeeii?a eioe?a OeEO.

Iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo aenioe oiiee iiaoaeiaaii ia iniia? i?eiouaiiy, ui
/anoee, aoaeoeai?noue oeiaethaaiiy yeeo a oeeeeii? neeaaea? 50%, iiaeii?
cai?aoe ca iaeei i?io?ae. I?e oeueiio ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy /ano aeai?aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi Ur oa On ciaoiaeeoueny oeyo, ia
yeiio /anoee iiaeooue aeai??oe aei O= 0.9 (I?). Aaee/eia I? i?eeia?oueny
ca i?i?iaeueio aenioo oiiee. Aeuaiienaiee iaoiae aeei?enoaii OOeEA ?
IAOOe i?e ?ic?aooieo ?ici???a oiiie OeEO-ia?iaaia?aoi??a.

Iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ae?aiao?o oeeeeii?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a
iiaoaeiaaii ia iniia? i?eiouaiiy, ui o aenieicaieeaiiio iioioe? i?ee?
/anoee aoaea caoiieaii na?aaei?ie ? ca ?aooiie a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee
iai?aaeaii ia ia?eoa??th oeeeeiio. I?e oeueiio aeey aeinyaiaiiy
iio??aiiai nooiaiy i/enoee ieeiaaciaiai iioieo aaaaea?oueny aeinoaoi?i,
uia anoeaea i?eoeniooeny aei no?iee na?aaeiueiianiaa /anoea.
Aeiaeaoeiaith oiiaith aeniei? aoaeoeaiino? ieeii/enoee ? iaiao?aei?noue
caaacia/aiiy aieco oeee?iae?e/ii? /anoeie oeeeeiia a?eueii? a?ae /anoie
ciie, yea ?ici?uaia eiaen?aeueii aeo?aeiiio iao?oaeo ? neeaaea? 1.6-1.8
eiai aioo??oiueiai ae?aiao?a. Aaee/eia ciie oi?io?oueny nooe?eueiei
iioieii /anoie, ui ?ooathoueny ii ia?eoa??? aiec. Ae?aiao?, i?e yeiio
aeeiiothoueny aeuaia?ae?/ai? oiiae, ? i?eeia?oueny ca ?ic?aooieiaee aeey
oeeeeiio. Aeaio iaoiaeeeo aeei?enoaii o??iaie “?aoaei” ?
“Eo?a?-Eaioue?n” i?e noai?aii? i?iaeo?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a aeey
Ie?ii?anueei? oa Noa?iaao?anueei? OAN.

I?e i?aeaioiaoe? iaoiae?a ?aeiino?oeoe?? eioeiaa?aaao?a canoiniaaii
?yae ?ic?iaie iiooea/a, ye? caoeuai? aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie N?N?.
Oae, eiino?oeoe?th onoaiiaee aeey niaethaaiiy oaa?aeiai iaeeaa (ii a.n.
? 1638455) iiaea aooe aeei?enoaii i?e cai?i? oiiee ia?iaaia?aoi?a,
i?eno??e aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee oaa?aeiai iaeeaa (ii a.n. ? 1590842) –
ye ia?aaeoiiie ia?aae ae?th/ei eioeiaa?aaaoii o aeiaaeeo ia?aaiaeo
inoaiiueiai ia ooee?caoe?th AA, niin?a niaethaaiiy iecueeini?oiiai
iiae??aeaiiai iaeeaa (ii a.n. ? 1467316) – o ?ac? ia?aoiaeo ia
niaethaaiiy a?oai? o?aeoe?? a oaeae?, a ae??aii? – a OO. Inoaiith
i?iiiceoe?th canoiniaaii i?e i?aeaioiaoe? aeo?aeieo aeaieo oa OC aeey
noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiie?a-caiaethaa/?a AO a OO, ye? aoaea anoaiiaeaii
ia?aae ieaei?i y?onii oaeaeueieo iaeueiee?a ia?iaaia?aoi?a OI-100
Noa?iaao?anueei? OAN.

?ic?aooiie aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aia?aioaoiieia?e
ia OAN aoei i?iaaaeaii ia iniia? na?oiaeo oe?i. I?e aecia/aii?
nia?aa?oino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? a?aoiaaii aeo?aoe ia iaeeai, eai?oaeueia
aoae?aieoeoai, aenieoaoaoe?th oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooieo iieacaee, ui o aeiaaeeo aeeiiaiiy no/anieo aeieia?/ieo aeiia,
i?e aeei?enoaii? iaoiae?a EO iiaea aooe io?eiaii iaeieae/o, na?aae
aoa?eueieo aia?aioaoiieia?e, nia?aa?o?noue aeaeo?iaia?a?? ye i?e iiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa? ((3.6-4.0)10-2 oiiaieo iaeeieoeue (o.i.) ca 1 eAo/aiae),
oae ? i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo aeaeo?inoaioe?e ((2.8-3.0)10-2 o.i. ca
1 eAo/aiae).

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?e EO aeey oa?i?/ii?
ia?a?iaee AA ??ciiai nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio i?aaenoaaeaii o aeniiaeao
(aeea. ioieoe 8-10 oa 12).

