Організація дидактичного вибору в навчально-пізнавальній діяльності студентів вищих педагогічних закладів: Автореф. дис… канд. пед. наук / Л.В. Гера

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee

OAeE 371.30

Aa?aneiaiei Ea?ena A?oae??aia

I?aai?caoe?y aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-

i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?

?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Eiciaa Aaeaioeia ?aai?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee, caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee.Io?oe?ei?
iiiiaioe:aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeonaaeoeueeee Ieaenaiae? Einoyioeiiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ineoieia??;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Uie?ia Iaoae?y Ai?en?aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo o?ce/ii? eoeueoo?e,

caa?aeoth/a eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Eoaainueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao
?i.O.A.Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,i.
Eoaainuee.

.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «_4__» ethoiai 1999 ?. i _13_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, 215 aoae.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee (310168,
i.Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «_2_» n?/iy_ 199 9 ?ieo



A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee AeIEO?AIEI O.0.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cia/i? ci?ie, ye?
a?aeaoeeny a Oe?a?i? o noaaeaii? aei iaoe, ui aea/athoue i?iaeaio
ethaeeie a on?e ?? ??ciiiai?oiino?, coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue
iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee ?aeae aoiaiii? iaaeaaia?ee, yea aaeeeiai
cia/aiiy iaaea? oi?ioaaiith a?eueii?, naiino?eii ieney/i?
iniaenoino?, caeaoii? cae?enithaaoe iaa?oioiaaiee aea?? o
??ciiiai?oieo iaa/aeueieo ? aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo.

Ie?aneaia eiei i?iaeai yeiaeia?oa noino?oueny iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano o
aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaaeao, aea iathoue aeieaeaoe oai?/iai
iaaeaaiaa, aenieiina?/aiiai niaoe?ae?noa, a?iiaaeyieia-aoiai?noa,
caeaoiiai aeoiaaoe aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaio iniaeno?noue, i?aeaiooaaoe ??
aei aei?ineiai uaneeaiai aeeooy.

Iinoaea i?iaeaia iiooeo iiaeo i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy o
iaaeaaia?/iiio aoc?, ye? a aeicaieeee noai?eoe oiiae aeey oiai, uia
nooaeaio aoa noa’?eoii iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ae?eiaei ? na?aeiiei
eiai o/anieeii.

Inoaii?i /anii cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ?ic?iaoe? ?
canoinoaaiith i?eioeeio aeaeoeaiino? (aeai?o) o iaa/aii?, yeee ia
aeoieo a/aieo (I.N. Aioaa?a, I.A. ?aaeieeiia, A.?. .Ei?ioy?a oa ?i. ),
ni?ey? ?ice?eooth ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? nooaeaioa, na?aeiiiio
aeeth/aiith eiai a iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue c iaoith
?aae?caoe?? nai?o iio?aa, ?ioa?an?a, oe?eae. O iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa
i?aeoeoe? aea?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iniiaiee oaiiiai ?icaeoeo
iniaenoino? (E. ?iaeaea?n), can?a ei?eaoaaiiy aeie? oa oi?aae?iiy
aeeooyi (I. ?. Uo?eiaa), naii?icaeoeo iniaenoino? oa aeoiaaiiy ??
oai?/ino? (I. Iiioanni??), ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae, ui iaa/athoueny, ia
iniia? aeyaeaieo ?ioa?an?a (?. ?ee?o, I. O?ae??) oa ?o ?aae?caoe?? (E.
I. Aaiooeaeue, E. I. Oienoie), iaeii/anii oea iioei?coth/ee can?a,
yeee ni?ey? i?iaoaeaeaiith ? ?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae o/i?a (A. I.
Nooiieeinueeee), ?icaeoeo oa aeoiaaiiy oai?/i?, aa?iii?eii ?icaeiaii?
iniaenoino? (O.I. Aiiiaoa?e?, ?. I. Aieeia, A. O. Oaoaeia),
i?eioeei iiaeo iaaeaaia?/ieo oaoiieia?e (0.N. Aioaa?a, I. A.
?aaeieeiia).

Aea/aiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eoue i?i
ia?aeiiaiiy a/aieo o iiceoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeai?o ia i?aeoeoe?,
o i?e?iaeiino? oeueiai i?ioeano. Iaeiae ?aeeii? aeoiee uiaei
nooiino? aeai?o a iaooe? ia ?nio?, ye iaia? ? aecia/aiiy oeueiai
iiiyooy. Aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeai?o a iaa/aii? c iaoith
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy ye?nieo iieaciee?a aeiaiaeeeanue
aii??e/ii, aac iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Oaeee noai i?iaeaie a?aeaeaa?oueny ye ia oe?euei?e, oae ? ia
aoc?anuee?e i?aeoeoe?. Iieooaaiiy 224 a/eoae?a Iieoaanueei? iaeano?
aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i iaiaaeaia canoinoaaiiy aeai?o ia
i?aeoeoe? (85% a?ae 224 iieoaieo a/eoae?a i?eiee a nai?e
iaaeaaia?/i?e ?iaio? ia canoiniaoaaee aea??). Oaea ae noaiiaeua ? o
aocao. A?aenooi?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue o iaaeaaia?oe? c ieoaiue
i?aai?caoe?? aeai?o, iio?aaa i?aeoeee iaa/aiiy a iaaeaocao
aeiaaathoue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue aeai?o: aiae?co
?nioth/eo i?aeoiae?a aei oe??? i?iaeaie, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
ia?aaeiaeo o/eoae?a, aeeeaaea/?a aoco ? ia iniia? ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy
aecia/aiiy iiiyooy aeai?o, eiai i?noey a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii —
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee
ia i?aeoeoe? iiaeaeae eiai canoinoaaiiy oa ?i. Ioaea,
iaaeaaia?/ia cia/ou?noue i?iaeaie, ?? iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea,
c?inoath/ee a oiiaao aeaiie?aoecaoe?? .noni?euenoaa ?ioa?an o/aieo,
iaaeaaia?/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? aei aecia/aiiy oeyo?a ?aae?caoe??
aoiai?noe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee coiiaeee oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy —
«I?aai?caoe?y aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a».

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue
nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy nooiino?
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, eiai iiaeaeae oa oaoiieia?e ?aae?caoe?? a
iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy, ui iaaeaaia?/ii
iaa?oioiaaia, oe?eani?yiiaaia canoinoaaiiy ??cieo iiaeaeae
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o (aeai?o ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, oi?i ?
iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, caaaeaiue ??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? a
i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?) ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a oa ?o
naii?aae?caoe??.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe oa aenoiooi? a?iioace
aoei noi?ioeueiaaii oae? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

ia iniia? aea/aiiy, aiae?co iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o?einio?a,
ineoieia?a, iaaeaaia?a c ieoaiue aeai?o aecia/eoe ? oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iiaeeea? iiaeae? ?aae?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai
aeai?o a iaa/aii?;

aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe oaoiieia?th i?aai?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai
aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco;

aeyaeoe aieea cae?eniaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ia ye?ni? iieacieee
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oa ia i?ioean ?o naii?aae?caoe??.

Ia?aa??ea aenoiooi? a?iioace ? ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
cae?enithaaeenue oeyoii canoinoaaiiy eiiieaeno iaoiae?a
iaaeaaia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

oai?aoe/ieo: aiae?co o?einionueei?, ineoieia?/ii? oa iaa/aeueii —
iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;

aii??e/ieo: niinoa?aaeaiiy ca iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth nooaeaio?a,
aan?aee, iieooaaiiy, aieaooaaiiy, aea??eiaa ?ioa?a’th, aiae?c
ienueiiaeo ?ia?o nooaeaio?a oa ?oi?o a?aeiia?aeae ia caiyooyo;

iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo, ye?niiai ? e?euee?niiai aiae?co eiai
iane?aee?a ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoiaeieia?/io ? oai?aoe/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue i?ia?aneai? ?aea? aecenoaioe?ae?cio, a yeeo aea??
?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy ? naiiaecia/aiiy
iniaenoino? (N.E’??eaai?, AE. -I. Na?o?), eiioeaioe?y aoiai?caoe??
ina?oe (O.I. Aiiiaoa?e?, A. ?. Aauaiei, N.O. Aii/a?aiei, TH. ?.
Iaeueiaaiee, A. I. Nooiieeinueeee), iieiaeaiiy i?i i?ioean iaa/aiiy oa
nooi?noue iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? ye aca?iiae?? eiai
noa’?eo?a (A.I. Aeaenthe, TH.E. Aaaainueeee, I.I. Eaiioue?a, TH.?.
Iaeueiaaiee, I.ss. Naa/aiei, A.?. Uoe?ia), a/aiiy i?i ae?yeuei?noue oa
ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae (I.I. Eaiioue?a, A.?. Uoe?ia), iaoeia? i?aoe? c
oai??? i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy(TH. Eicaeaoeueeee, A.I. Nieioeaaa, I.A. *i?ayi
oa ?i.), i?aoe? I.E. Aeonaaeoeueeiai oa A. ?. Uoe?ii? i?i oi?ioaaiiy
i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? aeoea?caoe??
i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ? nooaeaio?a (E.I. A?enoiaa, N.?.
A?oaiaaeuenueeee, A.?. Eiciaa, ?. ss. Ea?ia?, ?. O. Oa?eaiia, I.I.
Neaoe?i, O.?. Oaiiaa), i?aoe? c ieoaiue ci?noo, oi?i oa iaoiae?a
iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eoa (A.I. Aeaenthe, A.E. Aey/aiei).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaathoue o
oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? iiiyooy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, aecia/aii?
eiai ooieoe?e, ?ie? a iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?.
Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii iiaeae?
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o oa oaoiieia?? ?o cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?ioean
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a. Aeyaeaii aieea, yeee cae?enith? aea?? ia
iniaeno?noue ? ia ye?noue ?? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae oni?oiino? eiai cae?eniaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai —
iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a uiaei i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai
aeai?o a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?. Iaea?aeai? aeai? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? a i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a iaaeaoc?a.

Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue o
i?ioean? aeine?aeii — aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy a 5 aeaaeai?/ieo
a?oiao ineoieiai — iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Iieoaanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea.

Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oa oai?aoe/iiio
iaa?oiooaaii? aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ye eaoaai??? aoiaiii? iaaeaaia?ee,
cae?eniaii? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ii aeyaeaiith oaoiieia?e
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??cieo iiaeaeae aeai?o, o anoaiiaeaii? ?o aieeao
ia ye?ni? iieacieee iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a, ??aaiue ?o oaeethaaiiy oa
naii?aae?caoe??.

A??ia?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeth?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noth
iaoeiaiai aia?aoa ia’?eoo, i?aaeiaoo oa iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a, a?aeiia?aeieo iinoaaeaiei caaaeaiiyi,
ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a,
iiaeeea?noth ia?aa??ee iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Aeeaeaeoe/iee aea?? ye eaoaai??y aoiai?noe/ii? iaaeaaia?ee
ia?aaeaa/a? iaai? aeoeai? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? e aieueia? ae?? (aiae?c,
ni?anoaaeaiiy, i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy oa ?i. ) iniaenoino?, ni?yiiaai? ia
aecia/aiiy ia?aaaa iaei??? c aeueoa?iaoea o ci?no? iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo, iaoiaeao ? oi?iao i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, c o?aooaaiiyi nai?o iio?aa, oe?eae, ?ioa?an?a,
iiaeeeainoae (?ioaeaeooaeueieo, naii?aae?caoe?? oiui), onoaiiaie oa
iniaenoi? cia/ouino? aeey ia?aaeaa/aiiy iane?aee?a i?eeiyoiai
??oaiiy.

2. Iiaeaeyie cae?eniaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o iiaea aooe aea??
ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, oi?i ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy, caaaeaiue
??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? a i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? oa ?i.

3. Iaaeaaia?/ieie oiiaaie oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a ? iayai?noue aeaio aai a?eueoa aeueoa?iaoea,
ia??aiicia/ieo ca ci?noii, a?aeiia?aei?noue ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?noeoueny
a aeueoa?iaoeaao, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio oacao?ono noa’?eoa aeai?o;
a?aooaaiiy noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a: noaaeaiiy nooaeaio?a aei iaa/aiiy,
oi?iiy cae?enithaaoe aea??, ??aaiue i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany o oiae?
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio
?inoeooo? ?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea.

Caaaeaiiy, ci?no oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a aoco (Iieoaaa,
1996,1997; E?aiai/oe, 1997,1998; Oa?e?a, 1997).

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiai? ?iaioe
a?aeaeoi o 6 ioae?eaoe?yo (an? iaeiiin?ai?). No?oeoo?a oa ianya
aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei eiaeiiai ?icae?eo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (166 iaeiaioaaiue), 3 aeiaeaoe?a (5n.).
Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 146 noi??ieao, yeee
aeeth/a?: 30 oaaeeoeue, 2 a?ao?ea, 3 ae?aa?aie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy, a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaii iaoeiao
iiaecio, oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno; iiaeaii a?aeiiino? i?i
ai?iaaoe?th oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — «I?iaeaia aeai?o a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo»
— ia iniia? aiae?co o?einionueei? oa ineoieiai- iaaeaaia?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c’yniaaii iaoiaeieia?/ia i?aea?oioy eaoaai??? aeai?o;
aecia/aii iiiyooy «aea??» oa «aeeaeaeoe/iee aea??»; ?ice?eoi
ooieoe?? oa no?oeoo?o aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, eiie?aoeciaaii eiai
i?noea a no?oeoo?? iaaeaaia?/iiai i?ioeano ; ocaaaeueiaii oiiae
a?eueiiai aeai?o oa aeiiae aei iueiai.

Aaaaoia?aii?noue i?iaeaie aeiaaaea anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy i?e?iaee
aeai?o, ui ia?aaeaa/aei iaiao?aei?noue aiae?co o?einionueeeo oa
ineoieiai — iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, oeaio?aeueiith ?aea?th
yeeo ? eiioeaioe?y ethaeeie, a?eueii? iniaenoino?, caeaoii? aei
aeeoo?oai?aiiy ia iniia? iaa?oioiaaiiai aeai?o a ??ciiiai?oieo
noa?ao aoooy: iie?oe/i?e, aeiiii?/i?e, iiaooia?e oa ?i. A
aeine?aeaeaiiyo no/anieo o?einio?a, cie?aia A.A?iaenueeiai, any
??ciiiai?oi?noue oeoia/aiue iiiyooy aeai?o caiaeeoueny aei oaeeo
iniiaieo /ioe?ueio eaiii?a: ?oaea?nonueeiai, aoaeae?enueeiai,
aee?inueeiai, o?enoeyinueeiai, ye? aeathoue ciiao aeae?eeoe iaai?
eiiiiiaioe ? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeai?o, ui ni?eythoue o?einionueeiio
inieneaiith eaoaai???, a naia: i?eioeeio aeaoa?i?i?cio, i?iyao
noa’?eoii aie?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, oai?/i? aeoeaiino?. Aa??thaaiiy
cacia/aieo eiiiiiaio?a, iaaeaiiy iniiaiiieiaeiiai cia/aiiy iaeiiio c
ieo ooai?ththoue iaai? i?aeoiaee aei ?ice?eooy nooiino? aeai?o ye
o?einionueei? eaoaai??? c iiceoe?? aaniethoiiai aeaoa?i?i?cio (A.
Aaaaeue, A.A. Ieaoaiia, A. Ni?iica), aeoeaiiai noa’?eoea?cio (N.
E’??eaai?, AE. -I. Na?o?, A.N. Neiai?iaea), noa’?eoea?cio (I.I.
Aa?aeyaa, O. Oaee?ia, A. Oiiaiaaoa?, ?. Ooaeia?), iaoa??ae?cio (?.A
Ae/ei, A.I. A?eoeaiei, A.E. Aeaaeaeiae/, E.I. Iia?eia, I.I. Iiaia?oeei).

Aiae?c ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie aeai?o a o?einio?? aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aea?? — oea aeo a?eueii? aie?, ?? i?aeoe/ia
?aae?caoe?y. Iio?aae, ?ioa?ane, oe?e?, iioeae, ye? neeaaeathoue
aieueiao noa?o iniaenoino?, aeaoa?i?iothoueny ciai?oi?ie ianoaaeiaie.
Ia aaaeeeao ?ieue ia’?eoeaiiai oaeoi?o o aeai?? aeacoaaee ?.A.
Ae/ei, A. Aaaaeue, A.A. Ieaoaiia oa ?i. I?ioa oeae oaeoi? ia ?
ia?aaaaeiei ? ia aeiaaa? aaniethoiiai aeio?eiaiiy aeiia ciai?oi?o
ianoaaei. Nei??oa oea ia?ao?ae iaiao?aeiino? o aioo??oith iio?aao
noa’?eoa, a ?ic?yae eiai naiiaeaoa?i?iaoe??. Oiio, aiai?y/e i?i
ocaiaeaeaiiy iaiao?aeiino? c aioo??oi?i «ss» noa’?eoa, aaaaea?ii
iaia’yceiaith oiiaith na?aeiiiai aeai?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy noa’?eoeaieo ?
ia’?eoeaieo eiiiiiaio?a.

Aca?iiae?y, ?aei?noue i?ioean?a ciai?oiuei? ? aioo??oiuei?
ae?yeueiino? ni?eythoue naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?. Naii?aae?caoe?y
aecia/a?oueny a oai??? o?einio?? iaeii/anii ye ?acoeueoao ? ye
i?ioean, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ?aae?caoe?? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
cae?aiinoae ethaeeie ?, oaeei /eiii, ia?aoai?th? ?? ia noa’?eo
aeeooy. Aea?? ye i?iya aioo??oiuei? naiaiaee iniaenoino?
(niiioea?oueny iio?aaaie ethaeeie aeey caaeiaieaiiy ?ioa?an?a) ?
iaeiei ?c iaeae??a?oeo cania?a naii?aae?caoe??. Naiicae?enithth/enue
o iueiio, noa’?eo aenooia? oai?/ei iin??i i?ioean?a ? ?o
ia?aoai?aiiy — aeioe?eueii? ci?ie ciai?oiueiai na?oo ? nai??
aeanii? i?e?iaee. Aea?? — eaoaai??y, ui icia/a? iniaeeaee ??aaiue
aeoeaiino?. Aiia ioiieth? iniaeno? aniaeoe oai?/iai aoooy, a?eueia
oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy, i?iaiicoaaiiy, ye? aacothoueny ia i?ciai?e
iaiao?aeiino? ? ni?eythoue aeinyaiaiith iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo a
eaioethc? nenoaie «iaoa — ?acoeueoao».

