Організація підприємництва в колективних сільськогосподарських підприємствах: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / О.В. Путятіна, Нац. аграр. ун-т. — К.

5

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

IOOssO?IA Ieaia A?eoi??aia

OAeE 631.15/16.005:334.75

I?aai?caoe?y i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa

e i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oe?eueia Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/ —
i?ioani?

eaoaae?e nioe?ieia?? i?aoe? oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee

ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

Iae?e Ieeiea Eineiiae/ — caa?aeoaa/

a?aeae?eo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa
ciai?oiuei-aeiiii?/ieo

ca`yce?a ?inoeoooo aa?a?ii?
aeiiii?ee OAAI

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Oaae??iei Iaaei Ieeieaeiae/ — o/aiee
nae?aoa?

a?aeae?eaiiy aa?a?ii? aeiiii?ee OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, aa?a?ia

a?aeae?eaiiy, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 26.004.01 ii caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe a
Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041, i. Ee?a-41,
aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041, i. Ee?a-41, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion 10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 18 aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
AEAAEA A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ia?ao?ae aei iiaeo ?eieiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy —
o?eaaeee, neeaaeiee ? aaaaoiieaiiaee i?ioean. A?i iio?aao? anaa?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy noai?aieo iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa iaoiae?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae a?ae eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iaoiae?a aei
?eieiaeo i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino? aeina?aeo naiino?eiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy
a oiiaao ci?ie oi?i aeaniino? oa ?iciiae?eo ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino?.

sse iieacaee iiia?aaei? ?iee ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa o ?eieia? no?oeoo?e ? ?icaeoeo a ieo i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaaeii aeina?aeo ?icaeiooeo
eai?oae?noe/ieo oa iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i a oiiaao
oe?a?inueei? ae?eniino? niiae?aaii? ei?eno? ia i?eianee.

Ca ?iee ?aoi?i i?e noai?aii? aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee ia aoei ciaeaeaii
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo ieoaiue
aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai, iie?oe/iiai, ?inoeoooe?iiaeueiiai,
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoiiai, ?iaanoeoe?eiiai, ia?eoaoii-oe?iiaiai oa?aeoa?o
i?ae aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ye? aeaee a ciiao a oiiaao
ci?ie oi?i aeaniino? aoaeoeaii ?icaeaaoe i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue
ia i?eaooeia?e iniia?.

I?e/ei oeueiai aoei iaiaei. C ieo aeyaeeenue:

— iaaeineiiae?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaeiiaeo oa caiaeueieo a?aeiinei
aean-iino? ye iniiae ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eeiny ia
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?, ine?eueee oeae ae??oaeueiee oaeoi? ia noaa
aeey aeaniee?a n?eueainii?aei?e?inoa aoaeue-yeei iaoa??aeueiei noeioeii;

— noai?aia iiaa eiia?oe?eia aaie?anueea nenoaia iiai?noth iicaaaeea
n?eueainioiaa?iae?iaieea iiaeeeainoae io?eiaiiy e?aaeeo?a /a?ac aenie?
i?ioeaioi? noaaee, a aac e?aaeeo?a ?icaeoie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ye niaoeeo?/ii? aaeoc? (iecueea iai?ioi?noue ?ano?n?a)
i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaee;

— ?icaeoie ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e iineoa a oiiaao aeenia?eoaoo oe?i
i?ae ?ano?nieie aaeocyie i?iieneiaino? oa ia ae?iaeaio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th ia`?eoeaii ia aeaa ciiae ia
o?eueee iaoe i?eaooee a?ae ae?iaieoeoaa, a e a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoe aeo?aoe;

— ia ae??oai? ieoaiiy ? iaeaoaeoeai?oeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ye i?ia?aeii? eaiee o
caaacia/aii? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy.

Ioaea, ca oeeo oiia iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i
oa ?ic?iaea caoiae?a uiaei ?o oaeineiiaeaiiy ? aeineoue aeooaeueiei, ui
e coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ieoaiiyi ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei a aa?a?iiio naeoi??
aeiiii?ee, noai?aiiy iiaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? ?eieiaiai oeio oa
?icaeoeo a ieo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? i?enay/aii /eiaei
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iioae?eiaaii ?ia?o, cie?aia c ieoaiue oai??? oa
iaoiaeieia??. Eiioeaiooaeuei? iniiae ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ie?ai?
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? ?aoi?iiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, ?icaeoeo a ieo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa aena?oeai? a ?iaioao

Aaeaeooeueeiai I.?., Aeaieeaiea A.N., Eiaana I.A., Eoe?iiaa ?.?., Iae?ea
I.E., Iieuaiea I.I., ?iiaiiai? E.A., Naaeoea I.O., Neoieea A.I.,
Oe?eueiaa I.A., TH?/eoeia A.A. oa ?i.

I?ioa aaaaoi ieoaiue ?eieiaiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
aaeoc? e i?aai?caoe?? a i?e i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
aeine?aeaeai? oa aena?oeai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Ia?aaeon?i oea noino?oueny
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo aca?iia?aeiinei o
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?eao naia oai, aea a?aeaoaa?oueny
i?ioean noai?aiiy, ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??, ?ia?o, iineoa oa ?iciiae?eo
?acoeueoao?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Cian?i iaei ioae?eaoe?e c ieoaiue
ii?aeiaiiy aeae?a ae?yeueiino? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ?eieiaiai oeio, ?icaeoeo aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa oa
noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo aaeocae ii
ae?iaieoeoao oiaa??a iianyeaeaiiiai oe?ieiai aaeeoeo. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?ioyaii ?ieo iaoe ?aaoey?i? a?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?o o e?eoe/i? ia??iaee ?ieo a aoaeue-yeiio i?ae?icae?e?,
e?aaeeooth/e eiai ia aaci?ioeaioi?e iniia? ca ?aooiie
caaaeueiiainiiaea?nueeeo eioo?a. Naia oeei iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiei
oa aena?oeaiei o ioae?eaoe?yo ieoaiiyi ? i?enay/aia i?aaenoaaeaia
aeena?oaoe?y.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aaciina?aaeiuei iia`ycai? c aeeiiaiiyi
aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie c oaiaoeee aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e nioe?ieia??
i?aoe? oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo c
i?iaeaie “I?aai?caoe?y n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo? ?eieiaiai oeio
oa ?o i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?” (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe??
0197 U 015803, OAeE 631.15:33475). Ni?aaeeiiaaoeai iacaaii? oaie aaoi?
aoea i?ioyaii o?ueio ?ie?a.

Iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao i?iaiaeeeenue
caeiaoaa/ai o aecia/aieo aaciaeo i?aei?e?inoaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a
ia-a?oiooaaii? iaoiaeieia?? i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, aecia/aii? iai?yi?a
?ica`ycaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa,
?ic?iaoe? ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ae?iaieoeoaa a
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee noi?ioeueiaai?
oae? caaea/?:

— aecia/aiiy noo? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa eiai neeaaeiaeo, ?icaeoie ?
noaiiaeaiiy eiai a nenoai? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

— oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiinei aeaniino? ye iaeiiai c aeaiaio?a ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ia?aaeoiia cae?eniaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a ?aoi?iiaaieo eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao;

— aecia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino? a
?aoi?iiaaieo eieainiao oa aaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei
i?ae i?ae?icae?eaie ona?aaeei? i?aei?e?inoaa oa i?aae?iiyi
ainiiaea?noaa;

— aecia/aiiy iniaeeainoae ia?eaoeiaiaiai na?aaeiaeua ? iaieiae?iiy
?eieii caooo oa iinoa/aiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy aea?aaeaioiino? ?ic?aooieiaeo
oe?i ia aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiio ??ai?;

— aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy
n?eueainioiaa?iae?iaiee?a.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue aecia/ai? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a i?ae niaith oa i?aae?iiyi
ainiiaea?noaa, ye? aeieeathoue o i?ioean? ?o ae?yeueiino? ?
ainiiaea?noaa a oe?eiio ?c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai — iinoa/aeueieeaie
?ano?n?a oa ?eieaie caooo i?iaeoeoe??.

