Організації в соціально-економічному просторі сучасного українського суспільства: оптимізація управління: Автореф. дис… д-ра соціол. наук / Л.М. Хиж

35

35

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Oeaeiye Ea?ena Ieoaee?aia

OAeE 301.061

I?AAI?CAOe?? A NIOe?AEUeII-AEIIII?*IIIO I?INOI?? NO*ANIIAI OE?A?INUeEIAI
NONI?EUeNOAA:

IIOEI?CAOe?ss OI?AAE?IIss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 22.00.07 — nioe?ieia?y oi?aae?iiy

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aae??ia A?eue Naaaaiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii? nioe?ieia??, ?aeoi? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Iaai?iee Ai?en A?eai?iae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?einio?? ? nioe?ieia??, aeaeai aoiai?oa?iiai oaeoeueoaoo
No?aeii-Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Eoaainuee;

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe Ieeeiaiei Aaea??e ?aaaiiae/, i?ia?aeiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aeiiii?/ii? nioe?ieia?? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a;

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe Iiaeoeaaee?ia Aaeaioeia ?aai?aia, aeioeaio
eaoaae?e nioe?ieia?? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, i. Iaeana.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a
aaeocaai? nioe?ieia??, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15 ” eeiiy 1999 ?. ia __11___aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 640515 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea,
1, aoae.2-8.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith :
310006, i. Oa?e?a, ie. Naiaiaee, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “14 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaeeaeioe. Oa?aiao ?. ?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao iiaeeaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece
a Oe?a?i? aeooae?cothoueny i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy on?ia
noa?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy c iaoith cieaeaiiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, o o. /. i?aai?caoe?eieie ooai?aiiyie, ui
ooieoe?iiothoue o aaeoc? aeiiii?ee. Oea, a naith /a?ao, ia?aaeaa/a?
nioe?ieia?/io ae?aaiinoeeo ?o ?aaeueiiai noaio oa i?iaiicoaaiiy
iai?yie?a ?o iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo, ui ni?eyoeia iaoeia?e
iaa?oioiaaiino? oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e.

?eieia? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy
noni?euenoaa, c?inoaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei? aeoeaiino? eiai noa’?eo?a
iaoiiaeththoue iia? aeiiae aei iiaoaeiae oa iiaaae?iee i?aai?caoe?e o
nueiaiaeaii?. Ia ae?yeuei?noue inoaii?o nooo?ai aieeaathoue ci?ie o
oi?iao aeaniino? oa oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa, ?icoe?aiiy iaae aeiiii?/ii?
naiaiaee. No?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e iathoue aacoaaoeny ia iia?e
eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy, yea a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai /ano. Aeooae?co?oueny
iio?aaa a ye?ni?e ci?i? i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy
nioe?aeueieo ia?aoai?aiue, oeyo?a aaeaioaoe?? a?o/eciyieo i?aai?caoe?e
aei ?eieiaeo oiia.

Aaeeeiianooaai? oa aeeaeii? ia?aoai?aiiy iio?aaothoue iaaiiai
nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iaiao?aei?noue ? iaieio/?noue
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, oiaoi iiai? nenoaie
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ooai?aiue — ?inoeooo?a ?eieo — oaae
ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy i?iaeai i?aai?caoe?e oa oi?aae?iiy ieie. E??i oiai,
i?eaaoeciaai? aeiiii?/i? i?aai?caoe??, ui ao?a/athoue cae/io aea?aeaaio
i?aeo?eieo, ia’?eoeaii iinoathoue ia?aae iaiao?aei?noth ia’?aeioaaoeny a
i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e ia iiaeo canaaeao. ?o ei?ii?aoecaoe?y
a?aeaoaa?oueny ??cieie oeyoaie, cie?aia, /a?ac noai?aiiy nithc?a
(anioe?aoe?e), i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi, eio?? nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia
noni?eueiee ?icaeoie ? iio?aaothoue iiaeeaeaiiai nioe?ieia?/iiai
aiae?co. Ia?aaaae e iaaeie?ee cacia/aieo ei?ii?aoeaieo ca’yce?a, ?o
nioe?aeueia aeeiai?ea, ?ieue oa i?noea a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa?? ?
iiaei iieai nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

O?ainoi?iaoe?y noni?euenoaa a iao?e e?a?i? i?ioiaeeoue a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii? aeaci?aai?caoe??, eio?a i?iyaey?oueny a ii?ooaii?
nioe?aeueiiai, i?aai?caoe?eiiai ii?yaeeo (eiioe?eoe, ?ic?ea nioe?aeueieo
ca’yce?a, ?aii?oaaiiy nioe?aeueieo ii?i iiaaae?iee oiui). Aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoiaeo a?ae eiiaiaeii? i?aai?ciaaiino? aei
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy an?o noa’?eo?a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, o oiio /ene? i?aai?caoe?e, o ?icaeoeo
yeeo oaea nueiaiaei? i?inoaaeothoueny iaai? oaiaeaioe??. C iaeiiai aieo,
a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, eio?? ae/a?iaee naaa
ye iaaaeaeaaoi? no/aniei aeiiaai. Iiaeieaiiy ath?ie?aoecio
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie a ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy
iaiiaeeeaa aac ?ai?aai?caoe?? oeo noni?eueieo ooai?aiue, ia ye? aiie
iie?aeeny. C ?ioiai aieo, o?eaa? eiino?oeoeaiee iiooe oa ai?iaaoe?y ye
iiaeo no?aoaa?/ieo noni?eueieo oe?eae, oae ? oi?i i?aai?ciaaii?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeae, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai /ano.
Ona?aeiieth?oueny iaiao?aei?noue neiioeaio?oaaoe oaaao ia no?eueee ia
iiaeaeueoiio oaeineiiaeaii? i?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei, ui ?nioaaee
?ai?oa, ne?eueee ia ae?iaeaii? noni?eueieo no?oeoo? oa i?aai?caoe?e,
eio?? a a?aeiia?aeaee iiaei aeiiaai.

Noia?a/iino? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia i?aai?caoe??.
Oae, ?iiae? aeieeathoue ?eieia? ca oi?iith, aea iiiiiieuei? ca ci?noii
i?aai?caoe?ei? ooai?aiiy (cie?aia, i?i?noa?noaa oa a?aeiinoaa noathoue
aeoe?iia?ieie oiaa?enoaaie, eiioea?iaie). I?aei?e?iieoeoai /anoi
?icaeaa?oueny ye iiiaieeaoo?ia, a ia ianiaa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia
yaeua. Aeeaiea no?oeoo?ia aeeni?iii?oe?ei?noue, c?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii?
iai?oaeaiino?, nioe?aeueia aeaci???ioaoe?y noa’?eo?a, iaae?iiy aeia??e
aei aeaaeieo no?oeoo? — ona oea noai?th? ia?aoeiaee ia oeyoo
noaiiaeaiiy iiaiai oeio i?aai?caoe?e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi??
iaoi? e?a?ie.

Ei?ai? oeo /e ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i iiaeooue e?eoeny a aeeaei?
a?e?a, aea ?o no/aniee noai — iane?aeie noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo,
niaoeeo?ee iianyeaeaiiino?. ?icaeoie i?aai?caoe?e o eiie?aoiiio
noni?euenoa? ia? nain ?icaeyaeaoe eeoa a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio oa
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?. I?aai?caoe?? iathoue aeania iaee//y,
naith eoeueoo?o, ?i?aeae, ye? ni?eythoue ?o noaiiaeaiith i?e iayaiino?
iaa?oioiaaii? no?aoaa?? oa aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a, o o. /.
ethaenueeeo. Ia aeyaeaoe nooiino? no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e, caeiiii??iinoae
?o aeieeiaiiy, ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo, iaiiaeeeai ni?yiiaoaaoe ?o
ae?yeuei?noue ia nioe?aeueii cia/ou? oe?e?, ni?eyoe ao?eaiith iiaeo
oi?aae?inueeeo oaoiieia?e.

Nie?ath/enue ia no/ani? iaoeia? ?ic?iaee, ocaaaeueithth/e
i?aai?caoe?eiee aeina?ae, nioe?ieia?y ni?ey? ?ice?eooth ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo i?aai?caoe?e, ?o nioe?aeueieo iiaeeeainoae, i?iaiico? ?o
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie. Oea noino?oueny ? ciaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th, ianya
? ye?noue yeiai nueiaiaei? iaaaeaeaaoi? nioe?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe?.
Caaaeueia oai??y i?aai?caoe?? ia? ?ioaa?aoeaiee oa?aeoa? ? aaco?oueny ia
??cieo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiaeao — o?einionueeiio, nioe?ieia?/iiio,
aeiiii?/iiio, iie?oieia?/iiio, nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio oa ?i. ?ioaa?aoeaia
nooi?noue oe??? oai??? aecia/aia i?e?iaeith naieo i?aai?caoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, a yeeo ie?ai? iai?yiee e aniaeoe aca?iicaeaaei? ? c
iaiao?aei?noth coiiaeththoue iaeei iaeiiai.

Noi?ioaaeeny aeaa iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe??. C iaeiiai aieo,
aiia ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oai?aoe/ia eiino?oeoe?y ? ii-??ciiio
o?aeoo?oueny o iaaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiaeao; a c ae?oaiai —
i?aaeiaoii aiae?co aenooia? i?ioean ?aaeueiiai eiino?othaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?e, ui i?ioiaeeoue noia?a/eeai, ?c cia/ieie noni?eueieie
ao?aoaie. Ii/eiath/e c eeane/ieo oai??e i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy (O.
Oaeei?, A. Oaeieue, A. Aia?nii, E. O?a?e, A. Oi?ae oa ?i.) ? aei iaoeo
aei?a caia?a/oaaeany iayai?noue a i?aai?caoe?? noa’?eoiiai eiiiiiaioo,
aiia ?icaeyaeaeany ia?aaaaeii ye cae?eoa nenoaia, a?aeiineie a ye?e
?aaoeththoueny iaaieie ii?iaie, naieoe?yie, i?ioeaaeo?aie oiui. A iaaeao
?ioiai i?aeoiaeo i?aai?caoe?y ?icaeyaeaeany ye nioe?ieoeueoo?iee
oaiiiai, yeee iia’ycaiee c ?iaiaie I. Aaaa?a, O. Aaaeaia, A.
Aeth?eaaeia, O. Ia?niina, A. Aieaeia?a, E. Eaa?ia, O. Naecieea, *.
Aa?ia?aea, A. Naeiiia oa ?i. O eiioeaioe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo oeth
i?iaeaiaoeeo oni?oii ?ic?iaeythoue O. Io/?, A. Oaei, ?. Ainioo, O.
I?oa?n, ?. Oioa?iai oa ?i. ??ciei aniaeoai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?e
i?enay/ai? ?iaioe A. Aoa?, *. Aa?ia?aea, I. Aeao, Ae. Ia?/a, Ae. Eaoea,
?. Eaia, Ae. I?eea?a, A. Aooe?ii?, I. Eio?aina, ?. Aeiooa, I. Ae?oea?a,
?. Oioa?iaia, A. Aaa?aaea, ?. Aaa?aaea-?iaeaea?n, I. Oiooea?a, ss.
Caeaiaanueeiai oa ?i. I?aai?caoe?ei? iiaeae? noaee a?aeia?aaeaiiyi
aeeiai?ee ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? a ?iaeono??aeueiiio, a iio?i
a iino?iaeono??aeueiiio noni?euenoaao ? a iao /an iio?aaothoue
ia?aaeyaeo c o?aooaaiiyi oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i, iiai? nioe?aeueii?
?aaeueiino?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca ? iiiyo?eiee aia?ao oai??? i?aai?caoe?? aeyaeeeny
iaaeinoaoi?ie aeey oiai, uia iiynieoe, ? oei a?eueo ia?aaeaa/eoe
iaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy oa aeaeeaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao aeeiai?/ieo
noni?eueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Oai??y i?aai?caoe?e aeiaaee /an iaea ia’?eoii aea/aiiy ia?aaaaeii
“neeaaei?” i?aai?caoe??, i?eoaiaii? ia??iaeo ?iaeono??aeueiiai
noni?euenoaa, a yeeo /?oei i?inoaaeothoueny ?aei?noue /ano, i?inoi?o ?
ae?e; ?icaeioo? no?oeoo?e aeaaee, eiioi?eaoe?e oa eiio?ieth. Oiaoi /?oei
o?enoaaeany aea??eia?noue ?icaeyaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, yeeie noaaaee
ia?aaaaeii e?oii? i?aai?caoe??. I?ae oei, oai??y i?aai?caoe?e oa
oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia aea/aoe iayai? a noni?euenoa? i?aai?caoe?ei?
ooai?aiiy, nooi?iue ?o niieo/iino?, oa?aeoa? aca?iiae?e oa oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo. Eeoa a inoaii? aeaa aeanyoe??//y (a a iao?e e?a?i? c na?aaeeie
80-o ?ie?a) aeine?aeieoeueeee ?ioa?an aeiee e aei iaeeo i?aai?caoe?e
(nioe?aeueieo ni?eueiio), a aeaa?c “iaea — i?ae?ania” noaa /a?aiaith
“i?aai?caoe?eiith iiaeith”.

O a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?? i?iaeaia i?aai?caoe?e, ye i?aaeei,
?icaeyaeaeany a eiioeaioe?yo nioe?ieia?? i?aoe?, nioe?ieia?? o?oaeiaiai
eieaeoeao, nioe?ieia?? oi?aae?iiy ? ye naiino?eia yaeua acaaae? aeiaaee
/an ia ?nioaaea c ia’?eoeaieo i?e/ei — aeniei? ii?iaoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? a?o/eciyieo i?aai?caoe?e, eoeueoeaoaaiiy a noni?euenoa?
iaeiiiai?oiino? i?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a, oi?aae?iiy inoaii?ie.
Aeii?ioaaa iiaeyae, ui iiaeia ci?ithaaoe eeoa i?aai?caoe?ei? a?aeiineie,
noaaeaiiy ethaeeie aei eiie?aoiiai ?iai/iai i?noey, i?ioan??, i?aoe?,
aea ia aei naieo i?aai?caoe?e, yeei ca oiia aea?aeaaii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??
ia caa?iaeothoue iacaieaiiaai?, noeo?ei? ci?ie (iaa?oue caeoeia?
i?aai?caoe?? o?eaaeee /an i?aeo?eioaaeeny ca ?aooiie ia?aaeiaeo). Oiio
?o i?iaeaie a iniiaiiio ?icaeyaeaeeny a iaaeao aiae?co nioe?aeueieo
aniaeo?a i?aoe?, i?ioean?a nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo eieaeoeao. Aei oeueiai
/ano ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co ana ua ia noaee i?aai?caoe?? ye noa’?eoe
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa.

Ciaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?? iaeiie/oaaeeny ai?iaeiaae on??? ?noi???
ethaenoaa ? a oai??? i?aai?caoe?e aiae?cothoueny /eneaii? aeaee oeueiai
oaiiiaio: a?ae ?ae?a?eieo ? i?e?oa?enonueeeo a?oi aei no/anieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i. Iio?aaa a oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaeao, ye? a aeicaieyee
aiae?coaaoe aeeiai?eo i?aai?caoe?e, iniaeeai a?ae/ooiith noa? a iao?
aei?, a oiiaao iiooeo i?e/ei ?iciaaeo, ?oeioaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii noaeeo
i?aai?caoe?eieo ooai?aiue, c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei oiai, /iio iia?
i?aai?caoe?? yaeythoue niaith noia?a/i?, ?iiae? iai?aeeiio?ieuei?
ethaeyi ooai?aiiy. C iaeiiai aieo, aecia?oueny /eneaii?noue oaeoi??a,
ye? aieeaathoue ia ?icaeoie i?aai?caoe?e, iaeiae aiae?co?oueny iaiaaeaia
?o e?euee?noue. sse iane?aeie, c’yaeeany aaeeea e?euee?noue i?aeoiae?a
aei aea/aiiy i?aai?caoe??, iaaeoi caeaaeieo a?ae iiceoe?? aaoi??a;
iiaeeaeththoueny a?aei?iiino? a ?icoi?ii? iaoai?ci?a i?aai?caoe?eieo
ci?i, ui i?eaiaeeoue oao?aoe?a aei iaao?oiiai aeniiaeo: ?nioth/?
i?aeoiaee ia iiaeooue aenooiaoe aacith oai?aoe/ieo iiyniaiue i?ioean?a,
ye? a?aeaoaathoueny o na?o? no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e, ?nioth/? iiaeae?
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo, iaa?oue aeinoaoiuei oaoiieia?/i?, ia
ni?eythoue ae??oaiith i?iaeai oeueiai oaiiiaio, ui aeieeathoue ye a
oiiaao iino?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa, oae ? a i?ioean?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iinooioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoa, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny
ia i?aeoeoe? oi?aae?iiy ieie.