aeniiaee

1. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a e?iaoe/ieo oa
oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aenieicieueiiai
aoa?eey a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o ciaeaeaii iniiai?
caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? eiai eiiaa?n??, ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i?
noaie i?ioean?a, ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
aia?ao?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith aoa?eey ??cieo nooiaiy
iaoaii?o?cio oa cieueiino? a eioeiaa?aaaoao, ui caaacia/o? ?ica’ycaiiy
aaaeeeai? iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeii? i?iaeaie – noai?aiiy aenieiaoaeoeaieo oa
aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA aeey iio?aa
aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie.

2. Aecia/aii e?iaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aca?iiae?? eien?a aia?aaoe/iiai
aoa?eey Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? aenieicieueiiai oa aeniein??/enoiai c NI2
oa I2 (iaaeeaeaiiy A??ai?ona) a EO a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ci?ie eiai
cieueiino?
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 4.6–71.0%), eiioeaio?aoe?? aaco-?aaaaioo
(picscalex100010009000003e5000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 0.02-48.7 ea/i3,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 0.05-7.43 ea/i3), oeneo (? = 0.1–2.51IIa) ?
oaiia?aoo?e eiiaa?n?? (OA = 970–1350 E, ON = 650–1000 E), a oaeiae
aeia??/? ioe?iee ?o oi/iino?. Iieacaii, ui ?c c?inoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e,
eiioeaio?aoe?? NI2 oa I2, ciaioaiiyi cieueiino? oa nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio
aoa?eey a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n?? eiai eien?a, aei
oiai ae cieaeaiiy nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy aia?a??
aeoeaaoe??, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a (?aaeoe?y N+I2) ? aei c?inoaiiy
eiinoaioe oaeaeeino?. Ciaeaeaii oaiia?aoo?i? iaae? ?nioaaiiy
aioo??oiueie?iaoe/iiai oa aioo??oiueiaeeooc?eiiai ?aaeei?a ?aaaoaaiiy.
Iieacaii, ui o aioo??oiueiaeeooc?eiiio ?aaeei? a?aeaoaa?oueny aeoeniaiiy
?aaeoe?e N+NI2 oa N+I2 ia iiaa?oith iaci- oa iae?iii? ? eiioo?io
iiaa?oith /anoie, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei noaoe?iia?iiai oa?aeoa?o aca?iiae??
a iaeneioi? oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n??, aei oiai ae ciaeaeaii, ui i?e
aca?iiae?? eien?a AA c NI2 oa eien?a AO ? AeI c I2 noaoe?iia?ia
oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? niinoa??aa?oueny ii a?aeiioaiith aei iioi/ii? iane
aoaeaoeth, a i?e eiiaa?n?? eien?a eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey c I2 – aei
eiai ii/aoeiai? iane. Io?eiai? e?iaoe/i? eiinoaioe aeei?enoaii a
?ic?aooieao i?ioean?a ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aoa?eey i?e i?iaeooaaii?
OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaie c ?aaeoi?aie
eeiey/iai ? oee?eoethth/iai eeiey/iai oa?o i?ae oeneii.

3. Iaea?aeaii eiinoaioe aeaiaioa?ieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2 (iaaeeaeaiiy
Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea) aeey oiia eiiaa?n?? eien?a AA a EOO i?e
??ciiio ia?oe?aeueiiio oeneo aaco-?aaaaioo
(picscalex100010009000003e5000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 1.0–37.5 ea/i3), a oaeiae aeia??/? ioe?iee ?o
oi/iino?. Iieacaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? NI
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino? eiiaa?n?? eien?a c aoaeaeeneei
aacii, aei oiai ae ii i??? c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e aca?iiae?? iaeeaieo
/anoie c NI2 aieea aeaiiai aoaeoo ia oaeaee?noue ?aaaoaaiiy
ciaioo?oueny. Ciaeaeaii, ui eiinoaioe aacioacieo noaae?e ?aaeoe?? N+NI2
ia caeaaeaoue a?ae nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio oaa?aeiai iaeeaa ? ?
oi?aa?naeueieie. Iieacaii, ui i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? iiiiieneaeo aoaeaoeth a
i?iaeoeoao aaceo?eaoe?? [CO] > 3.0% aeey ?ic?aooieo i?ioean?a eiiaa?n??
aoa?eey cai?noue iaaeeaeaiiy A??ai?ona iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iaaeeaeaiiy Eaiaith?a-O?ioaeueaoaea.

4. Aecia/aii oaiia?aoo?e naiicaeiaiiy oa /an aeai?aiiy AA a EOO.
Iieacaii, ui c? ciaioaiiyi nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio oa cieueiino? oaa?aeiai
iaeeaa ? ?inoii eiioeaio?aoe?? eenith a cii? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee
niinoa??aa?oueny ?o ciaioaiiy. Ciaeaeai? cia/aiiy /ano aeai?aiiy /anoie
a EO aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?aooieao aenioe oiiie OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a oa
OeEOO-?aaeoi??a.