??ciiiai?oi? noa?e ae?yeueiino?, a yeeo cae?enith?oueny aea??,
ii?iaeaeothoue ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee aeai?o. Aiie ?ic??ciythoueny ca
aaeoccth i?iyao aeai?o (aeeoo?aee aea??, iie?oe/iee aea??, iiaooiaee
aea??, aeeaeaeoe/iee aea?? oa ?i.). Ca nooiaiai a?aeaeooy oai?/eo
iioaioe?e noa’?eoa aea?? iiaea aooe aeai?ii «?inoo» aai aeai?ii
«?aa?ano» (A.Ianeio). Ca ianooaaii a?i iiaea aooe oaeoe/iei ?
no?aoaa?/iei; ca oe?ii?niith ni?yiiaai?noth — noai?thaaeueiee ?
iaaaoeaii ?oei?aiee; ca ?ioi?iaoeai?noth — aea?? a oiiaao
?ioi?iaoe?eii? iaaei??iino?, aea?? a oiiaao ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
aeao?oeeoo ? ca iioiaeaeaiiyi (aaiacenii) — ooo/ii i?aai?ciaai?
neooaoe?? aeai?o ? i?e?iaei?.

Aea/aiiy iaoeiaeo ineoieia?/ieo i?aoeue c i?iaeaie aeai?o
aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe aeae?eueea i?aeoiae?a aei ?icaeyaeo nooiino?
oe??? eaoaai???.

Oae, aea?? aecia/a?oueny ye aeaiaio i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy
(TH.Eicaeaoeueeee, I.?.Ea?e/aa, A.I.Nieioeaaa). I?ea?/ieeaie oaei?
iiceoe?? a?i ?icaeyaea?oueny ye cai?ia?aiiaaiee, iaoai?noe/iee aeo,
ui aeeiio?oueny ia iniia? caaeaiiai aeai?eoio ? iicaaaey?oueny
noa’?eoeaiiai aieeao.

?ioee i?aeo?ae o O.E.Aaneethea, yeee ?icaeyaea? aea?? o «oai???
aeeoo?aeo na?o?a», aea eiai i?aaenoaaeaii iacaaaiaiei aeoii.

Oai??y oe?eani?yiiaaii? iiaaae?iee (I.O. Iaoiiaa) aecia/a? ia’?eoeai?
? noa’?eoeai? oiiae aeai?o, caeeoath/e aac oaaae i?iaeaie eiai
iioiaeaeaiiy ? nooiino?.

Ineoieiae O.Ae. Ai?aia, A.O. Ii?oi?a i?aaenoaaeythoue aea?? ye
ooieoe?th ineo?ee. ?noeiiei aeai?ii aiie aaaaeathoue aeiaaeeiaa,
noa’?eoeaia iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae, ui ii?iaeaeo?oueny iacaaaiaieie
i?iyaaie ethaenueei? ineo?ee.

Ae?yeuei?niee i?aeo?ae aei eaoaai??? aeai?o (Ae.I. Eaiioue?a, I.I.
Eaiioue?a, I.A. Ieeeiei oa ?i.) iaeaeeaoa ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue
aeai?o, aecia/ath/e eiai ye oe?eani?yiiaaio ae?yeuei?noue.

?ioa?an aei eaoaai??? aeai?o a iaaeaaia?oe? ca?iaeaeo?oueny a
aiioo i?ina?oieoeoaa. ?ic?iaee iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai iaa/aiiy ?
aeoiaaiiy ia iniia? naiaiaee aie?, aeai?o ciaoiaeeii aaea o
Aeae.Eieea, yeee ni?iaoaaa a?aeianoe naiaiaeo aei eoeueoo?ieo
cae/ie, i?aaee oa i?eioeei?a ?icoio. C iiceoe?? ?aoe?iiae?cio
a/aiee c?iaea ni?iao aeiaanoe cia/ei?noue aeai?o ye iniiae
i?aeaioiaee aeeoeie aei uaneeaiai, ?icoiiiai aeeooy, aea a aiia
aoea a?eueiith naia ? ia iaiaaeoaaea a naiaiaee ?ioeo.

AE.-AE. ?onni, i?iaeiaaeoth/e ?aeath a?eueiiai ?icaeoeo iniaenoino?,
?icoi?? aea?? i?e?iaeiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith, ui ? iniiaith aeey
aeoiaaiiy aeeoeie.

Iaeiae aeciaiiy iiceoeaii? noo? aeai?o ia i?eaaei aei oe?ieiai
canoinoaaiiy eiai ia i?aeoeoe?. XX noi??//y aea? iiaee iiooiao
aeey ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aeae, iiaoaeiaaieo ia iniia? aeai?o
oa a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iueiai. Aieiaia iaoa ?o — oi?ioaaiiy
na?aeiii? iniaenoino?, caeaoii? aei a?eueiiai aeeoo?oai?aiiy,
ocaiaeaeaii c aeanieie ?ioa?anaie, aea a aa?iii?? c ?ioeie
ethaeueie.

Oae, o i?iaoeuee?e iaaeaaia?oe? aea?? ?icaeyaeaany o eiioaeno?
aoiaiii- «aeooiaii?» iaaeaaia?ee ?.Ooaeia?a ye can?a aeoiaaiiy
aenieiaeooiaieo a?iiaaeyi naiai /ano.

E.I.Oienoie aeei?enoiaoaaa aea?? a nai?e iaaeaaia?/i?e i?aeoeoe?
ye can?a ?icaeoeo i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ae?oae, iaaeath/e ?i
iiaeeeaino? aeae?aoe oai?e aeey /eoaiiy, oaie aeey iaienaiiy
aeanieo oai??a, i?iaeaie aeey iaaiai?aiiy ia caiyooyo oa ?i.

I.Iiioanni?? a?aeiineoue aea?? aei noa?e ?inoeieo?a, aaaaeath/e oeth
caeaoi?noue i?e?iaeiith, ia ??ai? a?iaeaeaii? ?ene, yea
caaacia/o? iiaeeea?noue iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae o?eueee oiio, ui
iaiao?aeii aeey caa?aaeaiiy aeeooy.

?aeay aeei?enoaiiy eaoaai??? aeai?o a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiai cia/aiiy ye iieacieea aeiyoeiaino? ethaenueei?
i?e?iaee, ci?i iniaenoino?, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny ia iniia?
?aae?caoe?? aeanieo ?ioa?an?a, ia’?aeio? oai??? ?. ?ee?oa, E.
?iaeaea?na, I. O?ae??a. sse can?a aeyaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a
ae?oae ?icaeyaea? aea?? E.I. Aaiooeaeue. Iaeiae iaeiia?/ia
aeyaeaiiy oa caaeiaieaiiy ?inoeieoeaieo niiioe oa aaaeaiue ae?oae
i?eaaee aei oneeaaeiaiue, ye? a?aecia/aa iaaeaaia: iaaei??ia
caoaeaeaiiy o/i?a, ui aeieeaei a ?acoeueoao? a?aeiiae aeoiaaoaey
aai a/eoaey caaeiaieueieoe oa /e ?ioa aaaeaiiy ; ia?ioaaiiy
ae?oueie /ano, aecia/aiiai aeey iaa/aiiy; naaa?eey o/i?a oa ?i.
Oe? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeaee ciiao E.I. Aaiooeaeth c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i oa, ui a?aooaaiiy o aeai?? o?eueee ?ioa?an?a oeo, ooi
iaa/a?oueny, ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith ie?aieo iaaaoeaieo ?en ethaeeie.
A?aooaaiiy oeueiai aeina?aeo aeaei ciiao no/aniei iaaeaaiaai
i?ae?eoe ii-?ioiio aei ?icoi?iiy aeai?o.

A.I. Nooiieeinueeee ?icaeyaea? aea?? ye iioei?coth/ee can?a, oiaoi
can?a i?iaoaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae o/i?a.

Aena?oeaiiy ?ie? oa i?noey aeai?o a iaa/aii? ? aeoiaaii? ciaeoei
a?aeaeooy a ?aeayo iaaeaaia?ee ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa. O.I. Aiiiaoa?e?, ?.I.
Aieeia, A.O. Oaoaeia oa ?i. aecia/athoue cia/ei?noue aeai?o a i?ioean?
naii?aae?caoe?? iniaenoino?, a oi?ioaaii? oai?/iai ieneaiiy.

A inoaii? ?iee a?aei?/a?oueny i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an aei aeai?o o
aoc?anuee?e iaaeaaia?oe?. I?ea?/ieee aio/eeo oaoiieia?e aoc?anueei?
ina?oe (I.N. Aioaa?a, I.A. ?aaeieeiia, A.?. Ei?ioy?a) aaaaeathoue
aea?? ?aeeiei caniaii aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo iaa/aiiy.
A/aieie i?iiiio?oueny yeiaeoe?oee aea?? oaoiieia?e, oaii?a, no?ie?a,
?aaeeio iaa/aiiy, ci?noo, iaoiae?a, oi?i i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-
i?ciaaaeueiiai i?ioeano. Iaeiae ia ae??oaiei caeeoa?oueny ieoaiiy uiaei
i?e?iaee aeai?o, iaae eiai aeei?enoaiiy, oiia aoaeoeaiino? eiai
i?aai?caoe?? a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?.

O aeeiiaiiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
i?ia?aeieo no/anieo o?c?ieia?a (I.E. Aiio?ia, A.?. Nieieiaa, A.?.
Nae?aaiiaa) oa ineoieia?a (Ae.I. Eaiioue?aa, I.I. Eaiioue?aa, I.A.
Ieeeiea, A.I. Oaieiaa, I.A. *i?ayia oa ?i.) anoaiiaeaii i?e?iaeo
aeai?o ye neeaaeiii?aai?ciaaiiai, oe?eani?yiiaaiiai i?ioeano, ui
ea?o?oueny ae?yeuei?noth iiceo. Oea aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe aea?? ye
oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean aeae?eaiiy ia’?eoo ?c cai?iiiiiaaii?
noeoiiino?.