Ana oea coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue nioe?ieia?/iiai aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
i?inoi?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa oa oeyo?a iioei?caoe??
oi?aae?iiiy ieie. O ca’yceo c ia?ic?iaeai?noth eiioeaioe?? i?aai?caoe?e
a oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiio oa iaoiaee/iiio ieaiao aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue cina?aaeeoeny ianaiia?aae ia ae??oaii? eiioeaiooaeueieo
aniaeo?a i?iaeaie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee c aea?aeathaeaeaoieie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie nioe?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo: “?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ye oaeoi? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa: nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee oa
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iee aniaeoe”, “O?ainoi?iaoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa oa ci?iaiiy eiai nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? no?oeoo?e”, o yeeo ia
an?o aoaiao iiooeoaa/ a?aea aaciina?aaeith o/anoue. Oaie caoaa?aeaeai?
I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaea
iai?yie?a iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
ooai?aiue a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa?? oa oaoiieia?e ?o ?aae?caoe?? a
oiiaao no/anii? Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?yiiaaia ia ae??oaiiy ianooiieo caaea/:

— ?ic?iaeo oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei
nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co i?aai?caoe?? ye noa’?eoa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ci?i;

— aecia/aiiy niaoeeo?ee iaoai?ci?a noaiiaeaiiy, ia?aoai?aiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— aecia/aiiy i?noey oa ?ie? iaeeo oa na?aaei?o i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e a noaa?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
noni?euenoaa;

— aeyaeaiiy ?ie? ?ioaa?aoeaieo i?ioean?a a iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe?eieo oa?oiiaaiue, ?o aca?iiae?? c aea?aeaaith ?
noni?euenoaii;

— iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a oa iieaciee?a i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo i?aai?caoee?eieo oi?i;

— oa?aeoa?enoeea oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
nenoaiiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oa ?o aca?iiae?? c
aioo??oi?i oa iaaeieeoi?i na?aaeiaeuai i?aai?caoe??.

Ia’?eo aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii
i?aai?caoe?ei? ooai?aiiy, ye? ae?thoue a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
i?inoi?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — niaoeeo?ea i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa oa iioei?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy iei.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee oa aii??e/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoe/iei i?aea?oioyi aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoeia? ?iaioe
nioe?ieia?a, o?einio?a, aeiiii?no?a, ineoieia?a, ye? i?enay/ai?
aea/aiith i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie, iaoai?ci?a ?aaoeyoe?? ?o
iiaaae?iee, cie?aia, i?ea?iaeuei? oai??? i?aai?caoe?? (iai?eeeaae,
oaeoieia?y I. Aiaaeaiiaa, i?aenaieia?y O. Eioa?a?inueeiai, iaoea
i?aai?caoe?? E. Aaeaiaoeueee, ooieoe?iiaeueia oai??y i?aai?caoe?? I.
Nao?iaa oa ?i.), a oaeiae iaai? aeinyaiaiiy a aiae?c? i?aai?caoe?e,
cae?eniai? a iaaeao nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo. Cia/iee aianie
a ?ic?iaeo nioe?aeueieo aniaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? c?iaeaiee A. A.
Iiaeia?eiaei; aeae?eai? iei i?aai?caoe?ei? ca’ycee (oi?iaeuei?,
iaoi?iaeuei?, iai?aoi?iaeuei?, iicaoi?iaeuei?, io?oe?ei?, iaio?oe?ei?)
iiaeooue aenooiaoe iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoi? ?o eeaneo?eaoe??. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe anaa?/iee aiae?c ae?? oaeoi?a i?aai?caoe?? a caeaaeiino?
a?ae aaiethoe?? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee, cae?eniaiee A. O?e?iiiaei. Iaeiae
iio?aao? iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy i??a aieeao eiai ae?? ia
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io ae?yeuei?noue.

Aeey ?icoi?iiy nooiino? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a no/aniiio na?o? aaeeea
cia/aiiy iathoue ?iaioe ?. Aaeea?noaeia, I. Ooiiiee, O. ?. Caneaanueei?,
I. I. ?eiaoaanueei?, ?. A. ?eae?ii?, I. I. sseoae, A. I. Aaainiaa, N. I.
Iaea?aa, ?. ?. Aieiaaoe oa ?i., a yeeo aeine?aeaeothoueny
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane ye iaoai?ci nioe?aeueieo ci?i.

A?aei?aaieie iiiaioaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ?iaioe I.
?. Eai?ia, A. ?. I?eaiaeeia, Ae. I. Aa?oeai?, A. A. Aeiia?ay, A. A.
AEaa?oa, Ai?iaee?ia O. I., A. A. Ua?aeie, A. A. Eeia?aiea, A. I.
Eacie?aiea, A. ?. E?aa/aiea, ?. sseiaeaaa, A. C. I?eueia?a, A. ?.
Ieeeiaiea oa ?i., a yeeo ?icaeyiooi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oi?iaeueiiai ?
iaoi?iaeueiiai, iniaeno?noiiai ? ciainiaeaiiai a i?aai?caoe??;
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oi?aae?iiy, i?iaaaeai? A. E. Innianueeei, A. A.
?o/eith, I. A. Naeaaeith, A. I. Iieoi?aeii, ?. I. Iiiiaith, A. A.
Aainiaith, A. ?., A. I. Niaie?aei, A. ?. No?iaieii, A. A. Iaai?iei oa
?i.; ?iaioe A. N. Aae??iaa, A. A. Iiaeieuenueei?, I. A. Iia?aee oa ?i.,
i?enay/ai? aea/aiith i?ioean?a aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo /eai?a i?aai?caoe?e.

Aii??e/iith aacith aeena?oaoe?? noaee iii?oi?eiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca
aeaiith i?iaeaiith, ye? i?iaiaeeeeny ca o/anoth aaoi?a i?ioyaii
1989-1998 ??. nioe?ieiaaie Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Aieiaieie iaoiaeaie iaea?aeaiiy aii??e/ii? nioe?ieia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??
ia?aii aieaoia oa aenia?oia iieooaaiiy. Aeey aiae?co aii??e/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? canoiniaoaaeeny oaeoi?iee, oeiieia?/iee, ei?aeyoe?eiee
aiae?c oa ?i.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?iaio?
aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?? ?ice?eaa?oueny eiioeaioe?y i?aai?caoe?e
ye noa’?eo?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i, iaa?oioiaothoueny iaoai?cie
oa iai?yiee iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ieie a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiino?,
iaonoaeaiino? i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i oa a?aeiinei i?ae aieeaii
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iioei?caoe?y i?ioeano
oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?aai?caoe?eieo ooai?aiue iiaeiia aacoaaoeny ia
aeio?eiaii? ae?aeaeoe/ii? ??aiiaaae i?ae oe?eani?yiiaaiei oi?aae?inueeei
aieeaii ? niiioaiiei ?icaeoeii i?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a. O?eueee a
oaeiio ?one? iiaeia oaeineiiaethaaoe oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii i?aai?caoe?e a
?eieiaeo oiiaao, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio i?aai?caoe?eio
ae?aaiinoeeo.

O iaaeao ?ic?iaeaii? eiioeaioe?? io?eiai? ianooii? iia? ?acoeueoaoe:

1. Iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue ?icaeyaeo i?aai?caoe?? ye nioe?aeueii?
ni?eueiioe, eio?a caeaoia iaaoaaoe noa’?eoieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ui
iaoiiaeth? iiaeeea?noue ?? o/ano? o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiiyo. Uia aenooiaoe noa’?eoii ci?i, i?aai?caoe?y, ianaiia?aae,
iiaeiia iaoe oae? aacia? oa?aeoa?enoeee: oe?eueiao aecia/ai?noue;
naiaiaeo eiino?othaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei;
aaoiiiii?noue oi?aae?iiy; ?iaeea?aeoaeueio nioe?aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca nai? ae??; aooe nioe?aeueii ?ioaa?iaaiith ?
caeaoiith aei ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy
iaaoaathoue nioe?aeuei?, aeioe?eueii noai?thaai? no?oeoo?e, a iaaeao
yeeo cae?enith?oueny i?ioean nioe?aeueiiai naii?icaeoeo.

2. ?icaeoie oai??? i?aai?caoe?e oia?oa ?icaeyiooi ye iine?aeiaiee
ia?ao?ae a?ae eiioeaioe?? ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? nooiino? i?aai?caoe?? /a?ac
aoiai?caoe?th ?? ooieoe?e aei aeaoaoeoecaoe?? inoaiiuei?. I?iaiae?ciaaii
i?e/eie iaioaaiiy ciainiaeaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?, aeae?eaii
iniiai? iai?yiee aeaoaoeoecaoe?? no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e, iaoai?ciii yeeo
aenooia? ia?aaeyae iniiaieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oe?iiinoae (nioe?aeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?i.), ona?aeiieaiiy oe?ii?nii-?aoe?iiaeueii?
i?e?iaee oe?eae i?aai?caoe?e; ia?aioe?iea ?ie? ethaeeie a ?o no?oeoo??;
no?oeoo?oaaiiy ciai?oiueiai nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? oa
?i.

3. Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c cin?aaeaeo?oueny ia ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe??,
i?iaiic? ?? iiaeaeueoeo ci?i c o?aooaaiiyi noaae?e ?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo,
oa?aeoa?enoee i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, noaio
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoeaiiai iiey oa ?? ?iiiaaoeaiino?. Iaa?oioiaaii
i?eioeeie no?oeoo?oaaiiy aeaiaio?a aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aai?caoe??, ?ice?eo? iaoai?cie, ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?? ye ?aeeiiai nioe?aeueiiai i?aai?cio. Ooi/iai? e?eoa???
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o
?? iciae, nooiaiy ?o neeaaeiino?, ?ooeeaino?, iaaecia/aiino?, oaeoi??a
iina?aaeiueiai oa i?yiiai aieeao.

4. Aecia/ai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e,
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e, aca?iiae?? aeaiaio?a aioo??oiueiai ?
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua c iaoith ia o?eueee aeaeeaaiiy i?aai?caoe?? o
nueiaiaeaii?, aea e caaacia/aiiy iiceoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?? ?icaeoeo.
AEeoo?caeaoi?noue i?aai?caoe?? aecia/aia /a?ac ?ene, eio?? aeicaieythoue
?e aeei?enoiaoaaoe iayai? ?ano?ne, iiaeeeaino? aeey oni?oiiai
cae?eniaiiy ooieoe?e, oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy ? i?iyaeythoueny a
aeeaei?, oaeaeeino? iaieiae?iiy caniaaie oa i?eeiiaie aieeao ia ciai?oi?
oa aioo??oi? ia?aiao?e ae?yeueiino?.

5. Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue o??ciiiai?oiaiiy iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee
i?aai?caoe?e, a?aeiiae a?ae ni?iuaiiai iiaeyaeo ia aeaiaioe ciai?oiueiai
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, iaiao?aei?noue ?o ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oa
anoaiiaeaiiy c ieie ae?aeiao c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino?
i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiei caieoai. Eiie?aoeciaai? aeaiaioe ciai?oiueiai
ioi/aiiy i?aai?caoe??, cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? ca’yce?a i?aai?caoe?? c?
niiaeeaa/aie, a?iiaaenuee?noth, aea?aeaaieie oa i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy.

6. Iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noue nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?iaaiino? i?aai?ciaaieo
aeiiii?/ieo oa?oiiaaiue c iaoith ?o ia’?aeiaiiy a oii?yaeeiaaio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io nenoaio aeey noai?aiiy oaei? nioe?aeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e, yea a ni?eyea i?aeaeuaiith aeeoo?caeaoiino?
i?aai?caoe?e. Aac aeooae?caoe?? iio?aae a nioe?aeuei?e ?ioaa?iaaiino?
iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? ooai?aiiy ia iaoeiooue i???ioe??a o nai?io ?icaeoeo
aai iinoaaeyoue i?ae caa?ico naith aeeoo?caeaoi?noue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio? oii?yaeeiaaia
oa?i?iieia?y ? eia?ea nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo
ooai?aiue a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? noni?euenoaa, ui
aeicaieeei aecia/eoe iniiai? iai?yiee ?aae?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo
no?aoaa?e c o?aooaaiiyi aioo??oiueiai noaio ? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e. ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy
aeeoo?caeaoiino? no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe ?o
?icaeoie c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee eiie?aoii? noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo,
iniaeeainoae i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, nooiaiy nioe?aeueii?
?ioaa?iaaiino? i?aai?caoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioe?ththoue iaoeia? oyaeaiiy uiaei
iaoai?ci?a oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e ? iiaeooue
aenooiaoe oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey iiaeaeueoeo aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aai?caoe?eieo ? i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei, oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee
oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeeny aaoi?ii ia Ananithci?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Ae?aeaeoeea. Ia?aaoaeiaa. Ethaeeia” (I?inuee, 1989), ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “No/ani? nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia??:
nooi?noue, ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy” (A?eai?iae, 1991),
“Eiioe?eoe: ??ciiiai?oi?noue, oeyoe ? niiniae iiaeieaiiy” (A?eai?iae,
1993), «Nioe?aeueiee caoeno iieiae?: noai, i?iaeaie ? oeyoe ae??oaiiy”
(Oa?e?a, 1993), «Aeaaiaioia iiaaaeiiea iaiiaiieioiio i iieiaei:
iiaeeeainoi aieeao» (Oa?eia, 1994), “Ie?, a?eia, ?noi??y” (Oa?e?a,
1995), “Aeiaae?caoe?y iie?oeee a eiioaeno? no/anii? iie?oe/ii?
eoeueoo?e: aeina?ae ? ia?niaeoeae No?aeii? Aa?iie” (Oa?e?a, 1996),
“Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a o
ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?” (Oa?e?a, 1996), “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa
aeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a” (Oa?iii?eue,
1997), “Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie ?ano?naie: i?iaeaie e ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo” (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997), “AE?iee ia ?eieo i?aoe? Oe?a?ie”
(Ee?a, 1998), “Nioe?aeuei? eiioi?eaoe??: ?icaeoie a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
i?inoi??” (Oa?e?a, 1998), V Oa?e?anueeeo i?aeia?iaeieo
Neiai?iaeei?anueeeo /eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1998), ia Ia?o?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo: aiae?c oa
oi?aae?iiy” (Ee?a, 1998), Oa?e?anueeeo nioe?ieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo-98
(Oa?e?a, 1998), can?aeaiiyo iaoiaeieia?/iiai nai?ia?o nioe?ieia?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa ?i.

I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
iaoeiaeo ca?oao oa aiae?oe/ieo aeia?aeeao, i?aeaioiaeaieo c o/anoth
aaoi?a ? i?aaenoaaeaieo oi?aae?inueeei no?oeoo?ai ??ciiai ??aiy.
?ic?iaee aaoi?a aeei?enoiaothoueny o aeeeaaeaoeuee?e ?iaio? o aeu?e
oeie? a iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?iao “Nioe?ieia?y i?aai?caoe?e”,
“Aeiiii?/ia nioe?ieia?y”, “Nioe?ieia?y i?aoe?”, “Nioe?ieia?y
oi?aae?iiy”. E??i oiai, ?yae iieiaeaiue oa aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoe? aaoi?ii iaa/aeueiiai iiaeoey “Ia?niiaeueiee
iaiaaeaeiaio” a ?aieao i?iaeoo TACIS “Oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?” (1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii iaeiiin?aio iiiia?ao?th,
?icae?e eieaeoeaii? iiiia?ao??, 24 noaoo? (o o. /. 15 — o oaoiaeo
aeaeaiiyo ii nioe?ieia??), 1 a?ioo?o (o ni?aaaoi?noa?), 13 aeiiia?aeae
ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, ye? iiae?eai? ia i?ae?icae?ee, aeniiaeo, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 375 noi??ieao
iniiaiiai oaenoo. Oaeno ?iaioe aeeth/a? 8 oaaeeoeue oa 8 ?ethno?aoe?e.
Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 312 iaeiaioaaiue ? aeeeaaeaiee ia
25 noi??ieao, aeiaeaoee aeeth/athoue noeneo oa?aeoa?enoeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoa??aee yeeo aeei?enoai? a ?iaio?, a oaeiae 3
oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iiaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aenoaae, iieacaii eiai iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe, oi?ie oa oa?aeoa? ?? ai?iaaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? i?aeoiaee aei nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co
nioe?aeueieo i?aai?caoe?e” ?icaeyiooi iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei ?icoi?iiy
oaiiiaia i?aai?caoe??, iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oai??? nioe?aeueieo
i?aai?caoe?e; cina?aaeaeaii oaaao ia iniaeeainoyo i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i o
ia??iae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?e oneeaaeiththoueny ??ciei oeoia/aiiy naiiai
iiiyooy “i?aai?caoe?y” oa ??ciei eiioaenoii eiai ?icoi?iiy. Eiai
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia (?enaie i?aai?caoe?? iaceaathoue
aeene?aoi?noue, oeoeooaoeai?noue, ia??aiia?ni?noue, oiaoi ia
i?aai?caoe?th ia?aiinyoueny oa?aeoa?enoeee aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie),
aaaaoicia/ia, a?aeiinia, aaaaoiaaeoi?ia, i?ioeanoaeueia, ye i?ioean ?
ia’?eo. Ci?no oeueiai iiiyooy iae/ano?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny a oaeeo
aniaeoao, aeae?eaieo ss. Caeaiaanueeei: ao?eaooeaiiio, i?aaeiaoiiio oa
ooieoe?iiaeueiiio.