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?ai? eieaeoeai? ainiiaea?noaa I?iaa?ii?iio
Oe?a?ie, ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? yeeo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?e aecia/aii?
caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e ?o aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, a aeaoaeuei?
iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeenue o ainiiaea?noaao
Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? ? ii ?acoeueoaoao ?o
ae?yeueiino? ?ic?iaeyeenue i?iiiceoe?? iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue
iaoeiao iiaecio oa aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iieyaathoue o
ieae/aaeeeaaeaiiio:

— ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe nooiino? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? oa iaa?oioiaai? iai?yie eiai ?icaeoeo a
ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei;

— aecia/aii iniiaiee ci?no oa iia? i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e
noai?aieo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?icaeoie o ieo aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
oi?ioaaiue, ui ni?eythoue i?eaooeia?e i?aei?e?iieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? ;

— ?ic?iaeai? iniiai? i?eioeeie anoaiiaeaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
aca?iia?aeiinei aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue i?ae niaith oa
i?aae?iiyi i?aei?e?inoaa ca ?eieiaeie i?eioeeiaie;

— aeyaeai? ? iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo
aei ?eieo;

— iaa?oioiaaii aeiiii?/io nooi?noue oa ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee
aei aecia/aiiy aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ic?aooieiaeo oe?i, ui
caaacia/othoue a?aeoeiaeiaoaaiiy aeo?ao ? io?eiaiiy iaaiiai aeioiaeo
an?ia i?ae?icae?eaie ainiiaea?noaa ca ?aooiie ia?a?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a
i?eaooeiaeo oi?ioaaiue;

— aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? ?aoi?iiaaieo
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa
oeyoe o?ainoi?iaoe?? ia?eaoeiao i?iaeiaieuenoaa a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, yeee ni?ey? ?icaeoeo aaccaeoeiai? i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ic?iaeai? a i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iiiceoe??, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? eieaeoeaieie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie a
i?ioean? ia?aoiaeo aei iiaeo oi?i aeaniino? e ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa i?e
aecia/aii? aoaeoeaieo i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo? ?aoi?iiaaieo
eieaini?a ? ?aaeaini?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

— ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
aecia/aiiy iaeaoaeoeai?oeo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

— iaa?oioiaaii aoaeoeai? aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? oi?ioaaiiy
?aoi?iiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa;

— iaa?oiooaaii i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa ?o aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?ae?icae?e?a, ye? ooieoe?iiothoue ia ii?aeiaii? ??cieo aeae?a
ae?yeueiino?, ia iiai?e naiino?eiino? oa naiiieoiiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee ai?iaiaai? aaoi?ii ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ani??aio?a
?inoeoooo aa?a?iiai a?ciano i?e Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?
(Ee?a, 1996-1998 ??.). Iiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaany
ia ?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? eaoaae?e nioe?ieia?? i?aoe? oa
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ? eaoaae?e i?aai?caoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa IAO (i?ioieie ? 9 a?ae 8 ea?oiy 1999 ?.). Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? i?i i?aai?caoe?th ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei o
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiiyo i?ioiaeyoue aenia?eiaioaeueio
ia?aa??eo o ni?eoe? naeyi “Iieiae” oa iaeiaiio oiaa?enoa? “Onoei?anueea”
Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?, i?i ui na?ae/eoue
a?aeiia?aeiee aeieoiaio.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 4 iaoeiaeo noaooyo caaaeueiei ianyaii iaeei oiiaiee
ae?oeiaaiee a?eoo.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia
172 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, aeeth/a? 32 oaaeeoe?, 5 ?enoie?a.

Neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (166 iaeiaioaaiue) ? aeiaeaoe?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe:

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?aei?e?iieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa. 1.1. Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.
1.2. Aeani?noue o nenoai? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. 1.3.
Nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

?icae?e 2. Noai ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a ?aoi?iiaaieo

n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. 2.1. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i?
iniiae ?aoi?iiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa. 2.2. Aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae
cae?eniaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. 2.3. Aeiiii?/ia
aoaeoeai?noue ??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?.

?icae?e 3. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ainiiaea?noa oa
?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. 3.1. Aeiiii?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo no?oeoo?. 3.2. Ia?eaoeiaiaa na?aaeiaeua caooo
oa iinoa/aiiy. 3.3. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a
oa aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei.

Aeniiaee.

Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Aeiaeaoee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa” ?icaeyaeathoueny i?aaia? oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, caaaeuei?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie eiai i?aai?caoe??, i?iaaaeaii aiae?c e?eciai?
neooaoe??, ui neeaeanue a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, iieacaii ?icaeoie
??cieo aeae?a aeaniino? oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy a ?aoi?iiaaieo eieaeoeaieo
ainiiaea?noaao, a oaeiae aeeeaaeaii nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe
?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?.

?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ni?ey? oaeaeoiio iane/aiith
?eieo oiaa?aie ? iineoaaie, iiaeieaiith aaeocaaiai ? ?aa?iiaeueiiai
iiiiiie?cio, ?icoe?aiith eiieo?aioe??, ai?iaaaeaeaiith aeinyaiaiue IOI
oa ?i. I?aei?e?iieoeoai aea? ciiao ?icoe?eoe noa?o i?aoe?, noai?eoe iia?
iiaeeeaino? aeey ?eieo i?aoe?.

Iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy eieaini?a ? ?aaeaini?a ia aac?
?iciiae?eo aeaniino? i?ae /eaiaie oeeo eieaeoea?a. No?oeoo?a aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, ui ?ai?oa ?nioaaea a n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa?, ia aoea
i?enoiniaaia aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei. Oiio aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o
noai?aii? iiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? iiai?oa a?aeiia?aeaee a aeiiaai ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, ui aaco?oueny ia naiino?eieo oiaa?iae?iaieeao ? ?eieiaeo
iaoai?ciao ?o aca?iiae??.

O ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? oi?iothoueny i?aei?e?inoaa iiaiai oeio. Oae, ia
aac? eieaini?a ? ?aaeaini?a noai?ththoueny iia? aeaee ainiiaea?nueeeo
oi?ioaaiue, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae iiia?aaeiee?a oi?iith aeaniino? oa
aeaeaie ae?yeueiino?. Ii?yae c ??cieie eieaeoeaieie ainiiaea?noaaie, ui
noai?ai? ia aeia?ia?eueiiio ia`?aeiaii? ?iciaeiaaiiai iaeia oa caie?,
aeieeea oe?ea iecea iaeeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy: i?eaaoi? oa n?iaei?
i?aei?e?inoaa, naeyinuee? (oa?ia?nuee?) ainiiaea?noaa, ??ciiiai?oi?
ainiiaea?nuee? oiaa?enoaa, iniiaith ae?yeueiino? yeeo ? iaeee a?cian.