Aea?? i?eoaiaiiee aoaeue-ye?e ae?yeueiino?: noni?euei?e, o?ce/i?e,
o?oaeia?e, i?ciaaaeuei?e oa ?i. O aeeiiaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean aeai?o o iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco, yeee aoei aecia/aii oa?i?iii aeeaeaeoe/iee
aea??, ui ia?aaeaa/a? iaai? aeoeai? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? e aieueia? ae??
(aiae?c, ni?anoaaeaiiy, i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy oa ?i.) iniaenoino?,
ni?yiiaai? ia aecia/aiiy ia?aaaa iaei??? c aeueoa?iaoea o ci?no?
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaeao ? oi?iao i?aai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii
— i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?i. c o?aooaaiiyi nai?o iio?aa,
oe?eae, ?ioa?an?a, iiaeeeainoae (?ioaeaeooaeueieo, naii?aae?caoe??
oiui), onoaiiaie oa iniaenoi? cia/ouino? aeey ia?aaeaa/aiiy
iane?aee?a i?eeiyoiai ??oaiiy.

Niiioea?oueny aeeaeaeoe/iee aea?? iioeaaoe?eii — oe?eueiaith
noa?ith iniaenoino?. I?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae iio?aa, ui
ii?iaeaeothoue aea??, caeiathoue i?ciaaaeuei? iio?aae oa iio?aaa a
naii?aae?caoe??. Ciaeiinoai c aeueoa?iaoeaaie oa ?o ioe?iea c
iiceoe?? «a?aeiia-iaa?aeiia», «oe?eaaa-iaoe?eaaa»,
«o?aaeeoe?eia-iao?aaeeoe?eia», «oe?aeeeaa-ei?enia» ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith
aaaeaiiy ii??aithaaoe, c?noaaeyoe oa iaaeaaaoe ia?aaaao iaai?e
c ieo. Iio?aaa a naii?aae?caoe?? coiiaeaia i?aaiaiiyi noa’?eoa
iaeiiai?oa ?aae?coaaoe na?e iniaeno?niee iioaioe?ae: cae?aiino?,
?ioa?ane, aaaeaiiy. Iayai?noue iio?aa oa a?aeiia?aeieo oiia ?o
?aae?caoe?? ni?eythoue aecia/aiith onoaiiaie, ye?, ca aeoieith
Ae.I. Ociaaeca, aieeaathoue ia aea?? iniaenoino?, ni?yiiaoth/e eiai
o?eueee ia oa, ui noaiiaeoue aeey noa’?eoa ?ioa?an. Ia iniia?
onoaiiaie oi?iothoueny iioeae aeai?o. Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a
aieaooaaiiy 113 nooaeaio?a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i.
A.A.Ei?ieaiea aeicaieea aeyaeoe oae? iioeae aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o:
caeiaooe aaoi?eoao eieaeoeao, cae?enithth/e aea?? neeaaeieo caaaeaiue
— 10,3%; aeinyaoe aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo iaeiaioeie coneeeyie,
aeae?ath/e eaae? caaaeaiiy — 11,4%; iaaooe iiaeo ciaiue caaaeyee
canai?iith iaciaeiii? ?ioi?iaoe??, iaiao?aeii? aeey ii??aiyiiy
i?aaenoaaeaieo aeueoa?iaoea -16%; oi?ioaaiiy i?oeieo, aio/eeo ciaiue,
ui aeiiiiiaeooue ?aoe?iiaeueii ? aoaeoeaii i?aoethaaoe — 14,5%;
iiaeeea?noue iaaoooy iiaeo ciaiue oeyoii naiino?eiiai iiooeo,
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai oaiio ?iaioe — 18,6%; oai?/iai aeiaoiaeo iiaiai
niiniao ae?yeueiino? -10,5%; i?aaiaiiy aeinyaoe ?aeaaeueiiai «ss»
-18,7%.

A?aooaaiiy oa?aeoa?o iioeaaoe??, ?aaeueia ioe?iea noa’?eoii nai?o
iiaeeeainoae, /?oea ona?aeiieaiiy ieaio aeinyaiaiiy iaoe,
ia?aaeaa/aiiy i/?eoaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe
caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th iiaaae?iee iniaenoino? i?ae /an aeai?o.
Aiae?c iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a/aieo TH.I. Eoethoe?ia, A.N.
Nooianueei?, I.A. *i?ayia aeicaieythoue aeae?eeoe 4 iaea?eueo
oa?aeoa?i? no?aoaa?? iiaaae?iee noa’?eoa:

1) ?aae?noe/ia no?aoaa?y ( aea?? aecia/a?oueny ?aaeueiith ioe?ieith
ia’?eoa ae?yeueiino? oa aeanieo iiaeeeainoae, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
aenieiai nooiaiy ?iia??iino? aeinyaiaiiy oni?oo);

2) no?aoaa?y ?eceeo (iiaaae?iea coiiaeth?oueny i???ioaoe??th noa’?eoa
ia i?anoeae ? ??aaiue aeiiaaaiue, a ia ia ?aaeueiee ia’?eo
caeiaooeo);

C) iaa?aaeia no?aoaa?y (iiaaae?iea aecia/a?oueny aaaeaiiyi noa’?eoa
oieeiooe iaaaea/? ? iaoni?oo);

4) no?aoaa?y ?ioo?oeaiiai iiooeo (aea?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia?
ia’?eoeaii iaei?ioi?iaoeaiiai oaeoo). Ciaiiy no?aoaa?e a
iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? aeyaey?oueny iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeeaei ? aea? ciiao aeeeaaea/ai eiino?othaaoe neooaoe?? aeai?o
aeey ??ciiai eiioeiaaioo nooaeaio?a.

Iniiaieie no?oeoo?ieie aoaiaie aeai?o o aeeiiaiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
aecia/aii oae?:

1.I?aeaioia/i-iioeaaoe?eiee (oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
nooaeaio?a aei i?ioeano aeai?o, ?ic’yniaiiy caaaeaiiy oa
noeioethaaiiy o thiae?a ? ae?a/ao iio?aae c?iaeoe aea??).

2. Iioeaaoe?eii-i???ioiaiee (ona?aeiieaiiy ?iaeea?aeii caaaeaiue,
oiia, aeiia a?aeiia?aeii aei noa’?eoeaieo iiaeeeainoae).

3. I?ioeanoaeueii-ae?yeuei?niee (aaciina?aaei? ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue
eiie?aoii? iiaeae? aeai?o).

4. Aiae?oe/ii-ioe?iiee, yeee i?eionea? naiiioe?ieo nooaeaio?a:
c’ynoaaiiy ??aiy naii?aae?caoe??, caaeiaieaiiy /e iacaaeiaieaiiy
nai?ie ?acoeueoaoaie, ei?aeoe?th aeeiiaii? ?iaioe oa ioe?ieo
aeeeaaea/a.

5. Ei?eaoaaeueiee — aecia/aiiy oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy aeyaeaieo iaaeie?e?a
i?ioeano aeai?o.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — «Aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea oaoiieia??
i?aai?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a» — ?ice?eoi caaaeuei? ieoaiiy i?aai?caoe??
aa??aoeaiiai aenia?eiaioo, iaoiaee ? o?ae aeine?aeaeaiiy, ni?yiiaaiiai
ia aeyaeaiiy aieeao ??cieo iiaeaeae aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ia
iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oa ia aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia
i?aai?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii- i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino?.

Aeoiaey/e c eia?ee iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, aoei aecia/aii ianooii?
iiaeae? cae?eniaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o.

Iiaeaeue «A1A» ia?aaeaa/aea i?aai?caoe?th caiyoue c aeei?enoaiiyi aeai?o
ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo. Aea/aiiy i?ioeano aeai?o ia
i?aeoeoe? aeaei ciiao anoaiiaeoe, ui oey iiaeaeue aeyaeeany
iaaeoi neeaaeiith aeey nooaeaio?a. Aiia aeiaaaea aeineoue aaeeeiai
caiano iayaieo ciaiue aeey ona?aeiieaiiai aiae?co cai?iiiiiaaieo
aeueoa?iaoea. Oiio iiaeae? aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ?iciiae?eyeeny ia
iniia? a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee eiaeii? c aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi.
Iniaeeaino? aeaaeai?/ieo a?oi c’yniaoaaeeny oeyoii aeyaeaiiy ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? iaaieo oi?iue: aeae?eyoe aieiaia a oiiaao /aniaeo
iaiaaeaiue; aoaeoaaoe oiiaea?ae ?c aeae?eueeio iineeaiue; aeeiioaaoe
ianoaiaea?oi? caaaeaiiy; aoaeoaaoe a?ao?/i? noaie ia iniia?
i?i/eoaiiai. I?aai aeai?o ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aoei
iaaeaii a?oi? IE-41 (84,6% nooaeaio?a cacia/aii? a?oie ai?thoue
aeae?eyoe aieiaia; 76,9% ni?iiiaei? iiaoaeoaaoe oiiaea?ae; 57,6%
iathoue aeeaie?, i?oei? ciaiiy).