Aecia/aiiy ci?noo iniiaii? eaoaai??? ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c ??
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c ieceith oaeeo iiiyoue, ye aeaci?aai?caoe?y,
naiii?aai?caoe?y, i?aai?ciaai?noue. Oi/ i?aai?caoe?y ye i?ioean
iieeeeaia caaacia/eoe ia’?aeiaiiy oa ?aaeaiaioaoe?th ae?e ethaeae (a?oi)
a oiae? ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? ? iaaiee ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo,
ceaaiaee, inoaiiy i?ioiaeeoue noia?a/eeai, oeyoii iiaeieaiiy
aeaci?aai?caoe??, aaceaaeo. I?aai?ciaai?noue iae/ano?oa ?icaeyaeathoue
ye aeanoea?noue, i?eoaiaiio nioe?aeuei?e nenoai? aoaeue-yeiai ??aiy, ui
caaacia/o? ?? oe?e?ni?noue, noae?noue, ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue,
iacaeaaei?noue. Aei oiai ae aiia ? aaciina?aaei?i ?acoeueoaoii i?ioeano
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?aae?iiy; ci?ieeaith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aoaeue-yei?
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie; iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo
inoaiiuei?; noaeith noi?iiith noia?a/iino?, yea i?aeeyaa? ?ica’ycaiith
caniaaie nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Aiia ? aeaiaioii nioe?aeueieo
ca’yce?a ? a oiiaao a?ae/oaeaiiy ?iaeea?aea a?ae i?aai?caoe??, /eaiii
yei? a?i ?, i?aaenoa? ia ?acoeueoaoii a?eueiiai ocaiaeaeaiiy iio?aa,
?ioa?an?a, oe?eae o/aniee?a i?aai?caoe?eiiai i?ioeano, a niiniaii
eii?aeeiaoe?? ni?eueieo ae?e, iaoiaeii aeinyaiaiiy ni?eueiiai
?acoeueoaoo, caniaii i?aeei?aiiy ethaeeie a i?aai?caoe??. O i?aaeiaoiiio
aniaeo? i?aai?caoe?y ? oi?aa?naeueiith oi?iith naii?aae?caoe??
nioe?aeueii? ni?eueiioe, aea eeoa ca iaaieo oiia, ye? ia caaaeaee ?
iai/ieie ? oei a?eueo ?aaeueii ?nioth/eie.

Aaoi? iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui aeae?eaiiy oi?iaeueiiai oa iaoi?iaeueiiai
aniaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? noaei aecia/iei iaoeiaei aeinyaiaiiyi, yea
aeicaieeei ?ice?eoe aioo??oi? noia?a/iino? i?aai?caoe?eieo ooai?aiue ?
aeaea?aea ?o ?icaeoeo.

?icia?ooy i?aai?caoe?eieo iiaeaeae ?icaeyaea?oueny o ?icae?e? ye
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeeiai?ee noaiiaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? i?ae aieeaii ye ciai?oi?o, oae ? aioo??oi?o, ia’?eoeaieo ?
noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a. Iaa?oioiaaia iio?aaa a oe?e?niiio ?icaeyae?
aeaoa?i?iaio i?aai?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo.

?aoe?iiaeueia oai??y ia ciiaea ?ice?eoe ?ieue ethaenueeiai oaeoi?a a
i?aai?caoe??, aca?iica’ycie c i?ieeaei na?aaeiaeuai. ?ieue iaoi?iaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?eaaeee /an ia aeciaaaeany aeine?aeieeaie, oi/a aaea
noi?ioaaeany eeane/ia oai??y iaiaaeaeiaioo, caiaiaea a??a o
ananeeuei?noue i?aai?caoe?eiiai oaeoi?a, iiaeeea?noue c eiai aeiiiiiaith
anoaiiaeoe ooo/iee nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie ca ?aeaaeueiei ieaiii.
I?ea?/ieee aoiai?noe/iiai i?aeoiaeo noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui, ia i?aeo?eioth/e
ii?yaeeo nioe?aeueiiai (oo?aioo i?i /eai?a i?aai?caoe??, ?o caoeno),
i?aai?caoe?y ia ciiaea aeiiiaoeny ii?yaeeo a aeiiii?/i?e noa??. Aiie
caa?ioee oaaao ia iio?aae, oe?e?, aaaeaiiy, /aeaiiy ethaeae (a?oi); ia
iaiao?aei?noue iaeii/aniiai aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo
oe?eae. A oie aea /an ne?ae a?aei?oeoe, ui aoiai?noe/ia ia?aaeeaia
ia?aa?eueoo? cia/aiiy ethaenueei? aeioe?eueiino?, ye ? ?aoe?iiaeueia,
aiia i?ioenoaaey? ethaeeio iaaeieeoiueiio na?oo, ?iaey/e ?? ?aeeiei
noaiaea?oii ? ii?iith. ?ino?oiaioaeueia ae ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue a iao? aei?
noa? oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii iaaei?aaaeaiith.

I?aai?caoe?eia ?aoe?iiaeuei?noue aeyaeea na?e cai?ioi?e a?e o aeaeyae?
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa oa eiai no?oeoo?, ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie ia
aaeioee, ca?o/ieoeth noai?aii? iath oioaeueii? i?aai?caoe??. A?ae a??e o
ananeeey i?aai?caoe?? ethaenoai iinooiiai i?eeoei aei ona?aeiieaiiy
aaaeeeaino? aoiai?noe/ieo oe?iiinoae, aeciaiiy iaiaaeaiino?
i?aai?caoe?eieo i?eioeei?a ? aeciaiiy iiceoeaii? ?ie? niiioaiieo
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ye ?aeeii? aeueoa?iaoeae oioae?caoe??. O iao /an
a?aei?/a?oueny iio?aaa a aeaoaoeoecaoe?? i?aai?caoe??, aeciaiiy ??
ae?enii? ?ie? a aeeoo? noni?euenoaa.

?oeioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai oaoeoecio iiaeeeaa ia oeyoo ia?aaoaeiae
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie a iai?yieo ieth?ae?caoe?? na?aaeiaeua, ?icoi?iiy
oneeaaeiaiiy nioe?aeueieo ca’yce?a, ?o i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy iio?aaai /eai?a
i?aai?caoe??. Aeaoaoeoecaoe?y i?aai?caoe?? ye nioe?ieia?/ia i?iaeaia
aeeth/a? oae? iniiai? iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue, ye ia?aaeyae iniiaieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oe?iiinoae (nioe?aeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?i.),
ona?aeiieaiiy oe?ii?nii-?aoe?iiaeueii? i?e?iaee oe?eae i?aai?caoe?e;
ia?aioe?ieo ?ie? ethaeeie a i?aai?caoe??; oeoia/aiiy nooiino?
i?aai?caoe?e a oa?i?iao aeeoioii?? “iaeiiiai?oi?noue — aaaaonoai
ia?ac?a”, ca aeiiiiiaith ieth?ae?noe/ii? ea?oeie nioe?aeueiiai na?oo,
oeyoii eiie?aoecaoe?? aeaiaio?a ciai?oiueiai ? aioo??oiueiai
nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? oa ?i.

Aeaoaoeoecaoe?y i?aai?caoe?? aeicaiey? noa’?eoai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy acyoe i?ae na?e eiio?ieue ni?eueio
ae?yeuei?noue. sseui ethaeeia c?icoi?? caeiie oa caeiiii??iino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noa?e, iaieiae??
iaoiaeaie i?iaiicoaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iiaaae?iee noa’?eo?a, oai?/i
i?aeoiaeeoeia aei ae??oaiiy aeooaeueieo i?iaeai, aiia noaia ia oeyo
ca?eueiaiiy c-i?ae aeaaee noai?aieo iath i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i.
Ni?yiiaai?noth ?icaeoeo oai??? nioe?aeueieo i?aai?caoe?e aaoi? aaaaea?
ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? i?aai?caoe?? /a?ac ?? aoiai?caoe?th aei
aeaoaoeoecaoe?? inoaiiuei?, ui aeicaieeoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe
i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e caaaeaii, c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?aaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae ? iaiaaeaiue.

A iaaeao nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo i?aai?caoe?y aea/aeany aeineoue ie?aeii,
cie?aia, i?eoeeueieeaie ooieoe?iiae?cio, yeeie ?ic?iaeai? aeai?eoie
ae?aaiinoeee noaio i?aai?caoe?e a noaa?eueieo oiiaao ?o ?icaeoeo.
Eeth/ia? nioe?ieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?o aiae?co aeoeaioothoue oaaao ia
aeaio iiiaioao, a naia: aaniethoecaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo
i?aai?caoe?? aai nenoaie ae?e, ui caaacia/othoue ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy e
?icaeoie. No?oeoo?iee i?aeo?ae ao?eth?oueny a oai??yo ooieoe?iiae?cio ?
eiioe?eoieo oai??yo. Oai??y ae?e oaae i?aaenoaaeaia ??cieie iiaeaeyie, a
yeeo i?aai?caoe?y iinoa? aai ye nenoaia ocaiaeaeaiiai ii?yaeeo, aai ye
neiaie?/ia eiino?oeoe?y, aai ye noeoii?noue oi?aae?inueeeo i?aeoee.
Nioe?ieia?/iiio aiae?co iathoue i?aeiaaeaoe ia?o ca ana
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie i?ae ni?eueiioaie, ye? aoiaeyoue aei
eiie?aoii? i?aai?caoe??.

Caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??oothoueny c o?aooaaiiyi
aeiia ianaiia?aae nenoaiiiai aiae?co ? neooaoeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe??th. Nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey eiiieaeniiai aeae?eaiiy ?? i?iaeai, aeey
no?oeoo?oaaiiy i?aai?caoe??. Aea nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae ia aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe, ye? oaeoi?e i?aai?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? aaaeeeaeie, a ye? a
iaaiee /an — i?. Neooaoeaiee i?aeo?ae aea? iiaeeea?noue ?aiaoaaoe oe?
oaeoi?e ii neooaoe??, i???iooaaoe i?aai?caoe?th ia oni?o, aea an?
neooaoe?? aca?iiiia’ycai?, oiio eiaeiiai ?aco ne?ae aeae?eyoe i?ia?aei?
c ieo.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “I?aai?caoe?ei? iaoai?cie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue o noni?euenoa?” i?enay/aiee aiae?co iniaeeainoae
i?aai?ciaaii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? a noni?euenoa?, yea
o?ainoi?io?oueny. Cacia/aii, ui e?eca /enoi ?ino?oiaioaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? iiyaa oe?ii?nii-i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee ni?ey? ooai?aiith
iiai? ?inoeoooe?eii? iniiae aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?, ye iane?aeie,
aenoaa? iia? aeiiae aei i?aai?caoe?e, ye? caaacia/othoue i?ioeane
ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, iai?io iaoa??aeueieo aeaa oa iineoa a
ia?ic?eaiiio ca’yceo c ?ioeie noa?aie noni?euenoaa.

Aaoi? iaaieioo? ia oiio, ui i?aai?caoe?? ae?thoue a eiie?aoieo
?noi?e/ieo oiiaao, ye? aiie ia iiaeooue iae?aoe, aea a oie aea /an aiie
e ia ? ianeai? uiaei oeeo oiia. Oea aeooae?co? aea/aiiy i?ioean?a, ca
aeiiiiiaith yeeo ethaee, aeei?enoiaoth/e nai? ciaiiy, cae?aiino?,
neiaie?/i? na?oe, aeoeaii a?aeoai?ththoue ? noai?ththoue
nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e a aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? no/aniiai
noni?euenoaa.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee i?ino?? o ?iaio? aecia/a?oueny ye iaaiith i??ith
oii?yaeeiaaia, no?oeoo?iaaia oa ???a?o?ciaaia nenoaia aca?iiae?e,
a?aeiinei noa’?eo?a c i?eaiaeo ae?iaieoeoaa, ?iciiae?eo, iai?io oa
niiaeeaaiiy i?iaeoeo?a oa iineoa, ye? iaoiiaeai? ciai?oi?ie ?
aioo??oi?ie /eiieeaie. A oiiaao aeiaae?caoe?? oa ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??
aeiiii?ee, ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee
i?ino?? aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa, ui oneeaaeith?
i?aai?caoe?ei? oa i?aei?aai?caoe?ei? a?aeiineie.

I?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ? neeaaeiaeie nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? eiie?aoiiai
oeio noni?euenoaa, ?acoeueoaoii ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe??, a i?ioean? yei?
nioe?aeuei? i?aeoeee noathoue ?aaoey?ieie ? aeineoue o?eaaeeie,
cae??ieththoueny o aeaeyae? ?inoeooo?a. Ci?ie ae a nioe?aeueieo
i?aeoeeao caeaoi? ci?ithaaoe ?inoeoooe oeyoii iiaeeo?eaoe?? ?nioth/eo ?
iiyae iiaeo ?o oi?i. Oae, ?icaeoie eiaeiiai c ?eieiaeo ?inoeooo?a
?aaeaiaioo? aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ioiiethaaieo iei nioe?aeueieo a?oi ?
noeioeth? aeieeiaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?e.

A i?aai?caoe?yo oaae ia?ao?auo?oueny ae?y ??cieo nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a. Iaei? c ieo aa?aioothoue ? caoeuathoue i?aaa aeaniino?,
iiia?aaeaeothoue ianeeey e oao?aenoai, caaacia/othoue
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, naiaiaeo ? iaia’yceia?noue oaiae, iaioaaiiy caeiio
oa ?i. ?io? ae ?inoeoooe ? aaciina?aaeiuei ?eieiaeie, cieaeothoue i??o
iaaecia/aiino? ? ?eceeo, ciaioothoue o?ainaeoe?ei? aeo?aoe (aei ieo
a?aeiinyoue ?eiee, aeiiaoi? ainiiaea?noaa, ??ci? oeie oaiae, ieao?aei? ?
e?aaeeoi? caniae, caniae iaeiie/aiiy e caa?aaeaiiy aaaaonoaa, a??ae?,
iina?aaeieoeuee? e eiinaeoeiaia? onoaiiae, i?aai?caoe?? aeey caoenoo
a?oiiaeo ?ioa?an?a (nithce, anioe?aoe??) oa ?i.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiai aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeea? o? eeaneo?eaoe?ei?
iciaee, ye? aeicaieythoue neeanoe oyao i?i iiaeeeaino? i?aai?caoe?? ye
nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa, ?? aeeiai?eo, neeaaeia? aeaiaioe oa oa?aeoa?
aca?iiae?e i?ae ieie oa iaaeieeoi?i na?oii. Oeae i?aeo?ae aeicaieea
cai?iiiioaaoe ianooiio oeiieia?th i?aai?caoe?e:

1. I?aai?caoe?? o?aaeeoe?ei? ? iia?. Aiie ?ic??ciythoueny ianaiia?aae ca
oaeeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ye o?eaae?noue ?nioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?ei?
aeina?ae, eoeueoo?a oa iioaioe?ae, ?ioaa?iaai?noue a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io no?oeoo?o noni?euenoaa, ?i?aeae a noni?euenoa?.
I?ae oeeie oeiaie i?aai?caoe?e iiaeooue ?nioaaoe a?aeiineie ca
i?eioeeiii aeiiiaiaiiy (iai?eeeaae, a?ae aaeeei? i?aai?caoe??
a?aeie?aieeany iaea o??ia, yea i?iaeiaaeo? ae?yoe a i?a?o? ia?oi?),
ia?oia?nueeeo noinoie?a, eiioe?eoieo aca?iiae?e. I?eeeaaeii iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ?
i?aei?e?iieoeuee? o??ie (nithce, anioe?aoe??), o?iainiai-i?iieneia?
a?oie oiui. Iiyaa iiaeo i?aai?caoe?e iaeii/anii aaaea aei ci?i a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa, aei iiyae iiaeo
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, iai?eeeaae, i?aei?e?ioe?a. ?aaeuei?noth noa? ?
?iciaaeoaaiiy a oeeo a?oiao, oi?ioaaiiy iiai? aeiiii?/ii? ae?oe.

2. I?aai?caoe?? a?aee?eoi-i?iaeaii? e eaoaioii-i?iaeaii?. Aei ieo ie
a?aeiineii i?aai?caoe??, ye? iai/ii aai i?eoiaaii caeiathoue
iani?eyoeeao iiceoe?th ia ?eieo, iathoue o?oaeiiu? c ona?aeiieaiiyi aai
?aae?caoe??th nai?o ooieoe?e, aai c naii?aae?caoe??th nioe?aeueieo
ni?eueiio, ye? aoiaeyoue aei i?aai?caoe??.

3. I?aai?caoe?? ia?niaeoeai? e aacia?niaeoeai? aeae?eythoueny iaie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai, /e ia?aaeaa/a? ?o no/aniee noai iaeaooi?e
?icaeoie.

4. I?aai?caoe?? a) c iiceoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo, a) ?c
noaa?eueiei ?icaeoeii, a) c iaaaoeaieie oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo, ye?
aeae?eythoueny oeyoii ae?aaiinoeee iieaciee?a ?o aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai noaio, a oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith aenia?oii? ioe?iee oa
naiiioe?iie ea??aieoeoaii i?noey, yea caeia? ?o i?aai?caoe?y ia ?eieo.

5. I?aai?caoe?? c aenieei, na?aaei?i oa iecueeei ?iiiaaoe?eiei
iioaioe?aeii.

I?ae ?iiiaaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii iaie ?icoi??oueny caeaoi?noue ?nioth/i?
oaoiieia?? oa ?? aaaio?a noai?thaaoe e ?aae?ciaoaaoe iiaeeeaino?
?icaeoeo, ui iaoiiaeth?oueny ye iayai?noth iacaae?yieo ?ano?n?a, oae ?
aioiai?noth i?aai?caoe?? a oe?eiio aei ci?i. ?iaeeeaoi?aie
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?aai?caoe?? iiaeooue aenooiaoe oae? iciaee,
ye caeaoi?noue i?aai?caoe?? noai?thaaoe iiaa; ni?eeiaoe aaea noai?aia
iiaa; ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iiaa; aioiai?noue nai?/anii aea?eueiyoeny a?ae
canoa??eiai; oo?eioaaoe iiceoeaia a noa?iio (oae caaiee eiino?oeoeaiee
eiina?aaoeci).