5. Iaea?aeaii iniiai? oaoiieia?/i? oa aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?ioean?a ai??iiy AA Oe?a?ie a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO. I?e oeueiio
i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui a IEO, OO, OeAOO ? OeEO iiaea aooe caaacia/aii
aoaeoeaia niaethaaiiy aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey oa a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/aiiy
(picscalex100010009000003be000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 80%) c aenieeie aeieia?/ieie iieacieeaie
(SOx, NOx < 250 ia/ii3) aac aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiiai aaco aai iacooo ia ?o eiiaa?n?th. Aeey i?ioean?a ai??iiy a OeEO iieacaii, ui c? ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio c?inoathoue iioeiaeuei? oaiia?aoo?e niaethaaiiy aoa?eey oa ca’ycoaaiiy ieneae?a n??ee, aeiey ia?aeiiiai iia?o?y a aeooo?, ciaioo?oueny ?ioaa?aeueia nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? AA ? ae?aiacii ?aaoethaaiiy iiooaeiino? onoaiiaie. 6. Iieacaii, ui o aeiaaeeo niaethaaiiy iecueei?aaeoe?eiiai aoa?eey a OeEO i?e ciaioaii? oaiia?aoo?e ECC, yeee iiaa?oa?oueny a oiieo, ieae/a 923 E aeey AO oa ieae/a 803 E aeey AeI, niinoa??aa?oueny iia??oaiiy ?aaeei?a eiai ai??iiy, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao aoaeaoeth a aeiii?e oa eaoe?e cie?. 7. Ciaeaeaii, ui i?e niaethaaii? aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey a OeEO o aeiaaeeo ca?eueoaiiy /anoee aaiiyeo, ui iiaea?oueny a oiieo, ii?yae c? ciaioaiiyi aeeeae?a SOx niinoa??aa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aeeeae?a NOx. I?e oeueiio aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? a?aeiioaiiy Ca/S, ye? caaacia/othoue ?o i?i?i?caoe?th iaeii/anii (SOx, NOx<400 ia/ii3). 8. Aeeiiaii aaeaioaoe?th ?nioth/eo OeEO-oaoiieia?e aei AA Oe?a?ie. Iieacaii, ui: oaoiieia?y “Eo?a?” ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AO, AeI, ANO oa AeAe i?e iaiao?aeiino? ?aaoethaaiiy iiooaeiino? OeEO-ia?iaaia?aoi??a a oe?ieeo iaaeao, a oaeiae aeey niaethaaiiy iie?eo a?aeoiae?a aoaeacaaaa/aiiy ? aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey; oaoiieia?y “I??ioeio”– e?aua aeey ?iaioe OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a ia AO, AeI, ANO, AeAe ? IA i?e noaoe?iia?ieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo; oaoiieia?th o??ie “Aaaeie A?eeien” iiaea aooe canoiniaaii aeey ooee?caoe?? AA i?e iaiaaeaiiyo ii aaaa?eoai ? aenio? eioeiaa?aaaoo; aeei?enoaiiy aeey niaethaaiiy AA Oe?a?ie ?ioeo OeEO-oaoiieia?e aai iaaeioe?eueii (oaoiieia?y “Ioeueoenie?ae”), aai iiaeiii aooe ?icaeyiooi i?ney ?o a?eueo oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. 9. Aecia/aii, ui E-A(A) ? neeaaeiei iaeeaii, yea aeeth/a? a naaa aoa?eueio oa neaioeaao /anoeie, ui cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny i?ae niaith ?aaeoe?eiith ni?iiiaei?noth eien?a. Aeey eiai oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee a IEO oa OeEO iio??aii caaacia/aiiy a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, /ei aeey aiaeia?/iiai eai’yiiai aoa?eey, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei iia??oaiiy aeieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ioean?a ai??iiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy E-A(A) ca ?aooiie eiai niaethaaiiy a EOO, aai aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee a OeAOO. 10. Iieacaii, ui iia?o?yia aaceo?eaoe?y a IEO oa OeEO aeioe?eueia i?e eiiaa?n?? aenieicieueiiai eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey Oe?a?ie, aeey yeeo ciaeaeaii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? oa aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioean?a aaceo?eaoe??. A?aei?/aii, ui ?? aeei?enoaiiy aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AO ? AeI ia aoaeoeaia a ca’yceo c iecueeeie cia/aiiyie oaieioe cai?aiiy neioac-aaco, o?i?/iiai EEAe ? nooiaiy eiiaa?n?? aoaeaoeth a eaoe?e cie?. 11. ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i? noaie i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA a EOO oa OeEOO aeey aeaiiino?aoe?eii? onoaiiaee OeEO-1.0, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ??ciith i?aai?caoe??th aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee aoa?eey, a oaeiae ?aae?caoe??th eiai ?icae?eueii? iiaea/?: ae??aii? o?aeoe?? a o?aeo ?aoee?eoeyoe??, a a?oai? – a ?aaeoi?. 12. ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA, ye? aecia/athoue i??i?eoaoi?noue oeo /e ?ioeo oaoiieia?e aeey ooee?caoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa caaeaieo cieueiino? oa nooiaiy iaoaii?o?cio. Iieacaii, ui: oaoiieia?? niaethaaiiy a IEO aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe i?e oa?i?/i?e ia?a?iaoe? eai’yiiai ? ao?iai aoa?eey oa nooeo a?aeoiae?a ?o caaaa/aiiy a eioeiaa?aaaoao iaei? iiooaeiino?; iaoiaee niaethaaiiy a OO – a ia?aaeoiieao-caiaethaa/ao ia?aae oaeaeueieie iaeueieeaie, aai a i?eno?iyo aeey aeiiaethaaiiy ECC i?ney ai??iiy aoa?eey a IEO, OeEO, EOO oa OeEOO; oaoiieia?? aeainooiaiaai? oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee a OeAOO oa iaoiaee ni?eueiiai niaethaaiiy a oaeae? oa EO – i?e ooee?caoe?? aenieicieueiiai eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey a eioeiaa?aaaoao na?aaeiuei? iiooaeiino? ca ?aooiie onoaiiaee ia?aaeoiie?a, aai cai?ie iiaeo oiiee; oaoiieia?? niaethaaiiy a OeEO – aeey oa?i?/ii? ia?a?iaee AA ??ciiai nooiaith iaoaii?o?cio, a?aeoiae?a eiai iie?iai caaaa/aiiy oa aeniein??/enoiai aoa?eey a eioeiaa?aaaoao na?aaeiuei? oa aaeeei? iiooaeiino?; oaoiieia?? iia?o?yii? aaceo?eaoe?? a IEO oa OeEO aeey ooee?caoe?? aenieicieueiiai eai’yiiai oa ao?iai aoa?eey c iiaeaeueoei aeei?enoaiiyi io?eiaiiai neioac-aaco aeey iio?aa aia?aaoeee, i?iieneiaino? oa eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaiai naeoi?o. Oaoiieia?? niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? AA i?ae oeneii aeey IAO ia oaa?aeiio iaeea? aeioe?eueii a?aei?aoethaaoe ia aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaeao, i?ney /iai ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe i?e aoae?aieoeoa? iiaeo aia?aiaeie?a na?aaeiuei? oa aaeeei? iiooaeiino?, i?e/iio aeey aaceo?eaoe?? a EOO oa OeEOO ? niaethaaiiy a EOO aeei?enoiaoaaoe eai’yia oa ao?a aoa?eey, a aeey niaethaaiiy a OeEOO – AO ? AeI. 13. ?ic?iaeaii ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aenioe oiiie oa ae?aiao?o oeeeeii?a onoaiiaie oee?eoethth/iai eeiey/iai oa?o, ye? aeei?enoaii i?e noai?ai? ?iai/eo i?iaeo?a OeEO-eioeiaa-?aaao?a oa OeEOO-?aaeoi??a. 14. Aecia/aii aeiiii?/io aeioe?euei?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? a EO ye i?e iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa?, oae ? i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo OAN. 15. Aeinoia??i?noue oa iaa?oioiaai?noue io?eiaieo a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a caaacia/aii ei?aeoi?noth i?eeiyoeo i?eiouaiue, ocaiaeaeaiiyi ?ic?aooie?a c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie oa ?o ei?aeyoe??th c a?aeiieie e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaea?aeaie. iniiai? ioae?eaoe?? ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? 1. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee NI ia nei?inoue acaeiiaeaenoaey eienia eaiaiiuo oaeae n NI2 a eeiyuai neia iiae aeaaeaieai //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1997. – ?2. – N. 9-15. 2. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Eeiaoeea acaeiiaeaenoaey eienia yia?aaoe/aneeo oaeae n aacaie-?aaaaioaie NI2 e I2 a eeiyuai neia iiae aeaaeaieai Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1997. – ? 3. – N.3-10. 3. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Aicaeooiay aaceoeeaoeey eaiaiiuo e ao?uo oaeae a oee?eoee?othuai eeiyuai neia //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea.-1997. -? 4.-N.20-25. 4. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Ai?aiea iecei?aaeoeeiiiuo oaeae a oee?eoee?othuai eeiyuai neia //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1997. – ? 6. – N. 3-8. 5. Iaeno?aiei I.TH. ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? iecueeiye?niiai aoa?eey c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo aeieia?/ieo aeiia //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1997.– ? 5. – N. 1-5. 6. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Eniieueciaaiea oaoiieiaee eeiyuaai neiy aeey ?aeiino?oeoeee oaieueiuo eioeiaa?aaaoia iaeie iiuiinoe //I?iiuoeaiiay oaieioaoieea. – 1997. – O.19, ? 6. – N. 106-109. 7. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Oeaeeianeee A.E., ssoeeaae/ N.A. Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea oaieueiuo yeaeo?inoaioeee Oe?aeiu e ia?niaeoeau eo ?acaeoey //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1996. – ? 3. – N. 3-8. 8. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aieue/ei E.A. Yeieiae/aneea aniaeou naeeaaiey aunieina?ienouo oaeae a oee?eoee?othuai eeiyuai neia //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1997. – ? 