Iiaeaeue «A3A» — canoinoaaiiy aeai?o iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?. Oni?oia i?aai?caoe?y oeeo caiyoue aeiaaaea ia o?eueee
canoinoaaiiy caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oi?iue, aea ?ua e oi?iiy i?aoethaaoe o
neeaae? a?oie, ocaiaeaeoth/e nai? ?ioa?ane c ?ioa?anaie nai?o oiaa?eo?a.
Nooaeaioe a?oie IE-44, yea aoea aecia/aia aeey ?aae?caoe?? cacia/aii?
iiaeae?, a?aecia/aeeny aeaui ieae/eie iieacieeaie ca aeae?eaieie
oi?iiyie, i?ae a?oie ineoieia?a IE-41, IE-43 (80% nooaeaio?a caeaoi?
aeae?eeoe aieiaia, aea o?eueee 48% iiaeooue aoaeoaaoe oiiaea?ae) aei
oiai ae 88% a?oie a?aecia/eee a?aenooi?noue oiaa?enueeeo noinoie?a ?c
iaeiia?oiieeaie. Nooaeaioe a?aei?/aee, ui ni?eeoaaiiy ?o iaeei c
iaeiei a?aeaoaa?oueny o?eueee ia ae?eia?e iniia? (caieoaiiy noiniaii
ci?i o ?iceeaae?; i?ioaiiy aeiiiiiaoe o aeeiiaii? iaaieo caaaeaiue;
ni?eueia i?aeaioiaea aei caiyooy, eiio?ieueii? ?iaioe, aecaiaio). C
iaoith iie?auaiiy yeino? iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a oe??? a?oie oa
iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae?oaeiuei?, aeia??eeai? aoiinoa?e a eieaeoea? ie
cai?iiiioaaee ?i caiyooy ia iniia? iienaii? iiaeae?.

Iiaeaeue «A4N » — caiyooy ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeai?o caaaeaiue ??ciiai
??aiy naiino?eiino? a i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?. Oaea i?aai?caoe?y
caiyoue aeiaaaea a?ae nooaeaio?a aieiae?iiy oi?iiyie i?aoethaaoe ia
??cieo ??aiyo i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? (?ai?iaeoeoeaiiio,
?aeiino?oeoeaiiio ? oai?/iio). Nooaeaioe a?oie IE-45, a ye?e
?aae?ciaoaaeany cacia/aia iiaeaeue, oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny iayai?noth
a?coaeueiiai ieneaiiy (iai/ii-ae??aiai, iai/ii-ia?aciiai), ui aeyaeyeiny
a oi?ii? nooaeaio?a aoaeoaaoe eia?/i? noaie, oaaeeoe?, iii?i? eiiniaeoe
(95, 8%). Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ?o iaa/aeueiith ae?yeuei?noth aeicaieeei
aeae?eeoe aeanoea? ?i ?ene: ?icaeiaia oyaeaiiy,
niinoa?aaeeea?noue, aiioe?ei?noue, aeia?a ?icaeiaio ?ioo?oe?th. THiaee ?
ae?a/aoa oe??? a?oie aeia?a iienothoue, ia?aaeathoue iniaeno? a?aaeaiiy,
aea a?ae/oaathoue oo?oaeiaiiy, eiee iio??aii aiae?coaaoe, ?iaeoe
aeniiaee, a?aoiaiooaaoe naith aeoieo. Aeey oi?ioaaiiy oi?iiy
aiae?coaaoe, ?iaeoe aeniiaee, ioe?ithaaoe aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii cacia/aio
iiaeaeue.

Iiaeaeue «A2Ae» — i?aai?caoe?y caiyoue c aeei?enoaiiyi oe?e?niiai
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o: ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, oi?i, iaoiae?a
iaa/aiiy, caaaeaiue ??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? o i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino?. Oe? caiyooy iaea?eueo neeaaei? aeey nooaeaio?a. Oiio aeey
?aae?caoe?? oe??? iiaeae? aoea ia?aia a?oia IE-43, nooaeaioe yei? iaee
iaeaeuee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue, ui ia?aa??yeeny (86,3% ai?thoue
aeae?eyoe aieiaia; 77,2% ni?iiiaei? aoaeoaaoe oiiaea?ae; 59, 8% ca
eiinoaooth/eie aeaieie iathoue iiai?, aeeaie? ciaiiy).

Eiio?ieueiith aoea aea?aia a?oia IE-42 ?c na?aaei?ie iieacieeaie
aeae?eaieo oi?iue.

Oi?ioth/ee aoai aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe i?iaiaeeany i?ioyaii
1996-1998 iaa/aeueieo ?ie?a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy eo?no aeeoy/i?
e?oa?aoo?e.

Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie ia?aa??ee aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o aoee: ??aaiue naii?aae?caoe?? nooaeaio?a
(aenieee, iecueeee), ye?noue ciaiue (iiaiioa, aeeaeia, aio/e?noue,
ona?aeiieai?noue), oa?aeoa? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano (neooaoeaiee,
a?aeiinii no?eeee, aeinoaoiuei no?eeee), ??aaiue oaeethaaiiy
(iecueeee, iii??iee, aenieee).

O oiae? i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii
i?ioe??//y i?ae ?ioa?anaie, aaaeaiiyie o/aniee?a aenia?eiaioo oa
?o ?aaeueiei aeai?ii: iioaioe?eia aaaeaiiy aeae?aoe i?iaeaii?,
iiooeia? caaaeaiiy, iaoiaee ? ?aaeueiee aea?? ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo
caaaeaiue oa iiynithaaeueii- ?ethno?aoeaieo iaoiae?a.

Aoei c’yniaaii i?e/eie ?ica?aeiinoae i?ae iioaioe?eieie
aiiaeiaaiiyie nooaeaio?a oa ?o ?aaeueiei aeai?ii, ui, aieiaiei
/eiii, iia’ycai? c ianoi?iiaai?noth iioea?a aeai?o oa ai?iue
aeae?aoe.

Aeey iiaeieaiiy cacia/aieo i?ioe??/ aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa
ia?aaeaa/aea i?aeaioiaeo nooaeaio?a aei cae?eniaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e aeai?o
(oi?ioaaiiy iioeaaoe?eii — oe?eueiai? noa?e iniaenoino? uiaei aeai?o,
o?aioaaiiy oi?iue aiae?coaaoe, nenoaiaoecoaaoe, ni?anoaaeyoe, ?iaeoe
aeniiaee oa ?i.), ?ic?iaeo aeai?eoio na?aeiiiai aeai?o o eiai ??cieo
iiaeaeyo. Iai?eeeaae:

ona?aeiieoe iioeae aeai?o (aaaeaiiy aeinyaoe oni?oo, oieeaiiy iaoni?oo,
caaeiaieaiiy aeaniiai ?ioa?ano, i?aaiaiiy io?eiaoe i?oei? ? aeeaie?
ciaiiy, aaaeaiiy iai?aeeia?ii i?aoethaaoe oa ?i.);

aecia/eoe iiceoeai? ? iaaaoeai? aiee aeai?o aeey iniaenoiai
?icaeoeo;

a?aooaaoe nai? iiaeeeaino? ? ??aaiue ciaiue;

c?iaeoe aea?? iaei??? ?c cai?iiiiiaaieo aeueoa?iaoea.

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo a?aeaeo? o oaae. 1,2,3,4.

Oaaeeoey 1

Aeeiai?ea ??aiy oaeethaaiiy (%) ??ai?
oaeethaaiiyA1A(26)A2Ae(22)A3A(25)

A4N(24)E(16)eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.Aenie
ee74,457,622,713,6322816,612,531,330,3Iii??iee26,642,459,281,8486420,858
,52527,2Iecueeee—18,14,620862,62943,738,5

Oaaeeoey
2

Oa?aeoa? i?ciaaaeueieo ?ioa?an?a(%)

??ai? i?ciaaaeueiiai

?ioa?anoA1A(26)A2Ae(22)A3A(25)A4N(24)E(16)eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.eiin.eii
o?.eiin.eiio?.eiin.eiio?.Neooaoeaiee50,218,62584025592232,122,1A?aeiinii
no?eeee36,356,853,431453036,328,233,343,3Aeinoaoiuei
no?eeee13,62521,661154513,749,834,634,6sse?noue ciaiue nooaeaio?a
aecia/aeany ia iniia? iieacieea i?e?inoo, ui ia/enethaaany ca oi?ioeith
(A = ?-?0, aea (A — i?e??no yeino? ciaiue, ooai?aiee i?ney
i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo; ?0- eiinoaooth/? aeai?; ? -eiio?ieuei?
aeai? (Aeea. oaae. 3).

Oaaeeoey 3

?acoeueoaoe ae?aaiinoeee yeino? ciaiue nooaeaio?a (%)

E?eoa??? yeino? ciaiueA1A(26)A2Ae(22)A3A(25)

A4N(24)E(16)?0?(A?0?(A?0?(A?0?(A?0?(AIiaiioa57,680,723,159,881,822,35272
2045,866,620,843,756,212,5Aeeaeia57,680,723,159,581,822,352722045,866,82
0,843,756,212,5Aio/e?noue53,876,919,354,577,222,744682441,670,829,237,25
012,8Ona?aeiieai?noue57,684,6275981,822,856822645,866,620,873,756,212,5

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aenia?eiaioo aeiaiaeeoue, ui
aoaeoeai?noue cae?eniaiiy nooaeaioaie aeai?o aecia/a?oueny iiaeaeeth
eiai ?aae?caoe??. Oae, aea?? ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo (A1A) aieeaa?
ia aeeaeio ((A=23,1%), iiaiioo ciaiue ((A=23,?%) oa ?o ona?aeiieai?noue
((A=27%), a oaeiae ia oa?aeoa? i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano: 56,8% —
a?aeiinii no?eeee ?ioa?an, 25% — aeinoaoiuei no?eeee. Oeae oaeo
iiynith?oueny iniaenoith caoe?eaaeai?noth nooaeaio?a, ?o aaaeaiiyi
i?aoethaaoe yeiiiaa a?eueoa iaae i?iaeaiith, yea naiino?eii ia?aia ieie
aeey aea/aiiy (/eoaiiy aeiaeaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, iiooe a?aoiaioaoe??
a?aeiia?ae?, i?aaiaiiy ?icaeiooe oi?iiy aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co oaenoo), a
aea/aiiy ?ioa?an?a nooaeaio?a ? oe?eani?yiiaaia ?iaioa ii ?o ?icoe?aiith
(aan?aee, ?iciia?ae? ?c caeo/aiiyi i?eeeaae?a ?c aeeooy aeaeaoieo
ethaeae, ui noaaeee ca iaoo naii?icaeoie ? naiiaeoiaaiiy, ?aaoey?ia
iaaiai?aiiy iiai? e?oa?aoo?e, aenoaaee «Oi/o, uia ae i?i/eoaee»,
e?oa?aoo?ii-oai?/? ia’?aeiaiiy, aeueiaiaoe, eiioa?aioe??, naiino?eia
?ic?iaea nooaeaioaie caaaeaiue ia iniia? i?i/eoaii? e?oa?aoo?e,
eiieo?ne ia e?auo ?aoeaic?th aei oai?o oa ?i.) caaacia/eee cia/iee
i?e??no yeino? ciaiue ca cacia/aieie e?eoa??yie.