6. I?aai?caoe??, ye? aoaeothoue, ? ye? iai?iiythoueny. E?eoa???i oaeiai
iiae?eo aenooia? no?aoaa?y, yea aeicaiey? ni?yiiaoaaoe coneeey /eai?a
i?aai?caoe?? ia aeoeaia (?iiae? iaa?oue aa?aneaia) oei??iaiiy a
iaaeieeoi?e na?o, aai ae, iaaiaee, no?aoaa?y iai?iie.

Aeiiii?/i? i?aai?caoe?? ye oi?iaeuei?, oiaoi oae?, ui iathoue oe?e?,
oi?iae?ciaai? i?aaeea, no?oeoo?o ? ca’ycee, oiiaii eeaneo?eothoueny ca
oaeeie iciaeaie: ca oi?iaie aeaniino?: i?eaaoi?, aea?aeaai?,
ioi?oeeiaeuei?, ci?oai?; ca a?aeiioaiiyi aei i?eaooeo: eiia?oe?ei? oa
iaeiia?oe?ei?; i?eaooeia? oa iai?eaooeia?; ca naeoi?aie ae?iaieoeoaa:
i?aai?caoe??, ye? ae?thoue a aaeocyo ia?aeiiiai oeeeeo, aoi?eiiiai
oeeeeo, o?aoeiiiai oeeeeo, a naeoi?? ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e; ca
i??ith oi?iae?caoe??: i?aai?caoe?? oi?iaeueiiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee,
iaoi?iaeuei?.

Iica ?inoeooeiaaieo aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, oi?iaeueiiai ?eieo ia iaai?e
noaae?? noni?eueiiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe? ? niaoe?ae?caoe??
cae?eniththoueny aeaye? aeaee aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aei yeeo iiaeia
a?aeianoe: aaaeaiiy /eaiaie n?i’? aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa aai
iaoo?aeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa ae??aieie ae?iaieeaie; aeaye? aeaee
oi?iae?ciaaii? ae?yeueiino?, ui oei/aniai ia?aoiaeyoue o iaoi?iaeueiee
naeoi? c iaoith caiia?aaiiy aeeiiaiiy iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo ciaia’ycaiue ii
a?aeiioaiith aei noni?euenoaa (nieaoa iiaeaoe?a, ieoa); aeaye? aeaee
oi?iae?ciaaii? ae?yeueiino?, ui ia aeeiiothoue ?nioth/? i?aaeea (ye
i?aaeei, aiie iiaa?oathoueny aei oi?iaeueiiai naeoi?a i?e iie?ioaii?
oiia eiai ?aaoethaaiiy ? aeaniiai noaiiaeua ia ?eieo); caai?iiai? aeaee
ae?yeueiino? (oi?a?aey ia?eioeeaie, ?aeao oa ?i.). Ca aaee/eiith
(?ici??ii) ia ?nio? caaaeueii aeciaii? eeaneo?eaoe?? i?aai?caoe?e. A
?iaio? canoiniao?oueny oaeee aa??aio oeiieia?? i?aai?ciaaieo aeiiii?/ieo
ooai?aiue ca ?o ioi?ieai?noth, caaaeath/e ia oeae e?eoa??e:
i?i?-ooai?aiiy, iae?, na?aaei?, aaeee?.

A aeiiii?oe? ae?thoue i?aai?ciaai? e iai?aai?ciaai? oa?oiiaaiiy,
inoaii?, ye i?aaeei, a iaoi?iaeueiiio ?? naeoi??. A ?iaio? ?icaeyioo?
nioe?aeuei? iaoai?cie ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo i?aai?ciaaieo oi?i
o?eueee eaaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? oeo iaaeaeiiii?/ieo
ooai?aiue, ye? noai?ai? o a?aeiia?aeue ia iio?aae aeoi??a aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy ? caaacia/othoue ?o ?nioaaiiy. A oie aea /an a inoaii? ?iee ye
naiino?eia i?iaeaia aeae?eeeany aca?iiae?y eaaaeueii? e iaeaaaeueii?
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae aieea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a no/aniiio na?o? ? a
ie?aieo e?a?iao. Iai?eeeaae, cao?eniaaia caeiiii??i?noue: ?c ciaioaiiyi
i?e?inoo ae?iaieoeoaa a eaaaeueiiio (io?oe?eiiio, oi?iaeueiiio) naeoi??
aeiiii?ee iiaea a?aei?/aoeny c?inoaiiy eiai a iaeaaaeueiiio ? iaaiaee.
Oey i?iaeaia iio?aao? niaoe?aeueiiai nioe?ieia?/iiai aea/aiiy, iniaeeai
i?aai?caoe?y nioe?aeueieo aca?iiae?e aeaio naeoi??a aeiiii?ee —
eaaaeueiiai oa iaeaaaeueiiai.

Aaoi?ii aeieeaaeii i?iaiae?ciaai? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, i?e/eie ?o ia?a?iaeueiiai noaio oa
iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeeoo?caeaoiino?. Aeaco?oueny ia oa, ui aea/aiiy
iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? o iinooioae?oa?ieo noni?euenoaao —
aeooaeueia ? iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaia i?iaeaia nioe?ieia?/ii? iaoee. O
oeueiio iai?yieo aaaeaoueny aeoeaiee iiooe iaoai?ci?a iiaeieaiiy
iaioaaiiy ciainiaeaieo no?oeoo?, aa?iii?caoe?? a?aeiinei “iniaeno?noue —
i?aai?caoe?y”, “noni?euenoai — i?aai?caoe?y”, aeeth/ath/e nioe?aeueio
?ioaa?iaai?noue iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, aei yeeo o iao?e e?a?i?
ianaiia?aae a?aeiinyoueny i?aei?e?iieoeuee? i?aai?caoe??. O i?ioean?
?icaeoeo inoaii?o aeyaey?oueny noia?a/i?noue i?ae ia’?eoeaieie, ia?o ca
ana nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie, oiiaaie ?o ?nioaaiiy, ?
nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/iith aioiai?noth ie?aieo iniaenoinoae oa i?ioa?e?a
ianaeaiiy aei aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao i?aai?caoe?eiiai ieth?ae?cio,
eiee iniaeno?noue iaaoaa? aeiiii?/i? naiaiaee ? c?oea?oueny c
iaiao?aei?noth naiiaecia/aiiy o na?o? i?aai?caoe?e, yeee ia aei e?ioey
noi?iiaaiee ? ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae aieeaii neeaaeieo o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a, eio?? aaaeei i?iaiicoaaoe.

O iao?e e?a?i? cia/ia /anoeia i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e
i?iaeiaaeo? caeeoaoeny a ia?a?iaeueiiio noai?, i?iyaii /iai aenooia?
iaaei??ia ia?nii?o?eaoe?y a?aeiinei a oeeo no?oeoo?ao; aaeainoaaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ia iaae? i?aaiaiai aeicaieo; a?aenooi?noue ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo; iaaecia/ai?noue oe?eae; a?aenooi?noue oe?ii?nii? ?aeiino?;
iaaeinoaoiy i???ioiaai?noue ia ?icaeoie ethaeeie a i?aai?caoe??;
iaaei??ia cina?aaeaeai?noue i?aei?e?ioe?a ia nooi aeiiii?/ieo
aeinyaiaiiyo ? caaithaaii? ?eie?a; iaiioeiaeuei?noue i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo?; iaaeinoaoi? ciaiiy ee??io?a, ianaaiaioiaai?noue ?eieo; neaaea
caeo/ai?noue i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e aei n?oie a?ciano ? aei
o/ano? o ae??oaii? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai noni?euenoaa. ?icaeoie
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny noia?a/i?noth i?ae
iaae?yie, ye? iieeaaeathoueny ia ieo, oa ?o ?aaeueiith ?ieeth a
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioeanao, iieeeeaieo c?iaeoe iniaeno?noue aoaeoeaiei
noa’?eoii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui a aeayeeo aeiaaeeao aeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue
i?ioiaeeoue aac oi?iaeueiiai no?oeoo?oaaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aeiia?aei? caeiiiaeaa/i ia?aaeaa/ai? i?ioeaaeo?e, iniaeeai oea
noino?oueny ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? o?oaeiai? ae?yeueiino? oa i?i?-ooai?aiue.
?icaeoie i?i?-ooai?aiue a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? iniaeeai aeoeaii
noeioeth?oueny a e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny, ? i?eaa?oa? ana a?eueoa
oaaae nioe?ieia?a, ye? o?enothoue i?eoaiaii? ?i iaaaoeai? nioe?aeuei?
iane?aeee. Oi/a /enaeuei?noue, ??ciiaeaee, u?euei?noue ?ici?uaiiy oa
oa?aeoa? ae?yeueiino? i?i?-ooai?aiue a aeiiii?oe? eieeaathoueny ii
e?a?iao “o?aoueiai na?oo”, oao?aoe? aeyaeythoue aeaye? caeiiii??iino?:
aiie noai?ththoueny i?aaenoaaieeaie iaea?eueo ca?aei?eeo, ia?a?iaeueieo
i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy aac aeiiiiiae aea?aeaae, ooieoe?iiothoue ia ia?aoei?
naeoi??a a iani?eyoeeaeo oiiaao /a?ac aino?o eiieo?aioe?th ?
a?aenooi?noue i?ioaeoe?ii?cio. Oey i?iaeaia aeoiaeeoue ca iaae?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiia aeiaaa? a?eueo aeieeaaeiiai
aea/aiiy.

?icaeyiooi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a ? aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Ae?noaee iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?ie?
aea?aeaae a ?aaoethaaii? i?aai?caoe?eieo oa i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo
a?aeiinei. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?ic?iaea ?aeaaeueiiai iieacieea ?ie?
aea?aeaae a aeiiii?oe? aeaea?oueny i?iaeaiaoe/iith, ? a?aoiaoth/e
iaaeineiiae?noue aeei?enoiaoaaieo ?iaeeeaoi??a, aaoi? cacia/a?, ui ci?ie
?ici???a aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a oa eiai ?ie? ua ia na?ae/aoue i?i
aeeiai?eo aieeao inoaiiuei? ia nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia aeeooy. Aea?aeaao
ye i?aai?caoi?a aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy iiaeia oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
?iaeeeaoi?aie, ye? ia’?aeiai? a ?iaio? o o?e a?oie.

Ia?oo a?oio neeaee iieacieee, ye? a?aene?aeothoueny noaoenoeeith, —
??aaiue ? no?oeoo?a aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao, ?o /anoea o aaeiaiio
aioo??oiueiio i?iaeoeo?; aeiey aea?aeaaiiai niiaeeaaiiy o aaeiaiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio i?iaeoeo?; aeiey aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a o caaaeuei?e
e?eueeino? caeiyoeo a aeiiii?oe?; e?euee?noue caeiyoeo ia aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao (o o. /. a aea?aeaia?ao?); aeiey nioe?aeueieo o?ainoa?o?a
a aeioiaeao ianaeaiiy ? ??cieo eiai i?ioa?e?a; aeiey ?iaanoeoe?e
aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa o noeoiieo aaeiaeo ?iaanoeoe?yo oiui.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie oa?eoee iieacieee, ye? a?aeia?aaeothoue a?iiaaenueeo
aeoieo ??cieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy uiaei ?ie? aea?aeaae, a naia: ioe?iee,
iaae??, niiae?aaiiy, aeiiae, oiaoi o? aeaiaioe, ye? aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? na?aeiiino?, yea ?aaoeth? aeiiii?/io
iiaaae?ieo ? iaa?oue oi?io? iie?oe/i? i?eno?ano? ethaeae.

O?aoth a?oio oa?aeoa?ecothoue iieacieee, ye? a?aeia?aaeothoue aeoieo
aenia?o?a c ieoaiue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ?? a?aeiia?aeiino?
oei /e ?ioei oe?eyi, i??i?eoaoai oiui. Aenia?oaie o?enothoueny ci?ie
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee, aai oyaeaiiy i?i oa, yeeie aiie iiaeii? aooe.

Ni?iae i?enoinoaaoe cao?aei? ?inoeoooe c iaoith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee a
iao?e e?a?i? aeyaeeeny iaaoaeoeaieie. I??i?eoaoaie aea?aeaae, yea i?aaia
ia?aeoe a?ae eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiai?, iae/ano?oa caaaeothoueny
aeaa: ni?eyiiy noaiiaeaiith a?iiaaenueeiai noni?euenoaa ? ?icaeoie
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a, ui ?aaeueii aaaea aei aeieeiaiiy iiaeo ?inoeooo?a
aeaaee (ai iaeia aea?aeaaa iaaciic? aeiaanoe aei e?ioey iaiao?aei?
ia?aoai?aiiy) oa iiaeo iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

Aea?aeaaa, ii?aeioth/e noaoone aeanieea e i?aai?caoi?a, ii?iaeaeo? ieceo
i?iaeai. C iaeiiai aieo, aiia i?aai?co? i?ioean a?aeoai?aiiy, oi?aaey?
iei, iaeia? (i?ecia/a?) i?ioan?eieo ea??aiee?a i?aai?caoe?e aea?aeaaiiai
naeoi?a, caaacia/o? i?enai?iiy ae?iaeaiiai i?iaeoeoo oa eiai
aeei?enoaiiy, a c ?ioiai — iaiaaa?oueny ae??ooaaoe caaea/o aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?, ie?anethaaoe iaae? aea?aeaaiiai
naeoi?a, aecia/aoe aioo??oith no?oeoo?o aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?, ?? ianya
oa neeaae a?aeiia?aeii aei iieeaaeaieo ia aea?aeaao ooieoe?e, cie?aia
aeiiii?/ieo. Oni?oia ae??oaiiy oeeo caaaeaiue iio?aao?
niaoe?ae?no?a-i?aai?caoi??a, caeaoieo ?ica’ycoaaoe i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai
??aiy, a?aoiaoth/e caeiiii??iino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e,
ei?aaoaaoe ?eieia? aca?iiae?? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoe?iiaeueiith
niaoeeo?eith.

Iaae? aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?/ia aeeooy noni?euenoaa ana
/ano?oa iaoiiaeththoueny i?eioeeiii aeiiiaiaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei ?inoeooo
a?eueo aenieiai ??aiy ia iiaeiai ?iaeoe oa, ui caeaoia c?iaeoe
i?aai?caoe?y a?eueo iecueeiai ??aiy. A oaeiio ?ac? aeooae?co?oueny
i?iaeaia ?iciaaeoaaiiy aeaaeieo oa oi?aae?inueeeo iiaiiaaaeaiue noiniaii
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?ae aea?aeaaith ? i?noeaaeie (?aa?iiaeueieie)
i?aaiaie aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy.

O ?iaio? oaeiae aiae?co?oueny aieea ia aeiiii?/io iiaaae?ieo ie?aieo
nioe?aeueieo a?oi, i?aai?caoe?e iaaeineiiaeino? ?inoeooo?a aeaniino? ?
caeiyoino? a no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, ui caoaeo? iaae?
aeiiii?/ii a?eueii? iiaaae?iee, ia aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiaiith
i??ith aeiiii?/i? naiaiaee. I?ae aeiiii?/iith naiaiaeith ?icoi??oueny
iayai?noue o aeiiii?/iiai noa?eoa iaaii? noeoiiino? i?aa, ye?
aa?aioothoue aaoiiiiia, naiino?eia i?eeiyooy ??oaiue uiaei iiooeo oa
aeai?o aeaeo, oi?ie, noa?e aeiiii?/ii? aeoeaiino?, iaoiae?a ??
cae?eniaiiy, aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoeoo ? aeioiaeo, ui i?eiineoue aeaia
ae?yeuei?noue. Iaoa??aee i?iaaaeaieo nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ?aae?caoe?y aeiiii?/ii? naiaiaee a
iaoiio noni?euenoa? i?ioiaeeoue noia?a/eeai, aaceiio?ieueii c aieo
nioe?oio, iaaeath/e ia??ai? iiaeeeaino? ??ciei nioe?aeueiei i?ioa?eai oa
a?oiai, ??ciei aeaeai i?aai?caoe?e, ui iicia/a?oueny ye ia
i?aai?caoe?eieo, oae ? ia i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiineiao.