Aea/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? aeaei ciiao
aeyaeoe caaaeuei? oaiaeaioe?? ? aeae?eeoe aeaye? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo ?aoi?iiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o e?eoe/ieo aeiiii?/ieo neooaoe?yo
inoaii?o ?ie?a, ye? neeaeeny a Oe?a?i?. Oae, ca 5 inoaii?o ?ie?a
(1994-1998) ?noioii ciaioeeinue ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa a i?aei?e?inoaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio.
??ceee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??
iia`ycaiee ?c cieaeaiiyi o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo?, ciaioaiiyi iiaie?a`y ? cieaeaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? ooaeiae oa
ioeoe?. Iai?eeeaae, o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? ca aeacaiee ia??iae
noaea ieae/ith ia 36,3%, ??/iee iaae?e iieiea a?ae ei?iae ciaioeany ia
33,7%, a i?e?inoe aeeai? iane aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ia 30,5%. I?ioa ?
ca oeeo neeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo oiia ie?ai? aeine?aeaeoaai? iaie
ainiiaea?noaa ?aeiio (aa?io??ia “Na?oaiie”, ni?eea naeyi “Iieiae”,
iaeiaa oiaa?enoai “Onoei?anueea”), canoiniaoth/e a?eueo oe?iei
i?aei?e?iieoeuee? niiniae ainiiaea?thaaiiy, cia/ii iaioith i??ith
cieceee ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? oa eiai aoaeoeai?noue. O oeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao oo?eio?oueny a?aeiinii aenieee ??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??. A na?aaeiueiio ca 5 ?ie?a o oeeo
ainiiaea?noaao ii??aiyii c ?ioeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ?aeiio ia 1 aa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ae?iaeaii aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a
1,5-1,7 ?aca a?eueoa.

Iaeiei c ieoaiue, yea aoei aeine?aeaeaii a ia?oiio ?icae?e? — oea
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui i?aei?e?iieoeoai — oea ia i?ioan?y, oea ia nioe?aeueiee
eean o noni?euenoa?; iaeiae aiii noaiiaeoue a?oio ethaeae c
iai?aeeia?iei oeiii ieneaiiy oa iiaaae?iee. Ia no/aniiio aoai?
iaiao?aeii aeae?eyoe ethaeae, caeaoieo aei e?aea?noaa, yeei i?eoaiaii?
iaai? i?e?iaei? yeino?, aiie iiaeii? i?ieoe a?aeiia?aeio i?aeaioiaeo
aeey ?iaioe a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo.
I?aai?ciaoth/e ni?aao, i?aei?e?iaoeue ianaiia?aae ae?? c iaoith
iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo. A oeueiio e iieyaa? aaciina?aaeiy oe?eueiaa
ooieoe?y i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa ? ye?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? — aieiaia oo?aioa aoaeue-yeiai i?aei?e?ioey; ? ia?oa, ?
ae?oaa eiio?ieth? ?eiie, oiaoi niiaeeaa/.

Ocaaaeueieaoe oai?aoe/i? oa caeiiiaeaa/i-i?aaia? iieiaeaiiy i?i
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee a iai?yi? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, anoaiiaeee, ui
caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaiee ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aoaeue-yeeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
oi?i o ?acoeueoao? eeoa ci?ie aea?aeaaii? oa iaea?aeaaeaii? eieainiii?
aeaniino? ia i?eaaoio iaiiaeeeai. Iiceoeaiiai nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai
aieeao ia naeyieia i?eaaoia aeani?noue ia iaeii oa caieth ia ni?aaeea ?
aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia c?inea, a iaaiaee ?noioii cieceeanue.

I?eaooeiaa i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?e
aaeoc? iiaeeeaa eeoa i?e iaeii/aniiio ii?aeiaii? i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ye
aecia/aeueiiai oaeoi?a noeioethaaiiy aei aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? oa
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a,
aieiaieie c yeeo ?: ia?eoao oe?i i?ae aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeai? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? oa iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, a
oaeiae aea?aaoeyoe?y eiio?ieth i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? c aieo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ia i?e?i??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Noai ?icaeoeo i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? a
?aoi?iiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao” aeeeaaeai?
iniaeeaino? ??cieo iiainoai?aieo oi?i eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoa oa
iieacaii ?o aieea ia ainiiaea?nueeo ? i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue.

I?ioyaii 1992-1996 ?ie?a on? ainiiaea?noaa Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano? aoee ?aoi?iiaai? a oae? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie:
eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa (ENI) — 10; aa?io??ie
— 5; ni?eee naeyi — 2; iaeiaa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea oiaa?enoai (INAO)
— 1.

Iniiai? iniaeeaino? iacaaieo oi?ioaaiue iieyaathoue o niiniaao
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?, aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiineiao ona?aaeei?
i?aei?e?inoaa. ENI caeaa?eueoiai iiaoaeiaai? ca i?aai?caoe?eiith
noaiith oa no?oeoo?ith eieeoi?o eieaini?a. Aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee?
i?ae?icae?ee a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ooieoe?iiothoue ia oi?iaeuei?e
aini?ic?aooieia?e iniia?. Ine?eueee ae?iuoaaiiy a?eueoino? eoeueoo? oa
ae?iaieoeoai oaa?eiieoeueei? i?iaeoeoe?? caeoeia?, aini?ic?aooieia?
i?eioeeie ia ae?thoue. Ca?ioa?aniaai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a o c?inoaii?
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? iieyaa? eeoa a i/?eoaaii? a?eueoiai ?ici??o
iaoo?aeueii? iieaoe i?aoe?. A?eueo?noue ENI ? caeoeiaeie
ainiiaea?noaaie.

Ni?eea naeyi a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ENI oei, ui a ?? neeaae?
ooieoe?iiothoue ye aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? aini?ic?aooieia?
i?ae?icae?ee, oae ? ie?ai? th?eaee/i? iniae o oi?i? ainiiaea?nueeeo
oiaa?enoa, eiiia?aoea?a, iaeeo, n?iaeieo i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye?
ni?ai?aoeththoue c i?aae?iiyi ainiiaea?noaa ca aeiaiai?aie ?
ocaiaeaeothoue eeoa ie?ai? neeaaeia? nai?? ae?yeueiino?: iinoa/aiiy ?i o
e?aaeeo ne?iaeie aeey ia?a?iaee i?iaeoeoe??, yeo aiie ia iiaeooue
i?eaeaaoe /a?ac a?ae iio??aii? e?eueeino? iai?ioieo eioo?a, aeaioiaeaiiy
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a oa ?ioa. ?ic?aoiaothoueny aiie c
i?aae?iiyi oiaa?aie aai a?ioeia. Aeaiaea aca?iia — i?ae?icae?e ia?
ne?iaeio aeey ?iaioe, a i?aae?iiy — iino?ei? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?ioyaii
?ieo.

Aa?io??ia ye eieaeoeaia i?aei?e?inoai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ia?oeo aeaio
oi?ioaaiue oei, ui oea ? ae?iaie/i-ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen, yeee
cae?enith? naith ae?yeuei?noue ia iniia? niaoe?ae?caoe??, eiioeaio?aoe??
oa ?ioaa?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?a?iaee, oi?a?ae? a ?aeeiiio caaa?oaiiio
oaoiieia?/iiio i?ioean?, a yeiio iiaeooue ni?ai?aoethaaoe ye
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? i?ae?icae?ee, oae ? ie?ai? th?eaee/i? iniae.

Aeey aeyaeaiiy oaeoi?a aieeao i?aai?caoe?eii? oi?ie i?aei?e?inoaa ia
aoaeoeai?noue ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue aiae?c
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?aei?e?inoa cae?enithaaany ca icia/aieie
i?aai?caoe?eieie oi?iaie. Aeai?, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?acoeueoaoe
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, iaaaaeai? a
oaaeeoe? 1.

Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a 1998 ?. i?ioe 1996 ?. a na?aaeiueiio
ii ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiio ciaioeeinue ia 21,6%, oiae? ye a aa?io??i?
“Na?oaiie” oeae iieaciee ca?eueoeany ia 25,85% (aai a 1,4 ?aca). Oea
iiynith?oueny oei, ui a ainiiaea?noa? aeinyaiooa aeineoue aeniea
a?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?cueeeo eoeueoo? oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue
oaa?ei. Iaiao?aeii oaeiae cacia/eoe, ui a on?o o?ueio aeine?aeaeoaaieo
ainiiaea?noaao oe? iieacieee ca inoaii? ?iee cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue
na?aaeiuei?aeiii?. I?ioa ??aaiue ? aeeiai?ea aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
n?euenueeiain-

Oaaeeoey 1- ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio
Ee?anueei? iaeano?