5. – N. 40-43. 9. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A., ssoeeaae/ N.A. Iai?aaeaiey ?aeiino?oeoeee iueaoaieueiuo OYN Oe?aeiu //Oai aea. – N. 3-13. 10. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aieaiei E.E., Niaieaa A.N., Oaiae?in O.I. Iniaaiiinoe caaa?oathuae noaaeee ai?aiey aunieicieueiuo oaeae //Yeioaoiieiaee e ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. – 1998. – ?1. – N. 3-7. 11. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH. ?ac?aaioea /enouo yia?ainaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaa?aeuo oiieea aeey yia?aaoeee //I?iaeaiu yia?ainaa?aaeaiey. – 1995. – ? 4-6. – N. 88-91. 12. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aeoaeiee A.I., Oiiae A.E. ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia e onoaiiaie aeey naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaeae a eeiyuai neia iiae aeaaeaieai //I?iiuoeaiiay oaieioaoieea. – 1998. – O. 20, ? 4. – N. 33-38. 13. Ei?/aaie TH.I., ssoeeaae/ N.A., Aieeiaeineee A.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Iioaiia A.A. Ia?niaeoeau nicaeaiey ia?iaaciauo onoaiiaie n aaceoeeaoeeae ieceini?oiuo oaeae a yia?aaoeea Oe?aeiu //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1992. – ? 3. – N.1-8. 14. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A., ?yaia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ?aaeeiia ieaiiaiai e aaa?eeiiai inoaiiaa ia iaiaauo iiaeaeyo oiiee n oee?eoee?othuei eeiyuei neiai //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1993. – ? 1. – N. 15-17. 15. Aieue/ei E.A., Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna aaceoeeaoeee i?iii?iaeoeoa ANO ia oe?oiiaiiii eaai?aoi?iii noaiaea oee?eoee?othuaai eeiyuaai neiy //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1993. – ? 3. – N. 37-40. 16. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aeoaeiee A.I., ssoeeaae/ N.A. I?iaeou ia?iaaciauo onoaiiaie n aioo?eoeeeeiaie aaceoeeaoeeae oaa?aeiai oiieeaa //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1994. – ? 6. – N. 34-38. 17. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A., Aeoaeiee A.I., Eoeue/eoeeee E.A., ssoeeaae/ N.A. Ioeaiea oneiaee noaaeeueiiai ai?aiey aunieicieueiiai AO a oaeaeueiuo eioeiaa?aaaoao n aeeaeeei oeaeioaeaeaieai //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1995. – ? 1. – N. 14-17. 18. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A., Aeoaeiee A.I., ?ineieoia A.E., Niaieaa A.N. Aicaeooiay aaceoeeaoeey eaiaiiuo oaeae Aeiiaanna a OeEN //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1995. – ? 2. – N. 1-4. 19. Aieue/ei E.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., ssoeeaae/ N.A. Naeeaaiea oaeae a eeiyuai neia iiae aeaaeaieai //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1995. – ? 6. – N. 1-5. 20. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., *a?iyaneee I.A., ssoeeaae/ N.A., Aoiiaeue I. Iiuoiia naeeaaiea niane aio?aoeeoiauo oeaia e oouaa a OeEN ia eaai?aoi?iuo onoaiiaeao IOOeOY //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1996. – ? 6. – N. 28-34. 21. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Eocueiaiei A.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., ssoeeaae/ N.A. Aeo?aaie niinia naeeaaiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa a oiieao n ai?eciioaeueiuie e aa?oeeaeueiuie oeeeeiiiuie i?aaeoiieaie //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1997. – ? 2. – N.7-10. 22. Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Aeoaeiee A.I., Oiiae A.E. N?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae ?aaiou OYN, eniieuecothueo /enoua oaieueiua yia?aioaoiieiaee //Yia?aaoeea e yeaeo?eoeeaoeey. – 1997. – ? 6. – N. 1-3. 23. 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Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaoeeia A.I., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Eoee/aiei A.A. *eneaiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia oa?iioeie/aneiai i?aa?auaiey iaeeii/iuo oaieueiuo /anoeoe i?e iiauoaiiuo aeaaeaieyo //EOAE. – 1996. – O.69, ? 6. – N.1000-1005. 28. A.n. 1467316 NNN?, IEE F 23 N 11/02. Niinia naeeaaiey ieceini?oiiai eciaeue/aiiiai oaa?aeiai oiieeaa /ss.N.AEieoaeia, A.TH.Iaeno?aiei, A.E.?ineieoia, A.A.Neiyeaae/ (NNN?). – Iioae. 23.03.89, Athe. ? 11. – 3 n. 29. A.n. 1638455 NNN? IEE F 23 N 11/02. Onoaiiaea aeey naeeaaiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa / TH.I. Ei?/aaie, A.TH. Iaeno?aiei, A.A. Aieuaiei, A.I. Aoaianueaa, E.E. Iaaeu?ia, ?.TH. Oaea?yi (NNN?). – Iioae. 