Aei /eiiee?a, eio?? noeioeththoue ?icaeoie i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiinei
o iao?e aea?aeaa?, iiaeia ianaiia?aae a?aeianoe: ooai?aiiy iiaiai
iaoai?cio aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? (oa, ui a ?ioa?anao a?ciano ? ia
noia?a/eoue noni?eueiei aeiiaai, ae??oo?oueny naieie i?aai?caoe?yie);
iiyao iiaeeeainoae aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo no?oeoo? (ye iaeeo o??i, oae ?
eiioea?i?a, anioe?aoe?e, eiini?oe?oi?a, ni?eie), ooai?aiiy yeeo ?ai?oa
aoei oe?eeii i?a?iaaoeaith «aa?oo» (inoaii?e aeaaaa iaai? i?aaa, ye? a
oie aea /an ia iiaee ii?oooaaoe ???a?o?th, aa?oeeaeuei? ca’ycee,
caeaaei?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e a?ae aea?aeaae); aeieeiaiiy
iiaeeeaino? anooiaoe a i?aei?aai?caoe?ei? a?aeiineie ia iniia? a?eueiiai
aeai?o ia?oia??a. Oo?oaeiththoue a?aeiineie i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie oae?
/eiieee: ii?ooaiiy aaeaino ?ioa?an?a i?ae i?aei?e?inoaaie ??cieo
aaeocae, ?aa?ii?a, oi?i aeaniino?; iayai?noue nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo,
aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae ie?aieie ?aa?iiaie iaoi? e?a?ie,
ui a?aeaeaa?oueny ia i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo a?aeiineiao. ? ana ae i?yia
aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aaoethaaiiy i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo ca’yce?a a?aeoiaeeoue
o ieioea. A?aeiineie i?ae i?aai?caoe?yie caaaa/othoueny iiaei
aeina?aeii, yeee i?aai?caoe?? ii/eiathoue caeiaoaaoe c ia?aoiaeii aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai
aeeooy ciaeoea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ??ciiiai?oieo oi?iao i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo
ca’yce?a ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ia i?aeia?iaeiiio ??aiyo, oe? ca’ycee
ii/eiathoue iiaiiaoaaoe ? oe?a?inuee? i?aai?caoe??.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua ?
nioe?aeueia cia/ou?noue i?aai?caoe?? noai?ththoue caaaeueiee oii ??
i?eaaaeeaino? aeey nai?o iioaioe?eieo /eai?a, aea aeiiae aei
i?aai?caoe?? c aieo ethaeae oeei ia iaiaaeothoueny. C’ycee aeiiii?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o ia a?ae?a?athoue naiino?eii? ?ie?, iaa?oue a e?eciaeo oiiaao
ethaee i??thoue i?i i?aai?caoe??, aea a a?aoiaoaaeeny ia eeoa ?o
aeiiii?/i? iio?aae, aea e iio?aae nioe?aeuei?, aeooiai?, i?ioan?ei?.
Noai?aiiy a o?oaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?yo ca’yce?a iaaeiiii?/iiai oa?aeoa?o
iiaiai oeio, iicaaaeaieo ?aeaieia?/iiai caaa?aeaiiy e i?eiono noa?
aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi oi?aae?iiy ia?niiaeii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?iaai? aeiiii?/i?
oa?oiiaaiiy ? noni?euenoai” cae?eniaiee aiae?c ei?ii?aoeaieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? c iiaeyaeo ?o nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e, iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo; aecia/aia nooi?iue ?o nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?iaaiino? oa aieea ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e nioe?ieia?e
i?iaiae?ciaai? nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-no?oeoo?iaaieo aeiiii?/ieo oa?oiiaaiue, ooi/iai? ?o aeaee
oa niaoeeo?ea ?o ooai?aiiy. Aeieaco?oueny, ui oiiaith ?o iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo ? ?o nioe?aeueia ?ioaa?iaai?noue.

Iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui ooai?aiiy a?oi aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a — oi?ia
?aae?caoe?? no?aoaa?? eiie?aoieo aeiiii?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e. Aeei?enoaiiy
??ciiai ?iaeo aeiaiai??a, oaiae, nithc?a noi?iaiaeaeoaaei noaiiaeaiiy e
?icaeoie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a?ae na?aaeiueia?/ieo oi?aiaaeueieo eiiiai?e
? eoiaoeueeeo a?eueae?e aei no/anieo o??ciiiai?oiaieo ?o aeae?a. Aeey
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ei?ii?aoecaoe?y a?cianiai? ae?yeueiino? ia
?eieia?e iniia? ia? ia o?eueee nooi aeiiii?/ia, aea e nioe?aeueia
cia/aiiy, i?ioiaeeoue a ?one? ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?
oi?ioaaiiy iiai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa.
Aeieeiaiiy a?oi ye ?acoeueoao nioe?aeueii? aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a
a?cianiai? ae?yeueiino? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi ?o ni?eueieo
?ioa?an?a, ye oe?eani?yiiaaii (/a?ac ooai?aiiy oi?iaeueieo oa?oiiaaiue o
aeaeyae? nithc?a, anioe?aoe?e oiui), oae ? niiioaiii (iane?aeeii /iai
noathoue iaoi?iaeuei? ia’?aeiaiiy, ye? c /anii oaae iiaeooue
oi?iae?coaaoeny).

Ei?ii?aoeaia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? iae/ano?oa
?icaeyaeathoue, ye iiaee oei ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a; oi?io ca’yce?a a?oiiaeo ?ioa?an?a c? no?oeoo?aie aeaaee,
niin?a aieeao ia aeaaei? oa oi?aae?inuee? aea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e;
?acoeueoao coneeue i?aaenoaaiee?a a?cianiai? ae?yeueiino?, ni?yiiaaieo
ia oa, uia naiii?aai?coaaoeny, ca?oioaaoeny oa naiiaecia/eoeny o oeo /e
oeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao. I?e oeueiio ei?ii?aoeaia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia
??cieo ??aiyo ? a ??cieo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao oii?yaeeiao? nenoaio
a?aeiinei i?ae iino?eii c?inoath/ith e?euee?noth eiieo?oth/eo aeoi??a oa
caoe?eaaeaieo a?oi. Aiii oaeiae aenooia? aaaeeeaei no?oeoo?iei oaeoi?ii
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? noaa?eueiino?, aaeaea ei?ii?aoeai? ia’?aeiaiiy
ca nai?th i?e?iaeith caeaoi? (? iathoue a?aeiia?aei? iiaeeeaino? aeey
oeueiai) aani?aoaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? ?ioa?ane ? ci?iaoe oei naiei aino?ioo
iiaeeeaeo c?oeiaiue i?ae i?eaaoieie oa noni?eueieie ?ioa?anaie.

Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooi eiie?aoi? ??ciiaeaee ei?ii?aoeaieo oa?oiiaaiue a
aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? iaoi? e?a?ie ia no/aniiio aoai? (anioe?aoe??, nithce
i?aei?e?ioe?a, eia?-a?oie, i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie), ye?
cai?iaaaeaeothoueny aeey ae??oaiiy iaaii? ni?eueii? iaoe ?o o/aniee?a,
iathoue a?aeiia?aeiee ?aaeaiaio ae?yeueiino?, no?oeoo?o, oiaoi
a?aeiia?aeathoue iniiaiei iciaeai oe?eueiaeo ni?eueiio
iaaei?aai?caoe?eiiai ??aiy. I?i ei?ii?aoeai?noue a a?ciania?e
ae?yeueiino? iiaa ii/eia? eoe o?eueee oiae?, eiee i?aai?caoe?? noathoue
iano?eueee iia’ycaieie i?ae niaith ia?oia?nueeeie noinoieaie, ui
ii/eiathoue ae?iaeyoe ?aeeio no?aoaa?th, oae caaiee “ei?ii?aoeaiee
aeoo”, i?aai?ciaaii i?aaenoaaeythoue ni?euei? ?ioa?ane.

Ia’?aeiaiiy i?aei?e?ioe?a a ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny ye naiino?ei?
nioe?aeuei? i?aai?caoe?? c? nai?ie niaoeeo?/ieie i?iaeaiaie, ye?
iaaeathoue iineoae nai?i /eaiai. Inoaii?o iioeao? aei anooio a ieo
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe eiie?aoi? aeaee aeiiiiiae, aac yei?
ae?yeuei?noue ie?aieo i?aei?e?ioe?a noa? iaiiaeeeaith aai ae
oo?oaeith?oueny, ae??oeoe i?iaeaie, ye? naiino?eii aeieaoe aeiiii?/ii
iaaeioe?eueii. Nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ia coiiaeai?noue aeiiii?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? oa ?? i?aai?caoe?eia caaacia/aiiy a?ae??ciy? iioeaaoe?th
ooai?aiiy i?aei?e?ioeyie aeanieo i?aai?caoe?e o ??cieo e?a?iao na?oo.
Eiie?aoeciaai? ooieoe?? i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a, aei yeeo aaoi?ii
a?aeianai? oae?, ye a) ?ioaa?aoe?y i?aaenoaaiee?a a?cianiai?
ae?yeueiino?; a) i?iiaaaiaea e?aueo c?ace?a niiniao aeeooy
i?aei?e?ioe?a, iniaeeai a ieoaiiyo, ye? noinothoueny ?o o/ano? o
ae??oaii? noni?eueii aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai; a) caeo/aiiy aei
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa caiiacyoeeaeo, oai?/eo, caeaoieo aei ?eceeo ethaeae c
oeo /e ?ioeo eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy a) oe?iea ?ioi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueeino?
i?i i?iaeaie a ae?yeuei?no? naieo nithc?a i?aei?e?ioe?a. sse ? ia ??ai?
aoaeue-yei? eiie?aoii? nioe?aeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ??ciiiai?oi?noue
no?oeoo? oa i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaaae?iee noa? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo /e ia
?aeeiith oi?aa?naeueiith oiiaith oieeiaiiy “i?aai?caoe?eieo oai?ia” —
ath?ie?aoecaoe??, ei?oioe??, ooai?aiiy iao?icieo no?oeoo?,
aeaci?aai?caoe??.

O ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie ye
ei?ii?aoeai? nenoaie, ye i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ia o?eueee aeiiii?/ii?,
aea e nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe??. E?eoa??? oeiieia?/iiai aiae?co
aeiiii?/ieo a?oi ?ioa?an?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae iie?oe/ieo, aei oeueiai
/ano inoaoi/ii ia aecia/ai?, ui oo?oaeith? aea/aiiy
i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi a iaaeao “oai??? a?oi”. ? ana-ae iiaeia, ia
iao iiaeyae, i?iieneiai-o?iainiao a?oio ?icaeyaeaoe ye a?oio ?ioa?an?a,
yea aenooia? ye aeeiai?/ia iiea aca?iiae?e ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e.
Cae/aeii, i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie iaeaaeaoue aei eeano aeiiii?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e ? ?aae?cothoue ianaiia?aae ni?euei? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane,
aiie nooo?ai a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae oae caaieo aoiai?noe/ieo
ei?ii?aoeaieo ia’?aeiaiue, eio?? iiaoaeiaai?, ye i?aaeei, ia oe?iiinoyo
naiaiaee ? naiiae?yeueiino?. Ni?eueieie ?enaie i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo
a?oi ye ei?ii?aoeaieo ia’?aeiaiue ? aoiai?noe/ieo ei?ii?aoe?e ?
oe?eueiaa ni?yiiaai?noue (?aoe?iiaeueia oe?eue), iayai?noue no?oeoo?e,
?aaeaiaioo nioe?aeueieo ae?e, ia’?aeiaiiy o/aniee?a ni?eueieie
?ioa?anaie, oii?yaeeiaai?noue noeo?eieo ae?e ii ?o aeyao e
caaacia/aiith. Aei oeeo ?en ne?ae oaeiae aeiaeaoe nioe?aeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, aac aeciaiiy yei? i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie
iaa?yae /e io?eiathoue noni?eueia noaaeaiiy nai?? ae?yeueiino?, oe?ieo
i?aeo?eieo c aieo a?iiaaenueeino?.

A?oie a aeiiii?/i?e noa?? ?aeaioeo?eoaaoe aeineoue aaaeei, aaeaea
iiaiioa aecia/aiiy a?oie aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai,
iane?eueee aeine?aeieoeueea aeae?eaiiy ca’yce?a, ia iniia? yeeo
ia’?aeiothoueny aeiiii?/i? i?aai?caoe?? a a?oio, ni?aiaaea? c ?aaeueiei.
A?ae niieone a?aoe ca iniiao ye aecia/aeuei? o?iainia? ca’ycee (o/anoue
a aeoe?iia?iiio eai?oae?) a?aeiiaeythoueny iaa?oue aeiiii?noe. A?oie a
aeiiii?/i?e noa?? eeaneo?eothoueny ca aaaaoueia iciaeaie: noaae?yie
a?aeoai?aiiy eai?oaeo (i?iieneia?, oi?aiaaeuei?, aaie?anuee?,
o?iainia?); oa?eoi??aeueii-aaia?ao?/iith iciaeith (?aa?iiaeuei?,
i?ae?aa?iiaeuei? oa i?aeia?iaei?); aeeaeiith i?ioeano iiiiiie?caoe??
eai?oaeo (ea?oae?, neiaeeeaoe, o?anoe, eiini?oe?oie, eiioea?ie). Oaea
eeaneo?eaoe?y aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui aieiaia oe?eue ?o ooai?aiiy —
caa?aaeaiiy (i?aeaeuaiiy) eiieo?aioii? noaeino?, iaeiae, a?aeiii, ui
noai?aiiy oaeeo a?oi iiaea aooe aaaaoioe?eueiaei ? aeeeooaaoeny ia
o?eueee aeiiii?/ieie, aea e iie?oe/ieie, aoe/ieie, eoeueoo?ieie
/eiieeaie. Iieacaii, ui i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie caeiathoue iniaeeaa
i?noea na?aae ?ioeo oi?i i?aai?caoe?? a?ciano, oaeeo ye oieae?iae,
anioe?aoe??, eiini?oe?oie, ea?oae?, neiae?eaoe, ioee, o?anoe, eiioea?ie.

Ei?ii?aoeai? aeiiii?/i? nenoaie ye aio/e? oeie anioe?aoeaieo
i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? ?c ci?ieeaei neeaaeii ? ?ooeeaeie iaaeaie —
?aaeuei?noue, yea ana ua caeeoa?oueny iica oaaaith nioe?ieia?a. I?ioa
?ioaa?aoe?ei? i?ioeane a no/aniiio aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo? iaiiaeeeai
?icaeyaeaoe aac aiae?co ae?yeueiino? aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a, ia’?aeiaieo
ei?ii?aoeaieie a?aeiineiaie, /a?ac ye? aiie ae??oothoue ia o?eueee nooi
aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie, aea e aieeaathoue ia noni?eueiee ?icaeoie.
Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ia iaaecia/ai?noue nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co
ei?ii?aoeaieo a?aeiinei o i?aei?e?iieoeoa? (iai?eeeaae, a?aenooiy
iaa?oue caaaeueii aeciaia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a,
e?eoa??? ?o aeae?eaiiy, ?o ooieoe??, noaoon oiui) no?eio? i?iaaaeaiiy
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy oeueiai yaeua. I?ioa iaie cao?eniaai? aeaye?
oaiaeaioe?? noaiiaeaiiy ei?ii?aoeaiino? o a?o/eciyiiio i?aei?e?iieoeoa?.
Ie aeoiaeeee c oiai, ui a i?ioean? ei?ii?aoecaoe?? no/aniiai a?ciano
aecia/aeueio ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue iiceoe?? ie?aieo i?aei?e?ioe?a, aaeaea
naia aiie i?aeo?eiothoue oiiae ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe?? ? naia ?o i?aaiaiiy
aei ?ioaa?aoe?? aenooia? ?oo?eiith neeith noaiiaeaiiy ei?ii?aoeaieo
ca’yce?a. Oiio ca ?iaeeeaoi?e noaio ei?ii?aoeaiino? a i?aei?e?iieoeoa?
iaie acyo?: noaaeaiiy ?aniiiaeaio?a aei /eainoaa a nithcao
(anioe?aoe?yo) i?aei?e?ioe?a; naiiioe?iea ?aniiiaeaioaie iioea?a o/ano?
a ieo; noaaeaiiy i?aei?e?ioe?a aei i?ioeano noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i?
o?iainiai-i?iieneiaeo a?oi oa ioe?iea iiaeeeaeo iane?aee?a oeueiai,
/eainoai a o?iainiai-i?iieneia?e a?oi?; noaaeaiiy aei eiaa? a?cianiaeo
no?oeoo? a i?aaiao aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy. Cacia/ai? ?iaeeeaoi?e
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ei?ii?aoeai? a?aeiineie o i?eaaoiiio a?cian? (ca
naiiioe?ieith i?aei?e?ioe?a oa aenia?o?a).

Aoaeue-yea oe?e?nia aeiiii?/ia nenoaia a?oioo?oueny ia i?eioeeiao
naiii?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo noa’?eo?a, eiaeai c yeeo ia? oaeiae ?
aeanio eia?eo naii?aaoeyoe?? e i?enoinoaaiiy aei ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o
oiia. Ai?eciioaeuei? ca’ycee c iiae?aieie no?oeoo?aie aoaeothoueny
aeiiii?/ieie i?aai?caoe?yie ia iniia? ei?ii?aoeaieo aca?iiae?e,
noai?aiiy ia’?aeiaiue, nithc?a, anioe?aoe?e.

Ea??aiee?a-aeaniee?a i?eaaoiiai a?ciano ia’?aeio? ?aeeiee ei?ii?aoeaiee
?ioa?an — i?eiiiaeaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy, ?icaeoie ? caoeno nai?? aeaniino?,
yea ?i aa?aioo? naiicaeiyo?noue, aeia?iaoo, aiaaiai?noue o iaeaooiueiio.
Iaiaeii??aei?noue i?aei?e?ioe?a ye nioe?aeueii-eeaniaiai ooai?aiiy ia?
iane?aeeii oa, ui ??ci? ?o a?oie (i?aaenoaaieee iaeiai, na?aaeiueiai oa
aaeeeiai a?ciano) iathoue, ie??i ni?eueieo, nai? aioo??oi? ?ioa?ane, ye?
cia/iith i??ith aecia/athoue ?o aeiiii?/io iiaaae?ieo, noaaeaiiy aei
aea?aeaaii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

C i?inoaaiiyi ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i ? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie, iie?oe/ieie
ci?iaie a no/aniiio oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? i?iythoueny ei?ii?aoeai?
caaea/?, ye? noaaeyoue ia?aae niaith i?aaenoaaieee a?ciano (ye aaeeeiai,
oae ? iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai). Na?aae oeeo caaea/ ia o?eueee i?aaiaiiy
caaithaaoe ?eieiao “i?oo”, ia?aiaoe eiieo?aio?a, noaoe e?aea?ii a nai?io
a?cian?, iiaeieaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiiie, aea e ?ioaa?oaaoeny a iiaee
nioe?oi, iaaooe eiai i?aeo?eiee, ui ia? noaoe oiiaith noaeiai ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee. Inoaiiy ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo oi?io?oueny i?ae aieeaii
??ciiiai?oieo nee, aeeth/ath/e ei?ii?aoeai? ia’?aeiaiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a
a?ciano.