IieacieeeAa?io??ia

“Na?oaiie”Iaeiaa oiaa?enoai “Onoei?anueea”Ni?eea naeyi “Iieiae”O
na?aaeiueiio ii ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiio19961997

199819961997

199819961997

199819961997

1998O?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, oe/aa65,055,3

59,955,051,3

43,342,235,8

43,036,031,4

39,7

Aaeiaee ca?? ca?ia, oe 128385111315

1180373099530381

323123818632120

39531102426045

11392O?iaeaei?noue oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, oe/aa691719

911431288

289450200

318309130

234Aaeiaee ca?? oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a, oe3448229948

73805812925786252

7179518018349230

794923398516651

21442Iiaie?a`y aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, aie?a14971948

82513791380

121916491620

13471367

827

635o o./. ei??a222258

94600600

500650650

600431368

263Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae, a696557

475335289

284462577

516371425

398Na?aaeiuei??/iee iaae?e iieiea ia ei?iao, ea—

-28992257

254736473358

346720481758

2202Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? (o ii??aiyiieo oe?iao 1996 ?.),
oen.a?i.64007800

862624731940

184732332048

27111128848

884Ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeiiai na?aaeiuei??/iiai
i?aoe?aieea, a?i.1118813176

1464584687055

6549111867448

971660765074

5880

iiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a oeeo ainiiaea?noaao cia/ii ??ciyoueny. Oae,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a aa?io??i? “Na?oaiie” c?inea a 1,3 ?aca, o
iaeiaiio oiaa?enoa? “Onoei?anueea” oa ni?eoe? naeyi “Iieiae” — iaaiaee,
ciaioeeanue i?eaeecii a 1,3 ?aca. A aiaeii/an o oe?eiio ii
ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiio ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iaeiiai
na?aaeiuei??/iiai i?aoe?aieea cieceeiny eeoa ia 3,2%.

Iaeiei c aieiaieo iieaciee?a aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ? nia?aa?o?noue
i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa oa nia?aa?o?noue i?e?inoo aeeai? iane o
oaa?eiieoeoa?. Aeey i?aei?e?inoaa, i?aai?caoe??, naeyieia /e oa?ia?a
aaaeeeai ciaoe ia o?eueee ianya ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??, a e oa, ne?eueee
aeo?a/aii iaoa??aeueieo cania?a ? i?aoe?, oiaoi nia?aa?o?noue oe???
i?iaeoeoe??, iane?eueee aoaeoeaia oa aai ?ioa aaeocue ae?iaieoeoaa.

Aeeiai?ea nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe?? o eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao
Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano? ca ia??iae c 1996 ii 1998 ?.
iaaaaeaia a oaa- eeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoey 2 — Nia?aa?o?noue 1 oe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??

ii ainiiaea?noaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?, a?i.

Aeaee i?iaeoeoe??? i e e199619971998Aa?io??ia
“NA?OAIIE”Ca?iia?5,366,552,60Oeoe?ia? ao?yee1,902,392,10Iieiei—I?e??no
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae174,52256,03315,78I?e??no naeiae—Iaeiaa
oiaa?enoai “ONOEI?ANUeEA”Ca?iia?12,2613,7816,99Oeoe?ia?
ao?yee4,827,019,28Iieiei34,1141,9058,57I?e??no aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
404,60471,09605,2I?e??no naeiae939,83830,17612,5Ni?eea naeyi
“IIEIAE”Ca?iia?7,9016,296,97Oeoe?ia?
ao?yee4,676,846,77Iieiei33,3934,9633,32I?e??no aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae227,96344,35423,10I?e??no naeiae359,38674,36398,93A na?aaeiueiio
ii ainiiaea?noaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiioCa?iia?10,2913,3211,93Oeoe?ia?
ao?yee6,188,1418,0Iieiei51,1668,957,17I?e??no aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae362,47487,89573,87I?e??no naeiae668,75710,93954,12

Aiae?coth/e aeai? oaaeeoe? 2, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ia i?ioyc?
1996-1998 ??. niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia i?aeaeuaiiy nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? iaeaea ii an?o eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa ye o ?ineeiieoeoa?,
oae ? o oaa?eiieoeoa?. Oea a?aeaoeiny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao ia caniae ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?o

iioi/iee ?aiiio, iaeueii-ianoeeuei? iaoa??aee, i?ia?aeuei? aeia?eaa,
ianoeoeeaee oa o ca`yceo ?c no??ieei i?aeaeuaiiyi oe?i ia iaoa??aeuei?
caniae ae?iaieoeoaa. E??i oiai, nia?aa?o?noue ca?eueoo?oueny a
?acoeueoao? aeia?aaeaeath/iai c?inoaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ii??aiyii ?c
c?inoaiiyi i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a oaeiae ?c cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi
a?ae?aooaaiue oa iaia`yceiaeo ieaoaae?a ca ?aooiie nia?aa?oino? aei
oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, iain?eiiai, e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a
aaa??? ia *AAN, ni?eyiiy caeiyoino? ianaeaiiy, ui a oe?eiio noaiiaeei
ia?aooaaiiy ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo 52%.

Aeey aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aieeao ie?aieo oaeoi??a ia ??aaiue nia?aa?oino?
i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa cae?eniaii aaaaoioaeoi?iee
ei?aeyoe?eii-?aa?an?eiee aiae?c. Ca iieacieeaie aeine?aeaeoaaieo
eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa ?ic?aoiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue caeaaeiino?
nia?aa?oino? a?ae oaeoi??a, ui aeeth/ai? a aiae?c, ae?aaeaia ??aiyiiyi
iiiaeeiii? ?aa?an??:

O = — 456,000 + 0,405O1 — 1,175O2 + 0,075 O3 — 0,1032O4,

aea: O — nia?aa?o?noue ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa,
oen.a?i.;

O1 — na?aaeiuei??/ia iieaoa iaeiiai i?aoe?aieea, a?i.;

O2 — cao?aoe i?aoe? ia 1 aa ??ee?, ethae.-aiae.;

O3 — oiiaeicaaacia/ai?noue, oen.a?i.ia 100 aa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue;

O4 — ae?iaieoeoai aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 1 na?aaeiuei??/iiai
i?aoe?aieea, a?i.

Eiao?oe??io iiiaeeiii? aeaoa?i?iaoe?? Ae = 0,47, ia/eneaiee aeey
?icaeyaeoaaii? noeoiiino?, iieaco?, ui ia 47% ci?ia ??aiy nia?aa?oino?
iiynith?oueny ae??th oaeoi??a, aeeth/aieo a iiaeaeue.

Aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iai?yio ? nooiaiy aieeao oaeoi??a ia ??aaiue
nia?aa?oino? ?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe aeanoe/iino? ca oi?ioeith:

o?

Ao? = a? —— , ( ? = 1,4),

o

aea: Ao? — /anoeiiee eiao?oe??io aeanoe/iino? aeey oaeoi?a o?;

a? — eiao?oe??io ?aa?an??, ui a?aeiia?aea? oaeoi?o o?;

o? — na?aaei? cia/aiiy oaeoi?a o?;

o — na?aaeiy nia?aa?o?noue ii aeine?aeaeoaai?e noeoiiino? ainiiaea?noa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy cao?ao i?aoe? oa i?aeaeuaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia 1% cieaeo? nia?aa?o?noue ia 0,14 oa 1,01%, a
i?aeaeuaiiy ae na?aaeiuei??/ii? iieaoe i?aoe?aiee?a oa
oiiaeicaaacia/aiino? ia 1% aeeeeea? a?aeiia?aeii c?inoaiiy nia?aa?oino?
ia 0,82 oa 0, 098%.

