Науково-прикладні основи підвищення довговічності деталей обладнання харчових і переробних галузей АПК: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / Ю.Г. Сухенко

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e

Nooaiei

TH??e A?eai?iae/

OAeE 663/664:621.891

Iaoeiai-i?eeeaaei? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy

aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy

oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.05.09 – iaoeie oa?/iai?, i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? oa
oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? i?iieneiaino?

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999 Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeic
Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoa??aeiciaanoaa oa oaoiieia??
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, i. Ee?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?no?aoaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieaen?eiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e iaoei ? aia?ao?a oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa, i. Ee?a

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oeuaiei Aaiaae?e Iao?iae/, Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee o?i?ei-oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?i?/iiai iii?o iaoa??ae?a ? caoenoo a?ae ei?ic??, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaieoi A?oae?e A?eai?iae/,
Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe, i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie
“EI?” I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 16 ” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 00

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae.26.058.02 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, a aoaeeoi??? A-311, ca
aae?anith: 252033, i. Ee?a–33, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith: 252033, i.
Ee?a–33, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Caa`yeia A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie a
cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny oni?oiith ?iaioith

i?aei?e?inoa oa?/iaeo oa ia?a?iaieo aaeocae aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno
(AIE). Iiaeaeueoa ia?iuoaaiiy iiooaeiinoae ae?iaieoeoaa a oeeo aaeocyo
iiaeeeaa ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai aia?ai- ?
?ano?nicaa?aaeiiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy, i?e oeueiio,
iaaoaa? i?iaeaia i?aeaeuaiiy eiai iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?. Ao?aoa
i?aoeacaeaoiino? iaeaaeiaiiy aiane?aeie a?aeiia i?ecaiaeeoue aei
i?inoi?a, cia/ieo aeo?ao ia ?aiiio oa caiani? /anoeie. Ui??/i? ao?aoe ia
a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? oa caiani? /anoeie ia oa?/iaeo
i?aei?e?inoaao noaiiaeyoue a?eueo ye 300 iei. e?a. (a oe?iao aei 1991
?.). Ca 10 ?ie?a ia ?aiiio iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo i?aei?e?inoa Oe?a?ie
aeo?a/athoueny eiooe, ni?a?ici??i? c aa?o?noth iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiae?a.

Cia/iei /eiieeii ?ano?niiiaeeiaiiy ? ciiooaaiiy ?iai/eo i?aai?a. A
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aeiaaia?/i?noue iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa
iia`ycaia c i?iaeaiith ni?aoethaaiiy ie?aieo aeaoaeae oa aoce?a. Oiio
i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae aoce?a oa?oy ? iniiaiei c aieiaieo
iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy.

Ciiooaaiiy a oiiaao oa?/iaeo oa ia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa ? iaeiaea/aiith
niaoeeo?/iith i?iaeaiith o?eaioaoi?ee. ?iai/? aocee iaoei,
ia?a?iaethaai? ?a/iaeie oa oaoiieia?/i? ??aeeie ooai?ththoue neeaaei?
aeeiai?/i? nenoaie, a yeeo caeiiii??iino? oa?oy oa ?ioaineai?noue
ciiooaaiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae aaaaoi/enaeueieo oaeoi??a: oiia ia?a?iaee,
oa?aeoa?enoee ?iai/eo ??aeei, eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a, aaiiao???
?iai/eo i?aai?a oiui. A?aoiaoth/e, ui a?eueo?noue oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? a?aeaoaa?oueny a ??aeeiieo
na?aaeiaeuao, aaaaoi c yeeo ? ei?ic?eii- oa iiaa?oiaaiaeoeaieie, cia/ia
/anoeia aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy i?aeaea?oueny ae?? oaeaeeiieeiieo iioie?a
??aeeie, ui ni?e/eiy? ?o ?ioaineaia eaa?oaoe?eii-a?ic?eia oa
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ia ni?aoethaaiiy. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeeo nenoai aea/aia
iaaeinoaoiuei, oiio aeooaeueiei ? ieoaiiy ?ic?iaee
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei i?iaeooaaiiy aoce?a oa?oy oa
ioe?iee ?o i?aoeacaeaoiino? a eiie?aoieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.

A i?aeoeoe? eiino?othaaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaii?
i?iieneiaino? ?ano?n ?iai/eo i?aai?a i?ecia/a?oueny /anoi aii??e/ii c
o?aooaaiiyi aeina?aeo aenieoaoaoe?? aiaeia?a, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei
iiieeie noiniaii iiaeo c?ace?a noai?thaaii? oaoi?ee. Oea aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ?ic?aooieiaiai iaoiaeo ioe?iee aeiaaia?/iino?
?iai/eo i?aai?a, ui aaco?oueny ia aeeaieeo oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, ?ice?eoo? i?e?iaee, iaoai?cio
ciiooaaiiy, iaea?aeaii? o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue i?e
?oeioaaii? iaoa??ae?a. Inoaii? aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe aeiaaia?/i?noue
iaoa??ae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo?io?i?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei oa iaaaioaaeaiue a cii? o?eeoe?eiiai eiioaeoo i?e
oa?o?.

?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i ei?ic?eii-a?ic?eia, ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ia oa
eaa?oaoe?eia ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a iaaeinoaoi?e i??? a?aoiaothoue
aieea oaoiieia?/ieo ??aeei oa ia?a?iaethaaeueii? ne?iaeie. Aa?aneai?noue
na?aaeiaeua aiineoue iniaeeaino? a i?ioean a?ic?eiiai ciiooaaiiy, oiio
ia an? caeiiii??iino? aa?aceaiiai i?ioeano ni?aaaaeeea? aeey a?ic?eii-
aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaoa??aee iiaeii?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoenue ei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth ? iii?ii aa?aceaiiio aieeao.
Nooi?iue oeeo yeinoae iiaeiia aa??thaaoeny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aieeao
eiaeiiai oaeoi?a. Iniaeea?e ??ciiaeaeiino? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai
ciiooaaiiy i?aeaeathoueny ?iai/? i?aaie iaoei ii ia?a?iaoe? ne?iaeie,
ui i?noeoue aee?i? eeneioe, ye? ? iiaa?oiaaiaeoeaieie ?a/iaeiaie.

Iiaeeaeaiiy ciaiue a iaeano? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue
i?e ciiooaaii? iaoa??ae?a a na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa (aoaeo
?aa?iaea?a, aea??eiaa ia?aianaiiy oiui) ia? ia o?eueee oai?aoe/iee, aea
e i?eeeaaeiee aniaeo, ui iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? aeai?o iaoa??ae?a ?
niinia?a ea?oaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie aeaoaeae.

Iaaeei?enoaiei ?aca?aii i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino?
iaeaaeiaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao ia?a?iaiiai eiiieaeno ? ?aoe?iiaeueiee
aea?? iaoa??ae?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a iiaa?oiaai? ia?iaee aeaoaeae.
?nio? aaaaoi oaoiieia?/ieo iaoiae?a aieeao ? ea?oaaiiy neeaaeii,
no?oeoo?ith ? aeanoeainoyie iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a. I?ioa ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
ae?iaieoeoai aaeueio?oueny a?aenooi?noth iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o iaoa??ae?a oa oaoiieia?e
ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo ciiooaaiiy, eiai oa?aeoa?o,
?ioaineaiino?, oa?aeoa?enoee ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu oiui.

?icaeyiooee eiiieaen caaea/ yaey? niaith aeooaeueio
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeo i?iaeaio, ae??oaiiy yei? iiaeeeai cae?enieoe ia
aac? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aaaeeeaiai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iai?yieo –
o?eaioaoi?ee a canoinoaaii? aei oiia ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy ??cieo aaeocae
AIE.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aaciina?aaeiuei iia(ycaia c ieaiii iaeaaaeeea?oeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
ui aeeiiai? iniaenoi aaoi?ii, aai i?ae eiai iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii, o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c Iinoaiiaaie AeEIO N?N? ? 325 a?ae 15.07.80 ?. oa ? 607
a?ae 18.04.91 ?., a yeeo iinoaaeaia caaea/a ?ic?iaee ia?niaeoeaieo
iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a aeey caaacia/aiiy ciinino?eeino? oa
aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei ? iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/ia?e ? ia?a?iai?e
i?iieneiaino?. Aiia oaeiae a?aeiia?aea? i?ei?eoaoiei iai?yieai ?icaeoeo
iaoee ? oaoi?ee, ye? caoaa?aeaeai? Iinoaiiaith A? Oe?a?ie ? 2705 a?ae
16.10.92 ?. ? Iaeacii I?iina?oe ? 330 a?ae 04.12.95 ?. I?e ?? aeeiiaii?
a?aoiaaiee Iaeac Aea?aeeii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue iaoee ? oaoiieia?e
a?ae 03.08.93 ?., i. 3.13 “Noai?aiiy iiaeo aia?ai- ? ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo
oaoiieia?e ia?a?iaee ? caa?aaeaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ne?iaeie”.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii IAe? OAeOOO ii oai? “I?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?” ?
aeeth/a? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, io?eiaieo i?e i?iaaaeaii?
ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o Ae? ?? 01820098059, 78034777, 01840048389,
73071778, 77032221, 01840077771, 01870057011 oa ?i., iai?aaeaieo ia
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaeoaaeueiiai,
oieiaeeeueii-eiii?ani?iiai, i(yni-iiei/iiai, oeoe?iaiai,
eiiaeeoa?nueeiai oa othothiiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy. A i?e aeei?enoai?
?acoeueoaoe ?ia?o, oaeiae aeeiiaieo i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a, ii e?i??
AIOIoi?a?ae? a 1989-1992 ?.? ii oaiao Ae? ?? 4-22, 5-22, 27-22, 62-22,
86-22, iai?aaeaieo ia noai?aiiy ae?eueieoeue ci?oeithaaeueieo oaoiieia?e
a oa?/ia?e ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocyo AIE.

Iaoa ?iaioe: ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiiieaeno iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo
oaoiieia?/ieo, eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo ??oaiue c
a?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaee ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu, ui caaacia/othoue noai?aiiy
oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE c
i?aeaeuaiei ?ano?nii.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe aeaee, caeiiii??iino? ? oa?aeoa? ?oeioaaiiy i?aai?a
iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?.

2. Iaa?oiooaaoe eiiieaenio iaoiaeeeo aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae
oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue i?e aca?iiae?? c ia?iaethaaieie
na?aaeiaeuaie.

3. Aeeiiaoe oai?aoe/i? ? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ciini- ?
ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? noaeae, nieaa?a ? iie?eoo?a ??cieo oei?a a eiioaeo?
c oaoiieia?/ieie, ianoeeueieie ? ianoeeueii-oeaaeiiiaeie na?aaeiaeuaie c
a?aooaaiiyi o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae ciiooaaieo iaoa??ae?a,
?aieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??aeei ? oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue ?o ae?th ia
iiaa?oi? aeaoaeae.

4. Aeoiaey/e c eiioeaioe?? aoiiiiai ciiooaaiiy, ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai
iiaeaethaaiiy o?eeoe?eii-eiioaeoii? no?eeino? oa oa?iiaeeiai?/ii?
iiaeae? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao,
?ic?iaeoe ?ic?aooieiai-aenia?aiaioaeuei? iaoiaee ioe?iee aeiaaia?/iino?
o?eaini?yaeaiue oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Iiaoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy,ui a?aoiao? aieea no?oeoo?e aaoa?iaaiieo
iaoa??ae?a iie?eoo?a. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo i?iaiicoaaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
aeaoaeae oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aenieoaoo?oueny a oiiaao
oaea?ii-aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy.

5. A?oiooth/enue ia oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
oiia ?iaioe oa ciinino?eeino? ??aeo/eo ?ino?oiaio?a o oa?/iaiio oa
ia?a?iaiiio ae?iaieoeoaao ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoeai?, oaoiieia?/i? oa
aenieoaoaoe?ei? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeiaaia?/iino?.

6. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeoe
ia?niaeoeai? oaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee caaacia/aiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
ia?a?iaethaaeueii? oaoi?ee, a oaeiae noai?eoe ? ai?iaaaeeoe a
i?iieneia?noue oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane, iaeaaeiaiiy ? iaoa??aee, ui
aa?aioothoue aenie? aenieoaoaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aaciaeo
oaeaeeiciiooaaieo aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo
ae?iaieoeoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
nenoaiaoeciaai? ? ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a
ciiooaaiiy aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy ? caoenieo iie?eoo?a a oaoiieia?/ieo
na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iai? ? ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?. Noai?aii
eiioeaiooaeueia i?aea?oioy o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy eiino?oeoeaieie,
oaoiieia?/ieie ? aenieoaoaoe?eieie iaoiaeaie. Aiii iie?a?oueny ia
eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue o?ceei-o?i?ei-iaoai?/ii? eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
o?eainiieo/aiue c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu
oa?/iai? ? ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?.