I?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie noathoue aaaeeeaith ei?ii?aoeaiith
no?oeoo?ith a iao?e e?a?i?, aea ?o ?icaeoie no?eio?oueny aiane?aeie
iaaeineiiaeiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, ia?icaeiaiino? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei,
iaaecia/aiino? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ii a?aeiioaiith aei ieo,
a?aenooi?noth nioe?aeueiiai na?aaeiaeua, yea a i?aeo?eioaaei e
eiio?iethaaei ae?yeuei?noue oeeo ei?ii?aoeaieo no?oeoo?. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui, ii-ia?oa, i?iieneiai-o?iainia?
a?oie iaceaathoueny aenia?oaie na?aae iaea?eueo aieeaiaeo nee (i?ney
aoaa?iaoi??a, ia??a, i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a), ye? iathoue iaaio aeaaeo
ia ??ai? aaeeeiai i?noa, a oaeiae i?aaiooue aei aeaaee ia ??ai?
aea?aeaae (ia inoaii? aeacaei 11% iieoaieo). Ii-ae?oaa, oe? a?oie ia
?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeanoaa?e?coth/ee /eiiee. Aenia?oe ia noeeuei?
iieeaaeaoe ia ieo anth a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca e?eciao neooaoe?th a
e?a?i?. Ii-o?ao?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
caaacia/aiiy ?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee iia’yco?oueny c iiaeaeueoei
?icaeoeii i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi.

Ieoaiiy i?i oa, ye ? a yeeo oe?eyo aeei?enoiao?oueny iiooaeiee
iioaioe?ae i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi, ia? nioe?aeueia cao/aiiy.
Aei?aaaeaiei iiaea aooe ?icaeoie c aea?aeaaiith i?aeo?eieith o?eueee oeo
i?iieneiai-o?iainiaeo a?oi, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeeiio aeiiii?ee e
ae??oaiith nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai. E??i oiai, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue eiie?aoii?
i?iieneiai-o?iainiai? a?oie i?yii caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iane?eueee aiia
caeaoia caaacia/eoe aaeain ?ioa?an?a i?aai?caoe?e-o/aniee?a (oey oi?ia
ia’?aeiaiiy ia? aooe aea?aeia eiaeiiio ?? o/anieeo ? an?i ?i ?acii) ?
noni?euenoaa.

No/aniee noai na?oo i?aai?caoe?e — oea aace?/ oa?oiiaaiue. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia ?o /enaeuei?noue, ?i eaaoa aeiiiaeoeny, i?ae ie?aiei
i?aai?caoe?yi, ye? ? a?oiiooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie. Oiio iniiai? coneeey
a?oiaie i?eeeaaeathoueny aeey eii?aeeiaoe?? oa ocaiaeaeaiiy ni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino?, aeey iioei?caoe?? an??? nenoaie (i?aai?caoe?? /e nithco
i?aai?caoe?e), yeo aiie neeaaeathoue, ii a?aeiioaiith aei ciai?oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua (i?e?iaee, aea?aeaae, ?ioeo i?aai?caoe?e ? nithc?a, ieie
ooai?aieo).

I?aei?e?iieoeuee? nithce a iao /an noathoue aaaeeeaei nioe?aeueiei
?inoeoooii. Aac ieo aaea iaiiaeeeaa ?ic?iaea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee aea?aeaae, aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?e ie?aieo aeiiii?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e. A iao?e e?a?i? i?e noai?aii? i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a
i???iooaaoeny aeioe?eueii eeoa ia oae? no?oeoo?e, ye? a?aeiia?aeathoue
?aaeueiiio ??aith na?aeiiino? oeo, ooi caeia?oueny a?cianii. O ?ioiio
aeiaaeeo oae? i?aai?caoe?ei? ooai?aiiy ia aei?aaaeiaothoue naiai
?nioaaiiy, noathoue aeey ?o /eai?a oyaa?ai, ia iie?ioothoue noinoiee i?
a naiiio a?cian?, i? i?ae iei oa noni?euenoaii. C ?ioiai aieo, ia
ooai?aiiy e ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?e i?aei?e?ioe?a a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee iaeeaaea? a?aeaeoie i?eioeei ?eieiaiai iai?io, aca?iia
aeiiii?/ia caoe?eaaeai?noue ?o /eai?a o ni?ai?aoe? ? aiaaiai?noue o
caa?aaeaii? ieie i?e aoiaeaeaii? a i?aei?e?iieoeuee? i?aai?caoe??
a?aeiinii? naiino?eiino?.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “Caeiiii??iino? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a
oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa” i?enay/aiee aeyaeaiith oeyo?a
iioei?caoe?? ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi??
no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, oiia i?aeaeuaiiy ?o
aeeoo?caeaoiino?.

I?ae aeeoo?caeaoi?noth i?aai?caoe?? a ?iaio? ?icoi?thoueny oae? ?? ?ene,
ui aeicaieythoue ?e aeei?enoiaoaaoe iayai? iiaeeeaino?, ?ano?ne aeey
oni?oiiai cae?eniaiiy ooieoe?e, oe?eueiaiai i?ecia/aiiy ? aeyaeythoueny
a aeeaei?, oaeaeeino? iaieiae?iiy caniaaie ? i?eeiiaie aieeao ia
iaaeieeoi? ? aioo??oi? aeaiaioe.

Eeth/iaei oaeoi?ii i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i a no/anieo i?aai?caoe?yo
aecia?oueny ?iiiaaoe?ei?noue. I?enei?aiiy inai?iiy iiaeo ?aeae o
a?cian-ae?yeueiino? — ia’?eoeaia aeiiaa iaoiai /ano, aea aeey
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano iiaiaaaaeaiue iio??aia ye caeaoi?noue
i?aai?caoe?e (ianaiia?aae ?o ea??aieoeoaa) i?eeiaoe ?iiiaaoe?ei?
i?aai?caoe?ei? ??oaiiy, oae ? oe?eueiaa i???ioaoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eii?
iie?oeee ia an?o i?aai?caoe?eieo ??aiyo ia caaacia/aiiy niieo/iino? ?
aacia?a?aiino? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
i?inoi?? iaoi? e?a?ie.

Eiioeaioe?? oeeee?a aeeooy ??ciiiai?oieo ia’?eo?a, nenoai, i?ioean?a
iaea?aeothoue ana a?eueoa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oa aeciaiiy caaaeyee ?o
iaoeiaiio iioaioe?aeo, iayaiino? iiaeeeainoae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
i?aai?caoe?eieo oa oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Inoaii? iiaeooue aenooiaoe ye
?aaeoe?y ia ia?aaeaa/ai? iiae??, ui aaco?oueny ia aiae?c? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i oeeee?/i?noue ?icaeoeo eiie?aoii? i?aai?caoe??. AEeoo?aee oeeee
aeiiii?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? a ?iaio? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye iine?aeiai?noue ??
ia?aoiaeo a?ae noaae?? iiceoeaiiai ?icaeoeo /a?ac noaa?eueiee noai aei
noaae?? iaaaoeaiiai ?icaeoeo oa caiaiaaeo (?oeioaaiiy). Oiiaii iaie
aeae?eaii o?e a?oie i?eaaoieo aeiiii?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e (ca naiiioe?ieaie
iieoaieo ?o ea??aiee?a-aeaniee?a): 1. I?aai?caoe?? c iiceoeaiith
oaiaeaioe??th ?icaeoeo neeaee aeecueei 35 % caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
ianoaaeaieo. 2. I?aai?caoe?? ?c noaa?eueiei ?icaeoeii (?o aeecueei 45
%). 3. I?aai?caoe?? c iaaaoeaieie oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo (?o i’yoa
/anoeia, i?e/iio 4 % ciaoiaeeeeny ia iaae? aaie?oonoaa). Ia eiaei?e c
oeeo noaae?e aeieeathoue nai? niaoeeo?/i? i?iaeaie. Oi?aae?inuee?
no?aoaa?? ia eiaei?e noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo i?aai?caoe?? cia/iith
i??ith coiiaeththoueny noaiii i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e.

Iaeiei ?c aeae?a ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? (naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??) i?aai?caoe?? ?
eoeueoo?ia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y. O?eueee ?icaeiaia i?aai?caoe?eia eoeueoo?a
iiaea aeeiioaaoe oae? ooieoe??, ye aeai?eoi?caoe?y i?aai?caoe?eieo
aca?iiae?e; ?ai?acaioaoe?y o?aaeeoe?eieo c?ace?a iiaaae?iee ia?niiaeo;
ciyooy ineo?/ii? iai?oaeaiino? /eai?a i?aai?caoe??, eio?? /?oei
ciathoue, ui /aea? a?ae ieo inoaiiy; cieaeaiiy ?eceeo iaaaea/ i?e
ceeooyo oa iiaeeiaiiyo i?ae?icae?e?a; aoaeoeaia canoinoaaiiy nenoaie
naieoe?e oa aeiaai?iae; aecia/aiiy i?aaee ei?enooaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??th;
cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth a i?aai?caoe??; ae?ia?oea iiaeo c?ace?a
iiaaae?iee, noaiaea?o?a, ii?i.

E?eoa??yie aeeiai?cio i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e aenooiathoue oae?
iciaee, ye iiaeeea?noue ia?niiaeo aieeaaoe ia i?aai?caoe?ei? i?ioeane;
i??a nioe?aeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? i?aai?caoe?? oa ?? /eai?a;
?aiooaoe?y inoaiiuei? (iayai?noue aeiaia??ieo i?aai?caoe?eieo ?
i?aei?aai?caoe?eieo ii?i, a?aeiinei, aeio?eiaiiy oaiae); i?ioan?eia
iia?euei?noue ?? /eai?a; a?aee?eo?noue aei ci?ie ooieoe?e, no?oeoo?,
cie?aia, nioe?aeueii?. Iieacieeii aeeiai?ee i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
iiaea aenooiaoe oaeaee?noue iiaeieaiiy a?aenoaaaiiy ?aeaaeueiiai
eoeueoo?iiai i?inoi?o i?aai?caoe?? (?? oe?iiinoae, neiaie?ee, aa?i?a,
?eooae?a) a?ae ?? ?aaeueiiai noaio. Aeeiai?ci i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e
iiaea iaoe ??cio ni?yiiaai?noue. Oae, ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e caeaoai
eiina?aoaaoe, caeeoaoe iaci?iiei noai i?aai?caoe??; ci?ithaaoe inoaiith
i?e caa?aaeaii? ?? oe?e?niino?; o?ainoi?ioaaoe, ia?aaiaeeoe a iiaee
noai; ?oeioaaoe ??.

Aeeiai?ci i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e a?aeia?aaeo? aaaaonoai ae?e
eiie?aoii? i?aai?caoe?? i?ae oeneii ciai?oi?o aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo,
iie?oe/ieo ci?i oa i?ae aieeaii aeanii? eia?ee ?icaeoeo ? coiiaeth?oueny
ieceith /eiiee?a: ci?iiith no?oeoo?ith i?aai?caoe?? (a no/anieo oiiaao
i?aai?caoe?ei? ?aeiino?oeoe?? noathoue yaeuai iino?eiei), ei?aeooaaiiyi
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?ieae ? iai?yie?a ciai?oi?o ca’yce?a. Na?aae iiaeo
cania?a ciai?oiuei? aaeaioaoe?? no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e
ianaiia?aae aeae?ey?oueny oae?: nenoaia ia?eaoeiao; oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo eiinoeueoaoe?eieo iineoa; aeeth/aiiy i?aai?caoe?e a
nithce, anioe?aoe??; a?eueiee aea?? ?eie?a caooo i?iaeoeoe??, ia?oia??a
ii a?ciano oiui. Caniae aioo??oiuei? ?ioaa?aoe?? ia?niiaeo oaeiae
ci?iththoueny ye ca ci?noii, oae ? ca oi?iaie. Iai?eeeaae, cieea?
?inoeooo ianoaaieoeoaa, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia aaeaioaoe?th a
i?aai?caoe?yo iieiae?. A oie aea /an oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeothoueny iia?
oaoiieia?? aeiai?o ia?niiaeo.

I?aai?caoe?y i?aeo?eio? nioe?aeueio no?oeoo?o /a?ac cae??ieaiiy
?ieueiaiai oa noaoooiiai ?iciiae?eo ia?niiaeo; /a?ac
a?aee?eo?noue-cae?eo?noue iia?eueiino? ia?niiaeo, caeo/aiiy eiai aei
iaaiai?aiiy e ae??oaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo i?iaeai, /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue
ea??aiee?a ye i?aai?caoi??a aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo aca?iiae?e.
?ic?ea ea??aiiai neeaaeo c ia?niiaeii, iaaeinoaoiy caeo/ai?noue ?yaeiaeo
/eai?a aei o/ano? a i?aai?caoe?eiiio ?icaeoeo iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?/ieo i?aai?caoe?e.
Oaea?ii ii eieaeoeai?e iaioaeueiino? caeiyoeo o a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?/ieo
i?aai?caoe?yo noa? ona?aeiieaiiy ia?niiaeii iiaeeaethth/eo ?ica?aeiinoae
i?ae aeanieie ?ioa?anaie oa ?ioa?anaie ea??aieoeoaa oeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

I?aai?caoe?? i?aaiooue caa?aaoe naith oe?e?ni?noue ? iaeii/anii ciooai?
ci?ithaaoeny. No?aoaa??, ye? i?e oeueiio aeei?enoiaothoueny,
eieeaathoueny a?ae ie?aieo iie?ioaiue, oaeineiiaeaiue, iiiaeaiiy aei
iiaiaaaaeaiue ye iaea?eueo ?aaeeeaeueiiai iaoiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
ci?iaiue. I?ioean ci?i a i?aai?caoe?yo — oea i?aai?caoe?eiee ?icaeoie,
i?iaiicoaaiiy yeiai ai?iaeiaae aeiaaiai /ano aaaaea?oueny iaei??th c
iaae??oaieeo i?iaeai a oai??? i?aai?caoe??. Iaeiie/ai? ciaiiy i?i
i?aai?caoe?? na?ae/aoue, ui i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai iiaoaeoaaoe
i?aai?caoe?th oae, uia ?acoeueoao ni?aiaa c i?iaeoii iiaoaeiae. Uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? iiaeeea? aeaa oae? aecia/aiiy: i?aai?caoe?y ?aaeueia — oa,
yea eiino?oth?oueny, noai?th?oueny eiie?aoieie ethaenueeeie ae?yie,
i?aai?caoe?y ?aeaaeueia — a ia? caeeaaeathoueny iioaioe?ei? ?ene,
yeino?, iiaeeeaino?, yeeie ethaee iaae?eythoue i?aai?caoe?th.
Iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ?aaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ia?aco i?aai?caoe??
?aeaaeueii?, neiino?oeiaaiiio a oya? ea??aieea aai ia?niiaeo, iiaea
ni?e/eiyoe /eneaii? i?aai?caoe?ei? i?iaeaie.

I?aai?caoe?eiee ?icaeoie — oea coneeey, eio?? a) caieaiiaai? a ianooaa?
an??? i?aai?caoe??; a) ea?iaai? caa?oo; a) ?o oe?eue — i?aeaeueoe
aeeoo?caeaoi?noue i?aai?caoe?? oeyoii caieaiiaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
i?aai?caoe?eiee i?ioean ca aeiiiiiaith iaoeiaiai ciaiiy i?i
i?aai?caoe?th oa oi?aae?iiy. Aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo i?aai?caoe?e,
aecia/aiiy caeii?a i?aai?caoe?? iaiao?aeii aeey iiyniaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo, a ia aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy aaea i?eeiyoeo
i?aai?caoe?eieo ??oaiue. O?eueee i?aai?caoe?eia ae?aaiinoeea, yea
?icaeyaea?oueny ia ye ?a?no?aoe?y ieioeiai, a i?ecia/a?oueny aeey oiai,
uia aooe iniiaith aeey iaeaooi?o ae?e, iiaeiia canoiniaoaaoeny a
i?aeoeoe? oi?aae?ii, aaeaea aiia caeaoia ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith
aeeoo?caeaoiino? i?aai?caoe??. No?aoaa?y, iaoiaee, i?ioeaaeo?e, ye?
oni?oii canoiniaoaaeeny i?ioyaii aeanyoe??/, ia?anoathoue i?eiineoe
oni?o, eiee ci?ith?oueny na?aaeiaeua i?aai?caoe?? aac aaeaeaaoii? ci?ie
i?eioeei?a ?? ae?yeueiino? ye ?aeaaeueieo eiino?oeo?a ?? oaia??oi?o ?
iaeaooi?o aca?iiae?e. sseui aeey ?iaeono??aeueiiai noni?euenoaa aeeoo?ai
iaiao?aeiith aaaaeaeany caeaoi?noue ?aoe?iiae?ciaoaaoe i?aai?caoe?th ca
caaaeueieie i?aaeeaie ? caeiiaie, oi aeey no/aniiai — iniaeeao
oe?ii?noue ia? oai?/ee i?aeo?ae aei ?ica’ycaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo i?iaeai
c oe?ieei caeo/aiiiyi aei i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i ? i?eeiyooy
i?aai?caoe?eieo ??oaiue ea??aiee?a i?aai?caoe??, ?? /eai?a oa
eiinoeueoaio?a, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
i?aai?caoe??, iaeiei ?c iin??a yeiai ? a?iiaaenuee?noue.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia iioei?caoe?th
a?aeiinei c a?iiaaenuee?noth, aeioe?eueii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ii?? ci?iai o
a?aeiineiao c a?iiaaenuee?noth c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi nooiaiy
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? ? caieiooino? i?aai?caoe??. Caieioo?noue i?aai?caoe??
aecia/athoue oae? ia?aiao?e, ye /?oei aecia/aia ???a?o?y;
noaa?euei?noue, o?eaae?noue oa iaci?ii?noue ?nioaaiiy; iaioaaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaiiai iaae i?iaeoeoeaiei; ia?aoeiaee a i?aai?caoe?eieo
eiioi?eaoe?yo; iaiaaeaiee ? eiio?ieueiaaiee aeinooi aei ?ioi?iaoe??, o
o. /. i?i ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua.