Iaaaaeaia iiaeaeue aiae?co nia?aa?oino? aea? ciiao iiaiaeeoe ?? c
ocaaaeueithth/eie iieacieeaie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?
(oiiaeia?aeaea/ath, i?iaeoeoeai?noth), ui ia? aaeeea i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeey oi?ioaaiiy nia?aa?oino?.

Io?eiai? cia/aiiy eiao?oe??io?a ?aa?an?? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey
ieaioaaiiy ??aiy cao?ao o ainiiaea?noaao, aeey aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
cia/aiue aiae?ciaaiiai iieacieea ii eiaeiiio i?aei?e?inoao. Ia/eneaiiy
a?aeoeeaiue ?ic?aooieiaeo ??ai?a a?ae oaeoe/ieo aeiiiiaaa? aeyaeoe
?aca?ae ciaioaiiy nia?aa?oino?.

Uiaei iieacieea ?aioaaaeueiino? (?en.1) o?aaa cacia/eoe, a on?o
i?aei?e?inoaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio niinoa??aa?oueny eiai niaae.
Aeiyoie noaiiaeoue eeoa aa?io??ia “Na?oaiie”. Ooo oi/a ? cieceany
??aaiue ?aioaaaeueiino? o 1998 ?. ii??aiyii c 1996-1997 ??., aea ana ae
oaee i?aei?e?inoai a oe?eiio ? ?aioaaaeueiei. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui ooo
ai?iaaaeaeaii iaeiia?oi?o? iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy, aia?aicaa??aath/?
i?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?? c aeei?enoaiiyi aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? oaoi?ee.
Aei?iaoaaiiy ca?oa?aeieo iaoei aeaei ciiao aeinyaoe aeineoue aenieeo

wmetafile8? ??+?????????? ???????yyy????????????
ql???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe©?en.1 ??aaiue
?aioaaaeueiino? ii ainiiaea?noaao ca 1996-1998 ??., %

o?iaea?a no?aoaa?/ieo eoeueoo? oa cia/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ooaeiae. Ia
i?aei?e?inoa? oe?iei canoiniaaia ia?a?iaea n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??, ?? ?aae?caoe?y

a ?icae??ai?e oi?a?ae? oa aaaaoia?aiia i?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue,
ui caaacia/o? ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooe?a. Cia/ia cieaeaiiy ??aiy
?aioaaaeueiino? c 197,4% o 1997?. aei 12,8% o 1998 ?. noaeiny /a?ac oa,
ui a?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? oa iineoa cia/ii
ciaioeeeny. Oae, o 1997 ?. a?ae ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe?? oa iineoa
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy noaiiaeee 11750 oen.a?i., a aaea o 1998 ?. oeae iieaciee
aoa iaeaea a aeaa ?ace iaioei — 6805 oen.a?i. A Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio
i?inoaaeo?oueny oaea ae naia neooaoe?y. Ca aeaieie I?iaa?ii?iio Oe?a?ie,
?aae?caoe?ei? oe?ie ia iniiaio i?iaeoeoe?th o a?eaiyo iaeaea ia
ci?ieeeny ? a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao iaa?oue i?aeaeueeeny, aea, ii/eiath/e c
1998 ?. a?eueoa ye oaea?/? c??n aeiea? NOA. Oe?ie ia ?ano?ne
ae?iaieoeoaa noaee aeueie a?aeiia?aeii aei eo?no aeiea?a aaeai?, a oe?ia
?aae?caoe?? a ia?a?aooieo ia aeiea?e a?aeiia?aeii iaioith o aeaa ?ace.
Oae, o eieaeoeaieo i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie ii ae?iaieoeoao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? o 1998 ?. ii??aiyii c 1997 ?.
oe?ia ?aae?ciaaiiai ca?ia oa oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a ciaioeeanue a?aeiia?aeii
o 1,8 oa 1,7 ?aca, i`yna aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae oa naeiae — o 1,2 oa
1,3 ?aca, iieiea — a 1,6 ?aca. O aeine?aeaeoaai?e aa?io??i? “Na?oaiie”
a?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ??cei nei?ioeeeny a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ca?ia — aae o
10,5 ?aca, oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a — o 2,3 ?aca, i`yna aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
— a 1,2 ?aca oiui. Oeei ? iiynith?oueny ??cea iaae?iiy ??aiy
?aioaaaeueiino? o 1998 ?. Oe?ie ia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeoeoe?th
cieaeothoueny, a ia ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa cia/ii i?aeaeuothoueny.

A oe?eiio ii ?aeiio oaa?eiieoeueea aaeocue ? caeoeiaith, oiio ui ia
a?aaoeueiaai? oe?iia? ia?eoaoe ia ?ano?ne ae?iaieoeoaa oa ae?iaeaio
oaa?eiieoeueeo i?iaeoeoe?th. Iaa?oue i?e ii??aiyii aenie?e
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ei??a o ni?eoe? naeyi “Iieiae” (ca 1996-1998 ??. iaae?e
iieiea ia ei?iao noaiiaea o na?aaeiueiio 3491 ea) oey aaeocue
iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaia. Ii?yae ?c oeei o?aaa iaoe ia oaac?, ui a
ie?aieo i?aei?e?inoaao ?aeiio (INAO “Onoei?anueea”, ni?eea naeyi
“Iieiae”) i?ino?i/aio caai?aiaai?noue ca i?iaeaae i?iaeoeoe?? ia?a?iaiei
i?aei?e?inoaai ?icoe?ithaaee ye aaciaae?eio ? a ?ic?aooiee
iaaeoiaeaeaiue 1995-1996 ??. ia aeeth/aee.

I?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue o ?aoi?iiaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ua ia iaaoea iaeaaeiiai ?icaeoeo. Aieiaieie i?e/eiaie, ui
aaeueiothoue oeae i?ioean, ? ye ciai?oi?, oae ? aioo??oi? oaeoi?e.

Aei ciai?oi?o iaeaaeeoue ianoaa?eueia caeiiiaeaa/i-i?aaiaa aaca aeey
?aaoethaaiiy aea?aeaaith ye aioo??oiuei? ?eieiai? iie?oeee, oae ?
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? o aca?iia?aeiineiao ia?oia??a —
iino?eia ci?ia iiaeaoeiaeo aaaeae?a oa o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo ? ieoieo
iieiaeaiue, ui aeeeeeathoue o noa`?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?
iaaiaaiai?noue o ia?niaeoeaiino? ?icii/aoi? ni?aae.

Aei aioo??oi?o oaeoi??a, ye? iiaeeaeththoue iaaaoeaio ae?th ciai?oi?o,
iaeaaeeoue a?aenooi?noue iaaiiai aeina?aeo i?aei?e?iieoeoaa o ea??aiee?a
oa niaoe?ae?no?a i?aei?e?inoa, iaaecia/ai?noue a?aeiinii oiai, ye
iio??aii ?icaeaaoe ??ciia?/io ae?yeuei?noue ? noai?thaaoe
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? ?eieia? aca?iia?aeiineie.

Ia ca?eueoaiiy caeoeiaino? ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, e??i iacaaieo
oaeoi??a, ?noioii aieeaathoue iaa?aaoeueiaai? aeiiii?/i?
aca?iia?aeiineie o ?iciiae?e? o?iainiaeo ?acoeueoao?a e?ioeaaiai
i?iaeoeoo i?ae oiaa?iae?iaieeaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie,
i?iieneiaeie, ia?a?iaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie oa oi?aiaaeueieie no?oeoo?aie.