Aia?oa a?oioiaii aeine?aeaeai?, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ? ocaaaeueiai?
caeiiii??iino? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? caoenieo
iie?eoo?a c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa.

Cai?iiiiiaai? oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a, no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy ,
nooeoo?ii-?iia??i?nia iiaeaeue iaae?eiino? iaeaaeiaiiy, iaoiaee
?ic?aooieo oa?i?io neoaeae, ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe,
aeiaaia?/iino? ? ciiooaaiiy neeaaeathoue i?aeaaeeie iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoi?/ieo ??oaiue, ye? iathoue ia iao? caaacia/eoe
iaeaaeiee ??aaiue iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino?.

C iiceoe?e o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaii iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy, aoaeiaa ? aeanoeaino? caoenieo
iie?eoo?a (aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo, aacioa?i?/ieo, aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo oa ?i.), ui
caaacia/o? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei aeai?o caoenieo iie?eoo?a
aeey aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. I?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?/ieo,
eiino?oeoeaieo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? oa
aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo oa ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE.

?ic?iaeai? ?ic?aooieia? iaoiaee ioe?iee aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaoei ?
aia?ao?a a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa,
ui aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe ianya aei?iaoaaiue, cai?ieaoe ?o aiae?oe/ieie
?ic?aooieaie, i?enei?eoe i?iaeooaaiiy iiaiai iaeaaeiaiiy, aeyaeoe
iaiao?aeio iiiaieeaoo?o caianieo /anoei.

?ic?iaeai? niiniae aiae?oe/ii? ioe?iee ?icaeoeo ei?ic?eieo i?ioean?a a
iie?eooyo i?e aca?iiae?? c na?aaeiaeuaie oa aecia/ai? ?o iioeiaeuei?
oiaueie aeey aoaeoeaiiai caoenoo a?ae ei?ic??, iaea?aeai? aeai? i?i
ciinino?ee?noue nieaa?a, o oiio /ene? ? ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii, a
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao ? aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e
aeaioiaeaii?, a?aeiiaeaii? oa ci?oeiaii? aeaoaeae.

Noai?ai? ? ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai iia? i?iieneia? oaoiieia??
ci?oeiaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy iaianaiiyi
aacioa?i?/ieo, acioi?noeeo oa eeanoa?ieo aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo,
aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo ? iaoaeiiie?ia?ieo iie?eoo?a (A.N.1219226, 1244211,
1259689, 1338403). ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeiiai iia? eiino?oeoe?? ??caeueieo
i?eno?i?a aeey i`ynii? ? eiiaeeoa?nueei? i?iieneiaino? c i?aeaeuaiith (a
5…10 ?ac?a) aeiaaia?/i?noth.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeai? ia 30 i?aei?e?inoaao oa a i?aai?caoe?yo
c aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii 3 iei. e?a. Ae?eueieoe? ci?oeithaaeueieo oa
a?aeiiaethaaeueieo oaoiieia?e ai?iaaaeaeai? ia ?IE Ee?anueei?
iaeniiaeeani?eee, E?aiai/ooeueeiio ?IC Oe?othothiao??aa?ii?iio,
Aieio?anueeiio iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae? (?in?y), Eo/ainueeiio oa
Naeeaiie?anueeiio oeoe?iaeo caaiaeao, iaeeo i?aei?e?inoaao “AEAC” ?
“EAI*” (Ee?aec?y), niaoeIIE Ee?aecniiaeeani?eee oa a eaai?aoi??? OAeOOO.

Caoeni? iie?eooy aeey ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae oa ??aeo/iai ?ino?oiaioo
cai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue ia othothiiaeo oaa?eeao i?no Ee?aa, Iaeane, *a?ean,
Oa?eiaa, a OI? IAI Oe?a?ie, ia Ee?anueeiio AI “?ineiea”, ??aiainueeiio
AI “Acio” oa caaiae? “Aenieiaieueoii? aia?aoo?e”, ?acaeiainueeiio
caaiae? “Aeaeo?iaoae?ino?oiaio” (Eaoa?y), *a?eanueeiio AI “Eiiieaen”, o
AAO “Neiaie”, a ?AI “Iie?iii”, ia Ee?anueeiio aeine?aeii-iaoai?/iiio
caaiae? oa a Eioaeoeueeiio oeoe?iaiio eiia?iao?, ia
Eai(yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeiio aaoii?aei?e?inoa? 16868, a Ee?anueeiio AI
“Iaaeaia?aoo?a”.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo ??caeueieo aoce?a aeey iiae??aiaiiy i(yna ?
?ic??caiiy iaeoaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a cae?eniaii ia eiiaeeoa?nueeeo
oaa?eeao i?no Ee?aa, Oa?eiaa, Ia??oiiey, Iineae, ia caaiae?
“Ee?ai?iaeiao”, ia aenia?eiaioaeueiiio i(yniia?a?iaiiio i?aei?e?inoa?
Ee?anueeiai i?nueeeiiioi?ao, i(yniia?a?iaiiio i?aei?e?inoa?
Aaneeuee?anueei? ?aeniiaeeani?eee, *a?eanueeiio i(ynieiia?iao?.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
OAeOOO i?e /eoaii? eaeoe?e c eo?n?a “Iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue
iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino?”, “Oaoiieia?/i? iniiae
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy”, “Iaoa??aeiciaanoai ? oaoiieia?y eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a”, “Aenieoaoaoe?y oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaoei” oa “Iiioaae,
ae?aaiinoeea oa ?aiiio iaeaaeiaiiy”. Aiie canoiniaothoueny nooaeaioaie
i?e aeeiiaii? eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o, a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
ani??aio?a ? iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a.

Iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ocaaaeueiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii aai
a?oiith ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?ae eiai ea??aieoeoaii. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo
aaoi? oi?ioethaaa iaoo, caaea/? ? iinoaiiaeo ?iaioe, aiae?coaaa ?
ocaaaeueithaaa io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe. Iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia
i?noeoue ?aeae aai ?ic?iaie, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai, c yeeie aoee
iaienai? noaoo?. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi aea/ai? caeiiii??iino? ciiooaaiiy,
ei?ic?? ? ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaoaeyie iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ?
ia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa oa cai?iiiiiaai? eiino?oeoeai? oaoiieia?/i? ?
aenieoaoaoe?ei? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aeiaaia?/iino?; ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue; aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? oa
aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a
i?e eiioaeooaaii? c oaoiieia?/ieie na?aaeiaeuaie ? iienaia
o?ceei-o?i?/ia iaoai?ea ?o ?oeioaaiiy; noai?ai? aai aeei?enoai?
ia?niaeoeai? iie?eooy ? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane caoenoo iaeaaeiaiiy a?ae
ciino ? ei?ic??; aeeiiaia iaoaiaoe/ia ioe?iea o?eeoe?eii-eiioaeoii?
no?eeino? caoenieo iie?eoo?a ? ?ic?iaeai? iiaeae? ciiooaaiiy aeaoaeae a
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao; ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? ?ino?oeoe?? ii
ci?oeiaiith oa a?aeiiaeaiith oaeaeeiciiooaaieo aeaoaeae; i?iaaaeaia
iioei?caoe?y oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a oa ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy; i?aeaioiaeai?
oa iioae?eiaai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue. I?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeaeae
o?eaieiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? aeaoaeae c oaoiieia?/ieie na?aaeiaeuaie
caeiaoaa/a eiinoeueooaaee aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie A.A. Iaianthe, ae.o.i.
A.I. Aieoaaoeue, ae.o.i. I.?. Iaoa/ei. Iaoiaeeea oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai
aiae?co aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a iaaiai?thaaeanue c ae.o.i. I.A.
E?iae?a/oeii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa iiaeoe?a THiaa
iaoa??ae?a aeeiiai? ca ni?eyiiy ni?a?ia?oiee?a Ooeuenueeiai oaoi?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (?in?y) e.o.i. I.I. Ii?icthea oa e.o.i. I.A. Oii?/iai?.
Iioaioe?inoaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii ?acii c anenoaioaie I.A.
Aecthaii oa I.Ae. Eetheii. O?ceei-iaoai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee acioi?noeeo
iie?eoo?a aecia/aeenue a EAI “Iaaeaia?aoo?a” i?e eiinoeueooaaii? c
e.o.i. A.O. Iaaeaiei. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oeoe?iaeo caaiae?a i?iaaaeai? c
o?aooaaiiyi ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ae.o.i. I.I. Iooaiei oa ae.o.i. I.A.
Nieiaoaa, a a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oieiaeeeueii-eiii?ani?iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy – c o?aooaaiiyi ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e e.o.i. A.?. Aiooiaoa. ?yae
aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaii a i?ioean? eiinoeueooaaiiy ani??aio?a oa
iiooeoaa/?a: Eeoaeiaiea I.A., Eethea I.Ae., Iaeea?ia A.?., O?oe?ia I.I.
Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii ca o/anoth
iaoeiaiai eiinoeueoaioa I.?. Iaeica.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeeny oa aoee iaaiai?ai? ia 22-o Ananithcieo ?
?anioae?eainueeeo ia?aaeao, eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, 6-o i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? neiiic?oiao, iaeaaaeeea?o? c yeeo: Ananithcia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “I?iaeooaaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy, aenieoaoaoe?y
oa ae?aaiinoeea aoce?a oa?oy a iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?” (?ea?inuee, 1983);
Ananithcia eiioa?aioe?y iieiaeeo a/aieo oa niaoe?ae?no?a “Oaeineiiaeaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo aeae?a oa?/iaeo i?iaeoeo?a ?
aeii?oie” (Ee?a, 1989); Ananithcia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y
“Ciinino?ee?noue iaoei” (A?yinuee, 1991); I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia
eiioa?aioe?y “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e ? iaeaaeiaiiy
o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iai? aaeoc? AIE” (Ee?a, 1993); Anaoe?a?inueea
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” (Ee?a,
1995 ?.); I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “?ic?iaeaiiy oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo ?ano?niiuaaeieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy a
oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue” (Ee?a, 1997 ?.); 3-e I?aeia?iaeiee
neiiic?oi oe?a?inueeeo ?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a o Eueaia? (Euea?a, 1997 ?.);
Ae?oaa I?aeia?iaeia Eiioa?aioe?y “Eiino?oeoe?ei? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iaoa??aee” “EOI`97” (Euea?a, 1997 ?.).

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa a oe?eiio iaaiai?thaaeany ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao a
OAeOOO, a O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i. A.A.Ea?iaiea IAIO oa a IOO
“EI?”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 50 iaoeiaeo ?ia?o
caaaeueiei ia(?iii 22 oi. –ae?oe.a?e. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeai? a 3-o iiiia?ao?yo, 20-oe iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao (10 iiiinoaoae) oa 6-oe aaoi?nueeeo
na?aeioeoaao ? iaoaioao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
naie ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 457
iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoe?a c aeieoiaioaie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaie, i?noeoue 295
noi??iie, 150 ?enoie?a ? 80 oaaeeoeue.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? ?icaeyaeathoueny nooi?noue ? noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie oa ?o
cia/aiiy, iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
oi?ioeth?oueny iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe, aecia/a?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, iiaea?oueny
aiioaoe?y aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaio i?iaeaie, oi?ioethaaii? iaoe ?
aecia/aiith caaea/, ?ica(ycaiiy yeeo iaiao?aeia aeey ?o aeinyaiaiiy.

Ia iniia? aiae?co oiia ?iaioe ? i?e/ei ao?aoe i?aoeacaeaoiino? aeaoaeae
iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE (ia i?eeeaae? oeoe?iai?,
ieai-aacaeeiaieueii?, oe?aiiaea?ii?, eiiaeeoa?nueei?, i`yni-iiei/ii?,
othothiiai? i?iieneiaino?, a oaeiae aeaoaeae oieiaeeeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy)
iieacaii, ui iniiaieie i?e/eiaie, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?o oaeaeeiai
ni?aoethaaiiy, ? aeniea iaoai?/ia ? o?i?/ia aa?aneaiinoue ciai?oi?o
na?aaeiaeu oa aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a.
Iniaeeai o aaaeeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? ciaoiaeyoueny iaoeie ? aia?aoe,
?iai/? i?aaie yeeo i?aoeththoue aaciina?aaeiuei a ei?ic?eii-aa?aneaieo
na?aaeiaeuao – aeeooc?eiiio nioe?, iiei/i?e ne?iaaooe?, ne?i?e ian?,
ieth/eo ? aeac?ioaeoth/eo ?ic/eiao oiui. Oa?i?ie neoaeae oaeiai
iaeaaeiaiiy iaaaeee? ? aiii iiai?noth aai /anoeiai aeoiaeeoue c eaaeo
/a?ac 2-3 ?iee aiane?aeie ciiooaaiiy ? ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy aeaoaeae
i?ae ae??th o?i?/ii- ? iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeu. ?yae aeaoaeae a
oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino? neoaothoue a?ae iaeiiai oeaeiy aei aeae?eueeio
i?nyoe?a.