Aea?? iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? (A3A) aieeaa? a a?eueoee
i??? ia aio/e?noue ciaiue ((A=24%). Nooaeaioaie oe??? a?oie
ii?aoeueiaaia cia/ia e?euee?noue e?oa?aoo?e, o ieo noi?iiaaii ai?iiy
i?aoethaaoe ia iniia? ??cieo iaoiae?a. Noeioethaaiiy aeai?o iaoiae?a
i?iaeaiiiai aeeeaaeo cae?enithaaeinue oeyoii ?ic’yniaiiy nooaeaioai
cia/aiiy iiooeiai? ?iaioe aeey ?o aeaniiai ?icaeoeo, ?aae?caoe??
iniaeno?niiai iioaioe?aeo. Niinoa??aaeany oaiaeaioe?y i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy oaeethaaiiy, iia’ycaia c ?inoii caoe?eaaeaiino? ni?aaith, ui
aeeiio?oueny (aei aenia?eiaioo 20% a?oie iaee iecueeee ??aaiue, i?ney
aenia?eiaioo — 8%).

Aea?? caaaeaiue ??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? nooaeaio?a o
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? (A4N) ni?eya i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy
?o naiino?eiino?, aeoeaiino?, oi?ioaaiith aio/eeo ciaiue ((A=29,2%),
i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano (49,8% — aeinoaoiuei no?eeee)
oa ??aiy oaeethaaiiy (58,5% iathoue iii??iee ??aaiue). Oe? ?acoeueoaoe
coiiaeai? niaoe?aeueiith ?iaioith ii oi?ioaaiith iiceoeaii? iioeaaoe??
aeai?o a oe?eiio ? aeai?o ?aeiino?oeoeaieo ? oai?/eo caaaeaiue. Nenoaia
ai?aa ? caaaeaiue (neeaaeaiiy ieaio aeeiiaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaii-oai?/iai
caaaeaiiy, aeia?aaeaeoaaeuei? caaaeaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy ae?eiai? a?e,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia caiyoo? aeaiaio?a ae?aiaoecaoe??, oe?eueiaa
niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oaenoii, aaaaeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ioe?ithaaiiy)
ni?eyea iiaeieaiith iaaiaaiaiino? nooaeaio?a o aeanieo neeao,
oi?ioaaiith ai?iue ? iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe. Eiiieaenia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, oiaoi an?o iiaeaeae a iaei?e
a?oi? (A2Ae), aeyaeei, ii??aiyii c ?ioeie iiaeaeyie, iaea?eueo
iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui noinoaaeeny ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? nooaeaio?a
c aeinoaoiuei no?eeei ??aiai i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ioa?ano(61%), iii??iei
??aiai oaeethaaiiy(81,8%a?oie), i?ioa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiai ia?aaeaa/a?
ianooii? aeiiae: a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee a?oie( ??aiy noi?iiaaiino?
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo ? niaoe?aeueieo oi?iue a iaaeao eiie?aoiiai
i?aaeiaoo , oa?aeoa?o a?aeiinei o a?oi?, a?oie c aeeeaaea/ai oa ?i.)

??aaiue naii?aae?caoe?? nooaeaio?a c’yniaoaaany ia iniia? aiae?co
?acoeueoao?a oanoo NAIIAE, noai?aiiai A. Ianeio, yeee aoei aaeaioiaaii
aei iniaeeainoae iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a. I?e ?icaeyaeaii?
?acoeueoao?a oanooaaiiy ca aenieee iieaciee a?aeiny 50% ? a?eueoa
nooaeaionueeeo a?aeiia?aeae, ui ni?aiaaeaee c a?aecia/aieie a
eeth/? aei oanoo NAIIAE; a ca iecueeee — iaioa 50%. O eiioaeno?
aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?eueo aeaoaeueii aiae?coaaeeny ?
ii??aithaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe ca oeaeaie: «Iio?aaa a i?ciaii?»,
«E?aaoeai?noue», «Aaoiiiii?noue», «Niiioaii?noue».

Oaaeeoey 4

?acoeueoaoe oanooaaiiy NAIIAE (%)

Oeaee ioe?iee aeanoeainoae iniaenoino?, ui i?aaia

naii?aae?coaaoeny

A1A(26)

A2Ae(22)

.

A3A(25)

A4N(24)

E(16)

aenieee iecuee. iecueeeeaenieee iecuee.aenieee iecuee.aenieee
iecuee.aenie. Aenieee iecueeeeiecuee.Iio?aaa a i?ciaii?88,5 11,
5919881270,929,156,343,7E?aaoeai?noue61,6
38,486,413,6683283,416,687,512,5Aaoiiiii?noue69,3
30,772,827,2524841,758,312,587,5Niiioaii?noue61,6
38,472,827,25248505012,587,5

Aeai? oaaeeoe? na?ae/aoue, ui ii??aiyii ?c nooaeaioaie
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi, o thiae?a ? ae?a/ao eiio?ieueii? a?oie
iaea??oa ?icaeiai? aaoiiiii?noue ? niiioaii?noue (o?eueee 12,5%
iathoue aenie? iieacieee). Niinoa?aaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee ?acoeueoaoe
i?iaaaeaiiai oanooaaiiy. Aoei iii?/aii, ui nooaeaioai eiio?ieueii?
a?oie (E) aaaeei a?aeiia?aeaoe ia caiyooyo, ia a?ae/oaath/e
i?aeo?eiee aeeeaaea/a. 43,7% a?oie a?ae/oaathoue no?ao i?ae /an
a?aeiia?ae?, ai ia ciathoue, /e ni?aiaaea ?o iiaeyae ia iaaio
i?iaeaio ?c aa/aiiyi ?? aeeeaaea/ai.

Cia/ii ieae/ee iieaciee ?icaeoeo iio?aae a i?ciaii? o nooaeaio?a
eiio?ieueii? a?oie (E) o ii??aiyii? c aenia?eiaioaeueieie (E-56,3%, A1A
-88,5%, A2Ae — 91%, A3A — 88%, A4N — 70,9 %), ui iiaeia iiynieoe,
ye na?ae/aoue aan?aee ?c nooaeaioaie, a?aenooi?noth iniaenoi?
caoe?eaaeaiino? o iaaooo? iiaeo ciaiue oa aeyaeaiith ianoi?iiaai?noth
caaaeueiiiaa/aeueieo oi?iue oa iaae/ie naiino?eii? ?iaioe oa ?i.

O?eueee aeey 12,5% nooaeaio?a eiio?ieueii? a?oie (E) naii?aae?caoe?y
yaey? niaith iaoo aeeooy. 87,5% a?oie caienethaaeeny iaae oe??th
i?iaeaiith, aea aiia ia iaaoea aeey ieo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaiai ci?noo.
Na?aae i?e/ei thiaee oa ae?a/aoa iaceaathoue: iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
nioe?aeueieo oiia (14,2%); i?iaeaie iaoa??aeueieo ianoaoe?a (21,4%);
ia?aeiiai?noue o oiio, ui naii?aae?caoe?y iaaeinyaeia (35,7%); ciaa??a o
aeanieo neeao (21,4%); aiaaiai?noue, ui naii?aae?caoe?y aaea
aeinyaiooa (7,C%).

Ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith, aenia?eiaioaeuei? a?oie, a yeeo aoei
cai?iaaaeaeaii ??ci? iiaeae? aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, iathoue cia/ii
aeu? iieacieee ca cacia/aieie oeaeaie. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe c’yniaaii, ui aea?? ci?noo iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith aaoiiiiiino? (A1A). Aeey 80% nooaeaio?a
a?oie A1A , a ye?e cai?iaaaeaeoaaeany cacia/aia iiaeaeue
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o, aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? iiaeeea?noue a?ae/oaaoe
naaa ae??aeie o/anieeaie iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ethaeueie, c yeeie
?aoothoueny aeeeaaea/?. Iaaeaiiy oe??? iiaeeeaino? ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith naiino?eiino? o aeanieo noaeaeaiiyo, iaiieaaeeaino? a
?iaio?, ui a e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?ic aeoeo
aaoiiiiiino?.

