Оптимізаційний ландшафтно-екологічний аналіз природоохоронних територій (на прикладі Державного парку-пам’ятки садово-паркового мистецтва ‘Качанівка’)

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Aaia?ao?/iee oaeoeueoao

A??ii Ienaia Aanee?aia

OAeE 911.52; 504.54.062.001.26

Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oa?eoi??e (ia i?eeeaae? Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”)

11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaia aaia?ao?y ? ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a.

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoa? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaeeoaaa
Ethaeieea Eaii?ae?aia, Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee Ia?oiiaiei Aaeeia I?ano?aia, ?inoeooo aaia?ao?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee I?ioeaiei
Na?oeaia Ieeiea?aia, IAeI? i?noiaoaeoaaiiy, caa.a?aeae?eii
aeieiaii?noiaoae?aieo i?ia?ai

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
aaieiai-aaia?ao?/iee oaeoeueoao. Eaoaae?a eiino?oeoeaii? aaia?ao?? ?
aaiaeieia??, i.Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 20 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.07 i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252022, Ee?a-22,
aoe.Aaneeuee?anueea, 90, aoae.212.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, i.Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, ae.a.i., i?io. N.?. ?uoe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaeeio aeei?enoaiiy caiia?aeieo
oa?eoi??e ??ciiai noaoono caeia? aaaeeeaa i?noea na?aae i?iaeai ioi?iie
i?e?iaee. Iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ia?o uiaei a?aeiiaeaiiy oa caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?e?iaeieo ? i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieo
eaiaeoaoo?a ia? ia iao? ii?aeiaiiy ianiaeo a?aea?aeoaaiue oa?eoi??e, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai oiiae?a
Oe?a?ie, c ieoaiiyie ioi?iie caiia?aeieo eaiaeoaoo?a. Naia oiio aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue a aeaoaeueieo eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oaeeo oa?eoi??e, ioe?ioe? ?o aeieia?/iiai noaio oa aieeao i?eeaaeeo
oa?aeue ia noai eaiaeoaoo?a, ui ioi?iiythoueny.

Aiae?c no/aniiai noaio caiia?aeii? ni?aae ye a Oe?a?i?, oae ? ca
ei?aeiiii iieacaa iaaio aaeocaao ?icna?aaeaeai?noue iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e, i?aeoe/io a?aenooi?noue
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai ocaaaeueiaiiy oaeoieia?/ieo aeaieo. Ieoaiiy
iioei?caoe?? oa?eoi??e i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo ?icaeyaeaeeny iaei.
Iaaiei /eiii aena?oeai? eeoa i?iaeaie iioei?caoe??
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeii? ia?aae? oa iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio ioi?iie
caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e ia?aaaaeii c oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy oe?iieo
aeinenoai.

Oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ia?aae? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo aeiaaathoue
a?eueoi? oaaae aei eiiieaenieo eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
?? ia’?eo?a, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue aeaoaeueiee i?inoi?iaee aiae?c
oa?eoi??? ca ?acoeueoaoaie iieueiaeo oa eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?
iniiaith aeey anaa?/ii? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ii? ioe?iee
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e, ?o ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ciioaaiiy. Ae??oaiith
i?iaeaie eiiieaeniiai iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeo?a a?aeiiaeaiiy oa ioi?iie
oeiiaeo, aoaeiiieo aai oi?eaeueieo eaiaeoaoo?a, ye? iathoue iaoeiao,
aeieia?/io, ?noi?e/io aai anoaoe/io oe?ii?noue, aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaeeio
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e ye nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
ia`?eo?a, iioei?caoe?? ia?aae? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie oa
caeo/aiiy aei iueiai iiaeo oa?eoi??e ni?eyoeia iaoiaeeea
iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e.

?ica’ycaiith aeacaieo i?iaeai i?enay/aia aeaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa,
yea aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao iaoeiai? i?ia?aie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea «Ioi?iia iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua», a naia
ainiaeiaia??ii? oa aeaio aea?aeathaeaeaoieo oai iaoeiai-aeine?aeii?
eaai?aoi??? eaiaeoaooii? aeieia?? aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea caaaeueii?
eiioeaioe?? oa iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai
aiae?co i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e oa iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei ?o iioei?caoe??. C oe??th iaoith iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

— aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iniiaieo i?aeoiae?a aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a oa eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e; iaa?oiooaaiiy aaciaeo iieiaeaiue ? iiiyoue
iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co,
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
eaiaeoaoo?a;

-?ic?iaea aeai?eoio oa iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?eiiai
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e; aaeaioaoe?y c
iaoith ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee aiae?co
eaiaeoaooii-oa?eoi??aeueieo no?oeoo? (eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii?,
aanaeiiai?, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? oiui); ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee aiae?co
aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi???, aiae?co ?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo oa iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e;

-ai?iaaoe?y iaoiaeeee iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co
ia i?eeeaae? Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
“Ea/ai?aea” (*a?i?a?anueea iae.);

— ?ic?iaea ia iniia? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co oa?eoi??? ia?eo
“Ea/ai?aea” ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?? iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiy,
aecia/aiiy iniiaieo e?eoa???a, iai?yie?a oa caoiae?a iioei?caoe??
caiia?aeieo eaiaeoaoo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

1. Iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoe/i? iniiae iioei?caoe?eiiai
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co, aecia/aii oa eiie?aoeciaaii iiiyooy
iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a, i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? aainenoaie, iioei?caoe??
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e, iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai
aiae?co, eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? i?eioeeie iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
aainenoai.

2. A iaoiaee/iiio a?aeiioaii? — iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?eiiai
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co, iaoiaeeee aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a
caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi???, aiae?co oa ioe?iee ?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo, iioei?caoe?eiiai (ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai ciioaaiiy)
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e.

3. A ?aa?iiaeueiiio a?aeiioaii? — a?iia?aeii aei ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee
cae?eniaii eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c oa iaa?oioiaaii noaio
iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”, ioe?iaiee eiai ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae .

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?yae iieiaeaiue aeeiiaii?
?iaioe aa?eoee aei ca?oo c ainiaeiaia??ii? oaie «Eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai caiia?aeieea
«Ea/ai?aea» oa i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e» (1993-1994 ?.?.),
aea?aeathaeaeaoii? oaie «Eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ia ioe?iea aeieia?/iiai
noaio oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie» (1994-1996 ?.?.), aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e
i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? «Aoii-aaiaeieia?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?ic?iaea noaie ?ici?uaiiy noaioe?e oiiiaiai
iii?oi?eiao aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-iaa/aeueiiai
iie?aiio iii?oi?eiaiaeo eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ia aac?
Eai?anueeiai caiia?aeieea», yea aeeiio?oueny o iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e
eaai?aoi??? eaiaeoaooii? aeieia?? Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea (1997-1999 ?.?.).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e neeaaeaii?
i?ia?ai iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo, a oaeiae
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao ? ioe?iee aeieia?/iiai noaio
?nioth/eo i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e oa oa?eoi??e ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai
oiiaeo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa «Ea/ai?aea» iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii? i?e a?aeiiaeaii?
oe?iieo ia?eiaeo eaiaeoaoo?a, iaa?oiooaaii? ?aaeei?a ioi?iie oa
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a iaaeao ia?eo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co, aecia/aiiy iiiyoue “iioei?caoe?y
eaiaeoaooo”, “i?e?iaeiioi?iiia aainenoaia”, “iioei?caoe?y
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e”, “iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee
aiae?c”, eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? i?eioeeie iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
aainenoai, iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co
(aeai?eoi), iaoiaeeee aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy
oa?eoi???, aiae?co ?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oa iioei?caoe?eiiai
(ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai ciioaaiiy) i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e
?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Ea?oe eaiaeoaooii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
no?oeoo? Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
“Ea/ai?aea” oeeaaeai? aaoi?ii ca ?acoeueoaoaie iieueiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ui aoee aeeiiai? i?ae /an aeniaaeeoe?e eaai?aoi??? eaiaeoaooii? aeieia??
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aaoi?a,
?acoeueoaoaie o?ceei-o?i?/ieo aiae?c?a c?ace?a a?oioo, aeeiiaieo
aaoi?ii, oa niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co, aeeiiaiiai ia aaieia?/iiio
oaeoeueoao?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Aaiyeieiae/aneea aniaeou oicyenoaiaaiey, caei?iauey e
ioaeuoa” (Ia?iue, 1993), “I?iaeaie aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie” (Euea?a, 1994),
“I?iaeaie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeii-?ano?niiai iioaioe?aeo
Oe?a?inueeiai I?eacia’y ? noi?aeieo oa?eoi??e” (Iae?oiiieue, 1995), O
Eaiaeoaooi?e eiioa?aioe?? “No?oeoo?a e ooieoeeiie?iaaiea, yaiethoeey
i?e?iaeiuo e aio?iiiaaiiuo eaiaeoaooia” (Iineaa, 1997), “Oe?a?inueea
aaia?ao?y: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue” (aei 125-??//y a?aee?eooy o Ee?a?
a?aeae?eo Aaia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa) (Ee?a, 1998), “Eaiaeoaoo ye
?ioaa?oth/a eiioeaioe?y OO? noi??//y” (Ee?a,1999), iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio
nai?ia?? “I?iaeaie i?eeeaaeii? aaio?i??” (Ee?a, 1999); ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo a/aieo oa ani??aio?a (1997) oa
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo (1998) aaia?ao?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. Aeeiiaia ca
iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? ?iaioa “Eaiaeoaooiee aiae?c i?e?iaei-ioi?iiieo
oa?eoi??e c iaoith ?o iioei?caoe?? (ia i?eeeaae? Aea?aeaaiiai
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai caiia?aeieea “Ea/ai?aea”) o 1997 ?. iaai?iaeaeaia
Aeeieiiii i?aceae?? IAI Oe?a?ie i?i i?enoaeaeaiiy i?ai?? IAI Oe?a?ie
aeey iieiaeeo a/aieo.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 7 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, a oiio /ene? 5 iaeiiiniaiaeo noaoae o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao ?
ca??eao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a oaeiae oace aeiiia?aeae ia aeaio iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa
aeiaeaoe?a. O ia?oiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii caeiaooee
eaiaeoaooiciaanoaa oa noi?aeieo iaoe uiaei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
canoinoaaiiy oa?i?io “iioei?caoe?y” oa iieiaeaiue
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co noiniaii oa?eoi??e
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo, aeeeaaeaii oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i?
iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiioi-?iiieo oa?eoi??e uiaei ?o
iioei?caoe??, aecia/aii oa eiie?aoeciaaii eiioeaiooaeueio iniiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?yae iiiyoue, i?aeoiae?a oa i?eioeei?a
iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co. O ae?oaiio ?icae?e?
iiaeaii aeai?eoi?/io iiaeaeue iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai
aiae?co i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e, aeeeaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?o
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii iioei?caoe?eiiio
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio aiae?co Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai`yoee
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”. O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e?
?icaeyioo? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???
ia?eo «Ea/ai?aea» ye i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai oa nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
ia`?eoa, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ? ?ic?aoiaaii
?ae?aaoe?eio ?ii?noue ia?eo oa i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e, cai?iiiiiaaii noaio
iioei?caoe?eiiai (ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai) ciioaaiiy oa?eoi??? c
a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith caoiae?a iioei?caoe?? ii ciiao.