A?oiooth/enue ia ?acoeueoaoao aeine?aeaeaiue, c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui
iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue iaeaaeiaiiy aecia/a?oueny ciinino?ee?noth
aeaoaeae. ?acii c oei, aeei?enoaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a aeey iieno
iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oo?oaeiaii /a?ac a?ae
noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo ? neeaaei?noue iaoai?/ieo ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo
i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a i?ae ae??th iaaaioaaeaiue ? ?iai/eo
na?aaeiaeu. C iaeyaeo ia oea, iaea?eueo i?aaeeueiei iai?yieii ?icaeoeo
iaoiae?a ioe?iee iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino?, ui i?aoeth? a ei?ic?eii-aeoeaieo na?aaeiaeuao, ?
ii?aeiaiiy ?iia??i?nieo iaoiae?a c aea/aiiyi o?ceei-o?i?/ii? nooiino?
i?ioean?a, ye? i?io?eathoue a ?iai/eo oa?ao aeaoaeae. Ine?eueee
ianoaaeai? iaoeie, iaeaaeiaiiy oa aia?aoe aeoiaeyoue c eaaeo ii i?e/ei?
ciiooaaiiy ? ei?ic??, oi aacith aeey aecia/aiiy iieaciee?a iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? iiaeii? aooe e?eoa??? ei?ic?? aai ciino.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeey ?ice?eooy iaoai?cio ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai
ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a a ??aeeiieo aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa iaiao?aeii ?icaeyiooe oa?iiaeeiai?/io nenoaio, ui
ca`yco? iae?ineii?/i? ia?aiao?e ia`?eoo ? iaaaioaaeaiue c
aeaeo?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie aioo??oiuei? aca?iiae?? oa ?oeioaaiiy.
Caa?iooi oaaao ia oa, ui noi?niee e?euee?niee aiae?c ??cii??aeieo
i?ioean?a iiaeeeaee i?e aaaaeai? oi?aa?naeueieo aia?aaoe/ieo e?eoa???a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a oa?iiaeeiai?ee iacai?ioieo i?ioean?a. ?icaeyiooi
no/ani? iaoiaee caaacia/aiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
iaeaaeiaiiy ? iieacai? i?eeeaaee ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

O?eueee ia iniia? aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy
aeaoaeae, anoaiiaeaii? e?eoa???a ?o aeiaaia?/iino? c iiceoe?e
o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee iaoa??ae?a iiaeia ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee
eiiieaeniiai i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? oaoiieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy a oa?/iaiio oa ia?a?iaiiio ae?iaieoeoaao. Oe? ia?aaeoiiae ?
aecia/eee iniiai? caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/iiai
oa oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe
e?euee?ni? ? ye?ni? ia?aiao?e i?ioean?a, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?oeioaaiiy
? ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a oa iie?eoo?a, ioe?ieoe aeanoeaino? iiaa?oiaaeo
ie?aie aoi?eiieo no?oeoo?, e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e aeaeo?io?i?/ieo ?
iaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a, i?e/eie ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a aeaoaeae i?e
oa?o? ? aieea ia oea oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo
ae?iaieoeoa, iiaeeeaino? oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy i?e EIC a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa i?iaiaeeeenue ia iniia? iieiaeaiue o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
iaoai?ee iaoa??ae?a, i?aeaaeeie yei? caeeaaeai? I.I. ?aa?iaea?ii, I.I.
Aoiaoiaei, A.A. Ea?iaieii, A.I. I?aenii, I.?. Iaeicii, I.A. Nieiaoaii oa
?i. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiae aacothoueny ia oai??yo aoiiiiai ciiooaaiiy
?.A. E?aaaeuenueeiai oa no?oeoo?ii? i?enoiniaoaaiino? A.?.
Einoaoeueeiai.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ciinino?eeino? i?e oa?o? a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa aeei?enoiaoaaeenue na??ei? iaoeie oa?oy NIOe–2,
NIO–1, I–22I oa I22–I, a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? noaiaee ? onoaiiaee.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?oy oa ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a i?iaiaeeeenue ca noaiaie
oi?oeueiaiai oa?oy, aae-oeeaaeea i?aeoeiieea, aae-eaci iiaea,
eaci-?ao?oea, eaci-iaai?oea-eaci oa ?i. Noaiaee aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
i?iaiaeeoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae ? ieoiieo iaaaioaaeaiue ia eiioaeo? a cii? oa?oy.

Aeaeo?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a ioe?ithaaeenue ca
aaee/eiith ? oa?aeoa?ii ci?ie a /an? aeaeo?iaeieo iioaioe?ae?a.
Ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue iaoae?a ? caoenieo iie?eoo?a aecia/aeenue ca?aeii c
AINO 9012–73. Aeine?aee ia ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue a oiiaao ia??iaee/iiai
cii/oaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia niaoe?aeueii aeaioiaeai?e onoaiiaoe?.
Oaeaee?noue i?iieeiaiiy ei?ic?? aecia/aeanue ca?aeii c AINO 9.908–85.
Ii?eno?noue iie?eoo?a aecia/aeany iaoiaeii iaeeaaeoaaiiy
o?eueo?oaaeueiiai iaia?o. Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue ?
niinoa?aaeaiue i?iaiaeeeanue ca?aeii AINO8.207–76.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai oa?oy oa iiaeoe?a i?oaeiino? iaoa??ae?a
i?iaiaeeee ia e?eiaa?oeia?e onoaiiaoe? a Ooeuenueeiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao?. Iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a
i?iaiaeeee ia i?e?ineiiao IAN–2, Iaioio oa ?ano?iaeo aeaeo?iiieo
i?e?ineiiao. Caeeoeia? iai?oaeaiiy a iie?eooyo aecia/aeenue ca iaoiaeii
Ia?o? oa Aeaaeaeaieiaa. I?oei?noue c/aieaiiy iie?eoo?a c iniiaith
aecia/aeanue ca iaoiaeii ooeooa. Oacia? ia?aoai?aiiy a aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo
nieaaao i?e iaa??aaii? aecia/aeenue ca aeiiiiiaith oa?iia?ao?/iiai
aiae?co. Iiaa?oi? oa?oy aea/aeenue iaoiaeaie iioe/ii? ?
aeaeo?iiii?ano?iai? i?e?ineii??. Iaea – niaeo?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue ia IAEA – niaeo?iiao?? “Aeaeaii 10N”. Aecia/aiiy
a?aeiiniiai ai?noo aiaeith a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao aeaoaeae cae?enithaaee ia
aia?ai-ian-aiae?caoi?? eaca?iiio AIAE–2 o aaeooi?.

Aeine?aee ia ciiooaaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a iiaeaeueieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo
na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa: aeenoeeueiaai?e oa aei?noe?e aiae?,
15 % ?ic/ei? oeoe?o, eoaeiiio (?I11) oa eeneeo (?I4-?I6.5) iiaeaeueieo
na?aaeiaeuao, a oaeiae a aeeooc?eiiio nioe?, aaiiyiiio iieioe? oa
naoo?iaaiiio nioe?. Iaea?eueo aa?aneai? eene? na?aaeiaeua oe?aiiaea?ii?
i?iieneiaino? iiaeaethaaeeny iiaeaeueiei ?ic/eiii oe?aa, a iiei/ii? – ca
aeiiiiiaith iiei/ii? ne?iaaoee. Aei?iaoaaiiy iiae?a aia/e?a
cae?enithaaee a oiiaao i`yniia?a?iaieo i?aei?e?inoa. Na?aaeiaeua
ieai-aacaeeiaieueii? i?iieneiaino? iiaeaethaaeenue aei?noeith aiaeith,
iane/aiith aoaeaeeneei aacii, c aeiaaaeaiiyi nie?oo, oeoe?o, ae?oea?eio,
a oaeiae i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aee a iea?. Aa?aceai? na?aaeiaeua
othothiiai? i?iieneiaino? iiaeaethaaeenue ca aeiiiiiaith ??/iiai i?neo
oa aeaeo?iei?oiaeo. Aeey iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei na?aaeiaeua
iiaeaethaaeinue aoeeaoii IAeIAA – 40, yeee oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a
eiiaeeoa?nuee?e i?iieneiaino?. Ianoeeueii-oeaaeiiia? na?aaeiaeua
oieiaeeeueieo eiii?ani??a iiaeaethaaeinue ianoeeaie, iane/aieie
oeaaeiiaie.

O o?aoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ciiooaaiiy ?
ei?ic?? eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a a iiaeaeueieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ciinino?ee?noue ii?iae?ciaaii?, caaa?oiaaii? ?
aeaeo?ie?oe/ii acioiaaii? noae? 40O, /aaoio N* 20, a oaeiae
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a c a?iice A? IOeN-5-5-5,
i?eaeue-aethi?i??aiai nieaao II85TH15, naiioethniaaieo nieaa?a
ae?iaieoeoaa Ooea/i?iao ? OCION, a oaeiae aeine?aei? nieaae OI? oa ?II
IAI Oe?a?ie – aaoaeoe/i? ? ea?ai?/i? iaoa??aee. Aei?iaoaaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue i?e oa?o? ii iaoaeaaeo eiio?o?eao c noae? 45 ? /aaoio N*
20 aac ciauoaaiiy ? a eeneeo iiaeaeueieo na?aaeiaeuao ao?yeioeoe?iaiai,
oe?aiiaea?iiai, ieai-aacaeeiaieueiiai oa iiei/iiai ae?iaieoeoa. A
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo aeine?aeaeaia e?iaoeea ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ? aecia/aiee aeae ciiooaaiiy, yeee iio?i iiaeaethaaany a
eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a oa eiio?o?e
aecia/a?oueny ?o neeaaeii ? aeanoeainoyie ? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia ?iaioe.
Ca nooiaiai c?inoaiiy ciinino?eeino? i?e nooiio oa?o? (?en. 1, a)
iie?eooy iiaeia ?icoaooaaoe ianooiiei /eiii:(eii?o?ei /aaoi N* 20) –
Cr2O3 ( A?A10 ( Mn28 ( A?I10 ( (Al2O3+3%TiO2) ( II85TH15 ( oeoaiiaee
aeaeo?iei?oiae ( ?ooeeiaee eiioeaio?ao; (eiio?o?ei noaeue 45) – Mn28 (
A?A10 ( (Al2O3+3%TiO2) ( A?I10 ( Cr2O2 ( II85TH15 ( ?ooeeiaee
eiioeaio?ao ( oeoaiiaee aeaeo?iei?oiae. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe na?ae/aoue,
ui i?aea?? iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeyueo iaoa??ae?a aeey ia? oa?oy eiacaiiy
iiaeia c?iaeoe a eiaeiiio ie?aiiio aeiaaeeo o?eueee ia iniia? noa?aiiiai
ni?anoaaeaiiy oiia ?iaioe ia? oa?oy, aeo?aeieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??ae?a ?
oeo ci?i, yeei aiie i?aeaeathoueny a i?ioean? oa?oy.

Aeyaeaii, ui a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao caeiiii??iino? ?oeioaaiiy
iie?eoo?a ci?iththoueny. Oa?aeoa? i?ioeano ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai
ciiooaaiiy aecia/a?oueny ianaiia?aae i?e?iaeith iaoa??aeo iie?eooy, eiai
ei?ic?eiith no?ee?noth oa ii?eno?noth. Ii?eno?noue ni?ey? aeoeaaoe??
ei?ic?eieo i?ioean?a ii aeeaei? iie?eooy ? ia iiaa?oi? eiio?o?ea. A
iiaeaeueiiio ?ic/ei? o?noa e?aueie ? iie?eooy c ieneaeo o?iio ?
oeoaienoiai aeaeo?iei?oiaeo, a??oeie – iie?eooy c a?iice A?A10 (?en.
1,a). Oa?oy a?iiciaeo iie?eoo?a a ia?? c /aaoiii N* 20 ? noaeeth 45
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeiaaeaiiyi ia inoaii?o i?ae?, yea, a naith /a?ao,
i?e eiioaeo? c a?iicith ni?ey? c/aieaiith iiaa?oiiue c?acea oa eiio?o?ea
? i?ecaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiai ni?aoethaaiiy naiiai iie?eooy. Iecueeo
ciinino?ee?noue iathoue ? iie?eooy c ii?ioeo nieaao II85TH15.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy a eeneiio na?aaeiaeu?, yea iiaeaeth?
na?aaeiaeua ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa c ?I 4.4, na?ae/aoue, ui
iaea?eueo ciinino?eeeie a ia?? oa?oy c? noaeeth 45 ? iie?eooy c
ii?iaeueiiai aeaeo?iei?oiaeo, ieneaeo o?iio oa i?eaeue-aethi?i??aiai
nieaao (?en. 1, a). Ciinino?ee?noue iie?eoo?a c ii?ioe?a IA–19I–01 ?
IO–19I–01 i?eaeecii a 2–2.5 ?ace ieae/a. Ciinino?ee?noue noae? 45 a ia??
oa?oy c iie?eooyie, ye? aei?iaiaoaaeenue o oeueiio na?aaeiaeu?,
i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa.