Aoaeoeai?oeie a oeeo neeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao aeyaeeeny o?
eieaeoeai? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa, ye? cae?eniththoue
??ciia?/io ainiiaea?nueeo ae?yeuei?noue ca noaiith: ae?iaieoeoai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe??, ?? ia?a?iaea; ae?iaieoeoai
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a; iaaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo,
eiioiaeueieo oa iiaooiaeo iineoa; iioiaa oa ?icae??aia oi?a?aey. Ca
nai?th i?aai?caoe?eiith oi?iith oaeeie aeyaeeeny aa?io??ie oa ni?eee
naeyi.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e
ainiiaea?noa oa ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa” aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy
ii?aeiaiiy ??cieo aeae?a aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo oi?ioaaiue oa ?o
aeiiii?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei; ia?eaoeiaiaa na?aaeiaeua oa iaieiae?iiy
?eieii caooo ? iinoa/aiiy, a oaeiae iaa?oioiaaii ?eieia? iaoai?cie oa
aea/aii aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? aca?iia?aeiineie a ?aoi?iiaaieo
eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

sse na?ae/aoue iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiai? e?oa?aoo?i?
aeaea?aea, i?ioean ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo
a?aeiinei ia`?eoeaii aeeeeea? ae?th oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeo iaoai?ci?a, ui
caeiiii??ii ?icaeaaoeiooueny ? iiaeeaethaaoeiooueny a i??o ?icaeoeo
oiaa?iiai ?eieo ana?aaeei? i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeiiii?/i? aca?iia?aeiineie
i?ae i?ae?icae?eaie e i?aei?e?inoaii o oe?eiio iathoue iniiaoaaoeny oae,
ye ? oiaa?ii-a?ioia? a?aeiineie i?aeainiiaea?nueeiai ??aiy. Ii eiaeiiio
aeaeo ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe?? oa iaaeaieo iineoa anoaiiaeththoueny
aea?aaeaioi? aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? ?ic?aooieia? oe?ie, ca yeeie
i?ae?icae?ee ?aae?ciaothoue ainiiaea?noao /e ?ioei i?ae?icae?eai oeueiai
ae i?aei?e?inoaa ae?iaeaio i?iaeoeoe?th.

I?iaaaeai? iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a ie?aieo ainiiaea?noaao ii
aecia/aiith aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
iieacaee, ui e?aueo ?acoeueoao?a aeinyaathoue o? ainiiaea?noaa, ye?
?icaeaathoue ??ciia?/io ae?yeuei?noue ca aeuaiacaaiith noaiith. Oea
iiaeia i?aeoaa?aeeoe aeaieie, iaaaaeaieie a oaaeeoe? 3.

Oaaeeoey 3 — Ae?iaieoeoai oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??

a eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?
(na?aaei? aeai? ca 1996-1998 ??.)

Aeaee

i?iaeoeoe??Aa?io??ia “Na?oaiie”Ni?eea naeyi “Iieiae”Anueiai ii
ainiiaea?noaao ?aeiioaa?o?noue, oen. a?i.%aa?o?noue, oen.
a?i.%aa?o?noue, oen. a?i.%Ae?iaeaii i?iaeoeoe?? oa iaaeaii iineoa —
anueiai

7829,22

100

4018,2

100

22306,31

100o o./. :

— ?ineeiieoeoai

6394,5

81,7

1473,1

36,7

9792

43,9- oaa?eiieoeoai705,591167,529,17988,535,8- i?iaeoeoe?y ia?a?iaieo oa

aeiiii?aeieo aaeocae —

anueiai

604,73

7,7

1004,4

25

3295,31

14,8 c ieo:

i`yni? oa eiaaani? ae?iae

494,2

6,2

458,86

11,4

2384,3

10,7 iiei/i? i?iaeoeoe-87,12,21030,5 oe?aiaoei/i?
ae?iae8,30,19,60,2280,1 e?oie oa ai?ioii11,490,2103,152,6176,530,8
ie?y0,950,0118,90,524,670,1 ae?iaieoeoai ian?euenueei-

ainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a

89,79

1,2

326,79

8,1

578,81

2,6- ??ciiiai?oi? iineoae124,491,6373,29,21230,55,5

Iieacieee, ui aeaoaeuei?oa oa?aeoa?ecothoue ae?yeuei?noue ii
ae?iaieoeoao iniiaieo aeae?a i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? a i?aeniaieo
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo i?ae?icae?eao ni?eee naeyi “Iieiae” oa
aa?io??ie “Na?oaiie”, a oaeiae ii aeine?aeaeoaaieo ainiiaea?noaao
?aeiio, iiaeai? ia ?en.2.

Caaaeueia /anoea iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ae?yeueiino? ia?a?iaieo ?
aeiiii?aeieo aaeocae oa ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? a
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ainiiaea?noaao ?noioii ca?eueoo?oueny. C iaaaaeaieo
aeaieo aeaeii, ui a aa?io??i? “Na?oaiie” /anoea oeeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ca
1996-1998 ??. noaiiaeea iaeaea 8%, o ni?eoe? naeyi “Iieiae” aeinyaea
25%, a a oe?eiio ii Aaneeuee?anueeiio ?aeiio oae? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy nyaee
aeecueei 15%. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ui iiceoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia ?acoeueoaoao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

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???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe©Oiiai?
iicia/aiiy: 1 — aaeiaa i?iaeoeoe?y ?ineeiieoeoaa; 2 — aaeiaa i?iaeoeoe?y
oaa?e-iieoeoaa; 3 — i?iaeoeoe?y ia?a?iaee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
ne?iaeie; 4 — ae?iaieoeoai ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a; 5 —
iineoae.

?en.2 No?oeoo?a iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ??cieo aeae?a ae?yeueiino?
(na?aaei? iieac-

ieee ca 1996-1998 ??.).

Iiaa?oath/enue aei ?en.1, ie aa/eii, ui iaeaea an? ainiiaea?noaa ?
caeoeiaeie. Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui oi/a i?eaooe?a ? iaia?, aea
iino?ei? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy i?ioyaii ?ieo a?ae aeuacacia/aieo ae?iaieoeoa
aeathoue ciiao iaoe eiooe ia i?eaeaaiiy cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa
cae?enithaaoe i?ioean ae?iaieoeoaa iniiaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??. Caeoee a oaeeo ainiiaea?noaao ia?ae?eaathoueny ca ?aooiie
ia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa: /ei a?eueoa oaeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?icaeaa?oueny
ana?aaeei? eiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, oei a?eueoa iaaeoiaeaeaiue. Oaea ae
neooaoe?y niinoa??aa?oueny ? a ?ioeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo ainiiaea?noaao
Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio.

O oe?eiio a ainiiaea?noaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio a?eueo oe?iei, i?ae
o ?ioeo ?aa?iiao, ?icaeaa?oueny aaaaoia?aiia ae?yeuei?noue ia?a?iaieo oa
i?aeniaieo aaeocae, ui ni?ey? a neeaaeieo e?eciaeo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?aaoey?ii io?eioaaoe a?ioia? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy, ca ?aooiie
yeeo ainiiaea?noai i?ioyaii ?ieo iiaea ii?iaeueii ooieoe?iioaaoe,
iiiiaithth/e iai?ioi? eiooe, aeiea/oaaoe ca?ia?oio ieaoo, iaa?oue ? ca
oiia, yeui i?eaooee iaaaeee? aai ae cian?i ?o iaia?.