30.03.91, Athe. ? 12. – 3 n. 30. A.n. 1590842 NNN? F 23 N 11/00. Ono?ienoai aeey oa?iiia?aaioee oaa?aeiai oiieeaa /A.TH. Iaeno?aiei, E.E.Aieaiei (NNN?).– Iioae.07.09.90, Athe. ? 33.–3 n. 31. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Aieeiaeineee A.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Ia?niaeoeau i?eiaiaiey ia?iaaciauo onoaiiaie n aioo?eoeeeeiaie aaceoeeaoeeae oe?aeineeo oaeae. – E.: 1992. – 52 n. 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Ei?/aaie TH.I., ?aaeueeei A.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH., Iaoeeia A.I. ?acoeueoaou ?ac?aaioee  aiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ioeaiee yooaeoeaiuo oa?aeoa?eoee auai?aiey iaeeii/iuo  eieniauo  /anoeoe  a  eeiyuai neia //O?. ananithc. neiiic. “I?iaeaiu aaceoeeaoeee oaeae”. – E?aniiy?ne: EAOYEIEEoaieue. – 1991. – N. 159-168. 37. Ei?/aaie TH.I., Iaoeeia A.I., ?aaeueeei A.A., Iaeno?aiei A.TH. ?an/ao auai?aiey iaeeii/iuo /anoeoe oaa?aeiai oiieeaa a eeiyuai neia n o/aoii aioo?eii?iaiai ?aaae?iaaiey //O?. iaaeaeoia?. eiio.”Oaiei-ianniiaiai-92”, IIO-92 – O. 5.– Ieine: AIE, EOII AI Aaei?onnee. – 1992. – N. 168-171. 38. Korchevoy Y.P., Maystrenko A.Yu., Yatskevich S.V., Dunaevckaya N.I. Perspective of Using the Technology of Solid Fuel Combustion in Circulating Fluidized Bed and in-Cycle-Gasification in Ukrainian Power Generation //Proc. of 56-th All-Japan Power Conf. – Vol. 1.– Sapporo (Japan). – 1994. – P. 2-10. 39. Maystrenko A.Yu., Dudnik A.N. 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Iiuoiay onoaiiaea aeey naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee iiae aeaaeaieai //?roc. of Seminar Commission of the European Committies Directorate General for Energy “Member State Technologies Dedicated to Help the Energy Self Sufficiency Process Optimising the Local Resources Such as Coal” (DGXVII). – ? 24. – Kiev (Ukraine). – 1997.– 14 p. 49. Belin F., Fuller T.A., Maryamchik M., Perna M.A., Maystrenko A.Yu. //CFB Nombustion of High-Ash Ukrainian Antracite – Pilot Testing and Disign Implications Proc. of 14-th International Fluidized Bed Combustion Conf. – Vol. 2. – Vancouver (Canada). – 1997. – P.785-794. 50. Dudnik A.N., Korchevoy Y.P., Maystrenko A.Yu., Onischenko S.V. Two Stage PCFB Coal Combustion Tecnology in Single Facility of CETC //Proc. of CUSTNET 3-rd International Conf. on Coal Utilisation Science and Technology, S.C. ZECASIN S.A.– Session 2. – Paper 12. – Bucharest (Romania). – 1998. – 5 p. 51. Dudnik A., Korchevoj Yu., Maystrenko A., Onischenko S. PCFB-FC Project //Proc. of “Power Gen International -98” Conf.– Vol. C.– Paper 3. – Orlando (USA). –1998. –10 p. Iaeno?aiei I.TH. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ai??iiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo eeiey/iai oa?o. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.14.04 - i?iieneiaa oaieiaia?aaoeea. – ?inoeooo aaco IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey (AA) a eeiey/iio oa?? (EO) i?e aoiinoa?iiio ? i?aeaeuaiiio oeneo oa ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a eiai aeei?enoaiiy a aia?aaoeoe?. I?e aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?? aoei noai?aii ?yae eaai?aoi?ieo, aeine?aeieo oa i?eioieo onoaiiaie, i?iaaaeaii oeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ia iniia? ?o ?acoeueoao?a ciaeaeaii e?iaoe/i?, oaoiieia?/i? oa aeieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ai??iiy ? aaceo?eaoe?? AA a ??cieo iiaeeo?eaoe?yo EO, iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? eiai eiiaa?n??; cae?eniaii aaeaioaoe?th oaoiieia?e oee?eoethth/iai eeiey/iai oa?o (OeEO) aei AA Oe?a?ie; ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i? noaie i?ioean?a niaethaaiiy oa aaceo?eaoe?? oaa?aeiai iaeeaa a EO i?ae oeneii, ?iaeaia?i? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo aeaiaio?a aia?ao?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith AA ??ciiai nooiaith iaoaii?o?cio a eioeiaa?aaaoao ? ?aaeoi?ao. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? canoiniaaii i?e noai?aii? ?iai/eo i?iaeo?a OeEO-eioeiaa?aaao?a oa aeaiiino?aoe?eieo onoaiiaie c ?aaeoi?aie EO i?ae oeneii. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aenieicieueia aoa?eey, eien, ai??iiy, aaceo?eaoe?y, eeiey/ee oa?, eioeiaa?aaao, e?iaoeea, oaoiieia?y. Maystrenko A.Yu. Basic features of combustion and gasification of high ash coal in different modifications of fluidized bed technology. – Manuscript. The thesis seeks to Doctor of Technical Science degree; specialization 05.14.04 –power industry. – Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999. The thesis is devoted to the investigation of the basic regularities of combustion and gasification of high ash coal (HAC) at atmospheric and elevated pressures in fluidized bed (FB) as well as the development of methods allowing the use of HAC in power industry. A number of bench-scale, experimental and pilot-scale facilities were created while preparing the thesis, a series of experimental tests were carried out. In accordance with the results obtained the kinetic, technological and ecological characteristics of combustion and gasification of HAC in different modifications of FB were determined including basic and special features of HAC conversion; the adaptation of the circulating FB (CFB) technologies for high ash coals of Ukraine was done; technological schemes of the combustion and gasification of the solid fuel in the pressurized FB (PFB) were developed, engineering methods of calculation of parts of facilities were made, recommendations on how to use high ash coals of different metamorphism level in the boiler units and reactors were presented. The main results of the work were used while designing the CFB boilers and demonstration facilities with PFB reactors. Key words: high ash coal, coke, combustion, gasification, fluidized bed, boiler unit, kinetics, technology. Iaeno?aiei A.TH. Iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe ai?aiey e aaceoeeaoeee aunieicieueiuo oaeae a ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo eeiyuaai neiy. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.14.04 – i?iiuoeaiiay oaieiyia?aaoeea. – Einoeooo aaca IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae i?ioeannia naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee aunieicieueiuo oaeae (AO) a eeiyuai neia (EN) i?e aoiinoa?iii e iiauoaiiii aeaaeaieyo e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeia eo eniieueciaaiey a yia?aaoeea. Iia ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, oanoe aeaa, auaiaeia, nienea eniieueciaaiiuo enoi/ieeia e i?eeiaeaiee. A ia?aie aeaaa ia iniiaa aiaeeca neooaoeee a yia?aaoeea Oe?aeiu ?anniio?aiu iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiaiey oaa?aeiai oiieeaa ia oaieiauo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo (OYN). Iieacaii, /oi oaieue, eioi?ue iinooiaao ia OYN, a iniiaiii yaeyaony aunieicieueiui e aeey aai oa?ie/aneie ia?a?aaioee oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue oaoiieiaee EN. A nayce n yoei auiieiai iaci? iaoiaeia naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaa?aeiai oiieeaa a ieceioaiia?aoo?iii (IEN), aunieioaiia?aoo?iii (AEN), oee?eoee?othuai eeiyuai (OeEN), oiioaie?othuai (ON), oee?eoee?othuai ay?ioiioaie?othuai (OeAON), eeiyuai iiae aeaaeaieai (ENAe) e oee?eoee?othuai eeiyuai iiae aeaaeaieai (OeENAe) neiyo, a oaeaea iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo ?ac?aaioee aeey AO Oe?aeiu. Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi oaeay ?aaioa ia iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaia aac i?iaaaeaiey eeiaoe/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee i?ioeannia eiiaa?nee oaey a EN n eniieueciaaieai iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia i?e ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee e nicaeaiee iiaiai yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey. Ai aoi?ie aeaaa iienaiu: ?ac?aaioaiiua aaoi?ii eaai?aoi?iua (?NE-?-Ae, ?NE-??-Ae), iiuoii-yenia?eiaioaeueiua (O-0.05, O-0.05-OeEN. OeEN-0.02) e ieeioiay (EON-0.2) onoaiiaee; iaoiaeeee eeiaoe/aneiai yenia?eiaioa a ENAe, oaoiieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee a ON, OeAON, IEN e OeEN, ii?aaeaeaiey oaiia?aoo?u naiiainieaiaiaiey, aeeiaieee ai?aiey e a?aiaie auai?aiey oaeae a ENAe. A o?aoueae aeaaa i?aaenoaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii eeiaoeea e aeeiaieea acaeiiaeaenoaey AO Oe?aeiu n aacaie-?aaaaioaie (NI2 e I2) a ENAe i?e ia?oeeaeueiii aeaaeaiee aaca-?aaaaioa ?