Aeena?oaoe?y, caaaeueiei ia`?iii 193 noi??iee, i?noeoue 130 noi??iie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oaeiae 18 ?enoie?a ? ea?oinoai, 8 oaaeeoeue, 12
aeiaeaoe?a (eaaaiaee ea?o, oaaeeoe? c ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?c?a a?oioo,
?ic?aooieaie). Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ia?aoiao? 161 iaeiaioaaiiy,
c ieo 11 eaoeieoeath.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae iioei?caoe?eieo eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Iioei?caoe?y eaiaeoaoo?a ia?aaeaa/a? iiooe caaeainiaaiiai a?aeiioaiiy
i?ae aeei?enoaiiyi aainenoai, ?o ioi?iiith, oe?eani?yiiaaiei
ia?aoai?aiiyi oa caa?aaeaiiyi ?o iioaioe?aeo oeyoii noai?aiiy nenoaie
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia
o?eaaeiai ? no?eeiai aeeiiaiiy eaiaeoaooii eiai ooieoe?e.

Noiniaii i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e nenoaia caoiae?a iioei?caoe?? oa
?o ni?yiiaai?noue iaoiiaeth?oueny noaoonii ia’?eoa
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo ? a?aeiia?aeieie ooieoe?yie eiai
eaiaeoaoo?a. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae noooth
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo (caiia?aeieo) aainenoai ye ia’?eo?a iioei?caoe??. Aiie
? iniaeeaei oeiii i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieo aainenoai ? ?icaeyaeathoueny
ye oae?, ui ioi?iiythoueny c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy oeiiaeo,
aoaeiiieo aai oi?eaeueieo eaiaeoaoo?a, ui iathoue iaoeiao, aeieia?/io,
?noi?e/io aai anoaoe/io oe?ii?noue.

Nenoaia caoiae?a a ?aieao iioei?caoe?? eiie?aoii? caiia?aeii? oa?eoi???
ia? naith niaoeeo?eo caeaaeii a?ae i?e?iaeieo oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae ?aa?iio, noaoono oa?eoi???, no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy
ainiiaea?nueei inai?ieo caiaeue. I?e oeueiio i?ioean iioei?caoe??
ia?aaeaa/a?: iioei?caoe?th i?e?iaeiioi-?iiiiai ?aaeeio; a?aeiiaeaiiy
ii?ooaieo aainenoai; iioei?caoe?th oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e oa ?aaeeio
aeei?enoaiiy caiia?aeieo aainenoai.

Ioaea, iioei?caoe?y caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?o i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? i?aai?caoe?? oa iiooe iioeiaeueiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ioi?iiith caiia?aeieo aainenoai, ?o
oe?eani?yiiaaiei a?aeiiaeaiiyi oa ?ae?aaoe?eiei aeei?enoaiiyi.

Aii?yaeeoaaoe iine?aeiai?noue aea/aiiy oa ioe?iee i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oa?eoi??e c iaoith ?o iioei?caoe?? iieeeeaiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee
aiae?c, yeee a iiaeaeueoiio i?iiiio?oueny iaceaaoe iioei?caoe?eiei.
Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c — oea aiae?c iniiaieo
oei?a eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi??? ca aeiiiiiaith aeieia?/ii
iaoiiaeaieo iieaciee?a, ni?yiiaaia ci?ia yeeo i?ecaaaea aei
iioei?caoe?? ?? oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e neeaaea? noeoii?noue iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a:
eaiaeoaooiiai (aainenoaiiiai), aeieia?/iiai, aanaeiiai-oa?eoi??aeueiiai,
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/iiai, eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai, ?noi?e/iiai oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, ca yeeie aecia/athoueny i?inoi?iaa
i?aai?caoe?y aainenoai, no?oeoo?a ca`yce?a i?ae ieie; oiiae i?a?aoe?? oa
iaeiie/aiiy o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a a aainenoaiao; ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? oa
nioe?iaeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeei?enoaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy ei?enieo
aeanoeainoae eaiaeoaoo?a.

Aeo?aeieie iieiaeaiiyie i?e oi?ioethaaii? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo
i?eioeei?a iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a aoee oyaeaiiy i?i iioeiaeueio
caiia?aeio oa?eoi??th oa i?ioean iioei?caoe?? ye iniaeeaee aeae
i?iaeooaaiiy, aeeeaaeai? a ?iaioao A.A.?iaeiiaia (1974), E.?.I?ee?ii?
(1975), A.N.Aeaaeae/oea (1981), TH.?. ?naeiaa (1987), A.A.?na/aiei
(1980, 1989), I.I.*ea?eueiaa (1992). Oaeei /eiii, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aainenoai iathoue a?oiooaaoeny ia
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo i?eioeeiao iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a, na?aae yeeo
iniiaieie ?: 1) Nenoaii?noue. Ioi?iia oa aeei?enoaiiy aoaeue-yeiai
eiiiiiaioa eaiaeoaooo a?aeaoaathoueny i?e oiia? iioei?caoe?? a?eueo
neeaaeieo oa?eoi??aeueieo i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a. Ia’?eoii iioei?caoe?? ?
i?e?iaei? eiiieaene ??ciiai ?aiao, c a?aooaaiiyi ia?aaaiaoe/ieo oa
ia?aaeeiai?/ieo ca’yce?a — o?i/eua, i?noeaaino?, aanaeie aiaeioie?a
oiui; 2) ???a?o?/i?noue. I?e ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a iioei?caoe??
i?eeiathoueny aei oaaae ??ci? ??ai? i?aai?caoe?? aainenoai, ?o
???a?o?/i?noue; 3) Aaiaoe/i?noue. I?e iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a
a?aoiao?oueny ?noi??y noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo eaiaeoaooo, eiai
i?e?iaeiee iioaioe?ae oa iioaioe?ae, ui noi?ioaaany a ?acoeueoao?
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?; 4) Aeeiai?/i?noue. A i?ioean? iioei?caoe??
a?aoiao?oueny aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo aainenoai oa iniaeeaino? aca?iiae??
i?aenenoai, ui ?? neeaaeathoue; 5) No?ee?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy.
Iioei?caoe?y eaiaeoaooo caaacia/o? eiai no?eea aei ciai?oi?o aieea?a oa
aoaeoeaia ooieoe?iioaaiiy; 6) A?aee?eo?noue. I?e iioei?caoe??
eaiaeoaoo?a i?iaiicothoueny ciai?oi? aieeae oa i?e iaiao?aeiino?
eieae?co?oueny ?aae?on ?o ae?? a i?inoi?? oa /an?; 7) Iiey?eciaai?noue.
Oa?eoi??? ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeii? aooe iaeneiaeueii
a?aeaeaeai? a?ae i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny noai?aiith a i?inoi?ia?e no?oeoo?? eaiaeoaooo, ui
iioei?co?oueny, aooa?ieo ae?eyiie i?ae ciiaie ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
oa aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae; 8) Aeieia?/ia ??ciiiai?oi?noue. Iioei?caoe?y
eaiaeoaoo?a ia?aaeaa/a? caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ii? ??ciiiai?oiino? a iaaeao oa?eoi???, ui
iioei?co?oueny; 9) Ooieoe?iiaeueii-eaiaeoaooia ??ciiiai?oi?noue. Aeania
i?e?iaeiioi?iiia oa?eoi??y iiaeiia aeeth/aoe aainenoaie
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai i?ecia/aiiy ??cieo aeae?a (a?aei?ii? ca
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieie oiiaaie, ?aaeeiii ioi?iie oa ooieoe?iiaeueiei
i?ecia/aiiyi), iacaeaaeii a?ae ia’?eoa ioi?iie; 10) Eaiaeoaooia
?ai?acaioaoeai?noue. O i?ioean? iioei?caoe?? iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny ae?eyieai, ye? ? ii?oieia?/ii ? aeeiai?/ii
?ai?acaioaoeaieie ii a?aeiioaiith aei eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi??? a oe?eiio; 11) Aooa?i?noue. Nenoaia caoiae?a
iioei?caoe?? ioiieth? ia o?eueee oa?eoi??th, ui ioi?iiy?oueny, aea e
aaciina?aaeiuei i?eeaae? aei ?? ei?aeii?a oa?aeaey; 12) Oe?e?ni?noue.
Caoiaee iioei?caoe?? aecia/athoueny ye aeey i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???
a oe?eiio, oae ? aeey ?? ie?aieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo ae?eyiie; 13)
Aaio?i?/ia aaoiiiii?noue. Aieiaiei i?eioeeiii a?aeiaaeoaaiiy
caii-a?aeii? oa?eoi??? ? caaacia/aiiy ?? a?aeiinii? aaoiiiiiino? a
nenoai? aaio?i?/iiai ni?yaeaiiy.

Iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co

i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e

Noeoii?noue iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a ? i?eioeei?a eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai
aiae?co oa iioei?caoe?? eaiaeoaoo?a, yea neoaeeoue iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e, aecia/a? no?oeoo?o
? iine?aeiai?noue iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co,
a?aeiia?aeio nenoaio iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii,
iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oa?eoi??e iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe o aeaeyae? aeai?eoio iaoiaee/ieo ?ic?iaie
uiaei ?iaaioa?ecaoe??, aiae?co oa ioe?iee i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo aainenoai,
aaeaioiaaieo a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy (?en.). Iaoith
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e o aeaiiio
aeiaaeeo ? iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie caoiae?a ?o iioei?caoe?? oa noaie
iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiy. Ia’?eoii aiae?co ? i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaii?
aainenoaie eieaeueiiai ??aiy, a i?aaeiaoii — ?o eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i?
oa eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ae?aaeai? o oi?i?
ea?oia?ao?/ieo oa a?ao?/ieo iiaeaeae. Cae?enith?oueny
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaeiioi-?iiii? oa?eoi??? ca na???th
?iaaioa?ecaoe?eieo ea?o oa aeaieo i?i i?e?iaei? aeanoeaino?,
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?io oe?ii?noue oa aio?iiiaaiia iaaaioaaeaiiy oa?eoi???.

Ie??i aaciaeo iaoiaeee eaiaeoaooii? ? eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? ceiiee
oa?eoi??? oa oeeaaeaiiy ea?o ie?aieo eaiaeoaooii-oa?eoi??aeueieo
no?oeoo? — eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii? (Aeaeeia, 1972; Aa?ai/oe,
?aeianueea, Oii/??a, 1975; Ena/aiei,1980; Aa?o/aoaeee, AEo/eiaa, 1997),
aanaeiiai? (Uo?,1989; A?iaeceinueeee, Oeuaiei, 1993),
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? oa aa?`??ii? aaio?i?/ii? no?oeoo? (Iaeeoaaa,
1998) c iaoith iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iioei?caoe??
aeei-?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e aoei aeei?enoaii iaoiaeeee
aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy, ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oa
iioei?caoe?eiiai ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai ciioaaiiy, ?ic?iaeai? ia
iniia? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? eo?i?oieo
i?noeaainoae, ?ae?aaoe?eieo oeaio??a oa ie?aieo oa?eoi??e
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo.

Ni?yaeaiee aiae?c eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii?, aanaeiiai?,
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? oa aa?`??ii? aaio?i?/ii? no?oeoo?
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi??? oa i?eeaaeeo oa?aeue aeicaiey?
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ?nioth/ee oa iioaioe?aeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e oaoiiaaiieo
aeaiaio?a i?e ci?i? aio?iiiaaiiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy; c?iaeoe aeniiaie ye
i?i no/aniee aeieia?/iee noai oa?eoi???, oae ? i?i iioaioe?eio iaaaciaeo
caa?oaeiaiiy caiia?aeieo aeinenoai, iaa?oiooaaoe ciai?oi? a?aieoe?
caiia?aeii? oa?eoi???. Ia inoaiith ?ieue i?e oeueiio a?ae?a?a? aiae?c
no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ea?oia?aooaaiiy
eaiaeoaooii-ainiiaea?nueeeo nenoai oa?eoi??? c a?aeia?aaeaiiyi

iniiai? i?aeoiaee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co

nenoaiieeeaiaeoaooiee
(aainenoaiiee)aeieia?/ieeeaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieeaanaeiiai-oa?eoi??aeueie
eeaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee?noi?e/ieenioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieecaaaeuei?
i?eioeeie eaiaeoaooiiai aiae?co

eaiaeoaooii-

ooieoe?iiaeueiee?noi?eei-

eaiaeoaooieeno?oeoo?ii-

ooieoe?iiaeueieeeaiaeoaooii-

i?aai?caoe?eieeeaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? i?eioeeie iioei?caoe??

nenoaii?noue???a?o?/i?noueaaiaoe/i?noueaeeiai?/i?noueno?ee?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiya?aee?eo?noueiiey?eciaai?noueaeieia?/ia
??ciiiai?oi?noueooieoe?iiaeueii-eaiaeoaooia ??ciiiai?oi?noueeaiaeoaooia
?ai?acaioaoeai?noueaooa?i?noueaaio?i?/ia aaoiiiii?noueoe?e?ni?noue
iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

aeniaaeeoe?ei?noaoe?iia?i?aeenoaioe?ei?aeaoeo?oaaiiy AEC?noi?eei
-eaiaeoaooi?aaio?ce/i?aaio?i?/i?iaoaiaoe/i?eiii`thoa?iiai
iiaeaethaaiiyi?iaiicoaaiiye a ? o i a ? a o o a a i i
yeaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c

aiae?c

i?e?iaeieo oiia oa ?ano?n?a?noi?eei-

eaiaeoaooiee

aiae?caiae?c

iai?yie?a

oa oiia noieoaiae?c

eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo

oiia oa aa?`???aaiae?c no?oeoo?e

caieaei?enooaaiiy oa

caieaei?enooaa/?aaiae?c aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy

ioe?iea aieeao i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e ia i?e?iaeiioi?iiiee ia`?eo

aiae?c ? ioe?iea ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo oa?eoi???

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioeiecaoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???
nenoaia caoiae?a iioei?caoe??noaia iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiiy
anoaiiaeaiiy iaae

?en. Noaia iioei?caoe?eiiai eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e

a?aieoeue i?ae caieaei?enooaa/aie, ui ioi/othoue i?e?iaeiioi?iiiee
ia’?eo, ? no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy a iaaeao naiiai
i?e?iaeiioi?iiiiai ia’?eoa.

Aiae?c aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi??? aea? ciiao ioe?ieoe
aieea i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e ia i?e?iaeiioi?iiiee ia’?eo. I?iaiaeeoueny
a?i ca ?acoeueoaoaie niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co ai?noo aaaeeeo iaoae?a ?
i?e?iaeaiaio?a o a?oioiaeo c?aceao, ii?aoeueiaaieo ca aeiiiiiaith
iaoiae?a eiii’thoa?ii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? i?ia?aie STATGRAF, i?inoi?iaiai
iiaeaethaaiiy oa ioe?iee SURFER. Ia iniia? ni?yaeaiiai aiae?co io?eiaieo
eiii’thoa?ieo iiaeaeae, ea?o eaiaeoaooii-oa?eoi-??aeueieo no?oeoo? ?
no?oeoo?e i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ioe?iththoue a?aaee iioe?aiiy aaaeeeo
iaoae?a oa i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ?o i?eo?i/ai?noue aei ie?aieo eaiaeoaoo?a,
oi?i ?aeue?oo, ?ineeiiiai iie?eao. Aeey ioe?iee noaio a?oioiaiai
iie?eao aiae?c eiii’thoa?ieo iiaeaeae aeiiiaiththoue aiae?cii ?nioth/eo
ii?iaoea?a cae/aeiiai ai?noo i?e?iaeaiaio?a, ?o a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?e (AAeE) oa ioe?ieaie oiiiaiai ai?noo i?e?iaeaiaio?a o
ciiaeueieo oeiao a?oio?a. E??i oiai, aiae?co-?oueny ai?no o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a o aeeeaeao ie?aieo aeaea?ae caa?oaeiaiiy.

Aiae?c ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???
ia?aaeaa/a? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eieo ?ano?n?a oa?eoi??? oa ??
?ae?aaoe?eieo iiaeeeainoae, ye? aecia/athoueny o aeaeyae? ??ciiiai?oieo
?ae?aaoe?eieo ioe?iie, aeiionoeieo ?ae?aaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue oa
?ae?aaoe?eii? ?iiino? oa?eoi???. Iaiao?aei?noue aeeth/aiiy oaeiai
aiae?co aei iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iioei?caoe??
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e iaoiiaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo ia’?eo?a ye
iaoe?iiaeuei? i?e?iaei? ia?ee, ia?ee-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa oiui ca?aeii Caeiio i?i i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiee oiiae (1992)
aeey oo?ecio oa a?aeii/eieo. Aeaoaeuei?noue eiai iaoiiaeaia nooiaiai
iiaeeeaiai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???
anoaiiaeaiei o Caeii?. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co i?aaenoaaeythoue
o aeaeyae? ioe?ii/ieo ea?oinoai c ?icai?iooith eaaaiaeith, ca yeeie
aecia/athoue iniiai? oaeoi?e oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?iciiae?eo ?ae?aaio?a oa
iaea?eueo eiia??i? i?noey oyae?iiy ?ae?aaio?a.

?ae?aaoe?ei? ?ano?ne aecia/athoueny ca iayai?noth ee?iaoe/ieo oiia,
i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo eaiaeoaoo?a, eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo ia’?eo?a
oa e?eoaaeueieo ?ano?n?a, i?eaeaoieo ca oaoiieia?/ieie, anoaoe/ieie oa
a?a??i?/ieie yeinoyie aeey ie?aieo aeae?a a?aeii/eieo aai ?o a?oi. Aeey
eiaeiiai aeaeo ?ano?no aeaco?oueny eiai ia’?i (ieiua, o?eaae?noue
naciio oiui), a oaeiae iiaeeeaa niaoe?ae?caoe?y, ?ii?noue oa?eoi??e, ye?
ca aeanoeainoyie i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ca i?ecia/aiiyi ? noaiii
eaiaeoaoo?a iiaeooue ?icaeyaeaoeny ye iioaioe?ei? ?ano?ne ?ae?aaoe??.
I?e oeueiio a?aoiao?oueny, ui aeey a?eueoino? aeae?a a?aeii/eieo
iaiao?aeia iaaia ii?aeiaiiy aeanoeainoae i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, a
oa?aeoa? ii?aeiaiiy ?ano?n?a, ii?yae c ia?aiao?aie eiiiiiaio?a
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, aecia/a? iiaeeeao niaoe?ae?caoe?th oa i?io?eue
?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi???.

Aiae?c oaoiieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? eaiaeoaoo?a aei ie?aieo aeae?a
?ae?aaoe?e-ii? ae?yeueiino? ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy aeanoeainoae
i?e?iaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai eiie?aoiiai aeaeo
a?aeii/eieo ye nenoaie caiyoue. Oaeei /eiii,aea??eia?noue iaeiiai
eaiaeoaooo aeey ie?aieo aeae?a a?aeii/eieo aoaea ??ciith. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? iaecaaeii-anoaoe/ieo aeanoeainoae eaiaeoaoo?a
aecia/athoue o? yeino? eaiaeoaooo, ui aieeaathoue ia iniaeeaino? eiai
ni?eeiyooy ethaeeiith (iaecaaeia iaeii??aei?noue, eiio?anoi?noue
eaiaeoaoo?a, nai???aei?noue, aaaaoiieaiia?noue e?a?aeae?a, iayai?noue
aeaiaio?a, ye? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue a?coaeueieo aeoeaio?a oiui).

Niaoeeo?ea ?aaeeio ioi?iie caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e aeiaaa? iniaeeai?
oaaae aei aecia/aiiy no?eeino? i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a aei ?ae?aaoe?eieo
iaaaioaaeaiue, yea ? ia`?eoeaiei iieacieeii, ca yeei aecia/a?oueny
?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ? ?ic?aoiao?oueny ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue
oa?eoi??e oa ie?aieo eaiaeoaoo?a.

Ca iaiiaeeeaino? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aecia/aiiy ii?ie e?eoe/ieo
iaaai-oaaeaiue ia eiie?aoio aainenoaio aeei?enoiaothoue ?nioth/?
ii?iaoeai? iieacieee, ui aeae?athoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaeeainoae
i?e?iaeieo oiia eiie?aoii? oa?eoi??? c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoi??a ci?iiino?
i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a (oei ?ineeiiino?, ?? a?e ? noai, oa?aeoa?
i?aenoeeath/eo ii??ae, iaoai?/iee neeaae a?oioo, nooi?iue caiei-aeaiiy,
e?ooecia noee?a, ?yae nioe?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a oiui). Io?eiai?
cia-/aiiy ei?aeoothoueny a?aeiia?aeii aei iniaeeainoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa?eoi??? oa aeiia aei ioi?iie eaiaeoaoo?a a ??cieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ciiao. Ia iniia? eaiaeoaooii? ea?oe neeaaea?oueny ea?oinoaia ioe?iee
no?eeino? eaiaeoaoo?a aei ?ae?aa-oe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue, aea
aeae?eythoue iaeino?ee?, no?ee? oa aenieino?ee? eaiaeoaooi? ae?eyiee.

Aiae?c ioae?eaoe?e uiaei ?ae?aaoe?eii? ioe?iee oa?eoi??? aeicaieea
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ii?iaoeae iaeii/anii? u?eueiino? a?aeii/eaath/eo
(/ie/aa) ca ?ici??i?noth i?aeoe/ii ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae /aniaeo
cia/aiue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (/ie*aiae/aa). Aiaeii/an
iaeii/ania iaaaioaaeaiiy ia? cia/ii a?eueoee aieea ia eaiaeoaoo, i?ae
oaea ae ca ?ici??ii, aea ?icoyaiooa a /an?. Oiio aeioe?eueii i?e
aeei?enoaii? ?nioth/eo, a ia aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaieo aeey
eiie?aoii? aainenoaie, ii?i ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaoo
(iaaaaeaieo a /ie/aa aai /ie*aiae/aa) ia ia?a?aoiaoaaoe ?o a aeaiio
?ici??i?noue, ooo/ii ca?eueooth/e a?aeiia?aeii aei 8-aiaeeiiiai
aeei?enoaiiy ia aeiao, a ?icaeyaeaoe ?o ye ii?ie ?ici??iino?
/ie*aeaiue/aa.

Ia iniia? aecia/aieo e?eoe/ieo (a?aie/ii aeiionoeieo) aai aeieia?/ii
aeiionoeieo ii?i ?ae?aaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia ie?ai? oeie aainenoai
?ic?aoiao?oueny ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue oa?eoi???. C oe??th iaoith
iae/ano?oa aeei?enoiaothoue oi?ioeo:

A = a N? S?

(1)

aea A — aeiionoeia ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue eaiaeoaooo (o?i/eua,
eaiaeoaooii? ae?eyiee, ooieoe?iiaeueii? ciie oiui), /ie * aeaiue;

N? — aeiionoeia aai e?eoe/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ?-eaiaeoaoo, /ie
*aeaiue/aa;

S? — ieiua ?-eaiaeoaooo, aa.

Aiaeii/an, oey oi?ioea ia a?aoiao?, ui ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue oa?eoi??? ?
ia?aaaaeii ooieoe??th nioe?i-aeiiii?/iith. A aieiaiei oaeoi?ii
aecia/aiiy ii?i ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eaiaeoaoo ? nooi?iue
aeea?an?? ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue. Oiio i?e ?ic?aooieao ?ae?aaoe?eii?
?iiino? oa?eoi??? ia iiaeia iaiaaeoaaoeny o?eueee ii?iaie ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ie?ai? oeie aainenoai, a iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe
/eiieee, ui aecia/athoue i?eaaaeea?noue oa?eoi??? aeey a?aea?aeoaa/?a ?
o aeaeyae? a?aeiia?aeieo eiao?oe??io?a aaiaeyoueny aei oi?ioee (1):
??ciiiai?oi?noue ?ae?aaoe?eieo oa?aeue, oiaoi iayai?noue oa?eoi??e aeey
??cieo aeae?a a?aeii/eieo — ye eiao?oe??io oaoiieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? e
a; eiao?oe??io ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeaaiono?ith e a a?aeia?aaea? eiai
??aaiue ia oa?eoi???; o aeaeyae? eiao?oe??ioa en ae?aaea?oueny
iaecaaeii-anoaoe/ia i?eaaaeea?noue oa?eoi???; iane/ai?noue oa?eoi???
oi?eaeueieie i?e?iaeieie, ?noi?e/ieie, eoeueoo?ieie, ina?oi?ie,
iaoeiaeie ia`?eoaie ?ae?aaoe?eiiai oyae?iiy — eiao?oe??ioii
?ae?aaoe?e-ii? i?eaaaeeaino? oa?eoi??? ed; o aeaeyae? a?aeiia?aeieo
eiao?oe??io?a ae?aaea?oueny a?iee?iaoe/ia ef oa ineoio?c?ieia?/ia
eiioi?oi?noue oa?eoi??? e h.

E??i oiai, a?aoiao?oueny, ui a iaaeao i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???, ye
i?aaeei, ni?a?niothoue eaiaeoaooe ye i?e?iaeiiai, oae ? ooo/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, oiaoi c i?e?iaeieie oa eoeueoo?ieie ?ineeiieie
oa?oiiaaiiyie. Oiio o oi?ioeo ie aaiaeeii ii?io e?eoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia ?-eaiaeoaoo i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy Ni, /ie*aeaiue/aa oa ii?io
e?eoe/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia j-eaiaeoaoo ooo/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy (ia?eia?
eoeueoo?e, naaee, ea?oieee oiui) Nj , /ie * aeaiue/aa.

Oaeei /eiii, oi?ioea (1) iaaoaa? aeaeyaeo:

E = (a N? S?+ a Nj Sj ) e a e a e n ed e f e h
(2)

?ic?aoiaothoueny iaaaaeai? eiao?oe??ioe ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy e?eueeino?
?nioth/iai ?ae?aaoe?eiiai ?ano?no iaaiiai aeaeo aei eiai caaaeueii?
iioaioe?eii? e?eueeino? a iaaeao oa?eoi???.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee (2) ie anoaiiaeth?ii ?aaeueio ?ae?aaoe?eio
?ii?noue ye an??? oa?eoi???, oae ? ie?aieo ?? ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii. I?e
iayaiino? i?iaeoo i?aeaeuaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino? oa?eoi???
iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaia iioaioe?eia ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue oa?eoi???. A
oie aea /an i?e ?ae?aaoe?eiiio aeaaiono?i? oa?eoi??? ii?ie a?aie/ii
aeiionoeieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eaiaeoaoo iiaeooue aooe ca?eueoai? ia
20-50%.

Iaeiei c oeyo?a iioei?caoe?? noaio caiia?aeieo eaiaeoaoo?a oa ?aaeeio ?o
aeei?enoaiiy ? ?aoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y oa?eoi???, oiaoi noai?aiiy
noaie iioeiaeueiiai ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai ciioaaiiy
i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? oa?eoi???, yea iieaco? ?aaeuei? oeyoe ?iciaaeoaaiiy
oa ia’?aeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo ooieoe?e a iaaeao eiie?aoii? oa?eoi??? ? ?
ia?aaeoiiaith i?aai?caoe?? aaceiioe?eoii? i?inoi?iai-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e nenoaie iioei?caoe?eieo caoiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaeieo oa
aio?iiiaaiieo caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy caiia?aeieo eaiaeoaoo?a.
Iniaeeai aeooaeueiei ? noai?aiiy oaei? noaie aeey iie?ooieoe?iiaeue-ieo
oa?eoi??e — a?inoa?ieo caiia?aeiee?a, ?aa?iiaeueieo eaiaeoaooieo ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?e?a oiui — caeaoieo aeeiioaaoe ye i?e?iaeiioi?iii?,
oae ? nioe?aeuei? ooieoe?? (?ae?aaoe?eio, icaei?ia/o,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith, ioi?iiio ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?io oiui).

Ine?eueee iiaa eaea ia?aaaaeii i?i aaea ?nioth/? ia`?eoe
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo c anoaiiaeaiei i?e?iaeiioi?iiiei ?aaeeiii,
oi aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe iioei?caoe?eia ciioaaiiy caiia?aeieo
oa?eoi??e ye ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiia. I?e oeueiio i?e?iaeiioi?iiiee
?aaeei oa?eoi??? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye na??y caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
i?aeo?eieo iaaiiai noaio caiia?aeiiai eaiaeoaooo.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ciioaaiiy iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny aiae?co i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo oaeoi??a oi?ioaaiiy
eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi???, ?o aca?iiae??, a oaeiae eiie?aoi?e
neooaoe?? o iaaeao eiaeii? oa?eoi??? aai ie?aieo ?? ae?eyiie. Ioaea,
noeoii?noue aeaieo, iaiao?aeieo aeey iiae?eo oa?eoi??? ia
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeii? ciie, aeaeyaea? ianooiiei /eiii: oa?aeoa?enoeea
i?e?iaeieo oiia ? ?ano?n?a; ?icoaooaaiiy oa iniaeeaino? a?oioaaiiy
i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a; i?inoi?iaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y iniaeeai oe?iieo c
oi/ee ci?o caa?aaeaiiy oa aea/aiiy i?e?iaeieo ae?eyiie; nooi?iue ?
oa?aeoa? ia?aoai?aiino? eaiaeoaoo?a; ye?noue na?aaeiaeua aeey
a?aeii/eieo (eiioi?oi?noue); iaecaaei? yeino? eaiaeoaoo?a oa ?o
anoaoe/iee aieea ia a?aeii/eaath/eo; no?ee?noue i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a
aei ?ae?aaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue; ?aaeueia oa iioaioe?eia ?ae?aaoe?eia
?ii?noue oa?eoi??? oa ?? ie?aieo ae?eyiie; iaiao?aei?noue
nai?oa?ii-a?a??i?/ieo caoiae?a; iaiao?aei?noue ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
aeaaiono?ith oa?eoi???; no/ania aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi??? (?iciiae?e
oa?eoi??? i?ae caieaei?enooaa/aie, ?ici?uaiiy oa niaoe?a-e?caoe?y
?nioth/eo caeeaae?a a?aeii/eieo, ?icoaooaaiiy oa?eoi??? ii a?aeiioaiith
aei ianaeaieo ioieo?a, o?ainii?oii? ia?aae?, ?ici?uaiiy i?iieneiaeo oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo ae?iaieoeoa, ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae oa
eiioi?eaoe?e, ?icoaooaaiiy ianea?a caeaieo ianaaeaeaiue oa e?n?a,
?ici?uaiiy iai’yoie i?e?iaee, eoeueoo?e oiui); i?inoi?iaa
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aio?iiiaaiieo iaaaioaaeaiue; oniaaeeiaai? oa
aeiaeaoeia? ooieoe?? oa?eoi???; ?ici??e oa?eoi??? oa ie?aieo ??
ae?eyiie, i?inoi?iaa ni?aaei??i?noue eiioo??a iaeaooi?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii; aaaeaiee ioi?iiiee ?aaeei oa?eoi??? a oe?eiio oa
?? ie?aieo ae?eyiie.

An? oe? aeai? ocaaaeueiththoueny o aeaeyae? na??? ea?o ? noai, ia iniia?
yeeo neeaaea?oueny noaia ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ciioaaiiy oa?eoi???, ui
aeyaey? ?ioaineai?noue i?iyao, aca?iiae?th, a?aeiioaiiy ??cieo oaeoi??a;
eiie?aoio neooaoe?th ia ie?aieo ae?eyieao aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi???, a,
ioaea, aeioe?euei?noue iaaeaiiy ?i iaaii? ooieoe??. Aeey eiaeii? ciie
aecia/athoue nenoaio eiie?aoieo caoiae?a iioei?caoe??, a?aeiia?aeio
caaaeueiiio noaoono oa?eoi??? ye ia’?eoa i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo
oa ?aaeeio aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo eiiieaen?a ie?aieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii, aeae?eaieo a ?? iaaeao.

Aaaeeeaei ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia anoaiiaeaiiy iaae i?e?iaeiioi?iiii?
oa?eoi??? ia iniia? ni?yaeaiiai aiae?co ea?oia?ao?/ieo iaoa??ae?a,
noai?aieo i?ae /an eaiaeoaooieo oa eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (ea?o aanaeiiai?, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii?, aa?’??ii?
aaio?i?/ii? no?oeoo?), ui aeicaiey? aeio?eioaaoeny i?eioeeio aaio?i?/ii?
aaoiiiiiino? ? aecia/a? nenoaio iae?i?aoeaieo caoiae?a aeey
iiia?aaeaeaiiy iaaaoeaiiai aieeao i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e ia caiia?aei?
eaiaeoaooe, cie?aia i?a?aoe?? ianoeoeeae?a oa ?ioeo ?a/iaei-caa?oaeiee?a
c i?eeaaeeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue.

Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-
iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”

Eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai’yoee
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa «Ea/ai?aea» i?iaaaeaiee ca na???th ea?o
ianooaao 1:10000 oa?eoi??? caiia?aeieea oa i?eeaaeeo oa?aeue, ui
aeeth/a?: eaiaeoaooio, aanaeiiao, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/io ea?oe, ea?oo
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo aa?’???a oa eiii’thoa?i? iiaeae? iioe?aiiy
i?e?iaeaiaio?a.

Ia?e-iai’yoea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa «Ea/ai?aea» ciaoiaeeoueny a
iaaeao oa?eoi??? oeiiai? aeey E?aiaa?aaeii-Aei?i?ianueei? i?ia?ioe??
e?ninoaiiai? ciie. Aeii?iothoue e?ninoaiia? eaiaeoaooe c /i?iicaiaie
ii?aecieaieie na?aaeiuei-noaeeieiaeie iaeiaoionieie i?ae na?aeeie
ia?eiaeie ae?a?iaaie oa ??aeeie?nnyi (41.5% oa?eoi???) oa
oe?ieieenoyii-e?nia? eaiaeoaooe c n??eie e?niaeie
na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaeie a?oioaie i?ae nooeie oa na?aeeie ae?a?iaaie
(40.2%). I?aeii?yaeeiaaia iieiaeaiiy caeiathoue eo/i? (3.8%), caieaai?
eo/ii-aieioi? eaiaeoaooe (3.0%) oa y?oaeii-aaeeia? eiiieaene (1.5%
oa?eoi???). Anueiai ia eaiae-oaooi?e ea?o? aeae?eaii 23 aeaee o?i/eu, ui
iaeaaeaoue aei i’yoe oei?a — o?i/eua aiaeiae?eueieo ??aiei, noee?a
??cii? e?ooecie, caiaaeei, caieaa oa aeieu. A oe?eiio
eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ia no?oeoo?a oa?eoi??? ni?ey? ia?a?iciiae?eo
o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a c iiaa?oiaaei noieii (41.7% aainenoaie noee?a).
Aiaeii/an ia a?eue-oino? oa?eoi??? noi?ioaaeeny oiiae, ye? ni?eyoeiooue
?aae?aeueiiio ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaiaio?a (48.3% oa?eoi??? — aainenoaie
aiaeiae?eueieo ? caieaaieo ??aiei, caiaaeei oa aeieu aaeie).

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aanaeiiai? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi??? iieacaee, ui oiiae
noieo, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ia aeai?e oa?eoi???, oe?eeii ni?eyoeea? c
aeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ye aeey ?ineeiieo oa?oiiaaiue, oae ? aeey
aeaaeueieo eiiieaen?a — aeinoaoiy ae?aiiaai?noue oa?eoi???, ia?aaaaeaiiy
oei/aniaeo aiaeioie?a 1-ai ii?yaeeo, iaaaeeea ieiua aeaiaioa?ieo
aiaeica??ieo aanaei?a, cia/ia cae?nai?noue a?eueoino? aanaei?a. Ana oea
noai?th? oiiae, ui ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?ioaineai?e i?a?aoe??
caa?oae-ithth/eo ?a/iaei c i?eeaaeeo aei oa?eoi??? n?eueainioa?aeue.

A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? ea?oe a iaaeao
aeine?aeaeaii? oa?eoi??? aeae?eaii 21 aeae eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo
nenoai (EAN), ui iaeaaeaoue aei 6 eean?a oa 9 oei?a. Aiae?c
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo oiia ia?eo «Ea/ai?aea» iieaco?, ui aeii?iothoue
EAN Na2+ oa H+-Ca2+ eean?a, ye? ioiieththoue 30% oa 28.5% oa?eoi???
ia?eo a?aeiia?aeii. Ia ?aoo? oa?eoi??? noi?ioaaeeny EAN H+-Ca2+,Mg2+ —
21%; Ca2+-Mg2+ — 4.2% ; H+-Fe2+,Ca2+ — 5.1% oa H+-Ca2+/ H+, H+-Fe2+ —
1.2% eean?a. A oe?eiio, aeii?ioaaiiy H+-Ca2+ oa Na2+ eean?a
aainenoai, a?oio?a ia?aaaaeii eaaei- oa na?aaeiueinoaeeieiaiai neeaaeo c
iaeo?aeueiith oa neaaieoaeiith ?aaeoe??th ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith cia/ieo
ieiueiieo ni?aoe?eieo aa?`???a, ia yeeo cae??ieth?oueny ia?aaaaeia
a?eueo?noue caa?oaeithth/eo ?a/iaei.

A oiae? aiae?co i?a?aoe?? o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a a eaiaeoaooao ia?eo oa
i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e aeyaeaii: iaeiie/aiiy a aoioniaeo ai?eciioao Zr,
Mo, Sn, Ti, Ge, Nb, Pb, Sn oa ?icn?thaaiiy Sc, Cr, Mn, Y, Ga, Cu, Co,
Ni, Ag, Zn; ia?aaaaeath/o iaeii??aei?noue i?e?iaeaiaioiiai neeaaeo
a?oio?a aaoiiiiiiai eaiaeoaooo, a ii??aiyii? c noia?aeaaeueiei
eaiaeoaooii; iaeiie/aiiy a n??eo oa ynii-n??eo e?niaeo a?oioao Cu, Cr,
Mn, Ni, Ni, V, ia a?aei?io a?ae /i?iicai?a ii?aecieaieo, aea
iaeiie-/othoueny o?eueee Ni ? Zn; ?aeiie iaeneiaeueii? eiioeaio?aoe??
an?o i?e?iaeaiaio?a — I?eiaeaoeiaa ciia ia?eo oa i?aaiaa?aaeiee noee
Iaei?nueeiai noaao.

Iiaeia neacaoe, ui i?e ni?eyii? eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? ?ioaineaiiio ia?a?iciiae?eo o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a c iiaa?oiaaei noieii, cia/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo oiia iaoiiaeth? o?enaoe?th oa aeoioeyoe?th
cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeaiaio?a ia eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo aa?`??ao (EAA)
??cii? oi?ie. A ?acoeueoao? aiae?co aa?’??ii? aaio?i?/ii? no?oeoo?e
oa?eoi??? aoei aeae?eaii ?yae iaoai?/ieo, a?iaaio?i?/ieo, 4 aeaee
?aae?aeueieo ? 3 aeaee eaoa?aeueieo o?ceei-o?i?/ieo EAA, ia yeeo
iiaeeeaa aeoioeyoe?y i?e?iaeieo ? oaoiiaaiieo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a.
Iaea?eueo neeuei? c ieo — oea ni?aoe?eiee oa ni?aoe?eii-aeaeiaee,
ia?aaaaeii a eiiieaen? c iaoai?/iei oa a?iaaio?i?/iei EAA, ia yeeo
iiaeeeaa eiioeaio?aoe?y V, Co, U, Cs, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ge, Mo,
Zn oiui. E??i oiai, aeae?ey?oueny iaeei iiooaeiee eaoa?aeueiee
iaoai?/iee EAA oaoiiaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy — oinaeia aei?iaa, ui
i?ioiaeeoue acaeiaae no?aeii? oa i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? iaae? ia?eo. ?nioth/a
no?oeoo?a EAA oa?eoi??? ia?eo oa i?eeaaeeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue iiia?aaeaeo? ?ioaineaia caa?oaeiaiiy ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino?
e?niaeo oa aiaeieo aeinenoai ia?eo oe?aeee-aeie ?a/iaeiaie, ui
i?a?othoue c n?eueainioa?aeue, ?icoaoiaaieo ia a?eueo aenieiio
a?iniiao?e/iiio ??ai?.

Oea i?aeoaa?aeaii ?acoeueoaie aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy,
yeee iieacaa, ui oa?eoi??y Ea/ai?anueeiai ia?eo oa i?eeaae? aei iueiai
oa?aeaey ? i?aeoe/ii /enoeie noiniaii ai?noo a a?oio? oe?aeeeaeo
i?e?iaeaiaio?a. Aeayea ia?aaeuaiiy aaeiaiai ai?noo Zr, Ti oa Pb
aeeeeeaia iaaei??iei aianaiiyi i?ia?aeueieo aeia?ea (cie?aia oinoi?ieo)
ia ie?aieo iieyo oa canoa??eeie caniaaie ?o o?ainii?ooaaiiy ?
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oa?eoi??? aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ia?ae?eo caoiae?a
aeey ciaioaiiy aieeao i?eeaaeeo n?eueainioa?aeue ia o?oioeaiice ia?eo,
iaeiei c yeeo, ii?yae c iae?i?aoeaieie caoiaeaie, ? cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a
n?euenueeiio ainiiaea?noa? no/anieo a?ioaoiieia?e ae?iaieoeoaa
aeieia?/ii /enoi? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa.

Oaeei /eiii, ca ?acoeueoaoaie eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co
ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea” oa i?eeaaeeo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue anoaiiaeaii, ui oey oa?eoi??y c
aeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? i?aeoe/ii /enoith ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey
?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi??? Aea?aeaaiiai
ia?eo-iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”

Ia oa?eoi??? ia?eo “Ea/ai?aea” ?niothoue an? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ?icaeoeo
?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?: i?e?iaei?, ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?,
a?iee?iaoe/i?, iaecaaeii-anoaoe/i? oiui. Oea aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe
oa?eoi??th ia?eo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai,
eoeueoo?ii-i?ciaaaeueiiai, icaei?ia/iai a?aeii/eieo, caiyoue
aiaoi?nueeeie i?iieneaie. Oeueiio ni?ey? oaeiae ia?aaaaeaiiy a iaaeao
ia?eo no?eeeo aei ?ae?aaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue eaiaeoaoo?a c
a?aie/ii-aeiionoeieie ii?iaie iaaaioaaeaiiy 8-12 /ie*aeaiue/aa. Oaeei
/eiii, ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ia?eo iiaeia aecia/eoe ye aenieee ?
ioe?ieoe iaeneiaeueio ?ae?aaoe?eio ?ii?noue oa?eoi??? a oe?eiio o 5,2
oen. /ie*aeaiue. I?eeiath/e aei oaaae ?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe
oaoiieia?/ii? aea??eiaino? eaiaeoaoo?a ia?eo (1,8) ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
aeaaiono?ith oa?eoi??? (0,1), iaecaaeii-anoaoe/ii? i?eaaaeeaino? (0,5),
?ae?aaoe?e-ii? i?eaaaeeaino? oa?eoi??? (0,1), a?iee?iaoe/ii?
eiioi?oiino? (0,5), ineoio?c?i-eia?/ii? eiioi?oiino? oa?eoi??? (0,5),
?aaeueia ?ii?noue oa?eoi??? ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
“Ea/ai?aea” neeaaea? 12 /ie*aeaiue. Aea ca oiia a?aeiiaeaiiy eaiaeoaoo?a
?noi?e/iiai ia?eo, ?anoaa?aoe?? ia’?eo?a naaeiai-ia?eiai? a?o?oaeoo?e,
i?aeaeuaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeaaiono?ith oa?eoi??? (a?aeiiaeaiiy oa
aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aae? aei??aeie oa noaaeie, iino?eieo i?oio?aeieo
ia?o?oo?a aeey iaeyaeo oa?eoi???, iaeaooiaaieo iaeaeai/ee?a aeey
oei/aniaiai a?aeii/eieo oiui) oa caeo/aiiy aei ?ae?aaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? i?eeaaeeo oa?aeue iioaioe?eia aaee/eia ?ae?aaoe?eii?
?iiino? oa?eoi??? iiaea aeinyaoe 125 /ie *aeaiue, ui neeaaea? a?ey 24
oen. /ieia?e ca ??e.

C iaoith i?aeo?eiaiiy oaeeo ooieoe?e ia?eo, ye ioi?iia
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai oa i?e?iaeiiai niaaeeo, ioi?iia oeiiaeo
i?e?iaeieo ae?eyiie E?aiaa?aaeii-Aei?i?ianueei? i?ia?ioe?? e?ninoaiiai?
ciie, na?aaeiaeuanoaa?e?coth/ee aieea ia i?e?iaeo i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e
i?e caa?aaeaii? ?ae?aaoe?eii? ooieoe?? oa iioeiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo
a?aea?aeoaa/?a ii oa?eoi??? cai?iiiiiaaia noaia
ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai ciioaaiiy ia?eo. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo
iniiaieie e?eoa??yie iioei?ciaaiino? oa?eoi??? aenooiathoue:
caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/iai i??i?eoao-iiai iai?yieo aeei?enoaiiy i?e
ca?eueoaii? ?aaeeio ioi?iie ie?aieo ae?eyiie; caa?aaeaiiy
eiiiiceoe?eiiai caieneo oa ?noi?e/ii? oe?e?niino? oa?eoi???; caa?aaeaiiy
oa a?aeiiaeaiiy noi?iiaaieo eaiaeoaooii-a?o?oaeoo?ieo iniaeeainoae
ia?eo; aeioe?eueia oa?eoi??aeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii.

Noaia iioei?caoe?eiiai (ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai) ciioaaiiy ia?eo
“Ea/ai?aea” ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy a iaaeao ia?eo o?ueio cii c
i?aeciiaie oa a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith caoiae?a iioei?caoe??:
caiia?aeii-?ae?aaoe?eii? (?aaeueia ?ae?aaoe?e-ia ?ii?noue —
11/ie*aeaiue, iioaioe?eia — 105 /ie*aeaiue); i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a (20
oa 190 /ie*aeaiue a?aeiia?aeii) oa ioi?iiii? ciie.

AENIIAEE

1. Aaeineiiaeaiiy ?aaeei?a ioi?iie oa aeei?enoaiiy oa?eoi??e
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai oiiae?a Oe?a?ie ia?
a?oiooaaoeny ia eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio aiae?c? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo ?
i?eeaaeeo aei ieo oa?eoi??e oa ioe?ioe? ?o ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo,
ye? aecia/athoue iai?yiee iioei?caoe?? oa nenoaio i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
caoiae?a, a oiio /ene? ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiia ciioaaiiy oa
anoaiiaeaiiy ciai?oi?o a?aieoeue caiia?aeii? oa?eoi???.

Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
oa?eoi??e a?oioo?oueny ia eaiaeoaooiiio (aainenoaiiiio), aeieia?/iiio,
aanaeiiai-oa?eoi??aeueiiio, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/iiio,
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio, ?noi?e/-iiio oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio
i?aeoiaeao, ca yeeie aecia/athoueny i?inoi?iaa i?aai?caoe?y aainenoai,
no?oeoo?a ca`yce?a i?ae ieie; oiiae i?a?aoe?? oa iaeiie/aiiy o?i?/ieo
aeaiaio?a a aainenoaiao; ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i? oa nioe?iaeiiii?/i?
ia?aaeoiiae aeei?enoaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy ei?enieo aeanoeainoae
eaiaeoaoo?a.

Eiioeaiooaeueiith iniiaith eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue uiaei
iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e ? oyaeaiiy i?i iioei?caoe?th
eaiaeoaoo?a ye iiooe caaeainiaaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aeei?enoaiiyi
aainenoai, ?o ioi?iiith, oe?eani?yiiaaiei ia?aoai?aiiyi oa caa?aaeaiiyi
?o iioaioe?aeo oeyoii noai?aiiy nenoaie iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a
uiaei caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia o?eaaeiai ? no?eeiai aeeiiaiiy
eaiaeoaooii eiai ooieoe?e oa oyaeaiiy i?i i?e?iaeiioi?iii? oa?eoi???, ye
iniaeeaee oei i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiieo aainenoai. Oaeei /eiii,
i?e?iaeiioi?iii? i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaii? aainenoaie ?icaeyaeathoueny ye
oae?, ui ioi?iiythoueny c iaoith caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy oeiiaeo,
aoaeiiieo aai oi?eaeueieo eaiaeoaoo?a, ye? iathoue iaoeiao, aeieia?/io,
?noi?e/io aai anoaoe/io oe?ii?noue.

Iioei?caoe?y caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioean
aaeineiiaeaiiy ?o i?e?iaeiioi?iiii? i?aai?caoe?? oa iiooe
iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ioi?iiith caiia?aeieo aainenoai, ?o
oe?eani?yiiaaiei a?aeiiaeaiiyi oa ?ae?aaoe?eiei aeei?enoaiiyi.

Iniiaieie eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieie i?eioeeiaie iioei?caoe??
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e ? i?eioeeie nenoaiiino?, ???a?o?/iino?,
aaiaoe/iino?, aeeiai?/iino?, no?eeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy, a?aee?eoino?,
iiey?eciaaiino?, aeieia?/-ii? ??ciiiai?oiino?,
ooieoe?iiaeueii-eaiaeoaooii? ??ciiiai?oiino?, eaiaeoaooii?
?ai?acaioaoeaiino?, aooa?iino?, oe?e?niino?, aaio?i?/ii? aaoiiiiiino?.

2. Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c — oea aiae?c iniiaieo
oei?a eaiaeoaooii? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi??? ca aeiiiiiaith aeieia?/ii
iaoiiaeaieo iieaciee?a, ni?yiiaaia ci?ia yeeo i?ecaaaea aei oi?ioaaiiy
iioeiaeueii? oa?eoi??aeueii? no?oeoo?e. Neeaaeiaeie oaeiai aiae?co ?
aecia/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae eaiaeoaooii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???,
iai?yie?a oa oiia noieo, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo oiia oa cii iaeiie/aiiy
o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a, no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaei?enooaa/?a,
aiae?c aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a
iieueiai? aaeeeiianooaaii? ceiiee (1:10000) oa ea?o
eaiaeoaooii-oa?eoi??aeueieo no?oeoo? (eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii?,
aanaeiiai?, eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ii? oa aa?`??ii? aaio?i?/ii?);
eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue o?ceei-o?i?/iiai oa o?i?/iiai neeaaeo
eiiiiiaio?a aainenoai; eiii’thoa?ii? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
eaai?aoi?ieo aiae?c?a, i?inoi?iaiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa ioe?iee;
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ciioaaiiy. E??i oiai, niaoeeo?ea i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
eaiaeoaoo?a ye ia`?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaa? iniaeeai? oaaae aei
i?iaaaeaiiy ?noi?eei-eaiaeoaooiiai aiae?co ? aiae?co ?ae?aaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo oa?eoi???.

3. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co Aea?aeaaiiai
ia?eo-iai`yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea” iiaeia
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui oey oa?eoi??y c aeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o ? i?aeoe/ii
/enoith ? iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey ?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino?. Aiae?c eaiaeoaooii-ii?oieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi???
iieacaa, ui aiia a oe?eiio ni?ey? ye ia?a?iciiae?eo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a c
iiaa?oiaaei noieii, oae ? cia/iiio ?aae?aeueiiio ?o ia?a?iciiae?eo. A
oie aea /an oiiae noieo, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ia aeai?e oa?eoi???, oa
aeineoue cia/ia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo oiia iaoiiaeth?
o?enaoe?th oa aeoioeyoe?th cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?e?iaeieo ? oaoiiaaiieo
o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a ia eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo aa?`??ao ??cii? oi?ie. Oea
iiia?aaeaeo? ?ioaineaia caa?oaeiaiiy ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? e?niaeo oa
aiaeieo aeinenoai ia?eo oe?aeeeaeie ?a/iae-iaie, ye? i?a?othoue c
n?eueainioa?aeue, ?icoaoiaaieo ia a?eueo aenieiio a?iniiao-?e/iiio
??ai?. Oea i?aeoaa?aeaeaii ?acoeueoaie aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a
caa?oaeiaiiy, yeee iieacaa, ui oa?eoi??y Ea/ai?anueeiai ia?eo oa
i?eeaae? aei iueiai oa?aeaey ? i?aeoe/ii /enoeie noiniaii ai?noo a
a?oio? oe?aeeeaeo i?e?iaeaiaio?a.

4. ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa
“Ea/ai?aea” iiaeia aecia/eoe ye aenieee. Ooo ?niothoue an? ia?aaeoiiae
aeey ?icaeoeo ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?: i?e?iaei?,
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?, a?iee?iaoe/i?, iaecaaeii-anoaoe/i? oiui. Oea
aeicaiey? ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe oa?eoi??th ia?eo aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
i?ciaaaeueiiai, eoeueoo?ii-i?ciaaaeueiiai, icaei?ia/iai a?aeii/eieo,
caiyoue aiaoi?nueeeie i?iieneaie. Oeueiio ni?ey? oaeiae ia?aaaaeaiiy a
iaaeao ia?eo no?eeeo aei ?ae?aaoe?eieo iaaaioaaeaiue eaiaeoaoo?a c
a?aie/ii-aeiionoeieie ii?iaie iaaaioaaeaiiy 8-12 /ie*aeaiue /aa.
I?eeiath/e aei oaaae ?ic?aoiaai? eiao?oe??ioe oaoiieia?/ii? aea??eiaino?
eaiaeoaoo?a ia?eo, ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeaaiono?ith oa?eoi???,
iaecaaeii-anoaoe/ii? i?eaaaeeaino?, ?ae?aaoe?eii? i?eaaaeeaino?
oa?eoi???, a?iee?iaoe/ii? eiioi?oiino?, ineoio?c?ieia?/ii? eiioi?oiino?
oa?eoi???, ?aaeueia ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue oa?eoi??? ia?eo-iai’yoee
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea” neeaaea? 12 /ie*aeaiue. Aea ca
oiia a?aeiiaeaiiy eaiaeoaoo?a ?noi?e/iiai ia?eo, ?anoaa?aoe?? ia’?eo?a
naaeiai-ia?eiai? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ae?aaoe?eiiai aeaaiono?ith
oa?eoi??? oa caeo/aiiy aei ?ae?aaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? i?eeaaeeo
oa?eoi??e iioaioe?eia ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue oa?eoi??? iiaea aeinyaoe
125 /ie*aeaiue, aai a?ey 24 oen. /ieia?e ca ??e.

Caii?iiiiiaaia noaia iioei?caoe?eiiai (ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai)
ciio-aaiiy ia?eo ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eaiiy a eiai iaaeao o?ueio cii c
a?aeiia?aeiith nenoaiith caoiae?a iioei?caoe??: caiia?aeii-?ae?aaoe?eii?
(?aaeueia ?ae?aaoe?eia ?ii?noue — 11 /ie*aeaiue, iioaioe?eia — 105
/ie*aeaiue); i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaoo?a (20 oa 190 /ie*aeaiue a?aeiia?aeii)
oa ioi?iiii? ciie. Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie iioei?ciaaiino? oa?eoi??? i?e
oeueiio aenooiathoue: caa?aaeaiiy ?nioth/iai i??i?eoaoiiai iai?yieo
aeei?enoaiiy i?e ca?eueoaii? ?aaeeio ioi?iie ie?aieo ae?eyiie;
caa?aaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?eiiai caieneo oa ?noi?e/ii? oe?e?niino? oa?eoi???;
caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy noi?iiaaieo eaiaeoaooii-a?o?oaeoo?ieo
iniaeeainoae ia?eo-iai’yoee naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa; aeioe?eueia
oa?eoi??aeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo cii.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. Aei aeei?enoaiiy eaiaeoaooii-aaio?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeey
aeieia?/iiai aiae?co caiia?aeieo oa i?eeaaeeo oa?eoi??e // A?ni. Ee?a.
oi-oo. Na?. aaia?. — 1997. — Aei. 42. — N. 91-99.

2. Ooieoe?iiaeueia ciioaaiiy a nenoai? iioei?caoe?? ia’?eo?a
i?e?iaeii-caiia?aeiiai oiiaeo // Oe?a?inueeee aaia?ao?/iee aeo?iae. —
1997. — ? 4. — N. 35-39.

3. Ea/ai?anueeee ia?e-iai’yoea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa //
Aaia?ao?y oa iniiae aeiiii?ee a oeie?. — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 48-50.

4. Eaiaeoaooia iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a iioei?caoe?? i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo
aainenoai // A?ni. Ee?a. oi-oo. Na?. aaia?. — 1999. — Aei. 44. — N. 4-5.

5. Iioei?caoe?y i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e oa ?? i?eioeeie //
Eaiaeoaoo ye ?ioaa?oth/a eiioeaioe?y OO? noi??//y: Ca.iaoe.i?aoeue.- E.,
1999. — N. 243-246.

6. Eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneia iainiiaaiea i?iaeoa Ea/aiianeiai
?ae?aaoeeiiiiai oeaio?a // Oac. aeiee. ia iaaeain. iao/. eiio.
«Aaiyeieiae/aneea aniaeou oicyenoaiaaiey, caei?iauey e ioaeuoa». — *.2.
— Ia?iue: Ia?ineee oi-o. — 1993. — N. 84-88. (ni?aaaoi?e: E.E. Iaeeoaaa,
O.?. ?iothe, A.A. Oeaiie, N.A. Eiaeeei, A.A. Iieuaiei, A.I. Eeiiee).

7. Eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?iaeo?a i?aai?caoe??
?ae?aaoe?eieo oeaio??a: ia i?eeeaae? caiia?aeieea «Ea/ai?aea» // Oace
aeii. iaoe. eiio. «I?iaeaie aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie». — Euea?a: Euea?a.
oi-o. — 1994.- N. 99-100. (ni?aaaoi?e: E.E. Iaeeoaaa, O.?. ?iothe, A.A.
Oeaiie, N.A.Eiaeeei)

A??ii I.A. Iioei?caoe?eiee eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c
i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e (ia i?eeeaae? Aea?aeaaiiai ia?eo-iai`yoee
naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe
c niaoe?aeueiino? 11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaia aaia?ao?y ? ?aoe?iiaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a. — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea, aaia?ao?/iee oaeoeueoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Iaa?oioiaaii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae iioei?caoe?eiiai
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co (iaoeia? i?aeoiaee, i?eioeeie, aacia?
iiiyooy) oa eiai iaoiaeeeo, yea i?ieoea ai?iaaoe?th o Aea?aeaaiiio
ia?eo-iai`yooe? naaeiai-ia?eiaiai ienoaoeoaa “Ea/ai?aea”. Aecia/ai?
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? i?eioeeie iioei?caoe?? caiia?aeieo oa?eoi??e,
?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee aiae?co aeaea?ae oa ianya?a caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi???,
aiae?co oa ioe?iee ?? ?ae?aaoe?eiiai iioaioe?aeo, iioei?caoe?eiiai
(ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai) ciioaaiiy i?e?iaeiioi?iiieo oa?eoi??e. Ia
iniia? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai aiae?co ia?eo “Ea/ai?aea” oa i?eeaaeeo
oa?eoi??e aecia/aii eiai ?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae, ?ic?aoiaaii
?ae?aaoe?eio ?ii?noue oa cai?iiiiiaaii noaio iioei?caoe?eiiai ciioaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iioei?caoe?y, eaiaeoaoo, aainenoaia,
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iee aiae?c, ioe?iea, i?e?iaeiioi?iiia oa?eoi??y,
?ae?aaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae, ?ae?aaoe?eia iaaaioaaeaiiy, ?ae?aaoe?eia
?ii?noue, ooieoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeiia ciioaaiiy.

A?eii I.A. Iioeiecaoeeiiiue eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneee aiaeec
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo oa??eoi?ee (ia i?eia?a Ainoaea?noaaiiiai
ia?ea-iaiyoieea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa “Ea/aiiaea”.). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.11 — eiino?oeoeaiay aaia?aoey e
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. — Eeaaneee
oieaa?neoao eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, aaia?aoe/aneee oaeoeueoao, Eeaa,
1999.

Iainiiaaiu oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneea iniiau e iaoiaeeea
iioeiecaoeeiiiiai eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca (iao/iua iiaeoiaeu,
i?eioeeiu, aaciaua iiiyoey) e aai iaoiaeeea, eioi?ay i?ioea ai?iaaoeeth
a Ainoaea?noaaiiii ia?ea-iaiyoieea naaeiai-ia?eiaiai eneonnoaa
“Ea/aiiaea”. Iioeiecaoeeiiiue eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneee aiaeec
?anniao?eaaaony eae aiaeec iniiaiuo oeiia eaiaeoaooiie no?oeoo?u
oa??eoi?ee n iiiiuueth yeieiae/anee iaoneiaeaiiuo iieacaoaeae,
iai?aaeaiiia eciaiaiea eioi?uo i?eaaaeao e oi?ie?iaaieth iioeiaeueiie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie no?oeoo?u. I?aaeeaaaaony a ea/anoaa eiioeaiooaeueiie
iniiau oaeeo enneaaeiaaiee eniieueciaaoue i?aaenoaaeaiea ia iioeiecaoeee
eaiaeoaooia eae iienea naaeaine?iaaiiiai niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
eniieueciaaieai aainenoai, eo io?aiie, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui i?aia?aciaaieai
e nio?aiaieai eo iioaioeeaea iooai nicaeaiey nenoaiu iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth iioeiaeueiuo oneiaee aeeeoaeueiiai e
onoie/eaiai eniieiaiey eaiaeoaooii aai ooieoeee e i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo oa?eoi?eyo, eae ioaeaeueiii oeia
i?e?iaeii-aio?iiiaaiiuo aainenoai (IAA). Oaeei ia?acii, i?e?iaeiio?aiiua
IAA ?anniao?eaathony eae io?aiyaiua n oeaeueth nio?aiaiey e
ainnoaiiaeaiey oeie/iuo, yoaeiiiuo eee oieeaeueiuo eaiaeoaooia, eiathueo
iao/ioth, yeieiae/aneoth, enoi?e/aneoth eee ynoaoe/aneoth oeaiiinoue, a
iioeiecaoeey caiiaaaeiuo oa??eoi?ee — eae i?ioeann oniaa?oainoaiaaiey
eo i?e?iaeiio?aiiie i?aaiecaoeee e iiene iioeiaeueiiai niioiioaiey
iaaeaeo io?aiie caiiaaaeiuo aainenoai, eo oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui
ainnoaiiaeaieai e ?ae?aaoeeiiiui eniieueciaaieai.

Ii?aaeaeaiu eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneea i?eioeeiu iioeiecaoeee
caiiaaae-iuo oa??eoi?ee: nenoaiiinoe, ea?a?oe/iinoe, aaiaoe/iinoe,
aeeiaie/iinoe, onoie/eainoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, ioe?uoinoe,
iiey?eciaaiiinoe, yeieiae/aneiai ?aciiia?acey,
ooieoeeiiaeueii-eaiaeoaooiiai ?aciiia?acey, eaiaeoaooiie
?ai?acaioaoeaiinoe, aooa?iinoe, oeaeinoiinoe, aaioeie/aneie
aaoiiiiiinoe. ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee aiaeeca enoi/ieeia e iauaiia
caa?yciaiey oa??eoi?ee ia iniiaa iaoiaea eiiiuthoa?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey,
aiaeeca e ioeaiee a? ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea, iioeiecaoeeiiiiai
(ooieoeeiiaeueii-?aaeeiiiai) ciie?iaaiey i?e?iaeiio?aiiuo oa??eoi?ee.
I?aaeeiaeaia oniaa?oainoaiaaiiay oi?ioea aeey ?an/aoa ?aaeueiie e
iioaioeeaeueiie ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aieinoe oa??eoi?ee, a eioi?ie, iiieii
ii?iu ?ae?aaoeeiiiie iaa?ocee ia i?e?iaeiua eaiaeoaoou, o/eouaaaony ?yae
i?e?iaeiuo e nioeeiyeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia ?ae?aaoeeiiioth
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue oa??eoi?ee: ?aciiia?acea ?ae?aaoeeiiiuo oaiaeee,
o?iaaiue ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai aeaaiono?ienoaa, iaecaaeii-ynoaoe/aneay
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue, ianuuaiiinoue oa??eoi?ee oieeaeueiuie i?e?iaeiuie,
enoi?e/aneeie, eoeueoo?iuie, ia?aciaaoaeueiuie, iao/iuie iauaeoaie,
eioi?ua yaeythony iauaeoaie ?ae?aaoeeiiiiai oyaioaiey, aeieeeieoe/aneay
e ineoi-oeceieiae/aneay eiioi?oiinoue oa??eoi?ee, iaee/ea eaiaeoaooia n
i?e?iaeiuie e eoeueoo?iuie ?anoeoaeueiuie annioeeaoeeyie (eeoiau, naaeu,
oeaaoieee e o.ae.). Ana yoe oaeoi?u aaaaeaiu a iauai?eiyooth oi?ioeo
?an/aoa ?ae?aaoeeiiiie aieinoe a aeaea niioaaonoaothueo eiyoeoeeaioia.

Ia iniiaa eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca ia?ea “Ea/aiiaea” e
i?eeaaathueo oa??eoi?ee ii?aaeaeai aai ?ae?aaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae,
?ann/eoaia ?ae?aaoeeiiiay ?ieinoue e i?aaeeiaeaia noaia
iioeiecaoeeiiiiai ciie?iaaiey, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao auaeaeaiea a
i?aaeaeao ia?ea o?ao ooieoeeiiaeueii-?aaeeiiuo cii n niioaaonoaothuae
nenoaiie iioeiecaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee: caiiaaaeii-?ae?aaoeeiiiie
(?aaeueiay ?ae?aaoeeiiiay aieinoue — 11 /ae*aeaiue, iioaioeeaeueiay —
105 /ae*aeaiue); i?e?iaeiuo eaiaeoaooia (20 /ae*aeaiue e 190 /ae*aeaiue
niioaaonoaaiii) e io?aiiie ciiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iioeiecaoeey, eaiaeoaoo, aainenoaia,
eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneee aiaeec, ioeaiea, i?e?iaeiio?aiiay oa??eoi?ey,
?ae?aaoeeiiiue iioaioeeae, ?ae?aaoeeiiiay iaa?ocea, ?ae?aaoeeiiiay
aieinoue, ooieoeeiiaeueii-?aaeeiiia ciie?iaaiea.

Arion O.V. The landscape Ecological Analysis of the Nature-Protected
Areas for their Optimization (on the example of the state park-monument
of garden-park art “Kachanovka”). — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidat’s degree by speciality 11.00.11 — constructive
geography and rational usage of natural resources. — The Kyiv University
named after Taras Shevchenko, gegraphical faculty, Kyiv, 1999.

General theoretical and metodological aasics (scientific approach and
principles, basic definitions) and methods of landscape ecological
analysis for optimization of the nature-protected areas were
substantiated and tested in the state park-monument of garden-park art
“Kachanovka”. Landscape Ecological principles of the optimization of
the nature-protected areas were determined. Methods of the sources and
volume of pollution analysis, methods of recreation potential of the
areas analysis and estimation, methods of the optimization
(functional-regime) zoning of the nature-protected areas were created.
The recreation potential and capacity of the park “Kachanovka” were
determined on a base of the landscape ecological researchs of the park;
the optimization zoning scheme for the park was offered.

Key words: optimization, landscape, geosystem, landscape ecological
analysis, estimation, nature-protected areas, recreation potential,
recreation loading, recreation capacity, functional-regime zoning

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