Anoaiiaeaiiyi aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo aini?ic?aooieiaeo oe?i
?aaoeththoueny aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? aea?aaeaioi? oe?iia?
aca?iia?aeiineie caaaeyee noai?aiith oiiaeo aeiooaaiiy oe?ie i?iaeoeoe??
caeoeiaeo i?ae?icae?e?a ca ?aooiie a?ae?aooaaiue a?ae i?eaooeiaeo.
Ai?iaeiaae ?ieo eiooe, ui iaaeoiaeyoue a?ae aoaeue-yeiai i?ae?icae?eo,
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey aeoiaeo c onyei? e?eoe/ii? neooaoe??
i?eaeaaiiyi ?ano?n?a ae?iaieoeoaa aeey ainiiaea?noaa a oe?eiio. Oae?
aioo??oiuei-ainiiaea?nuee? aca?iia?aeiineie aeathoue ciiao ia eeoa
“aeaeeaaoe”, a ? cae?enithaaoe ?icoe?aia a?aeoai?aiiy, ?icaeaaoe
ae?iaie/o ? nioe?aeueii-iiaooiao ?io?ano?oeoo?o — aeeoy/? naaeee,
aoaeeiee eoeueoo?e, aoaeeiee i?anoa??eeo, e?ea?i?, naiaoi???, iaaaceie.

A E N I I A E E

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae?
aeniiaee oa noi?ioethaaoe iniiai? i?iiiceoe?? oai?aoe/iiai ?
i?eeeaaeiiai oa?aeoa?o uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa:

1. Ca ?iee aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i o n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? Oe?a?ie
niinoa??aa?oueny nooo?aee niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa on?o
oi?i aeaniino? e ainiiaea?thaaiiy. O 1997 ?. eieaeoeaieie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie nenoaie I?iaa?ii?iio
ii??aiyii c 1990 ?. aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaeaii a 2,8 ?aca iaioa.
O?iaeaei?noue no?aoaa?/ieo ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa oeoe?iaeo ao?ye?a
cieceeanue a?aeiia?aeii a 1,4 ? 1,6 ?aca. Iiaie?a`y aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae nei?ioeeiny iaeaea ia 60%, a oiio /ene? ei??a — ia 53%. Iiae?aia
neooaoe?y neeaeany ? a ?ioeo oaa?eiieoeueeeo aaeocyo — naeia?noa?,
a?a/a?noa?, ioao?aieoeoa?. I?e/iio oa?aeoa?iei aeyaeeiny oaea
iacaeiiii??ia yaeua, eiee ?acii ?c ciaioaiiyi iiaie?a`y cieaeo?oueny ?
eiai i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Iaae?e ia ei?iao a 1997 ?. noaiiaea eeoa 47% a?ae i?iaeoeoeaiino? a
1990 ?., aai 1385 ea ca ??e. Na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae aeinyaaa 208 a, a naeiae — 106 a. Caeoeiaeie aoee 87%
ainiiaea?noa, a ??aaiue caeoeiaino? cieceany iaeaea aei 24%. Iiae?aia
oaiaeaioe?y niinoa??aa?oueny ? a aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaie aaciaeo
ainiiaea?noaao Aaneeuee?anueeiai ?aeiio Ee?anueei? iaeano?.

2. Ocaaaeueieaoe oai?aoe/i? e aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? iieiaeaiiy i?i
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee a iai?yi? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaie
anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeoeaiee ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a oe?eiio eeoa ca ?aooiie ci?ie aea?aeaaii? oa
eieaeoeaii? oi?i aeaniino? ia i?eaaoio ? iaiiaeeeaei.

Aoaeoeaia ainiiaea?thaaiiy iiaeia cae?enieoe o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith
iaeii/aniiai i?aai?/iiai ii?aeiaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ye
aecia/aeueiiai oaeoi?a noeioethaaiiy aei aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? ?
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/ieo ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a,
aieiaieie c yeeo ?: ia?eoao oe?i i?ae aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa,
noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeai? o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? oa iiaeaoeiai? nenoai, a
oaeiae aea?aaoeyoe?? eiio?ieth i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? c aieo
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ia i?e?i??ai? i?aei?e?inoaa.

3. Anoaiiaeaiiy ia?eoaoieo oe?i iiaea aooe cae?eniaii:

— oeyoii i?yiiai iaiaaeaiiy aa?oiuei? iaae? oe?ie i?iaeoeoe??
aoaeue-yei? aaeoc? caaaeyee ?ic?iaoe? iaaieo aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai, yeui
?? oe?ia ia a?aeoeiaeiao? aeo?ao ? ia caaacia/o? na?aaeiueiai
ii?iaoeaiiai i?eaooeo;

— ca aeiiiiiaith athaeaeaoiiai aeiooaaiiy ??cieoe? a oe?iao, yea
neeaaea?oueny a ?acoeueoao? iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?e, ui c ia`?eoeaieo
i?e/ei o?oaeii?noeino? i?i- aeoeoe?? ia iiaeooue a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoe aeo?ao
? iaoe ii?iaoeaiee i?eaooie;

— o ?acoeueoao? aeiaia??iiai a?aaoethaaiiy ieoiii? aaae o niiaeea/?e
oe?i? /anoee eiaeiiai o/anieea, aca?iiiia`ycaiiai oaoiieia?/iei
i?ioeanii caieiooiai oeeeeo
ae?iaieoeoai-ia?a?iaea-caa??aaiiy-?aae?caoe?y;

— anoaiiaeaiiy aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeeo ?ic?aooieiaeo oe?i aeey
aoaeue-yeiai i?ae?icae?eo ca i?eioeeiii a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy aeo?ao,
ca?eueoaieo ia ii?iaoeaiee i?eaooie ca ?aooiie
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?a?iciiae?eo i?eaooeo, noai?aiiy oiiaeo
aeiooaaiiy oe?i aeey oeo ae?iaieoeoa, ye? ? caeoeiaeie a iaaeao
ii?iaoeaii? nia?aa?oino?.

4. Anoaiiaeoe aeey n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?, iaea?eueo e?aaeeoii?noei?
aaeoc? ae?iaieoeoaa, c o?aooaaiiyi oa?i?io iiaeiaaeaiiai e?oaiia?ao
aa?oith iaaeo i?ioeaioii? noaaee ca ei?ioeino?ieiaee e?aaeeo o ?ici???
aei 10%, aeiaaino?ieiaee ia ?icaeoie ae?iaie/i? oa nioe?aeueii-iiaooiai?
?io?ano?oeoo?e — 5-7%, i?i ui na?ae/eoue ye na?oiaee aeina?ae, oae ?
aeina?ae Oe?a?inueei? ?N? aei aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

5. ?icaeaaoe i?aei?e?iieoeueeo ae?yeuei?noue o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia
i?eioeeiao ?ioaa?aoe??, eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa — ia?a?iaee — iineoa
— oi?a?ae? c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi aeeaa?neo?eaoe?? — ?icaeoeo aeiaeaoeiaeo
aaeocae oa ae?iaieoeoaa ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oiaa??a.

6. Oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaieo i?iiiceoe?e o ainiiaea?nueeo
ae?yeuei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, ye na?ae/aoue
iii?uai? a aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?eyoeia aeoiaeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aaeoc? c e?eciaiai noaio oa i?aeaeuaiith
aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iooyo?ia I.A. ?aoi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa o iia? ae?iaie/? no?oeoo?e //Aeiiii?ea AIE. — 1997. — ?12.
— N.10-15.

2. Iooyo?ia I.A. I?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? oi?ie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
//A?niee aa?a?ii? iaoee. — 1998. — ? 1. — N. 69-71.

3. Iooyo?ia I.A. I?aei?e?iieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue o eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao //Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea,
oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. — 1999. — ? 5-6. — N. 39-42.

4. Iooyo?ia I.A. Aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae cae?eniaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino? a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao //Iaoeiaee
a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1999. — ?15. — N. C8-42.