=0.01-2.51 IIa, oaiia?aoo?ao ai?aiey On=650-1000 E e aaceoeeaoeee Oa=970-1350 E. Ia eo iniiaaiee: ii?aaeaeaiu aeeyiea noaiaie iaoaii?oecia, cieueiinoe oaey, ?acia?a /anoeoe, oaiia?aoo?u ?aaae?iaaiey e eiioeaio?aoeee NI2 e I2 ia oa?aeoa? e nei?inoue eiiaa?nee eienia; iaeaeaiu ?aaeeiu ?aaae?iaaiey e eeiaoe/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey eienia AO n aacaie-?aaaaioaie a i?eaeeaeaiee A??aieona; iieacaii aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee NI ia eciaiaiea nei?inoe eiiaa?nee eienia a NI2 e ii?aaeaeaiu eiinoaiou yeaiaioa?iuo noaaeee ?aaeoeee N+NI2 a i?eaeeaeaiee Eaiaith?a-Oeioaeueaoaea; iaeaeaiu oaiia?aoo?u naiiainieaiaiaiey, aeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?aiey e a?aiaia auai?aiey AO; ioia/aiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe eiiaa?nee AO a ENAe. I?e inouanoaeaiee eeiaoe/aneeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo yenia?eiaioia a ea/anoaa iauaeoa enneaaeiaaiee auee acyou iniiaiua yia?aaoe/aneea oaee Oe?aeiu: aio?aoeeoiaue ooua (AO), aeiiaoeeea oiuee (AeO), aaciaue (ANO), aeeeiiiieaiaiiue (AeAe), eueaianei-aieuineee aaciaue (E-A(A)), aeaenaiae?eeneee ao?ue (AA) n ?acia?aie /anoeoe =0-6 ii, cieueiinoueth ia noooth ianno A1d=18-55 %, niaea?aeaieai na?u S1d  2.8 %. ?yae niiinoaaeoaeueiuo yenia?eiaioia inouanoaeai ia eo aunieina?ienouo aiaeiaao (S1d=3.4-4.8 %) e iooiaeao oaeaiaiaauaiey (A1d 71.0 %). A /aoaa?oie aeaaa: i?aaenoaaeaiu iaoa?eaeu ii aeeiaieea ai?aiey AO, ANO e E-A(A) a ON e IEN; iienaiu ?acoeueoaou oaoiieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ii naeeaaieth AO a IEN, ON, OeAON, OeEN e aunieina?ienouo oaeae a OeEN, ?aaiou ii aaeaioaoeee ecaanoiuo OeEN-oaoiieiaee e yia?aaoe/aneei oaeyi Oe?aeiu; iieacaii aeeyiea noaiaie iaoaii?oecia ia ?aaeeiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee e yooaeoeaiinoue ai?aiey AO; ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe ai?aiey AO a EN. A iyoie aeaaa iienaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua ii /anoe/iie aaceoeeaoeee AO a ON, OeAON e IEN, eo aicaeooiie aaceoeeaoeee a IEN e OeEN, i?iaiaeece?iaaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee, ioia/aiu caeiiiia?iinoe aaceoeeaoeee AO a EN. A oanoie aeaaa iienaiu oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu aeaiiino?aoeeiiiie onoaiiaee OeEN-1.0 a ?aaeeiao aeaoonooiai/aoie oa?ie/aneie ia?aaioee (ie?ieec-aaceoeeaoeey, ie?ieec-naeeaaiea) oaa?aeiai oiieeaa a OeEN; i?aaenoaaeaiu ?aaiou ii iaoaiaoe/aneiio iiaeaee?iaaieth i?ioeannia eiiaa?nee oaeae a OeEN e OeENAe, eiaeaia?iua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa auniou oiiee e aeeaiao?a oeeeeiiia OeEN-eioeiaa?aaaoia e OeENAe-?aaeoi?ia, ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeia ?aeiino?oeoeee aeaenoaothueo eioeiaa?aaaoia n eniieueciaaieai oaoiieiaee EN, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii eniieueciaaieth oaoiieiaee EN aeey oa?ie/aneie ia?a?aaioee AO ?aciie noaiaie iaoaii?oecia, yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou aiaae?aiey iiauo oaieueiuo oaoiieiaee a yia?aaoeeo, aeaiiua ii eniieueciaaieth ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie a yia?aaoeeo. I?e auiieiaiee aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee: ii?aaeaeaiu eeiaoe/aneea, oaoiieiae/aneea e yeieiae/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee ai?aiey e aaceoeeaoeee AO a ?acee/iuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo EN e eo caaeneiinoue io noaiaie iaoaii?oecia e cieueiinoe eniieuecoaiuo oaeae, iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe eiiaa?nee AO; inouanoaeaia aaeaioaoeey OeEN-oaoiieiaee e yia?aaoe/aneei oaeyi Oe?aeiu; ?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu i?ioeannia naeeaaiey e aaceoeeaoeee oaa?aeuo oiieea a ENAe e OeENAe, eiaeaia?iua iaoiaeu ?an/aoa yeaiaioia OeEN-eioeiaa?aaaoia e OeENAe-?aaeoi?ia, ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth AO ?aciie noaiaie iaoaii?oecia a eioeiaa?aaaoao e ?aaeoi?ao. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou eniieueciaaiu i?e nicaeaiee oaoie/aneeo e ?aai/eo i?iaeoia OeEN-ia?iaaia?aoi?ia e aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo onoaiiaie n ?aaeoi?aie ENAe e OeENAe. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aunieicieueiue oaieue, eien, ai?aiea, aaceoeeaoeey, eeiyuee neie, eioeiaa?aaao, eeiaoeea, oaoiieiaey. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 30.08.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16 Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao aeaeaiiy 145o215 ii. Oiiai.-ae?oe.a?eoo 2.0. Ia.-aeae.a?eoo 2.0. Oe?aae 100. Caiiae. 255 Iaae?oeiaaii iie?a?ao?/iith ae?eueieoeath ?inoeoooo aeaeo?iaeeiai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie c i?ea?iaeo-iaeaoo iiooea/a 252680, Ee?a-57, i?iniaeo Ia?aiiae, 56.

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