Aea?? caaaeaiue ??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? a i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? (A4N) ni?ey? ?inoo oai?/i? aeoeaiino? nooaeaio?a
(aenieee ??aaiue oai?/i? aeoeaiino? i?ney cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo
iathoue 83,4% nooaeaio?a, ii??aiyii c 51% ia ii/aoeo
aenia?eiaioo). Aenia?eiaio aeia?a, ui caeaaei?noue i?ae aeai?ii
oai?/eo caaaeaiue ? ??aiai oai?/i? aeoeaiino? i?yiii?iii?oe?eia:
i?e ?aaoey?iiio aeai?? oai?/eo caaaeaiue nooaeaioaie c?inoa?
??aaiue ?o oai?/i? aeoeaiino?.

Eiiieaeniee aeeaeaeoe/iee aea?? (A2Ae) a iaea?eueo?e i??? ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith aeanoeainoae, iaiao?aeieo aeey iniaenoino?, ui
naii?aae?co?oueny. 91% nooaeaio?a (A2Ae) oai?/i noaaeyoueny aei
iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, iaiaaathoueny ciaeoe iia?, a?eueo aoaeoeai? oeyoe
ae??oaiiy iaa/aeueieo caaea/. Oea naiino?eia iieiaeue, oiaaiaia a
nia?, caeaoia aei?aoethaaoe aeanio iiceoe?th a ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeaie
aac ice?aiiy ia io?oe?eio oi/eo ci?o. Oiio aenie? iieacieee
aaoiiiiiino? iathoue 72,8% a?oie. Aeey oaei? ae e?eueeino?
nooaeaio?a (72,8%) naii?aae?caoe?y — iaoa ?o aeeooy, can?a
?nioaaiiy.

Ioaea, iaaeaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo iiaeeeainoae o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean? aoco aeicaiey? nooaeaioai ?aae?coaaoe nai? iio?aae,
?ioa?ane, cae?aiino?, a oaeiae oi?ioaaoe a nia? ?ene iacaeaaeii?,
a?eueii? iniaenoino?, yea aiaaiaia a nai?o ciaiiyo ? caeaoia
i?eeiyoe iioeiaeueii i?aaeeueia aeey naaa ??oaiiy ?, oaeei /eiii,
io?eiaoe iiaeeea?noue naii?aae?coaaoeny.

Oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie oa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aa??aoeaii?
iaoeiai-aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

Aea/aiiy i?aoeue c o?einio??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee uiaei ieoaiue
aeai?o aea? iiaeeea?noue aaaaeaoe aea?? ye iaeaaaeeea?oo ?
iae?noioi?oo oa?aeoa?enoeeo ethaenueei? i?e?iaee, aeya ?? naiaiaee,
ui iaoiiaeth? oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino?.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeeaeaeoe/iee aea??
aecia/a?oueny ye iaai? aeoeai? ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ? aieueia? ae??
(aiae?c, ni?anoaaeaiiy, i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy oa ?i.) iniaenoino?,
ni?yiiaai? ia aecia/aiiy ia?aaaa iaei??? c aeueoa?iaoea o ci?no?
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiaeao ? oi?iao i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oa ?i. c o?aooaaiiyi nai?o
iio?aa, oe?eae, ?ioa?an?a, iiaeeeainoae (?ioaeaeooaeueieo,
naii?aae?caoe?? oiui), onoaiiaie oa iniaenoi? cia/ouino? aeey
ia?aaeaa/aiiy iane?aee?a i?eeiyoiai ??oaiiy, oiaoi oea i?ioean, ui
coiiaeth?oueny iioeaaoe?eii-oe?eueiaith noa?ith noa’?eoa. O
iaaeaaia?/iiio i?ioean? aeeaeaeoe/iee aea?? iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe
??ciiaeaeii caaea/?, ae??oaiiy yei? a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia?
no?aoaa?e: ?aae?noe/ii?, iaa?aaeii?, ?eceeo, ?ioo?oeaiiai iiooeo, ui
aecia/athoue e?i?th iiaaae?iee iniaenoino? o aeai??.

Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii iiaeae? cae?eniaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a
iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a: aea?? ci?noo
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, iaoiae?a ? oi?i iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?,
caaaeaiue ??ciiai ??aiy naiino?eiino? a i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?;
?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?th ?o ?aae?caoe??.

Iaaeaaia?/ii oe?eani?yiiaaia i?aai?caoe?y aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o
ia?aaeaa/a? cae?eniaiiy eiie?aoieo eiai aoai?a:
i?aeaioia/i-iioeaaoe?eiiai (oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy nooaeaio?a
aei i?ioeano aeai?o, noeioethaaiiy o thiae?a ? ae?a/ao iio?aae c?iaeoe
aea??); iioeaaoe?eii-i???ioiaiiai (ona?aeiieaiiy ?iaeea?aeii
caaaeaiue, oiia, aeiia ni?aae, ui ia? aooe, ni?aa?aeianaiiy ?o ?c
noa’?eoeaieie iiaeeeainoyie); i?ioeanoaeueii — ae?yeuei?niiai (aiae?c
ia’?eoa aeai?o, aaciina?aaei? ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue eiie?aoii? iiaeae?
aeai?o); aiae?oe/ii-ioe?iiiai (i?eionea? naiiioe?ieo nooaeaio?a uiaei
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe oa ioe?ieo aeeeaaea/a); ei?eaoaaeueiiai (aecia/aiiy
oeyo?a iiaeieaiiy aeyaeaieo iaaeie?e?a i?ioeano aeai?o).

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aa??aoeaiiai aenia?eiaioo
aeiaiaeeoue, ui aoaeoeai?noue cae?eniaiiy nooaeaioaie aeai?o
aecia/a?oueny a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae eiie?aoii? iiaeae?, yea aieeaa?
ia iieacieee yeino? iaa/aiiy.

Canoinoaaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith ? ?icaeoeo iio?aae a
i?ciaii?, e?aaoeaiino?, aaoiiiiiino?, niiioaiiino?, naii?icoi?iiy oa
?i., ye? caaacia/othoue aenieee ??aaiue naii?aae?caoe??.

I?iaaaeaiee iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio aeaa ciiao aecia/eoe oiiae
oni?oiino? canoinoaaiiy aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii —
i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, a naia:

7.1. Caaacia/aiiy ia’?eoeaieo ia?aaeoiia aeey cae?eniaiiy aeai?o:

a) iayai?noue aeaio aai a?eueoa aeueoa?iaoea, ia??aiicia/ieo ca ci?noii
aeey iiaeeeaino? ia’?eoeaiiai ?o ii??aiyiiy ? ni?anoaaeaiiy;

a) ?ioi?iaoe?y, ui i?noeoueny a aeueoa?iaoeaao, ia iiaeiia
ia?aaeuoaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai oacao?ona noa’?eoa aeai?o, ui
iaiao?aeii aeey na?aeiiiai ii??aiyiiy, ni?anoaaeaiiy aeueoa?iaoea ?
aeey ia?aaeaa/aiiy i/?eoaaiiai ?acoeueoaoo.

7.2. A?aooaaiiy noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a aeai?o:

a) oa?aeoa?o noaaeaiiy nooaeaio?a aei iaa/aiiy, ona?aeiieaiiy
cia/aiiy aeai?o aeey caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo oe?eae, iio?aa,
?ioa?an?a;

a) nooiaiy iaieiae?iiy ai?iiyie cae?enithaaoe aea?? (a?aenooi?noue
cacia/aiiai ai?iiy i?eaiaeeoue aei a?aeiiae a?ae aeai?o, yea
ae?aaea?oueny aai a oi?i? aacae??, aai a?ae/oaeaiiai aeai?o);

a) ??aiy i?aeaioiaee aeeeaaea/?a aei i?aai?caoe?? aeeaeaeoe/iiai
aeai?o (ciaiiy ooieoe?e aeai?o a iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, i?ioeaaeo?e, no?oeoo?e, iniiaieo iiaeaeae oa
oaoiieia?? ?o cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaa/aii?).

Aei iiaeaeueoeo iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? aaaeeeai? i?iaeaie
aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia a?aeianoe oae?, ye: noai?aiiy ?ioeo iiaeaeae
aeai?o; c’ynoaaiiy aieeao aeai?o ia ?icaeoie iniaeno?nieo
oa?aeoa?enoee nooaeaio?a, ?ic?iaeo oaoiieia?e cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ??cieo
iiaeaeae aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean na?aaei?o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaae?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Aea?? o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? //3a. iaoe. i?aoeue: Iai?yie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee /Ca ?aae. A.?. Eiciai? -Oa?e?a: OAeIO,
1997.-N.21-24.

Aea?? o iaaeaaia?/i?e niaaeuei? ?. Ooaeia?a // Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue:
«Iaoeia? caienee ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo».-Iieoaaa,
1998.-N.397-401.

Aecia/aiiy eaoaai??? aeai?o o o?einio?? //Iaoeia? caienee
ineoieiai- iaaeaaia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo: Ca. noaoae o 3-o /anoeiao.
*anoeia 2.-Iieoaaa, 1997.-N. 117-120.

I?iaeaia aeai?o o eiioaeno? aoiai?noe/ieo ?aeae A.N. Neiai?iaee // Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue: «Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y» .-Oa?e?a:OAeIO, 1998.-
Aeione 6.-N.74-78.

Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue:»Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y» / Aie. ?aaeaeoi? ae. I?ieiiaiei
?.O. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998 — Aei.8.-N.56-60.