Iooyo?ia I.A. I?aai?caoe?y i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao (ia iaoa??aeao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa Ee?anueei? iaeano?). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.01 — aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa. — Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa iieacai? i?e/eie iaaoaeoeaiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iniiaieie c yeeo ? iaa?aaoeueiaai? aea?aeaaith
iae?iaeiiii?/i? ?eieia? iaoai?cie: ia?eoao oe?i i?ae aaeocyie ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia oa iiaeaoeiaa nenoaie ? iaaeinoaoi?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ona?aaeei? i?aei?e?inoa.

Iaa?oioiaai? oa cai?iiiiiaai? caoiaee uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a ieo i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, aieiaieie c yeeo ?: ?ioaa?aoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa — ia?a?iaee —
oi?a?ae? oa anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aaeaioieo ?ic?aooieiaeo oe?i i?ae
oi?ioaaiiyie ana?aaeei? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aei?e?iieoeoai, a?cian, ?aoi?ioaaiiy, aeenia?eoao
oe?i, aeani?noue, aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue, o?iainiai-e?aaeeoia nenoaia,
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/i? no?oeoo?e, ?aioaaaeuei?noue (caeoeia?noue),
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nuee? oi?ioaaiiy.

Iooyoeia A.A. I?aaiecaoeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa a eieeaeoeaiuo
naeue-neioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo (ia iaoa?eaeao
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee Eeaaneie iaeanoe). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01 — yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Eceiaeaiu ?acoeueoaou i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe eieeaeoeaiuo
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e iieacaiu i?e/eiu iayooaeoeaiiai
oicyenoaiaaiey, iniiaiuie ec eioi?uo yaeythony iao?aaoee?iaaiiua
ainoaea?noaii iae?iyeiiiie/aneea ?uii/iua iaoaieciu: ia?eoao oeai
iaaeaeo io?aneyie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay e iaeiaiaay
nenoaiu, iaaeinoaoi/iia aiaae?aiea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoee.

Aii?inai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee a aa?a?iii naeoi?a
yeiiiieee, nicaeaieth iiauo oicyenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? ?uii/iiai oeia e
?acaeoeth a ieo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe iinayuaii iiiai
enneaaeiaaiee e iioaeeeiaaii iaiaei o?oaeia. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi
i?ioeann iaaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaa naeueneioicyenoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee e
cia/eoaeueiia nieaeaiea aai yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe a Oe?aeia
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?iaaaeaiiua yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu
ieacaeenue iayooaeoeaiuie, e iiyoiio iaiaoiaeei e?eoe/aneee aiaeec e
?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee e n?aaenoa aeey i?iaeieaeaiey e
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iui ioiioaieyi.

Ca aiaeu ?aoi?i i?e nicaeaiee iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee ia auei iaeaeaii
eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio ni/aoaieth ?aciuo
yeiiiieei-i?aaiauo, iieeoe/aneeo, oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiuo,
ia?eoaoii-oeaiiauo ?aoaiee iaaeaeo io?aneyie ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa,
eioi?ua iicaieeee au a oneiaeyo niaiu oi?i nianoaaiiinoe yooaeoeaii
?acaeaaoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneoth aeayoaeueiinoue ia i?eaueueiie iniiaa.

E yoiio anaio iaoaei iiiaeanoai i?e/ei, i?aaeaea anaai oaeeo, eae:
ianiaa?oainoai ?aoi?ie?iaaiey iaaauo e caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee
nianoaaiiinoe, eioi?ua ia niaeaenoaiaaee yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe a
nayce n oai, /oi yoe e ae?oaea ?aoathuea oaeoi?u ia i?eianee eo
nianoaaiieeai eaeiai-eeai iaoa?eaeueiiai oaeiaeaoai?aiey e noeioea;
nicaeaiiay iiaay eiiia?/aneay aaieianeay nenoaia iieiinoueth eeoeea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaey iieo-/aiey e?aaeeoia ec-ca
i/aiue aunieeo i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, a aac e?aaeeoia ?acaeoea
naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?aeoe/anee iaaiciiaeii; ia ?aoaiu
aii?inu ecuneaiey e iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo oi?i
eieeae-oeaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee eae aaaeouaai caaia a
iaania/aiee ianaeaiey no?aiu i?iaeoeoaie ieoaiey.

Iniaaiiinoueth i?aaenoaaeaiiie aeenna?oaoeee, eioi?ay auaiaeii ioee/aao
aa io ae?oaeo iiaeiaiuo ?aaio, yaeyaony oi, /oi a iae i?aaie/ii
ni/aoathony e enneaaeiaaiu ai acaeiinayce iao?aaoee?iaaiiua
ainoaea?noaii iae?iyeiiiie-/aneea ?uii/iua iaoaieciu e iainiiaaia
iio?aaiinoue oniaa?oainoaiaaiey aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo iiae?acaeaeaieyie e i?aaeaieai oicyenoaa. Iaiaoiaeeii
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ia aeaiiii yoaia aeenia?eoao oeai iaaeaeo io?aneyie
ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia oiaiueoaaony, a iaiai?io, oaaee/eaa-aony;
?aoi?ie?iaaiea iaeiaiaie nenoaiu — aaaaeaiea aaeeiiai oeene?iaaiiiai
iaeiaa — aaaeao ia e oiaiueoaieth aai iauaai ?acia?a, a e oaaee/aieth;
oeiaini-ai-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia ia i?eaeeaeaaony e oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeth,
a eeoue ioaeaeyaony.

*oi eanaaony aioo?eoicyenoaaiiuo i?iaeai ?uii/iiai o?aaoee?iaaiey, oi
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo yaeyaony ?acaeoea ananoi?iiieo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe
ii neaaeothuae noaia: i?iecaiaenoai — ia?a?aaioea — oneoae —
i?iecaiaenoai ianaeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia — oi?aiaey; onoaiiaeaiea
ia?eoaoiuo ?uii/iuo acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo ?aciuie iiae?acaeaeaieyie ca
n/ao ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey iaaeaeo ieie a oa/aiea aiaea aeaiaaeiuo
iinooieaiee; eii?aeeiaoeey eo aeaenoaee a aaeeiii yeiiiie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa ia i?eioeeiao naiinoiyoaeueiinoe oicyenoaiaaiey ia iniiaa
?uii/iuo ioiioaiee eoiee-i?iaeaaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, aecian, ?aoi?ie?iaaiea,
aeenia?eoao oeai, nianoaaiiinoue, yeiiiie/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue,
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiay nenoaia, i?aaiecaoeeiiii-yeiiiie/aneea no?oeoo?u,
?aioaaaeueiinoue (oauoi/iinoue), aioo?eoicyenoaaiiua oi?ie?iaaiey.

Putyatina O.V. Organization of business in the collective agricultural
establishments (on the materials of agricultural establishments of Kiev
district). — Manuscript.

The thesis is delivered for scientific degree of a Candidate of Economic
Sciences by specialty 08.06.01 — economy of enterprises and
organization of production.- National Agrarian University, Kiev, 1999.

The results of the business activity of agricultural collective
enterprises of Ukraine are presented by the author and the reasons of
ineffective economy are shown as well. The noncontrollable by the state
macroeconomics market mechanisms are basic among them: prices parity
between the branches of national economy, financial-credit and tax
systems.

The measures concerning increasing of economic effectively of
enterprises and development an enterprising activity in them are
grounded and suggested; the basic among them are: an integration of
production — processing — sale and establishment of equivalent payment
prices among the enterprise formations.

Key words: Entrepreneurship, Business, Reforming, Price Disparities,
Proprietorship, Economic effectiveness, Financial and Credit System,
Organization and economy structure, Profitability (Unprofitableness),
Economic units.

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