Oaeei /eiii, yeui i?eeiyoi ??oaiiy i?i cae?eniaiiy ci?i o aca?iiae??
i?aai?caoe?? c ciai?oi?i na?aaeiaeuai, iaiao?aeii aeineoue /?oei oyaeyoe
?nioth/? a?oie a?iiaaenueeino?, c yeeie iia’ycaia ?? ae?yeuei?noue, a
oaeiae i?iaeaie, eio?? iiaeooue aeieeiooe a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiy oeeo
ci?i. O iaoiio noni?euenoa? aiane?aeie eiai e?eciaiai noaio
a?iiaaenuee?noue ye iin?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e
iaaeinoaoiuei no?oeoo?iaaia, ui ni?e/eiy? /eneaii? i?iaeaie a ?icaeoeo
inoaii?o, aaeaea ?o ea??aieoeoai ia caaaeaee ea?o?oueny /?oei
aecia/aieie a?oiaie a?iiaaenueeino?, aeey eiaeii? c yeeo aei oiai ae
iio??ai? iniaeea? oi?aae?inuee? i?aeoiaee. Aeai?o iioeiaeueii? no?aoaa??
oi?aae?iiy, a?aeiia?aeii? aeai?e eiie?aoi?e neooaoe??, ia? ia?aaeoaaoe
aeeo/aiiy a?oi a?iiaaenueeino?, ye? iio?aieythoue a iiea ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe??, ui aeiaaa? ca?eueoaiiy aeo?ao ia iaaeee ??eaeoic,
i?aeaioiaeo a?aeiia?aeieo oao?aoe?a.

O aeniiaeo aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee, ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, nenoaiaoeciaaii iniiai? i?iiiceoe??, aecia/aii
ia?niaeoeae e iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie.

Ia?ao?ae oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa a?ae oioae?oa?ecio aei
ieth?ae?noe/ii? iiaeae? ia?aaeaa/a? ?aaeeeaeuei? ?inoeoooe?ei? ci?ie,
cie?aia ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?th ?eieiaeo oi?i aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?.
Iaeiae ia i?aeoeoe? a noni?euenoaao, ye? o?ainoi?iothoueny,
a?aei?/a?oueny cai?ciaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ui aenooia? nooo?aei /eiieeii, yeee no?eio?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ci?ie. I?e/eie oaeiai cai?ciaiiy aaaaoia?aii? ?
aei e?ioey ua ia c’yniaai?. Iaei??th c ieo, ia iao iiaeyae, ?
iaaeinoaoiuei /?oea oyaeaiiy i?i i?aai?caoe?th ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai,
ui a?aeaeaa?oueny ia aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Ca?aene ia
i?aeoeoe? /anoi niinoa??aa?oueny ni?iaa i?e ae??oaii? ye?nii iiaeo
i?iaeai aeei?enoiaoaaoe noa?? nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?ei? iaoai?cie,
aiane?aeie /iai iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? no?oeoo?e /anoi a?aeoai?ththoue
a??o? ?ene noa?i?, a?aeaeeaoi? nenoaie.

Eeth/iaeie iai?yieaie ?icaeoeo no/anieo i?aai?caoe?e noathoue oae?:
aeciaiiy i?iaiaeii? ?iei ethaeeie a i?aaiicaoei?, ineieueee naia aiae
iniaenoinoi caeaaeeoue aoaeoeaiinoue ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i oi?aaeiiiy
iath; aeei?enoaiiy naiii?aaiicaoeieiiai iioaioeiaeo iiaei?e?inoa oa
onoaiia; caeaaeiinoue oniioo ?icaeoeo i?aaiicaoeie aiae ?o caeaoiinoi
aei ciii, iiiiaaoeaiinoi; ia?aoiae aei aio/eeo i?aaiicaoeieieo no?oeoo?;
iiaeaeuaiiy nioeiaeueii? aiaeiiaiaeaeueiinoi i?aaiicaoeie ia?aae
noniieuenoaii i noniieuenoaa ia?aae ieie oa ii. Aaeeea e?euee?noue
?inoeoooe?eieo no?oeoo? a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? iaaea? eiaeiiio noa’?eoo
iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe a i?e nai? i?noea.

O ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaia ?ieue oa niaoeeo?ea no/anieo oi?aae?inueeeo
no?aoaa?e, ye? aeicaieythoue i?aeaeueoe aeeoo?caeaoi?noue i?aai?caoe?e,
?o a?aeiia?aei?noue no/aniei aeiiaai. Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co
aecia/ai? noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo oa niaoeeo?ea eoeueoo?e
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, iaa?oioiaaiee ?o aca?iica’ycie;
?ic?iaeai? oi?aae?inuee? no?aoaa?? ?o ocaiaeaeaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaai?
iniiai? oaeoi?e aeeoo?caeaoiino? no/anii? i?aai?caoe??, aei yeeo
a?aeianai? ?? ?iiiaaoeai?noue, noai ?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiioi?eaoeaiiai iiey,
aeeiai?ci i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e, o?aooaaiiy a i?aeoeoe? i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue iniaeeainoae noaae?? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo
i?aai?caoe??. Ooi/iaii niaoeeo?eo i?aai?caoe?eiiai ??oaiiy ye iaoai?cio
nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi??.
Aiia iieyaa? a oiio, ui oea ??oaiiy ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia ??ciiiai?oi?
i?aai?caoe?ei? ca’ycee, aiane?aeie /iai oi?aae?inueeee aieea ia
i?aai?caoe?th oa ?? ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua ii/eia? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoeny
oii?yaeeiaai?noth, oe?eani?yiiaai?noth, ioi?ieai?noth,
eiioeaio?iaai?noth. Na?aae oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?iiiaaoeaiino?
i?aai?caoe?eieo ??oaiue, iniaeeai o a?ciania?e ae?yeueiino?, iniaeeai
iaaieioaii ia iaiao?aeiino? i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy oa ?icaeoeo
?iiiaaoe?eii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Aeaiie?aoe/i?noue, a?aee?eo?noue, oiea?aioi?noue — oe? oa ?io? ?ene
noathoue ana a?eueo i?eoaiaiieie no/aniei i?aai?caoe?yi, aea ?o
?aae?caoe?y aeiaaa? i?eeiyoe iia? oi?ie nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth, uia
aiie iaea?aeaee iiaee nain ? ci?no, noni?eueio i?aeo?eieo. I?aai?caoe??
ooieoe?iiothoue ? ?icaeaathoueny i?ae aei?noeei oeneii noni?eueieo
aeiia, iaaeio?eiaiiy yeeo /anoi i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe ?i?aeaeo. C
o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai o??ciiiai?oiththoueny iiaeae? iiaaae?iee
i?aai?caoe?e, eio?? ciooai? a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ni?iuaiiai iiaeyaeo ia
a?iiaaenuee?noue, iaiaaathoueny anoaiiaeoe c iath ae?aeia ca?aaee
aeinyaiaiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? nioe?aeueiei caieoai. O ?iaio?
eiie?aoeciaai? aeaiaioe ciai?oiueiai ioi/aiiy i?aai?caoe??,
cai?iiiiiaai? oaoiieia?? ca’yce?a i?aai?caoe?? c? niiaeeaa/aie,
a?iiaaenuee?noth, aea?aeaaieie oa i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy. Noai?aiiy ?i?aeaeo i?aai?caoe??, oiaoi oiai, ye aiia
i?aaenoaaeaia a oyaeaiiyo ?? ioi/aiiy, ?? aieea ia nioe?aeueia ioi/aiiy
aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe /a?ac ?aae?caoe?th oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e a
ia?eaoeiaia?e ae?yeueiino?, a iaaeee ??eaeoic, a oi?aae?ii? ia?niiaeii.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ? noai?aiiy iiaeo
iiaeaeae iiaaae?iee i?aai?caoe?e, ye? iieieeeny a ci?ieeaiio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi??, o ae?ae ianoaa?eueieo ?inoeoooe?eieo
oiiaao. ?ioaa?aoeai? i?ioeane, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? iaoi? e?a?ie, na?ae/aoue i?i noai?aiiy
iiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, yea iiaea ca a?aeiia?aeieo oiia iaaeaoe
i?aai?caoe?? oi/eo iii?e o aca?iiae?? c /eneaiieie aeaiaioaie ??
ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. I?aai?caoe?y ? neeaaeiei nioe?aeueiei
nenoaiiei ooai?aiiyi, a ei?ii?aoeai? oa?oiiaaiiy ye na?aeioeoai
nie?aea?iino? noa’?eo?a aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy — ua neeaaei?o?, ?o
aeaiaioaie aenooiathoue ie?ai? i?aai?caoe??. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui
i?aai?caoe?y ? neeaaeiei ooai?aiiyi, aiia ciooaia ia’?aeioaaoeny c
?ioeie nia? iiae?aieie c iaoith i?ioenoiyoe ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeuo.
E?eoa??? aeeoo?caeaoiino? ei?ii?aoeaieo oa?oiiaaiue iia’ycai? c ?o
ca’yceaie c aea?aeaaith ? noni?euenoaii, aaeaea aiie aenooiathoue
aeaiaioii ? aea?aeaae, ? noni?euenoaa, aea iaeii/anii iiaeooue aeoiaeeoe
ca iaae? eiie?aoieo noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, oiaoi ?nioaaoe ia
iaaeiaoe?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

?icaeoie i?aai?caoe?e iiaea aooe iioeiaeueiei, yeui, ii-ia?oa,
a?aeaoaaoeiaoueny aa?iii?eiee ?icaeoie on?o aeaiaio?a i?aai?caoe??;
ii-ae?oaa, aoaea iaeaaiaeaeaiee ooieoe?iiaeueiee ca’ycie ?c ciai?oi?i
na?aaeiaeuai. I?aai?caoe?y a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? noa?
a?eueo aeeoo?caeaoiith, yeui aiia a i?ioean? nioe?aeueii? ?ioaa?aoe?? ia
ao?a/a? nai?o noa’?eoieo ?en, naiino?eiino?, a, iaaiaee, ?? noaiiaeua
iie?ioo?oueny caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith aeiaeaoeiaeo iiaeeeainoae,
?ano?n?a.

IOAE?EAOe??

1. Oeaeiye E.I. Ia?aoai?aiiy i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ci?i -. O.: Iniiaa, 1999. — 270 n.

2. Oeaeiye E.I. Aecian-aeayoaeueiinoue eae oaeoi? o?ainoi?iaoeee
nioeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u // Eciaiaiea nioeeaeueii-eeanniaie no?oeoo?u
iauanoaa a oneiaeyo aai o?ainoi?iaoeee / A. A. sseoaa, I. Ae. Eooeaiei,
E. I. Oeaeiye e ae?. — O.: Iniiaa, 1997. — N. 121-153, 204-212.

3. Oeaeiye E.I. Ciaiea caeiiia i?aaiecaoeee e oniao a
aecian-aeayoaeueiinoe //Nioe?aeuei? oaoiieia??: I?aeaoc. ca. iaoe.
i?aoeue. Aei. 1 / Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao. Caii??cueeee oi?aa?neoao. —
Ee?a-Caii??aeaey: Yooa-I?ann, 1998. — N. 192-199.

4. Oeaeiye E.I. AE?iea — i?aai?caoi? i?aei?e?iieoeueei? o??ie: c?acie
caeiyoino? /e aeiyoie? // No/ani? i?iaeaie ae?iie ia ?eieo i?aoe? oa
oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy: Ca. iaoeiaeo noaoae / Oe?. ?inoeooo nioe?aeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. — E.: AO “Aeaeaaieoeoai “Noieeoey”, 1998. — N. 147-151.

5. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aaiecaoeey nianoaaiiiai aeaea eae aeeciaiiay
ia?niaeoeaa //Oa?ueeianeea nioeeieiae/aneea /oaiey-95 / Nioeeieiae/aneay
annioeeaoeey Oe?aeiu. Oa?ueeianeee ain. oieaa?neoao. — O., 1995. — N.
89-94.

6. Oeaeiye E.I. Noaiiaeaiea ei?ii?aoeaiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa eae oaeoi?
iiauoaiey ?iee i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a o?ainoi?ie?othuainy
iauanoaa // Oa?e?anuee? nioe?ieia?/i? /eoaiiy-97: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue /
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. — O.: Iniiaa, 1997. — N. 161-166.

7. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?caoe?eia ??oaiiy ye oai?/?noue // A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — ? 414.- O., 1998. — N. 45-50.

8. Oeaeiye E.I. Ia?ac i?eaaaeeai? o?oaeiai? i?aai?caoe?? a oyaeaiiyo
??cieo nioe?aeueieo a?oi // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.- ? 433 .- O., 1999. — N. 31-38.

9. Oeaeiye E.I. Iniaeno?noue ? na?o i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e o
noni?euenoa?, yea o?ainoi?io?oueny // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. — ?439. O., 1999. — N. 176-179.

10. Oeaeiye E.I. A?iiaaenueea aeoiea i?i nioe?aeueio i?aeo?eieo
ianaeaiiy c aieo ie?aieo i?aai?caoe?e // Oa?e?anuee? nioe?ieia?/i?
/eoaiiy-98: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue /Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao. —
O., 1998. — N. 194-199.

11. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?caoe?y ?iciiae?eueieo a?aeiinei ?
ni?aaaaeeea?noue o?oaeiai? aeiaai?iaee i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo
i?aai?a //A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa. — Aei. 3-4 — O., 1998. —
N. 322-328.

12. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?caoe?ei? eiioi?eaoe??: aoiai?noe/iee aei?? //
Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa.
Aei. 21. — O., 1998. — N. 81-83.

13. Oeaeiye E.I. E?eca o?aaeeoe?eii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oaeiaiai aeeooy ?
aeiaeaoeiaa caeiyo?noue // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aei. 21. — O., 1998. — N. 84-87.

14. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?caoi?nuee? cae?aiino? oa ea?’??a: a?iiaaenueea
aeoiea oi?aae?ioe?a // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. — Aei. 25. — O., 1998. — N. 111-113.

15. Oeaeiye E.I. Aeeiai?ci i?aai?caoe?eii? eoeueoo?e // Aanoiee
Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. — Aei.
25. — O., 1998. — N. 114-116.

16. Oeaeiye E.I. Naiii?aai?caoe?y iaeiai a?ciano e aeiiii?/i?
eia?nonuee? oa?oiiaaiiy / A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A. N. Neiai?iaee. ? 4. — Nioe?ieia?y.
Aei. 1. — O., 1998. — N. 97-102.

17. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?ciaai? aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane e noni?eueiee
?icaeoie: ?ieue o?iainiai-i?iieneiaeo a?oi // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. Aei. 21. — O., 1998. —
N. 78-80.

18. Oeaeiye E.I. Aeeiai?ea o?eaio?ii?/ii? aeoeaiino? ea??aiee?a
(aeaniee?a) i?eaaoieo o??i //Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. — Aei. 25. — O., 1998. — N. 117-119.

19. Oeaeiye E.I. Caiiii/oooy aeeoae?a i?noa ca iaaeaie i?aai?ciaaii?
caeiyoino? // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa.- Aei. 36. — O., 1999. — N. 73-76.

20. Ia?iaeiia ia?aciaaiea a oneiaeyo ia?ano?ieee. Nioeeieiae/aneea
i/a?ee. — I.: Aineiiia?aciaaiea NNN?, 1990. — N. 96-99.

21. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aaiicaoeieii-oai?/a ?ieue iiaei?e?ioeia i ?eiie
i?aoei // Caeiyoinoue i ?eiie i?aoei: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 3. — E.:
AO “Oe?a?inueea aeaeaaie/a a?oia”, 1995. — N. 131-137.

22. Oeaeiye E.I. Oeaeue a aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe o?oaeiaie i?aaiecaoeee //
Aecian Eioi?i. — 1995.- ? 27-28. — N. 11-14; ? 29-30. — N. 12-13; ?
30-31. — N. 10-14.