?aae?caoe?y aeoiaii? oa ?icaeaath/i? ooieoe?e eiio?ieth o i?ioean?
?ica’ycaiiy nooaeaioaie neooaoe?e aeai?o // Ca.iaoe. i?aoeue:
«Eiio?ieue iaa/aeueii — i?ciaaaeueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ?
nooaeaio?a» /Ca ?aae. A.?. Eiciai?-Oa?e?a:OAeIO,1997.-N106-110

Aa?aneiaiei E.A. I?aai?caoe?y aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-
i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a aeueo iaaeaaia?/ieo caeeaae?a. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee. —
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aeeaeaeoeee, iiooeo oeyo?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy, aeoea?caoe?? oa aoiai?caoe?? iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco. ?ice?eoi nooi?noue aeai?o c iiceoe??
ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo ye neeaaeiii?aai?ciaaiiai, oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
i?ioeano, ui ea?o?oueny iiceiaith ae?yeuei?noth. Aecia/aii iiiyooy
«aea??», «aeeaeaeoe/iee aea??», c’yniaaii ?ieue aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ye
caniao naii?aae?caoe?? nooaeaio?a. Aeyaeaii iiaeae? ?aae?caoe??
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o a iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeuei?e ae?yeueiino?
nooaeaio?a; no?oeoo?o aeai?o, eiai ooieoe??. C’yniaaii aieea
aeeaeaeoe/iiai aeai?o ia ye?ni? iieacieee iaa/aiiy. Ocaaaeueiaii oa
aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??aii oaoiieia?th, oiiae oni?oii? i?aai?caoe??
aeai?o a iaa/aii? nooaeaio?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea??, aeeaeaeoe/iee aea??, iiaeae? ? oaoiieia??
cae?eniaiiy aeai?o, oiiae oni?oii? i?aai?caoe?? aeai?o, naii?aae?caoe?y
iniaenoino?.

Aa?aneiaiei E.A. I?aaiecaoeey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a a o/aaii —
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia aunoeo o/aaiuo iaaeaaiae/aneeo
caaaaeaiee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee. —
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. A.N.
Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aeeaeaeoeee, iieneo iooae
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey, aeoeaecaoeee e aoiaiecaoeee o/aaii — iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia iaaeaoca. A enneaaeiaaiee ia iniiaa aiaeeca
oeeinioneie eeoa?aoo?u auaeaeaiu ii?aaeaeaiiua eiiiiiaiou e
oa?aeoa?enoeee auai?a, eioi?ua niinianoaotho iniuneaieth nooe aeaiiie
eaoaai?ee: iaee/ea aeaoa?ieiecia, auyaeaiea noauaeoii aiee,
ioaaonoaaiiinoe, oai?/aneie aeoeaiinoe. A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea
ia niioiioaiee a auai?a noauaeoeaiuo e iauaeoeaiuo eiiiiiaioia e
ooaa?aeaeaaony, /oi acaeiiaeaenoaea i?ioeannia aiaoiae e aioo?aiiae
aeayoaeueiinoe niinianoaoao naii?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoe.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa ?ane?uaaaony nouiinoue auai?a e n iiceoeee
aeayoaeueiinoiiai iiaeoiaea, /oi iicaieeei aaoi?o ii?aaeaeeoue auai? eae
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiue i?ioeann auaeaeaiey iauaeoa ec i?aaeeiaeaiiie
niaieoiiinoe. Onoaiiaeaia i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue ?anniao?eaaaiie eaoaai?ee
ethaie aeayoaeueiinoe: iauanoaaiiie, oece/aneie, o?oaeiaie,
iiciaaaoaeueiie e o.ae.

A aeaiiii enneaaeiaaiee ?anniao?eaaaony i?ioeann auai?a a o/aaii —
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia iaaeaoca. A oaeii eiioaenoa
auai? ii?aaeaeai oa?ieiii aeeaeaeoe/aneee auai?, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee
ii?aaeaeaiiua aeoeaiua eioaeeaeooaeueiua e aieaaua aeaenoaey (aiaeec,
niiinoaaeaiea, i?eiyoea ?aoaiey e ae?.) ee/iinoe, iai?aaeaiiua ia
auyaeaiea i?aaeii/oaiey iaeiie ec aeueoa?iaoea a niaea?aeaiee o/aaiiai
iaoa?eaea, iaoiaeao e oi?iao i?aaiecaoeee o/aaii — iiciaaaoaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e ae?. n o/aoii naieo iio?aaiinoae, oeaeae, eioa?ania,
aiciiaeiinoae (eioaeeaeooaeueiuo, naii?aaeecaoeee e o.ae.), onoaiiaie e
ee/iie cia/eiinoe aeey i?aaeaeaeaiey ?acoeueoaoia i?eiyoiai ?aoaiey.
Iiaoaeaeaaony aeeaeaeoe/aneee auai? iioeaaoeeiiii — oeaeaaie noa?ie
noauaeoa.

Auaeaeaiu iaeaieaa oa?aeoa?iua eeiee iiaaaeaiey nooaeaioia i?e auai?a,
eioi?ua aiieiuathony a /aou?ao no?aoaaeyo: ?aaeenoe/aneie, ?enea,
inoi?iaeiie e eiooeoeaiiai iienea.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua no?oeoo?iua yoaiu aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
auai?a: iiaeaioiaeoaeueii — iioeaaoeeiiiue, ia eioi?ii oi?ie?oaony
iieiaeeoaeueiia ioiioaiea nooaeaioia e i?ioeanno auai?a; iioeaaoeeiiii
— i?eaioe?iai/iue, i?aaeoniao?eaathuee iniciaiea eiaeeaeaeii caaeaiee,
oneiaee, o?aaiaaiee auai?a e niioianaiea eo n ee/iuie aiciiaeiinoyie;
i?ioeannoaeueii — aeayoaeueiinoiue, ia eioi?ii ?aoathony caaeaiey
eiie?aoiie iiaeaee auai?a; aiaeeoe/ii — ioeaii/iue, aeeth/athuee
naiiioeaieo nooaeaioia e ioeaieo i?aiiaeaaaoaey; ei??aeoe?iai/iue —
ii?aaeaeaiea iooae i?aiaeieaiey anieuaoeo iaaeinoaoeia i?ioeanna auai?a.

Ioia/aii, /oi a o/aaiii i?ioeanna aeeaeaeoe/aneee auai? auiieiyao
ia?aciaaoaeueioth, ainieoaoaeueioth e ?acaeaathuoth ooieoeee.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiu iiaeaee aeeaeaeoe/aneiai
auai?a a caaeneiinoe io iniiaiuo caaea/ iao/aiey. Auyaeaiu oaeea
iniiaiua iiaeaee auai?a: auai? niaea?aeaiey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea, oi?i e
iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee o/aaiie aeayoaeueiinoe, caaeaiee ?aciiai o?iaiy
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe a iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia.
?ac?aaioaiu oaoiieiaee inouanoaeaiey eaaeaeie ec iiaeaeae
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a. Yenia?eiaioaeueii aeieacaii, /oi
aeeaeaeoe/aneee auai? aeeyao ia ea/anoai ciaiee nooaeaioia, oa?aeoa? eo
iiciaaaoaeueiiai eioa?ana, o?iaaiue o?aaiaeiinoe e naii?aaeecaoeee.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?acee/iua ?acoeueoaou inouanoaeaiey nooaeaioaie auai?a
ii?aaeaeythony aai iiaeaeyie.

I?iaaaeaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee yenia?eiaio iicaieee noi?ioee?iaaoue
oneiaey oniaoiie ?aaeecaoeee aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a a o/aaii —
iiciaaaoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe nooaeaioia: iaania/aiea iauaeoeaiuo
i?aaeiinueie inouanoaeaiey auai?a( iaee/ea aeaoo e aieaa ia?aaiii?aaiuo
ii niuneo aeueoa?iaoea; niioaaonoaea eioi?iaoeee, niaea?aeauaeny a
aeueoa?iaoeaao, eioi?iaoeeiiiiio oacao?ono noauaeoa auai?a) e o/ao
noauaeoeaiuo oaeoi?ia (oa?aeoa?a ioiioaiee nooaeaioia e iao/aieth,
noaiaie iniciaiey cia/aiey auai?a aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey ee/iuo oeaeae,
iio?aaiinoae, eioa?ania; noaiaie iaeaaeaiey oiaieyie inouanoaeyoue
auai?; o?iaiy iiaeaioiaeaiiinoe i?aiiaeaaaoaeae e i?aaiecaoeee
aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: auai?, aeeaeaeoe/aneee auai?, iiaeaee e oaoiieiaee
inouanoaeaiey aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a, naii?aaeecaoeey ee/iinoe,
oneiaey oniaoiie i?aaiecaoeee aeeaeaeoe/aneiai auai?a.

Gerasimenko L.V. Organization of didactic choice in the educational —
cognitive activity of the students in institutions of higher education —
Manuscript.

The dissertation goes to conferring bachelor’s degree on pedagogical
sciences ( speciality 13.00.01 — theory and history of pedagogics),
Kharkiv State Pedagogical University named after G.S. Skovoroda,

Kharkiv, 1998

Dissertation is devoted to Such questions of didactics as searching of
self — perfection’s way, humanisation and stirring up the educational —
cognitive activity of the pedagogical establishments students. The role
of didactic choice as the way of self- realizations was defined in this
research work. The essence of the choice was revealed from position of
the efficacious approach as complicated purposeful process managed by
brain activity. Concepts of «choice», ‘didactic choice», were defined.
Models and technology of didactic choice’s realization in educational —
cognitive activity of the students were pointed; the structure of choice
and functions were found out. The influence of didactic choice on
qualitative indices was worked. The conditions of successful didactic
choice’s organization in student’s teaching were generalized and
experimentally proved.

Key words are: choice, models and technology of didactic choice’s
realization, self- realizations, conditions of successful didactic
choice’s organization.

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