?icoaooaaiiy iie?eoo?a ii ciinino?eeino? a iiei/i?e ne?iaaooe? ia
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ii?yaeeo a ?ioeo eeneeo na?aaeiaeuao, aea
?ioaineai?noue ni?aoethaaiiy c?ace?a a oeueiio aeiaaeeo i?eaeecii a 3
?ace iaioa. Oea iiynith?oueny i?enooi?noth a ne?iaaooe? caeeoe?a a?ee?a
oa aee?o, ye? aeiaeaoeiai ciauothoue iiaa?oi? oa?oy. Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c
?acoeueoao?a aei?iaoaaiue iie?eoo?a iieaco?, ui ?o ii?yaeie a ?yaeo
ciinino?eeino? aeey an?o aea?aieo na?aaeiaeu iaeiaeiaee. Oea aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aecia/aiiy a?aeiinii? ciinino?eeino? ieaciiaeo
iie?eoo?a a eeneeo oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa iaeei
c iiaeaeueieo ?ic/ei?a (cie?aia aooa?i? ?ic/eie aeaicai?uaiiai
oinoi?iieeneiai iao??th ? eeiiiii? eeneioe a aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae?, ye?
iathoue aaeeeo noaa?euei?noue aeanoeainoae).

Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c iieacaa, ui iaoai?ci ?oeioaaiiy ?iai/eo
iiaa?oiiue c?ace?a c iaoae?/ieie ? ieneaeieie iie?eooyie a eeneeo
na?aaeiaeuao ??ciee. I?e oeueiio iaoae?/i? iie?eooy ciioothoueny ca
iaoai?ciii, iienaiei A.I.I?aenii, I.A.Nieiaoaii, I.?.Iaeicii oa ?ioeie
aeine?aeieeaie. A oiiaao ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy oeeo nieaa?a
i?iyaey?oueny oaiiiaoai?/iee aoaeo, aea aieea iaoai?/iiai oaeoi?o ?
a?eueoei ? oiio iie?eooy ca ca?eueoaiiyi ciinino?eeino? ?icoaoiaai? ?
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?o i?e?ioaa?ae?noth: II85TH15, IO–19I–01, IO–19I–01.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue ieneaeieo iie?eoo?a o oeeo oiiaao
aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
(e?eoeino?, ieanoe/iino?), a oaeiae aaeaac??th ? eiaac??th oa??a, ye?
iaiinyoueny i?e iaieeaii?, ? iaei caeaaeaoue a?ae aeaeo?io?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu. Ni?aoethaaiiy oaeeo iie?eoo?a
a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii aee?eooaaiiy i?e?i/anoeiie, ye? aeeiiothoue ?ieue
aa?aceao. I?ioa, i?ney noaa?e?caoe?? oa?oy, oea ia aeeeeea? iii?oii?
?ioaineo?eaoe?? ciino. Iie?eooy c ieneae?a, iath/e aaeeeo iano/o
caeaoi?noue, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii? o aaaeeiiaaaioaaeaieo aoceao
oa?oy. Oae, a ?iaioao I.A.Nieiaoaa iieacaii, ui ??cea ca?eueoaiiy
?ioaineaiino? ciiooaaiiy ? eiao?oe??ioa oa?oy a ia?? “Noaeue-a?iica” a
15%-iiio eeneiio ?ic/ei? oeoe?o c ?I4.5 ianooia? ca ?aooiie
noiiethaaiiy i?e oeneia? a cii? oa?oy 2–3 Iia. Aeey ia? oa?oy “Noaeue 45
– iie?eooy c ii?ioeo Cr2O3” ? “Noaeue 45 – ?ooeeiaee eiioeaio?ao” a
aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao aei?iaoaaiue ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy ? eiao?oe??io
oa?oy i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? oeneo a cii? oa?oy aei
12 IIa. Oea ?iaeoue ia?niaeoeaiei aeei?enoaiiy ii?ioe?a ieneae?a a
oiiaao aaeeeeo iaaaioaaeaiue ? ae?? aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa.

Aei?iaoaaiiy ciinino?eeino? aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a a oiiaao aa?aceaiiai
ciiooaaiiy iieacaei, ui i?e oa?o? ii ia aei?noei cae??ieaieo /anoeao
aa?aceao ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue iiaeooue caeaaeaoe a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?ici???a ii? a iie?eoo? ? ?ici??o aa?aceao. Cie?aia,
aei?iaoaaiiy iie?eoo?a II85TH15 (nenoaia Ni3Al) ? II70TH30 (nenoaia
N?Al) i?e oa?o? ii a?eueieo /anoeieao aa?aceao (iiaeaethaaiiy
oaoiieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua othothiiaeo oaa?ee) iieacaei, ui iie?eooy
II85TH15 ia? iaioo no?ee?noue, i?ae iie?eooy II70TH30, ui coiiaeaii
a?eueoith ii?eno?noth inoaiiueiai. A oiiaao aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy
ca?eueoaiiy ii?enoino? iiaea iiceoeaii aieeiooe ia no?ee?noue iie?eoo?a.

Ii ?ioiio aieeaa? ii?eno?noue ia ciinino?ee?noue iie?eoo?a a oiiaao
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy. I?e aei?iaoaaii? iie?eoo?a a ?ic/ei?,
yeee iiaeaeth? o?ainii?oa?ii-ieth/o aiaeo aeyaeeinue, ui iane/aiiy
iie?eooy IO–THIO16N?3 aa?iaoeeii ? ianoeeii cieaeothoue aonoeio no?oio
ei?ic?? a?aeiia?aeii a 1.8 oa 1.2 ?ace, ui iiynith?oueny ?cieyoe??th ii?
? aaeueioaaiiyi ei?ic?eieo i?ioean?a. Iaea?eueo iiceoeaiee aeaeo?iaeiee
iioaioe?ae, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaeiaioei cia/aiiyi aonoeie ? no?oio
ei?ic?? (oaae.1) iiaeeco iaeano? iaeeo ia?aiai?oaeaiue aoa o iie?eooy
IA–10I–01, iieaaeaiiai a ia/? (e?eaa 2 ia ?en.2).

Aeei?enoaiiy aeey iane/aiiy iie?ia??a iiaea iaaeeceoe ei?ic?eio
no?ee?noue iaiieaaeaieo iie?eoo?a IO–THIO16N?3 aei no?eeino? iieaaeaiiai
a ia/? iie?eooy IA–10I–01 (naiioethniaaiiai aaoaeoe/iiai).

Oaeei /eiii, iie?eooy, ye? i?aoeththoue a oiiaao ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai
ciiooaaiiy, iiaeii? iaoe ia o?eueee aenie? iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino?, aea e
aenieo ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue (oaae.1). Ine?eueee aacioa?i?/i? iie?eooy ia
nooe?euei?, oi i?ioean ei?ic?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy iniiae, eieae?co?oueny a
ii?ao iie?eoo?a. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? iniiaiiai iaoaeo
o aaeee?e i??? caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae iaoa??aeo iie?eooy, aea e a?ae
eiai oiaueie.

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeaeo?io?i?/i? oa o?eaieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a

Iie?eooy (, iA ?, iA/i2 (*, ii3/ii3

IO–THIO16N?3: iane/aia ianoeeii –580 210 2.29

IO–THIO16N?3: iane/aia aa?iaoeeii –570 180 1.89

IO–THIO16N?3: aac iane/aiiy –520 330 1.92

IA–10I–01: i?ney iieaaeaiiy NA* –490 230 0.92

IA–10I–01: i?ney iieaaeaiiy a ia/? –440 87 0.35

*( – ciinino?ee?noue ii a?aeiioaiith aei caaa?oiaaii? noae? 45

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?eaioaoi?/i? aeanoeaino? ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy aecia/athoueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ei?ic?eiiai ? iaoai?/iiai oaeoi??a. I?e oeueiio, i?e
iaaaeeeeo ? ? V a?eueo nooo?aee aieea ia? ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue ?
niinoa??aa?oueny ei?aeyoe?y c aaee/eiith ni?aoethaaiiy. Oae,
ciinino?ee?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo iie?eoo?a c?inoa? a oaeiio ae ii?yaeeo
ye ? ca?eueoaiiy ei?ic?eii? no?eeino?: IOTH5I + IO–THIO16N?3 ( II85TH15
( II55O45 (?en.3). I?e i?aeaeuaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy oa oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy
ciin iie?eooy II55O45 ??cei ca?eueoo?oueny ? ia?aaa?oo? aaee/eio
ni?aoethaaiiy iaio ei?ic?eiino?eeiai iie?eooy. Oea coiiaeaii
i?aaaethaaiiyi i?ioeano iaoai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy iiaa?oi? iaae ei?ic??th.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeiiii??iino? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iaoae?a,
aacioa?i?/ieo ? aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo iie?eoo?a a naeueieeiaeo ou?eueiaiiyo
a?aeoeaio?iaeo ianin?a, ye? ia?aea/othoue oaoiieia?/i? na?aaeiaeua
oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa. Iieacaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo
iaoa??ae?a caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae ?iai/iai na?aaeiaeua. I?e ?iaio?
a o?i?/ii-aeoeaiiio na?aaeiaeu? aiia aecia/a?oueny aioeei?ic?eieie
aeanoeainoyie oa aeanoeainoyie aoi?eiieo no?oeoo?, ui ooai?ththoueny ia
iiaa?oi? oa?oy. A?eueo aeniea ciinino?ee?noue iaoae?a ? iie?eoo?a a
aeeooc?eiiio nioe? ii??aiyii c eeneeie aooa?ieie ?ic/eiaie coiiaeaia
iayai?noth a iueiio

iiaa?oiaai aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, ee?oeiaeie. Ooai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? oa?oy
a?eueo i?oeieo ieneaeieo ie?aie, a oaeiae ianeaoth/eo ie?aie c II– –
?ii?a, ye? ia?aoeiaeaeathoue ?icaeoeo ei?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, ciaioo? ciin
iie?eoo?a a eoaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? aei 5–9 ?ac?a ii??aiyii c
aei?iaoaaiiyie a aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae?.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ia?aiao??a oa?oy ? iiey?ecaoe?? o?eeoe?eii? nenoaie
ia i?aoeacaeaoi?noue aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a i?e ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiio
ciiooaaii? a 3% ?ic/ei? NaCl. Iieacaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue iie?eoo?a a
cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny aeaeo?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui i?io?eathoue
a cii? oa?oy, oaeaee?noue ? oa?aeoa? yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oeoo?e
iie?eooy, eiai o?i?/iiai ? oaciaiai neeaaeo. Iaea?eueoith no?ee?noth a
3% ?ic/ei? NaCl oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aaoaeoe/i? iie?eooy OI?–2, OI?–3,
eaaiaai? i?eaeai. I?aeoaa?aeaeaia iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iie?eoo?a oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy
iioaioe?aeo a cii? oa?oy iiey?ecaoe??th ciai?oi?i aeaea?aeii no?oio
(?en. 4).

I?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
? caoenieo iie?eoo?a a ianoeeueieo ? ianoeeueii-oeaaeiiiaeo
na?aaeiaeuao. I?e iayaiino? ianoeeueii-oeaaeiiiaiai na?aaeiaeua
eiao?oe??io oa?oy a 1.3–1.7 ?ac?a, a ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy a 1.5–8
?ac?a aeu?, i?ae i?e aei?iaoaaii? a /enoiio ianoee?. Aeeeth/aiiy
neeaaeathoue ia?e oa?oy c ?iiii-ieaciiaeie iie?eooyie i?o?eaeo oeoaio ?
aaiaae?th. ?o o?eaioaoi?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia caeaaeaoue a?ae
na?aaeiaeua ? i?aeoe/ii noaa?euei? a caaeaiiio ae?aiacii? oaeaeeino?
eiacaiiy. Oea coiiaeth? ?o ia?niaeoeai?noue aeey ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae
oieiaeeeueieo eiii?ani??a.

Aeyaeaii, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia oa?oy iiaeooue ?aae?ciaoaaoeny
aoaeoe aea??eiaiai ia?aiino oa ?aa?iaea?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui nooo?aee
aieea ia ?aae?caoe?th aea??eiaiai ia?aiino ia? aeei?enoaiiy
aacioa?i?/iiai iie?eooy nenoaie Fe – C – Si – Ti a ia?? c a?iicith
A?.IOeN – 5 – 5 –5. A ia?? oa?oy c aacioa?i?/iei iie?eooyi nenoaie Fe –
C – Si – Al yaeua aea??eiaiai ia?aiino ia niinoa??aa?oueny.