23. Eooeaiei I.Ae., Oeaeiye E.I. Ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea,
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iauanoaaiiia iiaiea: iiene onoie/eauo naycae
//Aecian Eioi?i. — 1995.- ? 47-48. — N. 4-7.

24. Oeaeiye E.I. Aecian e aeaaioai?eoaeueiinoue: o/anoea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai //Aecian Eioi?i.-
1995.- ? 43-44. — N. 8-10.

25. Oeaeiye E.I. Eioi?iaoeey a aeecie oe?iu //Aecian Eioi?i. — 1996.- ?
1. N. 53-55; ? 2. — N. 55-57; ? 3. — N. 52-55.

26. I?aeaeoaia E.I., Oeaeiye E.I. Oeiiiinoue ?iai/iai iinoey: oyaeaiiy
i?aoethth/eo i?i aaaeaio oa ?aaeueio i?aaiicaoeith ?iaioe // Caeiyoinoue
i ?eiie i?aoe?: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 5. — E.: AO “Oe?a?inueea
aeaeaaie/a a?oia”, 1996. — N. 101-109.

27. Oeaeiye E.I. O?iainiai-i?iieneia? a?oie ye ei?ii?aoeai? nenoaie ?
noni?euenoai // A?niee. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao. Iaoeiaee aeo?iae. — 1999. — ? 1 (9). — N. 37-40.

28. Oeaeiye E.I. Nioeeaeueiua eiiiaaoeee eae oneiaea
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe // Nia?aiaiiua nioeeaeueiua
oaoiieiaee: nouiinoue, iiiaiia?acea oi?i e aiaae?aiea (Iaoa?eaeu
Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioeee). *. 2. — Aaeai?iae, 1991. — N.
32-33.

29. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aai?caoe?eii-iiaaoi?nueea ae?yeuei?noue ae?iie ?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie // AE?iee Oe?a?ie: no/aniee
noaoon ? ia?niaeoeae. I?aeia?. iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?y / ?inoeooo
nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue ina?oe Oe?a?ie. — E.: ?NAeI, 1995. — N.
231-233.

30. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aaieciaaiiinoue aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena e
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea iauanoaa // Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?.
iao/ii-i?aeo. eiioa?aioeee “Ie?, aieia, enoi?ey” / Oa?ueeianeee ain.
iaae. oi-o ei. A. N. Neiai?iaeu. — O., 1995. — N. 78-81.

31. Oeaeiye E.I. Oe?ii?noue oaoi?/ieo iiaiaaaaeaiue: aoiai?caoe?y
i?aai?caoe?? no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa //I?iaeaie aoiai?cio ? aeooiaiino? a
eiioaeno? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iinooio. Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoe.-i?aeo.
eiioa?aioe?? /A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao.- A?iieoey,
1996. — N. 33-35.

32. Oeaeiye E.I. Iieeoeea e i?aaiecaoeey yeiiiie/aneie aeanoe
//Aeiaaeecaoeey iieeoeee a eiioaenoa nia?aiaiiie iieeoe/aneie eoeueoo?u:
iiuo e ia?niaeoeau Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-i?aeo.
eiioa?aioeee / Oa?ueeianeee ain. iaae. oi-o ei. A.N. Neiai?iaeu.- O.,
1996. — N. 158-160.

33. Oeaeiye E.I. I?aaiecaoi?neay aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a
o?ainoi?ie?othuainy iauanoaa // Ie?iaicc?ai/aneea iniiaaiey /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe ia ?oaaaea OO1 aaea: Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeo. eiioa?aioeee
/ Aaoee?ne. ain. oi-o. — Ooa, 1997. — N. 51-53.

34. Oeaeiye E.I. Nioe?aeueia i?aai?caoe?y i?inoi?o ye oiiaa ?icaeoeo
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ?aeiio //Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeieia?/i?
i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ?aeii?a. Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? i?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe?? / ?inoeooo ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie. *. 1. — Euea?a, 1997. — N. 110-113.

35. Oeaeiye E.I. Aoiaiecaoeey o?oaea a oneiaeyo i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai
ieth?aeecia // Ethaeeia ? ienoaoeoai a aoiai?noe/ieo aei??ao: Ca.
iaoa??ae?a o?einionueeeo /eoaiue. — Euea?a: E?ae, 1997. — N. 127-132.

36. Oeaeiye E.I. I?eioeeie iiaoaeiae ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e //
Nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea e ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe
(nioeeieiaey, nioeeaeueiay ineoieiaey, iaiaaeaeiaio): Na. iaaeaeoia?.
iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. / Iaeanneee ain. iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao. —
Iaeanna, 1997. — N. 149-150.

37. Oeaeiye E.I. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia na?aeii?noue noa’?eo?a ye
aeaiaio aeiiii?/ii? eoeueoo?e //Oai?/a, i?aeoe/ia ? e?eoe/ia ieneaiiy:
Ca. iaoa??ae?a iaoe.-i?. eiio.- AEeoiie?: Aeae-ai “AEo?oiiae”, 1997. —
N. 59-66.

38. Oeaeiye E.I. ?ioa?ane ea??aiee?a ainiiaea?/eo i?aai?caoe?e a oiiaao
o?ainoi?iaoe?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith // Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie
?ano?naie: i?iaeaie ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo: Ca??iee aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?.
iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: OOI, 1997. — N. 457-459.

39. Oeaeiye E.I. Niiaeeaaiiy ? iaoaii?oice aeooiaieo iio?aa oe?a?inueeeo
i?aei?e?ioe?a // Aeooiai?noue oe?a?inoaa: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?.
iaoeiai-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??. — AEeoiie?, 1998. — N.92-96.

40. Oeaeiye E.I. ?ecee-iaiaaeaeiaio o iaeiio a?cian?: nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy // I?iaeaie aeiiii?/iiai ?eceeo: aiae?c oa
oi?aae?iiy: Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue ca iaoa??aeaie Ia?oi? Anaoe?. iaoe.-i?.
eiio. — E.: I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie, EIAO, 1998. — N. 79-80.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, iioae?eiaaieo ?c
ni?aaaoi?aie. O ioae?eaoe?? ?20 iniaenoi aaoi?ia? iaeaaeeoue aecia/aiiy
ath?ie?aoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy ye oi?ie aeieoaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo ci?i. O
ioae?eaoe?? ? 23 iniaenoi aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii noaaeaiiy ??cieo
eaoaai??e ianaeaiiy aei i?aei?e?ioe?a ? i?aei?e?iieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?,
cai?iiiiiaai? caoiaee uiaei o?aooaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee a i?ioean?
?ic?iaee oa ?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai i?aeo?eiee iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano. O ioae?eaoe?? ? 26 iniaenoi aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai?
?iaeeeaoi?e aeey ioe?iee nioe?aeueieo oiia i?aoe?, noi?ioeueiaai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy oe?iiino? ?iai/iai i?noey a
no/anieo i?aai?caoe?yo.

AIIOAOe??

Oeaeiye E. I. I?aai?caoe?? a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio i?inoi?? no/aniiai
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa: iioei?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.07. — nioe?ieia?y oi?aae?iiy. — Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ice?eooth niaoeeo?ee i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy,
ooieoe?iioaaiiy e ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?e a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
i?inoi?? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa oa ?ic?iaoe? iai?yie?a
iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy iei a oiiaao no/anii? Oe?a?ie.

?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th, yea ?ice?eaa? nooi?noue i?aai?caoe?? ye
noa’?eoa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue.

Ia aiae?c? aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo aecia/aii i?noea oa ?ieue
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a noaa?e?caoe?? noni?euenoaa. Aecia/ai?
e?eoa??? i?iaiicoaaiiy ?icaeoeo i?aai?caoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?? iciae,
nooiaiy ?o neeaaeiino?, ?ooeeaino?, iaaecia/aiino?, oaeoi??a aieeao
iina?aaeiuei? ? i?yii? ae??. ?ic?iaeai? iai?yiee oaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo no?aoaa?e c iaoith ia o?eueee aeaeeaaiiy i?aai?caoe??,
aea e caaacia/aiiy iiceoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?? ?icaeoeo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aai?caoe?y ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai, oi?aae?iiy
i?aai?caoe??th, i?aai?ciaai? aeiiii?/i? oa?oiiaaiiy, aeeoo?caeaoi?noue
i?aai?caoe??, i?aai?caoe?ei? oa i?aei?aai?caoe?ei? a?aeiineie.

Oeaeiye E.I. I?aaiecaoeee a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa
nia?aiaiiiai oe?aeineiai iauanoaa: iioeiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a nioeeieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.07. — nioeeieiaey oi?aaeaiey. — Oa?ueeianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ane?uoeth niaoeeoeee i?ioeanna noaiiaeaiey,
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa e ?ac?aaioea iai?aaeaiee iioeiecaoeee oi?aaeai/aneeo
no?aoaaee ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia?aciaaiee e oaoiieiaee eo
?aaeecaoeee a oneiaeyo nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu.

Aaoi?ii aia?aua a ioa/anoaaiiie nioeeieiaee ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey
?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii i?ino?ainoaa
o?ainoi?ie?othuaainy iauanoaa, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie aeaiie?aoecaoeey
iauanoaa e yeiiiie/aneea naiaiaeu aeatho aiciiaeiinoue i?aaiecaoeee
aunooiaoue a ea/anoaa nioeeaeueiie iauiinoe, iaaeaeaiiie noauaeoiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, /oi iicaieyao ae o/anoaiaaoue a
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaieyo. Aeey yoiai i?aaiecaoeey
aeieaeia eiaoue naiaiaeo eiino?oe?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo e
iaaei?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ioiioaiee; aaoiiiiiinoue oi?aaeaiey;
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth nioeeaeueioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca naie aeaenoaey;
auoue nioeeaeueii eioaa?e?iaaiiie e niiniaiie e eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ enneaaeiaaiey eniieuecoaony nenoaiiue iiaeoiae,
iicaieythuee no?oeoo?e?iaaoue i?aaiecaoeeth, aeathuee aiciiaeiinoue
eiiieaeniiai aeaeaiey aa i?iaeai. Iineieueeo nenoaiiue iiaeoiae ia
iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue cia/eiinoue oao eee eiuo oaeoi?ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai ?acaeoey, ii aeiiieiyaony neooaoeaiui iiaeoiaeii e
oi?aaeaieth i?aaiecaoeeae, iicaieythuei ?aiaee?iaaoue yoe oaeoi?u ii
neooaoeee e ?ac?aaaouaaoue niioaaonoaothuea oi?aaeai/aneea no?aoaaee,
iiauoathuea aeecianiiniaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee.

I?aaiecaoeee aeaenoaotho enoi?e/anee-eiie?aoiuo i?ino?ainoaa e a?aiaie e
ia iiaoo auae?aoue oneiaee naiaai iiaaaeaiey, iaeiaei iie e ia ianneaiu,
noauaeoiinoue iicaieyao ei ?ac?aaaouaaoue nianoaaiiua oi?aaeai/aneea
no?aoaaee n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae i?aaiecaoeeiiiie eoeueoo?u, noaaeee
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea, a oaeaea oi?ie?iaaoue naie eieaeae, eniieuecoy
ia?eaoeiaiaoth aeayoaeueiinoue, nayce n iauanoaaiiinoueth,
eiinoeueoaoeeiiiua oneoae.

Ia iniiaa iaoe?iiai yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea ii?aaeaeaiu ianoi e ?ieue
iaeuo e n?aaeieo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo i?aaiecaoeee a noaaeeecaoeee
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe iauanoaa. Ioia/aaony, /oi
a Oe?aeia i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee i?iaeieaeatho inoaaaoueny a
ia?aeiaeueiii ninoiyiee, i?iyaeaieai /aai aunooiaao /?acia?iay
ia?niieoeeaoeey nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee a ieo; aaeaine?iaaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe ia a?aie i?aaiaiai iiey; ionoonoaea yniuo ia?niaeoea
?acaeoey; iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue oeaeae; ionoonoaea oeaiiinoiiai aaeeinoaa
?acee/iuo a?oii a ieo; iaaeinoaoi/iay i?eaioe?iaaiiinoue ia ?acaeoea
/aeiaa/aneie ninoaaeythuae i?aaiecaoeee; /?acia?iay nin?aaeioi/aiiinoue
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae ia noaoai yeiiiie/aneeo aeinoeaeaieyo e caaiaaaiee
?uieia i?e iaaeinoaoi/iie eo nioeeaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe;
iaiioeiaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo no?oeoo?; iaaeinoaoi/iia ciaiea
iineoaeae aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey e ionoonoaea yooaeoeaiuo oaoiieiaee
aeeyiey ia ieo; iaaeinoaoi/iia i?eaea/aiea i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
i?aaiecaoeee e naoyi aeciana e e o/anoeth a ei?ii?aoeaiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
iauaaeeiaieyo e o. ae. A ?acoeueoaoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee,
eiay cia/eoaeueiue nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae, ia ?aaeecotho
aai, nouanoaoao i?ioeai?a/ea iaaeaeo iaaeaaeaeaie, aiceaaaaiuie ia ieo,
e eo ?aaeueiie ?ieueth a o?ainoi?iaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannao.

?ac?aaioaiu i?eioeeiu no?oeoo?e?iaaiey yeaiaioia aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae
n?aaeu i?aaiecaoeee, iaoaieciia eo acaeiiaeaenoaey, iaania/eaathueo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea i?aaiecaoeee eae aaeeiiai nioeeaeueiiai i?aaiecia.
Iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue nioeeaeueiie eioaa?e?iaaiiinoe i?aaieciaaiiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo a?oii n oeaeueth eo iauaaeeiaiey a oii?yaei/aiioth
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio aeey oi?ie?iaaiey nioeeaeueiie
eio?ano?oeoo?u, niinianoaothuae iiauoaieth aeecianiiniaiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee. AEecianiiniaiinoue i?aaiecaoeee ii?aaeaeyaony /a?ac oaeea
aa /a?ou, eioi?ua iicaieytho ae eniieueciaaoue iaee/iua ?ano?nu e
aiciiaeiinoe aeey oniaoiiai inouanoaeaiey ooieoeee, oeaeaaiai iacia/aiey
e i?iyaeyaony a aeoaeia, nei?inoe iaeaaeaiey niiniaaie e i?eaiaie
aicaeaenoaey ia aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea ia?aiao?u aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ii?aaeaeaiu e?eoa?ee i?iaiice?iaaiey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey i?aaiecaoeee
n o/aoii aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo aa ia?aiaiiuo, ia?u eo neiaeiinoe,
iiaeaeaeiinoe, iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe, oaeoi?ia aicaeaenoaey einaaiiiai e
i?yiiai aeaenoaey. ?ac?aaioaiu iai?aaeaiey niaa?oainoaiaaiey
oi?aaeai/aneeo no?aoaaee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u, acaeiiaeaenoaey
yeaiaioia aioo?aiiae e aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaiecaoeee n oeaeueth ia oieueei
aeaeeaaiey i?aaiecaoeee a oneiaeyo o?ainoi?iaoeee iauanoaa, ii e
iaania/aiey iiceoeaiuo oaiaeaioeee aa ?acaeoey. Iioeiaeueiia ?acaeoea
i?aaiecaoeee aiciiaeii i?e iaee/ee oaniuo acaeiinaycae aa ni anaie
yeaiaioaie aiaoiaai ie?oaeaiey n o/aoii noaiaie eo aaaeiinoe. Iainiiaaii
iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi i?aaiecaoeey a nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa noaiiaeony aieaa aeecianiiniaiie, anee iia a i?ioeanna
nioeeaeueiie eioaa?aoeee ia oa?yao naieo noauaeoiuo /a?o, a, iai?ioea,
aa iieiaeaiea oeo/oaaony aeaaiaea?y eniieueciaaieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo
aiciiaeiinoae, ?ano?nia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaiecaoeey eae nioeeaeueiue oaiiiai, oi?aaeaiea
i?aaiecaoeeae, i?aaieciaaiiua yeiiiie/aneea a?oiiu, aeecianiiniaiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e iaaei?aaiecaoeeiiiua ioiioaiey.

Khizhnyak L. M. Organization in socio-economic space of contemporary
Ukrainian society: optimization of management. — Manuscript.

A doctoral dissertation for speciality 22.00.07 — sociology of
management. Kharkov State University. Kharkov, 1999.

The dissertation deals with the specifics of the process of
establishment, functioning and development of organizations in
socio-economic space and working out of the directions of optimisation
of their management in the conditions of contemporary Ukraine.

The concept which describes the essense of organization as the subject
of socio-economic changes is presented.

The place and role of enterpreneur organizations in stabilization of
socio-economic activity of society on the data of the concrete
socio-ogical reseavches are defined, criteria of fovecasting further
development of organization, with internal and its external variables,
measures of their complexity, migration, indefiniteness, factors of
influence of derect and inderect action. The necessity of social
intergration of organized economic groups with the aim of formation of
their social infrastructure is motivated. The directions of improvement
of management strategies with the aim of not only surkival of
organization, but securing of positive tendencies of its development.

Key words: organization as a social phenomenon, management of
organization, organized economic groups, viability of organization,
organized and interorganized relations.

________________________

I?aei. aei ae?oeo . Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ae?oe. Ion. ae?oe.

Aa?i?oo?a Oaein. Oi.-ae?oe. a?e. Oi. oa?ai-a?ae.

Iae.-aeae. a?e. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii ??CI OAeO.

Oa?e?a, aoe. Ie?iiineoeueea, 1.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *