Оптимізація процесів розкислення і мікролегування конструкційних сталей порошковими дротами з алюмінієм та кальцієм: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук

I?EACIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OAOI?*IEE

OI?AA?NEOAO

*e/ea?ueia (aaai Aiaoie(eiae/

OAeE 669.18. 046.516. 2

Iioei(caoe(y i?ioean(a ?iceeneaiiy ( i(e?ieaaoaaiiy eiino?oeoe(eieo
noaeae ii?ioeiaeie ae?ioaie c aethi?i??i oa eaeueoe??i

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.16. 02 — Iaoaeo?a?y /i?ieo iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ia?(oiieue 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a I?eacianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
(IAeOO) I(iina(oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee O?ioeai Aiaoie(e (aaiiae/, ?inoeooo i?iaeai
iaoa?(aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a), caa. a?aeae?eo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eacaeia Ieaen(e Ieaen(eiae/,
Aeiiaoeueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee (inoeooo /i?ii? iaoaeo?a?? I?i?noa?noaa
i?iieneiai? iie?oeee, caa. eiiaa?oa?ii( eaai?aoi??(

Eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe Oaiye(i Aiaoie(e Aaneeueiae/,
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a i?aei?e?inoai “Oa??i-Noaeue” (i. Ia?(oiieue), aieiaiee
oaoiieia

I?ia(aeia onoaiiaa:

O(ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a,
eaai?aoi??y aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy noae(.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny _______________ 1998 ?ieo a _______ ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 12.052.01 i?e I?eacianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?: 341000, i. Ia?(oiieue Aeiiaoeueei?
iae., ia?. ?anioae?ee. 7.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? I?eacianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo: 341000, i. Ia?(oiieue aoe.
Aiaoiaa, 115.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic(neaii ________ 1998 a.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
A. I. Ianeia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith ?
iioei(caoe(( i?ioean?a ?iceeneaiiy ? iiaeeo(eoaaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo
aeeth/aiue i?e ia?iaoe? noae( ia onoaiiaoe? aeiaiaeee iaoaeo (OAeI) a
noaea?iceeaiiio eiao( (NE) ? i(ae /an aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy o
i?ii?aeiiio eiao( (IE) iaoeie aacia?a?aiiai eeooy caaio?aie (IAEC).

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OAIE

?iceeaaiiy noae( ia IAEC iaeeaaea? i?aeaeuai? aeiiae aei ??
oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae. Caaaeueiiaeciaiei caniaii iie?auaiiy
caeaoiino( aei ?iceeaaiiy noae(, ?iceeneaii( aethi?i??i, ? ia?iaea
eaeueoe??i. A ?acoeueoao? oaei? ia?iaee aeinyaa?oueny, e??i oiai,
i?aeaeuaiiy ieanoe/iino?, oieiaeiino(eeino( oa (cio?iiiino( iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae aioiaiai iaoaeo i?e io?eiaii? iaaiiai ai?noo eaeueoe?th a
noae(.

Ei?aaoaaiiy noae( ca o?i?/iei neeaaeii i(ae /an iicai(/ii( ia?iaee a NE
ia OAeI, yea oe?iei canoiniao?oueny, ia caaaeaee caaacia/o? caaeaiee
ai?no aenieiaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a (a ia?oo /a?ao, eaeueoe?th ? aethi?i?th)
a aioia?e noae(.

Aeei?enoaiiy IE a yeino? naiino?eii? ?aaeoe?eii? ?iiino? aeey
eiiieaenii? ia?iaee noae( a aeiiiaiaiiy aei iicai(/ii( ia?iaee o NE
iaaea( ?yae ia?aaaa i?e iiaeeo(eoaaii(, ?ao(ioaaii( oa i(e?ieaaoaaii( ??
aenieiaeoeaieie aeaiaioaie, ui aaiaeyoueny aei ?(aeeiai iaoaeo ca
aeiiiiiaith ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo (IAe).

I?aeaeuaiiy aeiia aei caaacia/aiiy caeeoeiaiai ai?noo eaeueoe?th a
o?oaieo ia?eao noae( ? aethi?i?th a iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeyo noaaeoue
ieoaiiy i?i ?aoe?iiaeuei( ?aaeeie aaaaeaiiy eaeueoe?th ? aethi?i?th, a
oaeiae i?i iioeiaeueiee ?iciiae?e ?o ii?oe(eieo aeiaaaie i?ae
noaeueeiaoai ? i?iieiaoai, yeee caaacia/o? iaiao?aeio eiioeaio?aoe?th
icia/aieo aeaiaio?a o ?(aee(e noae( oa aioiaiio iaoae? ye c o?aooaaiiyi
i?ioean?a aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy, oae ? caiia(aaiiy caoyaoaaiiy
noaea?iceeaieo noaeai(a.

?aaeeie aaaaeaiiy ? aeo?aoa IAe c aenieiaeoeaieie aeaiaioaie ia ??cieo
aoaiao iicai(/ii( ia?iaee ?(aeei( noae( (OAeI ? IE IAEC) iae?athoueny a
iniiaiiio aii??e/ii, oiio ?oiy iioei(caoe(y ia iniia? oa?iiaeeiai(/iiai
aiae?co oiia ?iceeneaiiy ? iiaeeo(eoaaiiy, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy oaiei-ianiiai(iieo i?ioean?a ? aeooaeueiith.

CA’ssCIE ?IAIOE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii? ?ic?iaee 05.05/01012 I(iiaoee
Oe?a?ie ‘Eiiieaenia oaoiieia?y io?eiaiiy iniaeeai /enoeo
aacia?a?aiieeoeo noaeae oeyoii ?ao(ioaaiiy ? i(e?ieaaoaaiiy ii?ioeiaeie
o?i?/ii aeoeaieie ?aaaaioaie”.

Iaoa OA CAAeA*? AeINE?AeAEAIIss. Cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? ieaaie, ui
ia?ai?ecia/athoueny /a?ac iaa?aeiia?aei(noue o?i?/iiai neeaaeo noae(
ia?i/iei aeiiaai, noaa?e?caoe?y caeeoeiaiai ai?noo eaeueoe?th ?
aethi?i?th a aioia?e noae( a caaeaieo iaaeao ca ?aooiie iioei(caoe((
?aaeei?a ia?iaee noae( IAe c aethi?i??i ? nee(eieaeueoe((i ia iniia?
ooi/iaiiy oa?iiaeeiai(/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?iceeneaiiy noae( ?
iiaeeo(eoaaiiy iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue eaeueoe??i, ?ic?iaee iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae? ieaae(iiy IAe c ??cieie iaiiaithaa/aie ? canai?iiy ?oi?o
eiiiiiaio?a a IE.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia IO?EIAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A

?ic?iaeaia i?inoa oa?iiaeeiai(/ia iiaeaeue i?ioean?a iiaeeo(eoaaiiy
iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea eaeueoe??i aeey ?ic?aooieo ieoiii?
aeo?aoe eaeueoe?th, ui caaacia/o? caaeaiee neeaae aeeth/aiue.
Iaa?oioiaai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaae? ?aaoethaaiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th a noae(
ia aoaiao iicai(/iie ia?iaee ia OAeI ? a IE i?e aacia?a?aiiio
?iceeaaii(.

Aaeineiiaeaiee can?a ai?ieneiaoe(( eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino?
eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? aeey nenoai c neeueiith aca?iiae??th
eiiiiiaio?a o ?icieaa(, ui aeicaieeoue aoaeoaaoe e?ea( ?iceeneaiiy aai
aeanoeueoo?aoe(( ?(aeeiai cae(ca aenieiaeoeaieie aeaiaioaie a oe?ie?e
iaeano? ?oi?o caeeoeiaeo eiioeaio?aoe?e.

Ooi/iai? cia/aiiy oa?iiaeeiai(/ieo ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? aeey nenoai
Fe-Ca, Fe-Ca-Si, Fe-Ca-O-S.

?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano ieaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo ?
canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a eiai iaiiaithaa/a, ui a?aoiao? ci(iaiiy ii?enoino?
e oaieio(ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ii?ioeiiiae(aiiai iaiiaithaa/a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?o ae?ioo e a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oiiae i?iieiaoa
IAEC.

Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? iaae? oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaeo ae?io(a c
??ciiiai?oieie iaiiaithaa/aie aei i?iieiaoa IAEC. A icia/aieo iaaeao
nooi?iue canai?iiy ?oi?o eiiiiiaio?a neaaei caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeaeeino?
aaaaeaiiy ae?ioo ? aecia/a?oueny a iniiaiiio o?ceei-o?i?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ?icieaao iaiiaithaa/a oa oiiaaie eiai aeenia?aoaaiiy a IE
IAEC

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss IO?EIAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeei?enoai? ia iaoaeeo?a(eiiio
eiia?iao? “Acianoaeue” i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue ?aaeeie iicai(/ii( ia?iaee a noaeueeiao( ia OAeI ? a IE
i?e aacia?a?aiiio ?iceeaaii( noae( ii?ioeiaeie ae?ioaie (?OI 232-31-97,
232-32-97, 232-54-97).

Oa?iiaeeiai(/io iiaeaeue iiaeeo(eoaaiiy canoiniaaii aeey ooi/iaiiy, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae o(ineeaaeo noae(, aeo?aoe IAe c nee(eieaeueoe((i, ui
caaacia/o? aa?io caeaoi(noue aei ?iceeaaiiy noae( oa caaeaiee caaaeueiee
ai?no eaeueoe?th i?e ia?iaoe? a NE ia OAeI.

?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a ieaae(iiy oa canai?iiy IAe
aeei?enoai? aeey ioe?iee ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iaae
?aaoethaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e eaeueoe?th oa aethi?i?th a noae( ia aoaiao
iicai(/ii( ia?iaee ia OAeI ? a IE i?e aacia?a?aiiio ?iceeaaii(, aeey
?ic?iaee ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio aaaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo c ??cieie
iaiiaithaa/aie aei i?iieiaoo IAEC a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?iceeaaiiy.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee ?aaeei aaaaeaiiy aethi?i?th a i?iie(ao a?aoiao( ci(iaiiy
?ioaineaiino? i?ioean?a aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy i(ae /an ?iceeaaiiy
iaei??? ieaaee ? a?ae ieaaee aei ieaaee.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe caaacia/eei cieaeaiiy
ao?ao ia aeoiieaiiy noae( ? ciaioaiiy aei 0.22-0.24%. e?eueeino?
ia?ai?ecia/aiue ieaaie iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae ca ieaeiueith iaaeath
ai?noo aethi?i?th. Iaeiaee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo caeiaoaa/a neeaa 393000
a?i.

INIAENOEE AEEAAe CAeIAOAA*A. Aaoi?ii aeeiiaiee aiae?c oa?iiaeeiai(/ieo
oiia ?iceeneaiiy ? iiaeeo(eoaaiiy noae(, a oaeiae cania?a ai?ieneiaoe((
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? eiiiiiaio?a
?icieaa(a. Oaeineiiaeaia oi?ia ai?ieneiaoe(( eiioeaio?aoe?eii?
caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino? aeey nenoai c neeueiith
aca?iiae??th eiiiiiaio?a a ?icieaa(, cai?iiiiiaaia oa?iiaeeiai(/ia
iiaeaeue i?ioean?a iiaeeo(eoaaiiy aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea eaeueoe??i. A
?acoeueoao( aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oaiei- ? ianiiai(io i?e ia?iaoe?
noae( ii?ioeiaei ae?ioii a i?iieiao( ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
ieaaeaiiy ae?ioo ? canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a eiai iaiiaithaa/a, neeaaeai?
i?ia?aie ? i?iaaaeai? ia/enethaaeuei? aenia?eiaioe c aeine?aeaeaiiy
aieeao ?aaeei?a aaaaeaiiy ia canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a iaiiaithaa/a.
?ic?iaeai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao eiiaa?oa?iiai oeaoo IE
“Acianoaeue” ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeeie ia?iaee noae( ii?ioeiaeie ?
iiiie(oieie ae?ioaie c eaeueoe??i ? aethi?i??i.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?ACOEUeOAO?A AeENA?OAOe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaany ? iaaiai?thaaany ia III, IV ? V ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Ia?(oiieue, IAOO, 1996, 1997, 1998
aa.), ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoaeiciaanoai ? oa?i?/ia
ia?iaea iaoae?a“ (Aeiiaoeuee, 1996 a.), ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao (II IAI
Oe?a?ie, ia oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao AAO IE “Acianoaeue”, ia iaoeiaeo
nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e oai??? iaoaeo?a?eieo i?ioean?a IAeOO.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe a?aeaeoee a 6 ioae(eaoe(yo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 7
?icae(e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo iineeaiue c 141 iaeiaioaaiiy, aeiaeaoe(a
? i?noeoue 105 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 21 ?enoiie ? 13
oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?ICAe?E 1. NO*ANIEE NOAI OAI??? I?IOeAN?A ?ICEENEAIIss ? I(E?IEAAOAAIIss
NOAE( AENIEIAEOEAIEIE AEAIAIOAIE

Ia iniia? aiae?co no/anieo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo oaoiieia?? iicai(/ii(
ia?iaee ? aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy noae( iieacaia c?inoath/a ?ieue
i?iieiaoa ye naiino?eii? ?aaeoe?eii? ?iiino?, a yeo ia?aiinyoueny aaaaoi
iia?aoe?e iicai(/ii( ia?iaee.

I?iaiae?ciaai? ?acoeueoaoe aaaaeaiiy aenieiaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a o noaeue
IAe aeey eiao(a ??cii? ?iiino?. Ia iniia? aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey oiia NE oaeaee?noue aaaaeaiiy IAe,
eiai ae?aiao?, oaiia?aoo?a iaoaeo iii?oii aieeaathoue ia ?acoeueoaoe
ia?iaee. A?aeii? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ieaae(iiy IAe iai?aaeai?
caeaa?eueoiai ia ae??oaiiy caaea/ iioei(caoe(( oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy IAe
a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?a ae?ioo, oaiia?aoo?e iaoaeo ? ?iiino?
noaea?iceeaiiai eiaoa. O?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, ui i?io?eathoue i?e
canai?ii? iaiiaithaa/a IAe, ? e(iaoeea ianiiai(io aiae?cothoueny eeoa a
iaeeie/ieo ?iaioao.

Aeey oiia i?iieiaoa a?aeii? o?eueee aii??e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
noinothoueny aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a ia ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee noae(
IAe. Anoaiiaeai? iaae?, a yeeo iiaeeeaa ia?iaea noae( IAe a i?iieiao(,
aea caeeoa?oueny iac’yniaaiei aieea ia?aiao??a naiiai IAe, ?aaeeio
aaaaeaiiy ? ?iceeaaiiy ia ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee. Cie?aia, i?aaenoaaey?
cia/iee ?ioa?an ?ic?iaea ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a aaaaeaiiy aei i?iieiaoo
IAe c eaeueoe??i ? aethi?i??i, ye( a?aoiaothoue ci?iia i(ae /an
?iceeaaiiy aoi?eiia ieenethaaiiy.

*eneaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/ai? oa?iiaeeiai(/iiio aiae?co i?ioean?a
?iceeneaiiy, aeanoeueoo?aoe(( ? iiaeeo(eoaaiiy aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea
eaeueoe??i. Iiaoaeiaai? iiaa?oi? ?ic/eiiino? eiiiiiaio?a iaoaeo (I?EI)
aeey nenoai Fe-Ca-Si-O, Fe-Ca-Al-O ? o. (., anoaiiaeaiee aieea ai?noo
n??ee ? aethi?i?th ia aeeaeio iiaeeo(eoaaiiy oa iaiao?aeia aeey oeueiai
aeo?aoa eaeueoe?th.

Iaeiae ? a iei?oi?e /an caeeoathoueny iac’yniaaieie ieoaiiy i?i
caeeoeiao eiioeaio?aoe?th ?ic/eiaiiai a noae( eaeueoe?th e oiiae
noaa?e?caoe?? eiai caaaeueiiai ai?noo a caaeaieo iaaeao.

?ICAe?E 2. ?ICEENEAIIss NOAE( EAEUeOe??I ? EIIOeAIO?AOe?EIA CAEAAEI?NOUe
EIAO?Oe??IO?A AEOEAIINO? A NENOAI? Fe-Ca-O-S

aeey ?iceeneaiiy ? aeanoeueoo?aoe(( cae(ca eaeueoe??i cia/ii
ia?aaeuothoue cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eiinoaio ??aiiaaae, ?ic?aoiaai? ca
oa?iiaeeiai(/ieie aeaieie. Aiane?aeie neeueiiai aca?iiiai aieeao
eaeueoe?th ? eenith aai eaeueoe?th ? n??ee a ?icieaa( aeey ?ic?aooieo ?o
aeoeaiinoae iaiao?aeia aeei?enoaiiy ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? ia o?eueee
ia?oiai, aea e a?eueo aenieiai ii?yaeeo.

Aeey a?aeiinii eiioeaio?iaaieo ?ic/ei?a c neeueiith aca?iiae??th
eiiiiiaio?a, eiee oneeaaeiaia iiaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai(/ieo aeanoeainoae
?ic/ei?a o aeaeyae? noaiaiaaeo ?yae?a ca Aaaia?ii, cai?iiiiiaai?
??ciiiai?oi? aa??aioe iie?auaiiy ai?ieneiaoe(( (iiaeeo?eiaaiee oi?iae(ci
ia?aiao??a aca?iiae??, ae?iaiai-?aoe?iiaeueia ai?ieneiaoe(y aeey
iane?i/aiii ?icaaaeaiiai ca iaeiei c eiiiiiaio?a ?ic/eio oa (io().

Aeey iieno nenoai c neeueiith aca?iiae??th eiiiiiaio?a ( iaiao(aeiei
a?eueo caaaeueiee aa??aio ai?ieneiaoe((. Iai?eeeaae, i?e ?iceeneaii? aai
iiaeeo(eoaaii( iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea eaeueoe??i cae/aeii [Ca](
[O], ? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ia?ao?anio aca?iiae?th ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo.
Aeey aeia?eueii? o?ueioeiiiiiaioii( nenoaie oea a?aeiia?aea? oiia? x2(
x3 (1 — ?ic/eiiee, 2.3 — ?ic/eiai? ?a/iaeie). Aeey eiiiiiaioa 2 i?e
aeei?enoaii? noaiaiaaiai ?yaeo

, (1)

a i?e aeei?enoaii? ae?iaiai-?aoe?iiaeueii? ai?ieneiaoe((

. (2)

iiaeia aecia/eoe c oiiae ca?ao ia?oeo /eai?a ?iceeaaeo (2) a ?yae
Oaeei?a c a?aeiia?aeieie /eaiaie (1):

(3)

(4)

.

Ia?ao?ae aei a?aenioe?a ca ianith aeey aeiaaeeo nenoaie Fe-Ca-O (?
aiaeia?/ii aeey nenoaie Fe-Ca-S) aeanoue:

(5)

(6)

(7)

, io?eiai? ca aeaieie i?i ?ic/eii?noue Ca a cae(c?.

?ICAe?E 3. IIAeEO(EOAAIIss IAIAOAEAAEO AEETH*AIUe ? CAEEOEIAEE AI?NO
EAEUeOe?TH A NOAE(

I?e iiaeeo(eoaaii( aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea a noae(, ?iceeneai(e aethi?i??i,
ooai?ththoueny aethi(iaoe eaeueoe?th, neeaae yeeo aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie
??aiiaaae ?aaeoe??:

(8)

(9)

sse ?acoeueoaoe i?yiiai aiae?co iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue (IA), oae ?
neeaae aeeth/aiue, ?ic?aoiaaiee ia iniia? aecia/aiiy caaaeueieo ai?no(a
eenith ? eaeueoe?th a noae(, cae/aeii aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
?ic?aooieii ?(aiiaaaeiiai neeaaeo aeeth/aiue ca ??aiyiiyi (9).

Ai?no ?ic/eiaiiai eaeueoe?th, ?ic?aoiaaiee aeey oiia ??aiiaaae (9) c
aeei?enoaiiyi ??aiyiue (5) — (7), cia/ii ieae/ee eiai caaaeueiiai ai?noo
a ?(aee(e noae(, ? aecia/a?oueny a iniiaiiio ieeneai(noth iaoaeo (aa?oiy
a?oea e?eai? ?iceeneaiiy ia ?enoieo 1).

Oiio eaeueoe?e a noae( ciaoiaeeoueny caeaa?eueoiai a ca’ycaiiio noai? o
aeaeyae? aeeth/aiue.

?ic?iaeaia i?inoa oa?iiaeeiai(/ia iiaeaeue iiaeeo(eoaaiiy aeeth/aiue, ui
aeicaiey( ioe?ieoe aeo?aoe eaeueoe?th, ye( caaacia/othoue caaeaia
cia/aiiy eiai caaaeueiiai ai?noo i?ney ia?iaee a noaeueeiao( ? aaaeaiee
ai?no CaO o aeeth/aiiyo a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa ai?noo
aethi?i?th, eenith ? n??ee a noae(. ?ic?aooieiaa caeaaei?noue neeaaeo
aethi(iaoieo aeeth/aiue a noae( a?ae aeo?aoe eaeueoe(th ? ai?noo n??ee
iaaaaeaia ia ?enoieo 2. Aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeae? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
?acoeueoaoaie, io?eiaieie ia ni?iaieo ieaaeao a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

Iaeiae i?e aaaaeaii? Ca o?eueee aei noaeueeiaoo eiai caeeoeiaa
eiioeaio?aoe?y a aioiaiio iaoae? cae/aeii ieae/a a(ae ?ic?aoiaaii? ca
?(aiiaaaeiei neeaaeii aeeth/aiue, iniaeeai ia ieaaeao c ai?noii n??ee a
iaoae? iiiaae 0.010%, eiee a ?icieaa( i?iieiaoo ooai?ththoueny oaa?ae?
aethi(iaoe.

Iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee can?a i?aeaeuaiiy caeeoeiaiai ai?noo eaeueoe?th
— aeiaeaoeiaa aaaaeaiiy eiai a i?iie(ao, aea ? oiiae aeey oaeaeeiai
ieaae(iiy IAe ? ??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo aeiaaaie a ia’(i? iaoaeo.

?enoiie 1. — ?iceeneaiiy ?(aeeiai cae(ca eaeueoe??i (1873 E):

;

e?ea( 2.5 — ?acoeueoaoe ae??oaiiy nenoaie c o?ueio ??aiyiue:

;

Oi/ee 3.4 — aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?;

E?eaa 6 —

?enoiie 2 — ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aeo?aoe eaeueoe?th ia ia?iaeo a NE ia
OAeI aeey io?eiaiiy caaeaiiai neeaaeo aethi(iaoieo aeeth/aiue a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo n??ee a iaoae? ia?aae ia?iaeith. Eiioeaio?aoe?y
aethi?i?th 0.04%, caaaeueiee ai?no eenith 0.004-0.005%, oaiia?aoo?a 1575
iN.