Ca aeiiiiiaith iiaiioaeoi?iiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo io?eiai?
noaoenoe/i? iiaeae?, ye? aaeaeaaoii anoaiiaeththoue ca`ycie i?ae ciinii
iie?eooy (Y1), eiio?o?ea (Y2) ? eiao?oe??ioii oa?oy (Y3) oa ia?aiao?aie
oa?oy (O1 – ieoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy; O2 – uaeaee?noue eiacaiiy), cie?aia
i?e oa?o? aaoaeoe/iiai iie?eooy ia iniia? cae?ca, eaaiaaiiai aethi?i??i,
ii eiio?o?eo c ieaeiaaiiai nieaao AE–4 a ianoeeueii-oeaaeiiiaiio
na?aaeiaeu?:

Y1=1,63+0,97O1–0,152O2+0,490O1O2+0,370O12+0,397O22; (1)

Y2=11,95+4,02O1+0,61O2+2,92O1O2–1,82O12+0,81O22; (2)

Y3=0,045+0,008O1–0,022O2–0,004O1O2+0,009O12+0,018O22 (3)

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ?ic?iaeaieo iiaeo
aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo iie?eoo?a a iiaeaeueieo ?ic/eiao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa
(iaeo?aeueieo, eeneeo, eoaeieo) iieacaa, ui a eeneeo na?aaeiaeuao
aeaeo?ie?oe/ii acioiaai? noae? ia no?ee?, aea iathoue i?aeaeuaio
no?ee?noue a iaeo?aeueieo oa eoaeieo na?aaeiaeuao. I?ioa acioiaai?
aeaoae? a eeneeo na?aaeiaeuao iathoue ieneaei? ie?aee, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeia?eie ae?aioth/eie aeanoeainoyie, a acioiaai? oa?e
a?aecia/athoueny “aa?`??iei aoaeoii”, coiiaeaiei aii?yaeeiaaiith
e?enoae?/iith no?oeoo?ith ? i?aeaeuaiith aia?a??th ca`yceo i?ae aoiiaie,
ye? aaeueiothoue aeo?ae aeeneieaoe?e. Noiiethaaiiy aeaeo?ie?oe/ii
acioiaaieo iiaa?oiiue c oe??? i?e/eie iaa?oue i?e aaeeeeo oeneao ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny.

Oeoe?ica i?enooiy a aaaaoueio oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa. Aeeooc?eiee, noeueo?oiaaiee, naoo?iaaiee, aeaoaeiaaiee
niee, ne?iie, oooaeue, iaoiea a ao?yeioeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa? iathoue o
nai?io neeaae? oeoe?ico. Ciaiooth/e aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue ?ic/eio, aiia
aaeueio? i?ioeane ei?ic?? cae?ciaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae ? iie?eoo?a,
i?aeaeuo? ciinino?ee?noue ? cieaeo? eiao?oe??io oa?oy (?en. 5). ?? aieea
caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo?io?i?/ii? aeoeaiino? na?aaeiaeua. Aeiaeaaaiiy 15%
oeoe?ice aei aeenoeeueiaaii? aiaee i?aeaeuo? ciinino?ee?noue
ii?iae?ciaaii? ? acioiaaii? noae? 40O a?aeiia?aeii a 4 ? 2, a aei
aooa?iiai ?ic/eio eeiiiii? eeneioe a 1,5 oa 1,3 ?ace.

C iaoith ?ic?iaee ciinino?eeeo iaieaai/ieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaii
o?ceei-o?i?/i? i?ioeane, ui iathoue i?noea i?e aa?aceaiiio ciiooaaii?.
Aecia/aii iioeiaeueiee ai?no e?aii?th a iaoa??aeao ia Fe–Cr–Ni – iniia?,
ui caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae, ci?oeiaieo
ieaciiaei iaieaaeaiiyi, a 2–7 ?ac?a. C?iaeaii ni?iao iia`ycaoe ci?io
no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a iaieaaeaieo Fe–Cr–Ni–Si iie?eoo?a c ??aiai ?o
aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino?. Iieacaii, ui ia ciinino?ee?noue iieioe?a
ca?iiiiae??aithaa/?a nooo?ai aieeaa? ??aaiue aeeooc?? aoiinoa?iiai
eenith.

Iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy eaa?oaoe?eii-a?ic?eiiai ciiooaaiiy
aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a o i??ni?e aiae? oa 3% ?ic/ei? NaCl. I?iaiae?ciaaii
aieea no?oeoo?e ? iniiaieo o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iie?eoo?a,
iaea?aeaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi eiioeaio?iaaieo aeaea?ae aia?a??, ia
iaoai?ci ? e?iaoeeo ?o eaa?oaoe?eiiai ciiooaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoe?y
i?ae oaeaee?noth eaa?oaoe?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy, ?ici??ii no?oeoo?ieo
neeaaeiaeo ? iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iie?eooy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoeaieo,
oaoiieia?/ieo ? aenieooaoe?eieo iaoiae?a i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
??aeo/eo ?ino?oiaio?a aeey oa?/iai? ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui ??caeuei? i?eno?i? iaeoaaeueieo iaoei ? aia/e?a aeey
iiae??aiaiiy i(yna iathoue iaaeinoaoith iaae?ei?noue ? aeiaaia?/i?noue
/a?ac iecueeo no?ee?noue iiae?a, yea ? iaei??th c iniiaieo i?e/ei /anoeo
coieiie caai?ooaaeueieo aaoiiao?a oa aia/e?a, cieaeaiiy ?o
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? ca?eueoaiiy a?aeo.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aieiaiei iaaeie?eii ??caeueieo
aoce?a caai?ooaaeueieo iaoei eiiaeeoa?nueei? i?iieneiaino?, ye?
ae?iaeythoueny ia a?o/eciyieo caaiaeao oa ca ei?aeiiii, ? aeei?enoaiiy
oeee?iae?ia?ia?aie?/ieo noai ??caiiy. Ca oe??th noaiith eaci ?ooiiiai
iiaea ooai?th? i?e iaa?oaii? o i?inoi?? oeee?iae?e/io iiaa?oith , a eaci
ia?ooiiiai iiaea i?e ?iaa?n?? iaa?oaiiy iieno? iiaa?oith a?ia?aiei?aea
iaa?oaiiy, ai eooe ?o iaoeeo aei ai?eciioaeueii? ieiueie ia iaeiaeia?.
Oe? aea? iiaa?oi? iaiiaeeeai noi?noeoe ? aocie iaiiaeeeai iaeaaiaeeoe
aeey ?iaioe aac iaeaioaaiiy ??aeo/eo eac iiae?a, ui cieaeo?
ciinino?ee?noue ?ino?oiaioo.

Aea?aia ?aoe?iiaeueia noaia ??caiiy ? iaaiaeyoueny oai?aoe/i? iniiae
?ic?aooieo ??caeueieo i?eno?i?a a?ia?aie?/iiai neiao?e/iiai oeio.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui a?ia?aie?/ia noaia ??caiiy, i?e ye?e eooe iaoeeo eac
iiae?a iaeiaeia?, ? a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith, oiio ui i?e ?? aeei?enoaii?
ii/aoeiaee caci? i?ae eacaie a?aenooi?e.

Aeey ??caeueieo i?eno?i?a iaeoaaeueieo aaoiiao?a eiiaeeoa?nueei?
i?iieneiaino?, ye? i?iaeoothoueny ca a?ia?aie?/iith neiao?e/iith noaiith
??caiiy anoaiiaeai? ?aoe?iiaeuei? eiino?oeoeai? ia?aiao?e. A aeey
ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iiae?a ? caaacia/aiiy iaeiaeiaeo oiia ??caiiy
iaai?ooaaeueieo iaoa??ae?a i?e iiaeo ? ciioaieo iiaeao cai?iiiiiaaii
(a.n. ? 863334) i?e ciiooaaii? iaaeeaeoaaoe ?o a iniiai?e ieiuei?, yea ?
ia?iaiaeeeoey?iith aei ieiueie ??caiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iiae?a
i(yniiiae??aithth/eo aia/e?a oa iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei
eiiaeeoa?nueei? i?iieneiaino? ca aeiiiiiaith iiaa?oiaai? iiaeeo?eaoe??
eac. Iai?eeeaae, canoinoaaiiy aeaoiiaoe?eiiai iaieeaiiy aeey ci?oeiaiiy
ia?aaei?o a?aiae iiae?a caai?ooaaeueieo aaoiiao?a aea? iiaeeea?noue
?aae?coaaoe aoaeo naiicaoi/oaaiiy iiae?a, caaaeyee /iio ?o no?ee?noue
ca?eueoo?oueny a 3 ?ace, a iane/aiiy a?aiae iiae?a neioaoe/ieie aeiacaie
iaoiaeii oa?aeoaaiiy ca?eueoo? ?o aeiaaia?/i?noue a 3,5 ?ace. Aeineoue
ia?niaeoeaieie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino? iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei
? aeei?enoaiiy aeey ci?oeiaiiy i?o?eaeieo (TiN) ?iiii-ieaciiaeo,
aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo oeio “aieueo?ai-i?eaeue-acio” (a.n. ??1244211, 1219226)
? eeanoa?ieo iie?eoo?a (oaae. 2). Iie?eooy a oaaeeoe? a?aeiia?aeii
iicia/ai? IO, AIA, EAIA.

Ci?oeiaiiy iaa?oiaeo iaia?i??aeo/eo iiae?a c oaeaeei??aeo/i? noae? ?18O2
oeacaieie iie?eooyie i?aeaeuo? ?o ciinino?ee?noue a 1,4–2,2 ?ace, a ?c
noae? 55O6ACNIO – a 1,3–3,2 ?ace. Aoaeo ca?eueoaiiy ciinino?eeino?
a?eueoa i?iyaey?oueny ia iaeieaaiaaieo ? na?aaeiueio?iienoeo noaeyo.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea caoenieo iie?eoo?a ia ciinino?ee?noue iaa?oiaeo iiae?a

oeoea?eicaai?ooaaeueieo iaoei

Ia?ea noae? iiaea Oei iie?eooy No?ee?noue

(iei.oeeee?a)

Ia?ooiiiai Iaa?oiaiai

OAA ?18O2 Aac iie?eooy

IO

AIA

EAIA 47,5

64,2

83,0

104,5

?6I5 Aac iie?eooy

IO

AIA

EAIA 22,0

26,4

41,8

52,8

55O6ACNIO Aac iie?eooy

IO

AIA

EAIA 16,0

20,8

35,2

51,2

Aaciieaciia? aioeo?eeoe?ei? anoaaee aoee cai?iiiiiaai? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aeiaaia?/iino? iiae?a ? ?ao?oie o aia/eao oeio II–160 aeey iiae??aiaiiy
i’yna (a.n.1375218). Ia?aae iaieeaiyi a ?ao?ooe? (?en.6) naa?aeeeeenue
noa?iiiae?ai? caaeeaeaiiy, a iio?i, ca aeiiiiiaith ieacie ?
niaoe?aeueiiai ae?aio, aiie caiiaithaaeenue a?iicith, yea aeiiouaia
nai?oa?ieie neoaeaaie aei eiioaeoo c i(ynii (A?A9AE4).

E?euee?noue oa ae?aiao? iaieeaieo ieaciith aioeo?eeoe?eieo anoaaie
iiaeooue aooe ??cieie, aea ia eiioeaio?e/iiio eie? ?-ai ?aae?ona iiaeiii
aooe ia iaioa iaei??? anoaaee aeey caa?aaeaiiy aacia?a?aiino? ooai?aii?
i?aeii? na?aiaeoii? ie?aee ia iiaa?oi? ?ao?oee. Aaee/eia ?aae?ona
eiaeiiai eiioeaio?e/iiai eiea aeae?a?oueny c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy:

Ri = Ri-1 + Da/n, (4)

aea Ri — ?aae?on ia?oiai eiea, ia yeiio ?icoaoiaaia ?-oa anoaaea; Ri-1 —
?aae?on iaeaeeae/iai iaioiai eiea, ia yeiio ?icoaoiaaia anoaaea ? -1;
Da — ae?aiao? aioeo?eeoe?eii? i?aeii? anoaaee; n — eiao?oe??io, ui
a?aoiao? ia?ic?eai?noue ooai?aii? na?aiaeoii? ie?aee (1(n(() ?
caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia ?iaioe ??aeo/iai eiiieaeoo ? oa?aeoa?enoee
oaoiieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua.

Oaaeeoey 3

Na?aaei?e e?i?eiee ciin ??aeo/eo eac i(yniiiae??aithth/eo iiae?a aia/e?a

Iana ia?a?iaeaii? yeiae/eie

1-? oa 2-? eaoaai??e, o 10 20 30 40

Ciin

iiae?a, ii c noae? 65A 0,110 0,175 0,210 0,270

c noae? 65A c aioeo?eeoe?eiith ieanoeiith 0,025 0,065 0,085 0,125

c noae? 65A a oiiaao eiioaeoo c iaieeaiith ieaciith ?ao?oeith 0,010
0,040 0,065 0,095

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe ?ano?n ?ao?oee aei ia?aoi/ee
c 7-8 aiaeei aei 15-20 aiaeei, a ciinino?ee?noue iiae?a ?c noae? 65A i?e
?iaio? c iaieeaieie ?ao?oeaie c?inoa? ia 70% o ii??aiyii? c iiaeaie, ui
i?aoeththoue o ia?? c na??eieie ?ao?oeaie c noae? O8 ? ia 30% o
ii??aiyii? c iiaeaie c a?iiciaeie anoaaeaie ca eacaie o?anoiiiae?aieo
iiae?a (oaae.3).

I(yoee ?icae?e i?ena(y/aiee iiaeaethaaiith o?eaieiioaeoii? aca?iiae??
iaoae?a caoenieo iie?eoo?a ia aeaoaeyo oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy ?o aeiaaia?/iino?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ciinino?eeino? ? ?ano?no ?iaioe caoenieo iie?eoo?a ,
io?eiaieo iaoiaeii aacioa?i?/iiai iaieeaiiy, a oaoiieia?/ieo
na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa cai?iiiiiaaia ?ic?aooieiaa iiaeaeue
o?eeoe?eii – eiioaeoii? no?eeino?, ui a?oioo?oueny ye ia
caaaeueiia?aeiieo , oae ? anoaiiaeaieo a ?iaio? caeiiii??iinoyo iae?i –
? i?e?iiaoai?ee o?eeoe?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a. Nie?ath/enue ia
?iaioe ?.A. E?aaaeuenueeiai, A.I.Aieoaoey, I.?.Iaoa/ei, I.A. *a?iaoey
c?iaeaia i?eiouaiiy i?i iiae?ai?noue iaoai?ci?a ia(?iii? ? o?eeoe?eii?
aoiie, ui aeicaiey? aeey i?ioeano ciiooaaiiy i?eeiyoe a?iioaco , ui
e?euee?nia aaee/eia ciino caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy aeieeath/i? i?e oa?o?
ieoiii? neee oa?oy . Nie?ath/enue ia a?aeiio e?iaoe/io ae?aa?aio
aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy EAeA?, iiaoaeiaaia ae?aa?aia o?eeoe?eii – aoiiiiai
?oeioaaiiy (EAeOA?). Ae?aa?aia , cai?ioiy aei EAeOA? ? e?iaoe/iith
ae?aa?aiith ciinino?eeino? iaoa??aeo (EAeCI).

Ioaea, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a
, o?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae o?eaieiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? iie?eoo?a ia
aeaoaeyo oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa a?iioaca i?i iayai?noue
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ca(yceo ciino ? ieoiieo nee oa?oy aeicaieythoue
caienaoe ianooiio nenoaio e?iaoe/ieo ??aiyiue ciiooaaiiy:

(5)

aea dlk=Vdtk; (e(f)- aaceniee ia?aiao? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ciiooaaiiy
(oa?aeoa?enoe/ia ooieoe?y ciinino?eeino? iie?eooy); (e – e?i?eiee ciin
iie?eooy; ?-iaaaioaaeaiiy ia eiioaeo?; F-neea oa?oy; te –/an eiioaeoii?
aca?iiae??.

Aeey i?ioeano aoiiiiai ciiooaaiiy ooieoe?y ciinino?eeino? aecia/a?oueny
oae:

(6)

aea (k- e?i?eiee ciin o?ea ia oeyoo oa?oy lk; V-oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy.

Aeey iiaoaeiae EAeCI ae?aoiao?ii ooieoe?th (e(f), yea aeinoaoiuei
ei?aeoii aiae?oe/ii ai?ieneio?oueny oae:

(7)

(8)

(9)

— iaaea i?oeiino? ia c??c.

Ieoii? neee oa?oy aecia/aee aeei?enoiaoth/e ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
Aiiioiia-Eoeiia:

, (10)

aea eiao?oe??io oa?oy fn aecia/a?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii, aai c
aeia?aeiee?a ; ?-ieoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy .

Oiae? aeiaaia?/i?noue iie?eoo?a aecia/a?oueny:

, (11)

aea (e- a?aie/iee ciin o?eaiia?e.

Ca e?eoa??e ii??aiyeueii? ciinino?eeino? iie?eoo?a a?aee ae?aa?aie
ciinino?eeino? (?en. 7), iiaoaeiaai? c aeei?enoaiiyi ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
(8). Ii ieo aeaeii, ui a na?aaeiaeu? ao?yeiaiai aeeooc?eiiai nieo
iie?eooy OI?-14 ia? aeuo ciinino?ee?noue, i?ae na??eia IA-10I-01.
Iayai?noue aa?aceao a na?aaeiaeu? i?eaiaeeoue aei niaaeo ciinino?eeino?
iie?eoo?a.

A oaae. 4 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo aeiaaia?/iino? iie?eoo?a a
ia?? oa?oy c? noaeeth 45 aeey oaeeo aeo?aeieo aeaieo : f(0)=0,1IIa;
f=4IIa; a?aie/iee ciin fe: 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 ii; V=0,4i/n.

Oaaeeoey 4

Aeiaaia?/i?noue caoenieo iie?eoo?a (aiae) i?e ciiooaaii?

a na?aaeiaeu? “aeeooc?eiee n?e +2%SiO2”

Iie?eooy (e

0,1 0,5 1,0

IA-10I-01(Ni-Cr-B-Si) 77 388 777

OI?-14(Fe-Mn-C-B-Si-Ni-Cr) 162 810 1620

C a?aooaaiiyi ?ia?o I.E.Aieaai oa A.A.Oaaae? iaoai?ci ei?ic?eii –
iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a aa?aneaieo oa?/iaeo na?aaeiaeuao –
aeaeo?ie?oao iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooee ia iniia? aiae?co oa?iiaeeiai?/ii?
nenoaie , yea ca(yco? iae?ineii?/i? ia?aiao?e ia?e oa?oy c
aeaeo?io?i?/ieie ia?aiao?aie aca?iiae?? ? ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
eiie?aoiiio oaoiieia?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?.

I?e ei?ic?eii- iaoai?/iiio ciiooaaii? aaee/eia ?icn?yii? aia?a??
aecia/a?oueny ia o?eueee ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th, aea oaeiae
?ioaineai?noth aeaeo?io?i?/ieo i?ioean?a ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ci?ie ieiu?
a?eueieo iiaa?oiiue. Noi?niee e?euee?niee aiae?c ??cii??aeieo i?ioean?a
iiaeeeaee i?e aaaaeai? oi?aa?naeueieo aia?aaoe/ieo e?eoa???a c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiae?a oa?iiaeeiai?ee iacai?ioi?o i?ioean?a. Oae?
i?ioeane iiaeia iienaoe ca aeiiiiiaith aeeneiaoeaii? ooieoe??:

(12)

n-oaeaee?noue o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe??; An- o?i?/ia nii??aeiai?noue ?aaeoe??.

I?eaaaeaia oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy ? iiaeiia aecia/aoenue noiith aonoeie
iioie?a iane ieeneaieo ?0 oa iaieeneaieo ?m –i?iaeoeo?a ciiooaaiiy:

(13)

Iioneath/e aeeeaaeee , iia(ycai? c aecia/aiiyi ?iaioe , aeeiiaii? iaae
nenoaiith oa?oy W ? ?icn?yii? aia?a?? i?e oa?o? ( (aeeneiaoeaii?
ooieoe??), io?eio?ii ae?ac oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy , yea i?eaaaeaia aei
iaeeieoe? iiaa?oi?:

(14)

aea ?-ieoiia iaaaioaaeaiiy; V-oaeaee?noue eiacaiiy; ((-ciai?oeiaiiy
iaoa??aeo ei?ic?eii-aeoeaiei na?aaeiaeuai; e1,e2,e3 – iino?ei?, ye?
aeeth/athoue a naaa aaee/eie Ci, fmp, (0, ((0, ((m, (; Ci- eiao?oe?aio,
yeee caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae iaoa??aeo, ui ciioo?oueny ; (o0 ? (om
–?iaioa ooai?aiiy iaeeieoe? iiai? a?eueii? iiaa?oi? ieneae?a ?
aeo?aeiiai iaoa??aeo; (- e?euee?noue aeeneieaoe?e a iaeeieoe?
aeaoi?iiaaiiai iaoa??aeo; (0- noao?iiao?e/iee eiao?oe??io ieeneo a
??aiyii? o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe??; fo?-eiao?oe??io oa?oy.

(15)

aea (oe0 – ci?ia ??aiiaaaeiiai aeaeo?iaeiiai iioaioe?aeo i?e ciiooaaii?;
n- aaeaioi?noue iaoaeo; F- iino?eia Oa?aaeay ; Vi- iieueiee ia(?i
?a/iaeie.

I?aenoaaeyth/e ae?ac (15) o (14) io?eia?ii:

(16)

C ??aiyiiy (16) aeaeii , ui oaeaee?noue ei?ic?eii – iaoai?/iiai
ciiooaaiiy e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ? oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy
V oa ii?aaie?/ii a?ae ciai?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo i?ae ae??th ei?ic?eii –
aeoeaiiai na?aaeiaeua. Aaee/eie P i V oa?aeoa?acothoue ciai?oith ae?th
ia iiaa?oi? oa?oy, a ci?ia iioaioe?aeo (oe0 caeaaeeoue a?ae aeanoeainoae
iaoa??aeo aeaoaeae ? ei?ic?eiiai na?aaeiaeua . Ci?uoth/e iioaioe?ae ia?e
c aeei?enoaiiyi ciai?oiueiai aeaea?aea no?oio a eaoiaeio, aai aiiaeio
iaeanoue iiaeia oi?aaeyoe i?ioeanii ei?ic?eii – iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy a
aeayeeo iaaeao aac ci?ie oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy. Oea ci?uaiiy iiaeia
cae?enithaaoe iaianaiiyi caoenieo iie?eoo?a ??ciiai neeaaeo, ci?iith
?aaeei?a oa?oy oa ?ia?a?thaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ iiai na?aaeiaeua.
A?aecia/eii, ui ei?ic?eii – iaoai?/ia ciiooaaiiy ia iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny
ye i?inoa noia iaoai?/iiai ? aeaeo?io?i?/iiai oaeoi?o . Oea neeaaei?oee
i?ioean, a yeiio nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?a? iioaioe?ae nenoaie ?
aeaeo?io?i?/ia ?ic/eiaiiy aeoea?co? aoiiia ?oeioaaiiy.

C iaoith ia?aa??ee i?aaeeueiino? aeai?o oa?iiaeeiai?/ii? iiaeae?
ei?ic?eii – iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
i?iaiaeeeenue ?ic?aooiee eiao?oe??io?a o oi?ioe? (16) iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo
eaaae?ao?a. Ia?aeaeueii aoee i?iaaaeai? aei?iaoaaiiy a?iiciaeo c?ace?a
(A?IOeN-5-5-5) ii noai? “aooeea-aooeea” ia onoaiiaoe? oi?oeueiaiai
oa?oy. Aeine?aee i?iaiaeeeenue a na?aaeiaeuao ieai- aacaeeiaieueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa (oaae.5).

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?oe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aeiia?aei?noue aea?aii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?ioeano
ei?ic?eii – iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy. Aiie oaeiae na?ae/aoue , ui
oaoiieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua iiaea a aeanyoee ?ac?a ci?ithaaoe
?ioaineai?noue ni?aoethaaiiy iaoa??ae?a. I?e oeueiio aeaeo?iaeiee
iioaioe?ae iaoaeo ? eiai ci?uaiiy (oe0 a i?ioean? oa?oy a?ae?a?a?
aecia/aeueio ?ieue.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ano?no oa ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii?
?iaioe aeaoaeae iaoei ? aia?ao?a ca e?eoa??yie ei?ic?? oa ciino. C
a?aooaaiiyi ?ia?o A.N. I?ii?eiaa aeiionea?oueny, ui ei?ic?y aai ciin
(ci?ia ia?aiao?o ae?iao O) i?ioiaeeoue a /an? ca?aeii e?i?eiiai caeiio:

, (17)

aea a- ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o aeaoae? ; e- oaeaee?noue i?io?eaiiy
i?ioeano (ei?ic?? aai ciiooaaiiy); t- /an.

Oaaeeoey 5.

O?eaioaoi?/i? ? aeaeo?io?i?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee a?iiciaeo

c?ace?a, ye? io?eiai? aenia?eiaioaeueiei oa ?ic?aooieiaei iaoiaeaie.

Oaoiieia?/ia na?aaeiaeua Ci?ia iioaioe?aeo i?e ciiooaaii? ((0, iA-1 Ciin
c?ace?a a ia ia 10 ei.

oeyoo oa?oy

Aa?oiueiai Ieaeiueiai Na?aaei?e ?ic?aooieiaee

Aiaea aei?noea (ieooia) 100 11,20 10,70 10,95 11,80

Ieai “na?oea” (ieacaaiae “Iaieiiue”, i.Ee?a) 15,0 0,32 0,28 0,30 0,24

I?eeia?oueny, ui oaeaee?noue ciiooaaiiy aai ei?ic?? i?aeaeaaeia
ii?iaeueiiio caeiio ?iciiae?eaiiy, ai aiia caeaaeeoue a?ae aaeeei?
e?eueeino? aeiaaeeiaeo oaeoi??a: iaaaioaaeaiiy, oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy,
oaiia?aoo?e, oaoiieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, oa ?i.