?ICAe?E 4. I?IOeANE AOI?EIIIAI IEENETHAAIIss NOAE( I?E AACIA?A?AIIIO
?ICEEAAII(

I?ioeane aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy ? i?aaeiaoii ?ioaineaieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aiane?aeie ?noioiiai aieeao ?o ia caa?oaeiai(noue iaoaeo ieneaeieie
aeeth/aiiyie ? cieaeaiiy ai?noo aenieiaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a. Ia i?ioeane
aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy i(ae /an aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy aieeaa? oe?ea
iecea ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a: eiioaeo no?oiaiy iaoaeo c iia?o?yi, neeaae
iie?eaiiai oeaeo ? iaoa??ae oooa?iaee IE, e?euee?noue ? neeaae e(aoiaiai
oeaeo, yeee iio?aiey( aei IE iai?ee?ioe? ?iceeaaiiy ieaaee, neeaae
caoenii? noi?o? a e?enoae(caoi?( oa ?i.

Aiae?c oaeaeeino( cieaeaiiy eiioeaio?aoe(e aethi?i?th ? eaeueoe?th a
i?ioean? aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy na??? ieaaie iieacaa, ui cieaeaiiy
ai?noo iaio aeaiaio?a iii?oii ci?ith?oueny ye i(ae /an ?iceeaaiiy
iaei??? ieaaee, oae ? i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ieaaee aei ieaaee.

< 0.0018-0.0022 %, cieaeaiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th neeaaea? 0.0009-0.0011%. sse iieacaii aeua, eiioeaio?aoe?y eaeueoe?th a ?ic/ei? aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th ?ic/eiaieo eenith oa n??ee. Oiio i?ioeane aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy neaaei aieeaathoue ia cieaeaiiy ai?noo eaeueoe?th, yea iia'ycaia a iniiaiiio c ?ao(ioaaiiyi iaoaeo a?ae ieneaeieo oa ienenoeueo(aeieo iaiaoaeaaeo aeeth/aiue. ?ioaineai?noue aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy aethi?i?th cia/ii ci?ith?oueny ye i(ae /an ?iceeaaiiy iaei??? ieaaee, oae ? a?ae ieaaee aei ieaaee a na???. Iaea?eueo ?iia??iei iiyniaiiyi ?? ca?eueoaiiy ia ii/aoeo ?iceeaaiiy ae?oai( ? ianooiieo ieaaie a na??? ? aca?iiae?y c aioeueaiaaiei eiaoiaei oeaeii, yeee iio?aiey( aei IE. ?ICAe?E 5. OAIEIIAI?I I?E IA?IAOe? NOAE( II?IOEIAEI Ae?IOII A I?IIEIAO( I?e ia?iaoe? iaoaeo a i?iieiao( IAe cae/aeii aaiaeyoue a i?eeiaeueio naeoe?th. Iayai?noue a i(e ?icaeiaii? ?aoee?eoeyoe(eii( oa/?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ieaaeaiiy IAe caeaa?eueoiai a ?aaeei? iiia?a/iiai iao(eaiiy ciooaieie eiiaaeoeaieie iioieaie. ?ioaineai?noue eiiaaeoe?? aecia/a?oueny u?euei?noth aia?a?? ia?ai(ooaaiiy iaoaeo a i?iieiao( iaaeath/ei no?oiaiai. A oiiaao ia?aaaaeiiai aieeao ia ?(aeeee iaoae (ia?oe(eieo nee v( (L. e/r) 1/3, (10) aea v - na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue eiiaaeoeaieo iioie(a, L - aecia/aeueiee ?ici?? nenoaie; e - ia’(iia u?euei?noue aia?a?? ia?ai(ooaaiiy, r - u?euei?noue ?(aeeiai iaoaeo. Aaaaeath/e, ui a?eueoa /anoeia e(iaoe/ii( aia?a?? no?oiaiy iaoaeo, ui iaaea? c( noaeueeiaoa aei i?iieiaoa, aeo?a/a?oueny ia ia?ai(ooaaiiy ?icieaao a i?eeiaeuei?e naeoe??,(( u(euei(noue iiaeia ioe?ieoe ye e=u. r. g. h/G, (11) aea h - oene iaoaeo ia c??c? noaeaio noaeueeiaoa; r - u?euei?noue ?(aeei( noae(; G - ?ii?noue i?eeiaeueii? naeoe?? i?iieiaoa (ea); u - ianiaa oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaiiy (ea/n). E?eoa?(aeueia caeaaei?noue aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioo oaieia?aeaea/e a?ae ?(aeei( noae( aei iiaa?oi? ae?ioo a oiiaao iiia?a/iiai iao(eaiiy ciooaieie eiiaaeoeaieie iioieaie ia? aeae: Nu=Pe0. 5, (12) aea Nu=a.d/l; Pe=v.d/a, v ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca ??aiyiiyi (10); a - eiao?oe??io oaieia?aeaea/(, d - ae?aiao? ae?ioo, l, a - oaiei- ? oaiia?aoo?ii?ia(aei(noue ?(aeei( noae(. Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy e(iaoeee ieaae(iiy IAe ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, iniiaaia ia ae??oaii? caaea/? Noaoaia c aeae?eueeiia iaaeaie oaciaiai ia?aoiaeo aeey aaaaoioa?iai( oeee?iae?e/ii? iaeano?. *an iiaiiai ?icieaaeaiiy IAe caeaaeeoue a iniiaiiio a?ae u?eueiino? oa?iaeueiiai iioieo, iai?aaeaiiai aei iiaa?oi? ae?ioo, eiai ae?aiao?a ? oaieio(ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iaiiaithaa/a. Ia iniia? ia?iaee ?acoeueoao?a ia/enethaaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo (c o?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiino? ii?enoino? ?, ioaea, oaieio(ce/ieo aeanoeainoae iaiiaithaa/a a?ae ae?aiao?a IAe) ciaeaeai? iioeiaeuei? oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo IAe aei i?iieiaoo, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue iiaiiio ?icieaaeaiith ae?ioo a(ey eiai aeia. Aeey o?ueionaeoe(eiiai i?iieiaoa aeaiono?oieiai( IAEC c aeeaeiith oa?o iaoaeo ( 1 i (oiiae EEOe IE “Acianoaeue”, ?ii?noue eiaoa 43 o) caeaaeiino? iioeiaeueii? oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy IAe a?ae ae?aiao?a ae?ioo ? ia?aa??ao iaoaeo a eiao( iathoue aeae: (13) aeey IAe c nee(eieaeueoe((i ? (14) - ia?aa??a iaoaeo a IE (E)), d - ae?aiao? IAe (ii). ?ICAe?E 6. INIAEEAINO? IANIIAI(IO I?E IA?IAOe? NOAE( AENIEIAEOEAIEIE AEAIAIOAIE A I?IIEIAO( Iacaaaeth/e ia neeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e iioie(a o IE i?e aacia?a?aiiio ?iceeaaii(, aeey iioei(caoe(( i?ioeano ia?iaee noae( IAe iiaeia canoinoaaoe ni?iuai( iiaeaeuei( iiaeaiiy, ui aeicaiey( cina?aaeeoe oaaao ia aeine?aeaeaii? aieeao ?aaeeio aaaaeaiiy IAe ? neeaaeo iaiiaithaa/a ia eiai canai?iiy. I?eeiaeueio naeoe?th IE iiaeia i?eaeecii ?icaeyaeaoe ye aia?ao ?aeaaeueiiai ci(ooaaiiy aiane?aeie iayaiino? ?icaeiaii? ?aoee?eoeyoe(eii( oa/??. I?e ?icieaaeaii( iaiiaithaa/a ooai?th(oueny aeenia?nia nenoaia “e?aie( iaiiaithaa/a-?(aeea noaeue” aai “iooe?oe( ia?e iaiiaithaa/a-?(aeea noaeue”. Oey iiaeaeue iiaaae?iee IAe a ?(aee(e noae( oe?eeii iaa?oioiaaia aeey eaeueoe?th ? nieaa?a ia eiai iniia?, ye( ia ci?oothoueny c cae?cii a oe?ie?e iaeano? neeaae?a, aea i?eeiyoia ? aeey oaeeo aeiaaaie, ye aethi?i?e, aiane?aeie iayaiino? iaa?oue a oo?aoeaioiii iioioe? iaeanoae, a na?aaeei? yeeo ianiiai(i cae?enith?oueny oeyoii iieaeoey?ii? aeeooc??. iino?ei?): , (15) - na?aaei?e ae?aiao? e?aiaeue (iooe?oe(a) aeenia?nii? oace, i. Caeeoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y oe?eueiaiai eiiiiiaioa aei??aith(: (16) ( nooi?iue eiai canai?iiy neeaaea: , (17) ; p - ianiaa /anoea oe?eueiaiai eiiiiiaioa a iaiiaithaa/? IAe; G - oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaiiy, ea/c. Ca?aeii ??aiyiith (17), nooi?iue canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a iaiiaithaa/a ia caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai aeo?aoe ( oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy IAe), a aecia/a(oueny caeaa?eueoiai na?aaei?i ae?aiao?ii e?aiaeue (iooe?oe(a) aeenia?nii( oace ? ii/aoeiaei ai?noii oe?eueiaiai eiiiiiaioa a IAe. iica caeaaei?noth a?ae oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy IAe (0.2 - 0.8 i/n). ?ICAe?E 7. ?ACOEUeOAOE I?IIENEIAI? IA?IAEE NOAE( II?IOEIAEIE Ae?IOAIE C EAEUeOe??I ? AETHI?I??I Aei?iaiaoaaiiy ?aaeei?a ia?iaee noae( a i?iieiao( cae?enithaaeiny a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao eiiaa?oa?iiai oeaoo IE “Acianoaeue”. Ia'?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iecueeieaaiaai( noae( ia?ie 13AN, 13A1NO, 17A1NO, 09A2OA, 10A2OA oa ?i. I?e ia?iaoe? noae( IAe c nee(eieaeueoe((i o?eueee a noaeueeiao( /anoi ia aeinyaa?oueny caaeaiee caeeoeiaee ai?no eaeueoe?th a noae( (>0. 001 %).
Ca?eueoaiiy aeo?aoe nee(eieaeueoe(th ia i?ecaiaeeei aei aaaeaii?
noaa?e?caoe?? eiai caeeoeiaiai ai?noo a neyaao. Aeo?aoa IAe c
nee(eieaeueoe((i ia ia?iaeo iaoaeo a noaeueeiao( anoaiiaethaaeany o
a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ai?noo Al ? S a noae(. Aaaaeaiiy IAe c
nee(eieaeueoe((i a i?iie(ao cae(enithaaeiny i?e cieaeaii? eiai aeo?aoe
ia ia?iaeo a noaeueeiao(. Ia?iaea o iioioe( (a noaeueeiao( ? i?iieiao()
nee(eieaeueoe((i aeicaieeea noaei iaea?aeoaaoe iaiao?aeiee caeeoeiaee
ai?no eaeueoe?th (>0. 001 %), iie?aueoe iae?i — ? i(e?ino?oeoo?o
aacia?a?aiieeoi( caaio?aee, cieceoe inueiao o?i?/io eeeaaoe(th ?
no?oeoo?io iaiaeii??aei?noue, ciaioeoe ia 0.5-1.0 aae nooi?iue
caa?oaeiaiiy noae( IA. Aeeth/aiiy, ye( caeeoeeeny a iaoae?,
ae?(aiiaeenia?ni(, aeiaoey?i(, ??aiii??ii ?iciiae?eai? ii ia’(io iaoaeo
? ia aeaoi?iothoueny a i?ioean? i?ieaoee. Aiane?aeie oeueiai c?inoathoue
ieanoe/i?noue, oieiaeiino(ee(noue ? (cio?iii(noue iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae oianoieenoiaiai i?ieaoo.

Aaaaeaiiy aethi?i?th a IE c aeo?aoith, a?aeiia?aei(e aeeiai?oe? eiai
aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy, aeicaieeei nei?ioeoe aei 0.22-0.24% e?euee?noue
ia?ai?ecia/aiue ieaaie ye?nieo iecueeieaaiaaieo noaeae /a?ac
iaa?aeiia?aei(noue ai?noo aethi?i?th a ieo ieaei?e iaae?.

?acoeueoaoe iioei(caoe(( ?aaeei?a ia?iaee noae( IAe c nee(eieaeueoe((i ?
aethi?i??i aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aei oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano iicai(/ii( ia?iaee a NE ia OAeI ? a IE i?e aacia?a?aiiio
?iceeaaii( iecueeieaaiaaieo ia?ie noae(.

Iaeiaee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae canoinoaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a
ia?iaee noae( eaeueoe??i ? aethi?i??i a oiiaao AAO IE “Acianoaeue” neeaa
393000 a?i.

AENIIAEE

?ic?iaeaia oa?iiaeeiai(/ia iiaeaeue ?iceeneaiiy noae( ? iiaeeo(eoaaiiy
aeeth/aiue ei?oiaea eaeueoe??i, ui aaco?oueny ia ?icaeoeo cania?a
ai?ieneiaoe(( eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? eiao?oe??io?a aeoeaiino?
aeey oiia neeueii? aca?iiae?? eiiiiiaio?a ? ooi/iaieo cia/aiiyo
ia?aiao??a aca?iiae?? aeey nenoai Fe-Ca, Fe-Ca-Si, Fe-Ca-O-S.

Ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? iiaoaeiaai? iiiia?aie, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue
aeo?aoo IAe c nee(eieaeueoe((i ia ??cieo aoaiao iicai(/ii( ia?iaee aeey
ooai?aiiy a ?(aee(e noae( aeeth/aiue caaeaiiai neeaaeo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae ?? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ? oaiia?aoo?e.

Iieacaii, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiee oeyo noaa?e?caoe?? iaiao?aeiiai
caeeoeiaiai ai?noo aethi?i?th (0.02… 0.05 %) ? eaeueoe?th (>0. 001 %)
a aioia?e noae( — ia?iaea ii?ioeiaeie (iiiie(oieie) ae?ioaie, ui
i?noyoue iaiao?aei? aeaiaioe, ye a noaeueeiao( ia OAeI, oae ? a
i?iieiao( i?e aacia?a?aiiio ?iceeaaii(.

?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?ioeano ieaae(iiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo ?
canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a eiai iaiiaithaa/a a oiiaao i?iieiaoa, ui a?aoiao?
ci(iaiiy ii?enoino? ? oaieio(ce/ieo aeanoeainoae ii?ioeiiiae(aiiai
iaiiaithaa/a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?a ae?ioo ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/i?
oiiae i?iieiaoa IAEC. Cai?iiiiiaai? ? i?aeoaa?aeaeai? ?acoeueoaoaie
i?iieneiaiai aei?iaiaoaaiiy ?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee, ui aecia/athoue
iioeiaeuei? iaae? oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo a caeaaeiino?
a?ae eiai ae?aiao?a ? oiia ?iceeaaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ianiiai(io aeey ?ic?aooieo nooiaiy
canai?iiy eiiiiiaio?a ??ciiiai?oieo iaiiaithaa/?a, ye( aaiaeyoueny IAe a
i?iie(ao. Anoaiiaeaia ? i(aeoaa?aeaeaia i?iieneiaeie aenia?eiaioaie
neaaea caeaaei?noue nooiaiy canai?iiy eaeueoe?th ? aethi?i?th a?ae
oaeaeeino? aaaaeaiiy, yeui oaeaee?noue ciaoiaeeoueny a iioeiaeueieo
iaaeao.

Anoaiiaeai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? iaae? i?aeaeuaiiy ai?noo a noae( eaeueoe?th ?
aethi?i?th ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy ?o ii?ioeiaeie (iiiie(oieie) ae?ioaie
aei i?iieiaoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?a ? oiaueie iaieiiee IAe, a
oaeiae neeaaeo iaiiaithaa/a.

Anoaiiaeai? iaae? cieaeaiiy ai?noo aethi?i?th ? eaeueoe?th a noae( i?ae
/an aacia?a?aiiai ?iceeaaiiy na??? ieaaie. Cai?iiiiiaaiee ?aaeei
aaaaeaiiy aethi?i?th aei i?iieiaoa, ui a?aoiao? ci(iaiiy ?ioaineaiino?
i?ioean?a aoi?eiiiai ieenethaaiiy i?e ?iceeaaii( iaei??? ieaaee ? a?ae
ieaaee aei ieaaee. Canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?? aeiaeaoeiai? ia?iaee noae(
aethi?i??i a i?iieiao( aeicaieeei cieceoe aei 0.22-0.24% e?euee?noue
ia?ai?ecia/aiue ieaaie iecueeieaaiaaieo ia?ie noae( /a?ac iaaeo/aiiy aei
ia?i/iiai neeaaeo.

NIENIE ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI( CAeIAOAA*AI CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

Eaca/eia A.A., O?ioeai A.E., *e/ea?aa A.A. Ioeaiea oa?iiaeeiaie/aneie
aeoeaiinoe eaeueoeey a nieaaao ia iniiaa aeaeaca. / / Aanoiee
I?eacianeiai ainoaooieaa?neoaoa: na. iao/. o?. — Ia?eoiieue, 1997.-
aui.3 — n.54-57.

*e/ea?aa A.A., O?ioeai A.E., Iieicthe I.A. Ioeaiea aeoeaiinoe e
inoaoi/iie eiioeaio?aoeee eaeueoeey a noaee aeey oneiaee
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiey iaiaoaeee/aneeo aeeth/aiee. // V ?aaeiiaeuei.
iao/.-oaoi. eiio.- Oac.aeiee. — Ia?eoiieue, IAOO, 1998 — n.13.

*e/ea?aa A.A., *e/ea?aaa O.A., O?ioeai A.E., Iieicthe I.A. Iniaaiiinoe
ia?aaioee noaee a i?iiaaeooi/iii eiaoa IIEC ii?ioeiaie i?iaieieie.// V
?aaeiiaeuei. iao/.-oaoi. eiio.- Oac.aeiee. — Ia?eoiieue, IAOO, 1998 —
n.16.

*e/ea?aa A.A., O?ioeai A.E., Iieicthe I.A. Eioaineaiinoue oaieiiaiaia
ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee n aeeaeeie noaeueth a eiaoa.// I?eaei(i?ianueeee
iaoeiaee a(niee — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998 — (43(110) — n.12-15.

*e/ea?aa A.A., Eaca/eia A.A., O?ioeai A.E., Iieicthe I.A. ?anoai?eiinoue
eenei?iaea a aeeaeeii aeaeaca, niaea?aeauai eaeueoeee. //
I?eaei(i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a(niee — Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1998 — (43(110) —
n.15-18.

*e/ea?ueia (.A., Eaca/eia (.I, O?ioeai A.(, Iieicthe I.(.
Eiioeaio?aoe(eia caeaaei(noue ia?aiao?(a aca(iiae(( aeey ?iceeneaiiy oa
aeanoeueoo?aoe(( ?(aeeiai cae(ca eaeueoe((i // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea,
oaoi(ea, ae?iaieoeoai.- 1998 — ( 5-6 — n.12-13.

AIIOAOe(ss

*e/ea?ueia (. A. “Iioei(caoe(y i?ioean(a ?iceeneaiiy oa i(e?ieaaoaaiiy
eiino?oeoe(eieo noaeae ii?ioeiaeie ae?ioaie c aethi(i(i oa eaeueoe((i”.
— ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe(y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi(/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe(aeuei(noth 05.16.02 — iaoaeo?a(y /i?ieo iaoae(a. I?eacianueeee
aea?aeaaiee oaoi(/iee oi(aa?neoao. Ia?(oiieue, 1998.

Oaeineiiaeaiee niin(a ai?ieneiaoe(( eiioeaio?aoe(eii( caeaaeiino(
eiao(oe((io(a aeoeaiino( aeey nenoai c neeueiith aca(iiae((th
eiiiiiaio(a o ?icieaa(. Iaea?aeai( cia/aiiy ia?aiao?(a aca(iiae(( aeey
nenoai Fe-Ca, Fe-Ca-Si, Fe-Ca-O-S. Anoaiiaeai( ?aoe(iiaeuei( iaae(
aeo?ao Ca oa Al aeey ?aaoethaaiiy o(i(/iiai neeaaeo noae( i?e iicai(/ii(
ia?iaoe( oa i?e iaia?a?aiiio ?iceeaaii(. ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue
ieaaeaiiy ii?ioeiaiai ae?ioo c ?(cieie iaiiaithaa/aie oa canai(iiy (o
eiiiiiaio(a o i?iieiao(. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?aae(ciaai( o i?iieneiaeo
oiiaao i?e ae?iaieoeoa( iecueeieaaiaaii( noae(.

Eeth/ia( neiaa: ?(aeea noaeue, ?iceeneaiiy, ia?aiao?e aca(iiae((,
eaeueoe(e, aethi(i(e, ii?ioeiaee ae?(o, oaiei- oa ianiiai(i, iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaeue, ?aaeeie iicai(/ii( ia?iaee.

AIIIOAOeEss

*e/ea?aa A.A. Iioeiecaoeey i?ioeannia ?aneeneaiey e iee?ieaae?iaaiey
eiino?oeoeeiiiuo noaeae ii?ioeiauie i?iaieieaie n aethieieai e
eaeueoeeai.- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.16.02 — iaoaeeo?aey /a?iuo iaoaeeia. I?eacianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Ia?eoiieue, 1998 a.

Oniaa?oainoaiaai niinia aii?ieneiaoeee eiioeaio?aoeeiiiie caaeneiinoe
eiyooeoeeaioia aeoeaiinoe aeey nenoai n neeueiui acaeiiaeaenoaeai
eiiiiiaioia a ?anieaaa. Iieo/aiu cia/aiey ia?aiao?ia acaeiiaeaenoaey
aeey nenoai Fe-Ca, Fe-Ca-Si, Fe-Ca-O-S. Iieacaiu ?aoeeiiaeueiua i?aaeaeu
?anoiaea Ca e Al aeey ?aaoee?iaaiey oeie/aneiai ninoaaa noaee i?e
aiaia/iie ia?aaioea e iai?a?uaiie ?aceeaea. ?ac?aaioaia iaoaiaoe/aneay
iiaeaeue ieaaeaiey ii?ioeiaie i?iaieiee n ?acee/iuie iaiieieoaeyie e
onaiaiey eo eiiiiiaioia a i?iieiaoa. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou ?aaeeciaaiu a
i?iiuoeaiiuo oneiaeyo i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ieceieaae?iaaiiie noaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeeaeeay noaeue, ?aneeneaiea, ia?aiao?u
acaeii-aeaenoaey, eaeueoeee, aethieiee, ii?ioeiaay i?iaieiea, oaiei- e
ianniiaiai, iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, ?aaeeiu aiaia/iie ia?aaioee.

ANNOTATION

Chichkariov E. A. “Optimization of deoxidation and microalloying the
construction steels by cored-wire with aluminium and
calcium”.-Manuscript.

The thesis for the scientific degree of Candidat of Science (Eng.).
Speciality 05.16. 02 “Ferrous metallurgy”. Priasovscij State Tecnical
University.

The method of approximation the concentration dependence of activity
coefficients for systems with strong interaction of components in melt
is suggested. The meanings of interaction parameters for system Fe-Ca,
Fe-Ca-Si, Fe — Ca-O-S is obtained. Rational limits of using Ca and Al
for ajustment the chemical composition of steel during treatment in the
ladle and continuous casting is showed. Mathematical model of melting
the cored-wire with various fillers and aquireing their componets in
tundish is worked out. The work results is realised in industrial
condition for production of low-alloy steels.

Key words: liquid steel, deoxidation, interaction parameters, calcium,
aluminium, cored-wire, heat — and masstransfer, mathematical model,
regimes of treatment steel in the ladle.

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