, (18)

aea f0(e)- u?euei?noue eiia??iino? ; en?- na?aaei? cia/aiiy oaeaeeino?
ciiooaaiiy aai ei?ic?? (ci?ie aeo?aeiiai ia?aiao?o O); (e- na?aaei?
eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy oaeaeeino? ciiooaaiiy aai ei?ic??.

I?e O=Oiao ianooia? a?aie/iee noai, yeee aecia/a? oa?i?i neoaeae ae?iao
t=T, ye ooieoe?th aeiaaeeiaiai a?aoiaioo E:

, (19)

Na?aaei?e oa?i?i neoaeae ae?iao:

, (20)

Caaea/a caiaeeoueny aei ciaoiaeaeaiy ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe
?(O) ii caaeai?e ooieoe?? f0(k). Iioneath/e a?ii?caee? aeeeaaeee ? c
o?aooaaiiyi caeaaeiinoae oai??? ?iia??iinoae oa aeei?enoiaoth/e
ooieoe?th Eaieana (O), io?eia?ii:

, (21)

, (22)

Oaeei /eiii, aeey caaeaii? eaaioee? U(, yeui a?aeiia iaeneiaeueia
aaee/eia ciino aai ei?ic?? Omax, na?aaeiy oaeaee?noue ?o i?io?eaiiy En?,
na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy i?ioeano (e, na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/ia
a?aeoeeaiiy ii/aoeiaiai ia?aiao?o (a, a oaeiae ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiia (,
iiaeia ioe?ieoe ?ano?n iaoeie aai aia?aoa ii aecia/ath/?e aeaoae?
(aoceo) ? eiia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ?(t) ca e?eoa??yie ei?ic??
oa ciiooaaiiy. ?icaeyaea?oueny i?eeeaae aeei?enoaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee
aeey ?ic?aooieo iieaciee?a iaae?eiino? iaeaaeiaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?ia iiaeaeue aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy iaieaaeaieo
oa??a aeey aiae?co a?aeiinii? ciinino?eeino? (():

, (23)

aea Dc – ?ici?? ca?ia (-oace; Nr – aonoeia /anoie ae?oai? oace; (a-
ci?ia ia?aiao?a e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee.

Iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy caiaeeeenue aei aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo
ia?aiao??a, ui ooieoe?iiaeueii aieeaathoue ia a?aeiinio ciinino?ee?noue.
C?iaeaii ni?iao iia(ycaoe ci?io no?oeoo?ieo ia?aiao??a iaieaaeaieo
Fe-Cr-Ni-Si iaoa??ae?a c ??aiai ?o aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino?.
?ic?aooieiaa iiaeaeue oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aa?aceaiiai ciiooaaiiy
aaoa?iaaiieo iaoa??ae?a, iao?eoey yeeo i?noeoue aeenia?ni? /anoee
iaaeeeoeiai? oace, na?ae/eoue, ui ciinino?ee?noue ia?o ca ana
eiio?ieth?oueny aonoeiith ?iciiae?eo aenieiaeenia?nieo /anoie ae?oai?
oace ? aeiaaeeiith a?aieoeue ca?ai, ii yeeo aeae?ey?oueny e?eoea oaca.
Ai?ieneiaoe?y e?eaeo caeaaeiinoae HRC=f(%Si) i HRC=f(D3) aeicaieeea
io?eiaoe iniiaiee ae?ac aeey ioe?iee ciinino?eeino? iaieaaeaieo ieaciith
oa??a o aeaeyae?:

, (24)

aea ooieoe?y n- ia?aiao? ae?iaeaeaiiy e?enoae?/ii? ?eo?oee (- oace, yeee
e?euee?nii ae?aaea?oueny ci?iith ia?aiao?a aa. Oa?aeoa?enoeea (0
aecia/a?oueny ye cia/aiiy ciinino?eeino? a iiiaio cieeiaiy aeaiae?eoii?
no?oeoo?e (i?e ai?no? e?aii?th a?eueoa 4 ian.%).

A?aecia/a?oueny ui ua a aeno?aiaeuei?oeo oiiaao i?aoeththoue aeaoae?,
i?e oaea?ii-aa?aceaiiio ni?aoethaaii?. Iaaiaeeoueny iaoiaeeea
?ic?aooieo aeiaaia?/iino? iieioeiaeo ca?iiiiae??aithaa/?a oeio AeAeI,
yea iiai?noth aecia/a?oueny oaea?ii – aa?aceaiith ciinino?ee?noth eiai
aeaoaeae. A iniiao aiae?co ? ii?ioaaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iiae??aithaa/?a
iieeaaeaia iiaeaiaioia ioe?iea ca noaiith “aeaoaeue – ni?yaeaiiy – aocie
– aa?aaao – iiae??aithaa/”. A i?ioean? iiaeaiaioii? ioe?iee aoee
aecia/ai? aeaoae? c iecueeei ?ano?nii –iieioee ? neoa , ye? aecia/athoue
iaae?ei?noue iieioeiaiai ieeia a oe?eiio. Iaea?aeai? ??aiyiiy aeey
?ic?aooieo ?ano?no t oa ioe?iee eiia??iino? aacoiiaii? ?iaioe P(t).

, (25)

aea N(0) – ii/aoeiaa e?euee?noue ia(?eo?a ; (1(?) –?aae?caoe?y /ano
?iaioe aei a?aeiiae aeey i-ai ia(?eoa (a ii?yaeeo iinooiaiiy a?aeiia).

, (26)

aea (- ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiia ia(?eoa a iiiaio /ano t.

Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ca ?ic?iaeaiith
iaoiaeeeith aeicaieeea io?eiaoe iieacieee iaae?eiino? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a
iieioeiaeo iiae??aithaa/?a. Oae , na?aaei? iai?aoethaaiiy neo aei
a?aeiiae neeaaea? t=556aiaeei, a na?aaeiy ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiia
neeaaea? (=0,0018. ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe neo iiae??aithaa/?a
iiaeia iienaoe aeniiiaioe?eiith caeaaei?noth

, (27)

Aeey iieioe?a a?aeiia?aeii t=579 aiae., (=0,0016, a eiia??i?noue ?o
aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe iiaea aooe iienaia oi?ioeith

, (28)

Ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aoiaaii? aeiaaia?/iino? neo ? iieioe?a c e?oa?aoo?ieie
aeaieie oa ?acoeueoaoaie i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue na?ae/aoue i?i
ei?aeoi?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo .

C iaoith i?iaiicoaaiiy ?iaioe iaoa??ae?a a ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeuao oa
i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao ca aeiiiiiaith eiii(thoa?ii? i?ia?aie ANO?A
aeeiiaii oa?iiaeeiai?/iee aiae?c aca?iiae?? c eeniai aaoaeoe/ieo nieaa?a
ia iniia? noae? 12O18I9O , a neeaae yeeo aoiaeyoue aeeai?eaee oeoaio ?
o?iio oa ea?a?ae aaiaae?th.

A iniiao aeai?eoio oe??? i?ia?aie iieeaaeai? ia?oee oa ae?oaee caeiie
oa?iiaeeiai?ee. C ?o a?aooaaiiyi oa c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui aaaaoioacia
nenoaia caieiooa, oiiaa iaoa??aeueiiai aaeaino iiaeiia aeeiioaaoenue o
aeaeyae? ??aiyiiy caa?aaeaiy iane o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue
nenoaio. Oae, aeey j-ai o?i?/iiai aeaiaioa i?e eiai iieueiiio ai?no? aj
??aiyiiy ia? aeaeyae:

(29)

aea (?( = ?, l, r, x – e?euee?noue aoii?a j-ai aeaiaioa a (-eiiiiiaio?;
m- /enei o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a , ui ooai?ththoue nenoaio.

?ica(ycaiiy ??aiyiiy (29) aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe eiioeaio?aoe??
eiiiiiaio?a oac oa ?io? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?cieueiaaii?
nenoaie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieeneaiiy nieaa?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
ieneae?a B2O3, Cr2O3, TiO2, V2O3, FeO, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeeo caeaaeeoue
a?ae oaciaiai neeaaeo aeo?aeieo nieaa?a oa ai?noo ci?oeithaaeueieo
niieoe. Ia iniia? ni?anoaaeaiiy oaciaiai neeaaeo nieaa?a, eiioeaio?aoe?e
ci?oeithaaeueieo oac ? i?iaeoeo?a ?o ieeneaiiy iieacaii, ui ieneae ai?o
– A2I3 ooai?th?oueny ia?aaaaeii ca ?aooiie ?iceeaaeaiiy ai?eae?a, a
noia?ia e?euee?noue ai?eae?a oeoaio ? o?iio a nieaaao e?i?eii ei?aeth? c
ai?noii ieneaeo ai?o. Aeiionea?oueny, ui ieneaee ci?oeithth/eo oac,
cie?aia A2I3, eieae?coth/enue ia iiaa?oi?, noai?ththoue aa?(?? aeey
aeeooc?? eenith, ui caoeua? nieaae a?ae iiaeaeueoiai ieeneaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai aiae?co iieeaaeai? a iniiao iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?eioeeiiai? iiaeeeaino? i?iaiicoaaiiy ooai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo ca
neeaaeii ? oiaueiith caoenieo ieneaeieo ie?aie oeyoii i?aeai?o iaaieo
eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

Oinoee ?icae?e i?ena(y/aiee ?ic?iaoe? ia?niaeoeaieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a caoenoo a?ae ciiooaaiiy oa ei?ic?? aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy
oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaieo aaeocae, a oaeiae a?aeiiaeaiiy ciioaieo aeaoaeae.

Oai?aoe/ii ? aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii oiiae iaianaiiy ia
iiaa?oith noaeae aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo acioi?noeeo iie?eoo?a nenoaie
“aieueo?ai- i?eaeue – acio” c aenieeie o?ceei – iaoai?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie i?e aeei?enoaii? a yeino? eiiieaeniooai?thaa/?a uaaaeaai?
eeneioe oa ?? nieae. I?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee
aeaeo?iinaaeaeaiiy nieaa?a aieueo?aio c i?eaeai c eiiieaenieo
ienaeaoiaeo aeaeo?ie?o?a c o?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
inaaeaeaiiy (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ? eiioeaio?aoe?? eiiiiiaio?a aeaeo?ie?o?a,
aeiaaaie iiaa?oiaai- aeoeaieo ?a/iaei oa niieoe – a?aeiiaethaa/?a, ?I,
oaiia?aoo?e oa eaoiaeii? aonoeie no?oio aeaeo?ie?o?a ). Oea aeicaieeei
?ic?iaeoe a.n.1219226 ?yae iiaeo aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo iie?eoo?a (neeaae,
ian.%: aieueo?ai –10,0…30,0; acio- 2,0…5,0; i?eaeue – caeeoie), ui
a?aecia/athoueny i?aeaeuaiith oaa?ae?noth oa ciinino?ee?noth. Aecia/aii
iioeiaeueiee neeaae aeaeo?ie?oo aeey iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a, aei neeaaeo
yeiai aoiaeyoue, a/e: aieueo?aiiaieeneee iao??e 50…100; n??/aiieeneee
i?eaeue –15…20; uaaaeaaa eeneioa – 30…50; ea?aai?ae –1…5 ? iiiiaoaeii?i
– 30…50. Inaaeaeaiiy iie?eooy aeeiio?oueny i?e aonoei? no?oio 2…3
A/aei2, oaiia?aoo?? aeaeo?ie?oo 35…45(N. O?eaae?noue iaianaiiy 40 oa.,
aiiaee i?eaeaa? ia?ie IIA1 oa IIA2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e?ioaa?ae?noue
iie?eoo?a ca?eueoo?oueny i?e i?aeaeuai? oaiia?aoo?e aeaeo?ie?oo ?
aonoeie no?oio . I?ney oa?iiia?iaee i?ioyaii iaei??? aiaeeie i?e
oaiia?aoo?? aeecueei 400(N i?e?ioaa?ae?noue iie?eooy aeinyaa? 11AIa.
Iieacaii, ui ooai?aia ca oaeith oaoiieia??th iie?eooy (ca aeaieie
?aioaaiino?oeoo?iiai aiae?co ) yaey? niaith oaa?aeee ?ic/ei aieueo?aio ?
acioo a i?eae?. Aeniea oaa?ae?noue ? oaieino?ee?noue (aei 500(N)
aieueo?ai- i?eaeue –acioenoeo iie?eoo?a ? i?aeaeuai? o?eaioaoi?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeicaieeee ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe ?o aeey ci?oeiaiiy iii?ieo
aeaiaio?a oe?aiiaea?ieo ia/ae oeio OOE, OAE, AI oa ?i., ye? i?aoeththoue
i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeecueei 300(N. Aeei?enoaiiy niiniao aciooaaiiy
noaeueieo aeaoaeae a aeaeo?ie?oao (ii a.n.1259689, 1338403) c ianooiiei
oa?iiia?iaeaiiyi aeicaieeei a 1,5-2 ?ace i?aeaeueoe ciinino?ee?noue
iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei Ae5-E3A, 4NO-11,Ae5-A3A aeey caai?ooaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeii oa?/ieiioeao?ao?a, oeeaa?ie ? ae??aeae?a.

?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy eeanoa?ieo aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo
iie?eoo?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? ??aeo/eo ?ino?oiaio?a a
oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino?. Aeey ?o io?eiaiiy aeei?enoiao?oueny aeiaciee
ii?ioie c ?ici??aie /anoie 40-60 A, yeee aeiaaaey?oueny a aeaeo?ie?o.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oae? iie?eooy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith i?oei?noth
c/aieaiiy c iniiaith oa i?aeaeuaieie aioeo?eeoe?eieie aeanoeainoyie.
Iieacaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei c
oaeaeei??caeueieo noaeae i?e iaianaii? aieueo?ai-i?eaeaaiai eeanoa?iiai
iie?eooy i?aeaeueeanue a 4-5 ?ac?a, a ciinino?ee?noue iiae?a c
aoaeaoeaaeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae noaea ia ??ai? ciinino?eeino?
iiae?a c oaeaeei??caeueieo noaeae. Aaeaac?eia i?oei?noue iie?eooy, i?e
oeueiio, i?aeaeueeanue a 1,8 ?ac.

Aea/aeenue oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe iaianaiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo iie?ia?ieo
iie?eoo?a c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy ia?niaeoeaieo a oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino?
iie?eoo?a ia iniia? ooi?aoeeaiiaeo iie?ia??a, ye? iathoue aenieo o?i?/io
?ia?oi?noue, ciinino?ee?noue ? iaeee eiao?oe??io oa?oy. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiae ?o aeaeo?iinaaeaeaiiy c aiaeieo iie?aeaeo?ie?o?a, ye? ai?uothoue
ie?aeiooai?thaa/-aiaeue AOE-149”A”, oa iaiiaithaa/ – noniaic?th
ooi?iieanoo O-4AeA. Iaoiae aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe aaeaac?eiii?oei?
iie?eooy ia ei?ic?eiino?eeeo oa eiino?oeoe?eieo noaeyo ? oeoaiiaeo
nieaaao. Oae? iie?eooy no?ee? i?ioe ni?aoethaaiiy a oiiaao o?aoeia-
ei?ic?? oa oa?oy eiacaiiy ? ? ?ia?oieie ii a?aeiioaiith iaeaea aei an?o
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa. Iaaiaeyoueny i?eeeaaee ?o
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy. Oae, iaianaiiy ia iaeueoe? oa?i???a
iaeoaaeueieo aaoiiao?a ooi?iieanoo O–4AeA aeaeo?ioi?aoe/iei niiniaii
ca?eueoeei aeiaaia?/i?noue ia?e oa?oy a?eueo i?ae a 3 ?ace (?en. 8).
Aeei?enoaiiy ooi?iieanoiaiai iie?eooy aeey ?ioi?a aeicaoi?a aaoiiaoa
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy ie??aee?a AAE-3I, ae?iaieoeoaa AI”Oiiae” (i.Ee?a),
aeaei ciiao a 4…5 ?ac?a i?aeaeueoe aeiaaia?/i?noue ia? oa?oy “?ioi? –
ieoiaea?” ? “?ioi?-ei?ion”, a oaeiae aeeeth/eoe ao?aoe o?noa.

C iaoith io?eiaiiy ye?nieo aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ia oaeaeeiciiooaaieo
aeaoaeyo oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy i?iaaaeaiee eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue
o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa oaoiieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae ??cieo eean?a iie?eoo?a
– iaoaeaaeo, c ieneaeii? ea?ai?ee, c ea?a?ae?a oa eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a. Ia iniia? eaai?aoi?ieo ? ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue, a oaeiae
aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeei?enoaiith
aeayeeo ii?ioeiaeo nieaa?a aeey iaieaaee ? iaieeaiiy. ?acii c oei
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeai? ii ciinino?eeino? ieaciiaeo iie?eoo?a a oiiaao
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? iaaeinoaoi?. Oiio i?e
i?iaeooaaii? ie?aieo i?ioean?a ci?oeiaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaoaeae ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe niaoeeo?eo ?iaioe aeey oiai, uia aea?aoe iioeiaeuei?
iaoa??aee oa ?aaeeie iaieeaiiy. Ca aeiiiiiaith aaaaoioaeoi?iiai
ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo io?eiai? iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ui aaeaeaaoii
anoaiiaeththoue ca(ycie i?ae o?ceei – iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie
iie?eooy, cie?aia aaeaac??th oa oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aiao?aie ieaciio?iia
(no?oi ieaciio?iia, a?aenoaiue a?ae niiea ieaciio?iia aei iiaa?oi?,
aeo?aoe ieaciiooai?thth/iai aaco , aeenia?ni?noue ii?ioeo), ye?
aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe i?ioean aacioa?i?/iiai ci?oeiaiiy oa
i?iaiicoaaoe aenieo ye?noue caoenieo iie?eoo?a. I?iaiaeeeenue
aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia, ui caaacia/othoue i?oei?noue ? ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue
aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ia aeaoaeyo oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.
Aeyaeaiii, ui ca(ycie ei?ic?eii? no?eeino? c oiaueiith iie?eoo?a
iaiaeiicia/iee. C iaeiiai aieo ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie oa?o aaeueio? aeinooi
aa?aneaiiai na?aaeiaeua aei iiaa?oi?, c ?ioiai aieo , /a?ac ii?eno?noue
iie?eoo?a, ca?eueoo?oueny oaeoe/ia ?aaeoe?eia iiaa?oiy. Io?eiaia
aiae?oe/ia caeaaei?noue iioeiaeueii? e?eueeino? oa??a n iie?eooy a?ae
oaeoi??a, ui aecia/athoue ei?ic?ei? aeanoeaino? iaoa??ae?a iie?eooy ?
iniiae:

, (30)

aea en- oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? iaeeieoe? iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo iie?eooy,
ea/i2·n; e0- oaeaee?noue ei?ic?? iaeeieoe? iiaa?oi? iaoa??aeo iniiae,
ea/i2·n; S- aeiey iiaa?oi? ae?iao c i?eaa?aieie e?aieyie iaoa??aeo
iie?eooy .

Iieacaii, ui /ei aeua ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue iiiie?oiiai iaoa??aeo
iie?eooy, oei a?eueoa oa??a iie?eooy aeioe?eueii iaiineoe. Aiae?oe/ii ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?aeoaa?aeaeaia iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy oaea?ii –
oaeeueiaeo yaeu i?e aeai?? ia?aiao??a aaciii?ioeiaiai iioieo aeey
iaianaiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a. ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? ?ic?iaee
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ci?oeiaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiy aeaoaeae oa?/iaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy aacioa?i?/ieie iie?eooyie.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea io?eiaiiy ye?nieo ??aiioiaueiieo iie?eoo?a ia
ci?oeithaaieo aeaoaeyo oeio o?e iaa?oaiiy . Io?eiai? oi?ioee aeey
aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeii? oiaueie iaieeaiiiai oa?o i?e iaieeaii? ciai?oi?o
? aioo??oi?o oeee?iae?e/ieo iiaa?oiiue:

Aeey ciai?oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi?:

, (31)

Aeey aioo??oiuei? oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi?:

, (32)

aea d ? da –a?aeiia?aeii ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e ae?aiao?e c?acea; D ? Da
– ciai?oi?e ? aioo??oi?e ae?aiao? aeaoae?; I –iaeneiaeueia oiaueia
iie?eooy, iaieeaiiai ia?ooiiii ?icieethaa/ai ca a?aeiia?aeiee i?ii?aeie
/ano; ( -/an iaieeaiiy; n –e?euee?noue oa??a iie?eooy.

I?aaenoaaeaii? ?acoeueoaoe ii ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo naiioethniaaieo
iaoaeiiie?ia?ieo iie?eoo?a aeey iii? eiacaiiy oa?/iaeo iaoei ? aia?ao?a.

O nueii?e aeaa? iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii –i?iieneiai? ai?iaaoe?? ,
oaoi?ei – aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
?iaioe. ?icaeyioo? aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiae?a
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae.

Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo iaoiae?a ci?oeiaiiy aeaoaeae ia aac? aeaieo
i?aeeiio?ieueii? aenieoaoaoe?? iieacaea, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no
iaeaaeiaiiy, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo ? o?oaeiaeo aeo?ao
iaiao?aeia aeeiiaiiy ?yaeo oiia: 1)aeei?enoaiiy iie?eoo?a c ?iai/ei
oa?ii oiaueiith ia iaioa eiino?oeoeaiiai caiano ia ciiooaaiiy; 2)
aeei?enoaiiy aenieiaia?aaoe/ieo oi?aa?naeueieo i?ioean?a iaianaiiy
iie?eoo?a ia iniia? ii?ioeiaeo iaoa??ae?a; 3) aeei?enoaiiy ciinino?eeeo
iaoa??ae?a c eiiieaenii aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae, ui i?iaeeeoiaai?
oiiaaie ia?a?iaee.

Aiae?c neeaaeiaeo aeo?ao ia iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a ??cieie iaoiaeaie
iieacaa, ui eiaeiee c aacioa?i?/ieo niinia?a iaianaiiy caoenieo
iie?eoo?a ia? nai? iaeano? iaeaoaeoeai?oiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee i?aai?caoe?e ae?eueieoeue ci?oeithaaeueii?
oaoiieia?? ia Ee?anueeiio oa Oa?e?anueeiio ?aiiioii – iiioaaeieo
eiia?iaoao, Aieio?anueeiio iaoeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?, E?aiai/oenueeiio
?IC Oe?othothiao??aa?ii?iio, Naeeaiie?anueeiio, ?ieeoiyinueeiio ?
Eo/ainueeiio oeoe?iaeo caaiaeao. I?aaenoaaeai? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeaiaioe,
oeiiaa ieaioaaiiy ae?eueieoeue, ia?ae?e iaiao?aeiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa
iaoa??ae?a.

Iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ai?iaaoe?? ci?oeiaieo ca
iiaeie oaoiieia?yie aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo
ae?iaieoeoa: aenoeaio?eeiaeo ? eie?i/anoeo aae?a oieiaeeeueieo aa?aaao?a
ANa07 oa OAE-0,7O, iaeueoe?a aooeei – ?ieeeiaeo eaioetha?a
ao?yeiaeaaaoi??a, caoenieo aooeie a naeueieeiaiio ou?eueiai? ianin?a,
no??/eiaeo oiae?a, iii? eiacaiiy aeeooc?eieo aia?ao?a IAeN-20 oa
IAeN-30, ei?ion?a aaioeeyoi??a, eiianoae e?eeue/aoee, ao?aeieo eiion?a
oeeaa?eiaeo iaoei, aeaoaeae oe?aiiaea?ieo ia/ae oa ?i. Aeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aith iaoiaeo io?eiaiiy iie?eooy oa neeaaeo
ii?ioeiaeo iaoa??ae?a o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei oiia aenieoaoaoe?? aeaoaeae.
Anaa?/i? aei?iaoaaiiy ci?oeiaieo aeaoaeae ia oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie iieacaee, ui ?o ciinino?ee?noue i?aeaeueeanue a
na?aaeiueiio o 1,5-6 ?ac?a a ii??aiyii? c na??eieie.

Aenieoaoaoe?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy i?aeoaa?aeeee, ui ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? ia? aeia??
ia?niaeoeae ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a ?ioeo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? i?e
ae??oaii? i?iaeaie iaae?eiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy, ui i?aoeth?
a oiiaao ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy .

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE ? AENIIAEE

1. Ia iniia? aiae?co oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae, ui i?aoeththoue a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao,
?ic?iaeaii iaoeia? iniiae ? aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii iiaee
eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE.
Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae a?oioo?oueny ia anoaiiaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae
ciiooaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy o?eaini?yaeaiue, aeine?aeaeaii? o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
neooaoe?? a cii? eiioaeooaaiiy, iioei?caoe?? eiiieaeno ia?aiao??a
iaoa??aeo iie?eooy oa oaoiieia?/iiai na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae oaoiieia?/ieo
i?eeii?a iaianaiiy iie?eoo?a ia aac? oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai aiae?co oa
iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy o?eaieiioaeoii? aca?iiae??. I?iaaaeaiee
eiiieaen aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieea ae??oeoe aaaeeeao iaoeiai-oaoi?/io
i?iaeaio i?aeaeuaiiy ?ano?no aeaoaeae eiino?oeoeaieie, oaoiieia?/ieie ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieie iaoiaeaie.

2.Anoaiiaeai? oeie eiioaeoii? aca?iiae??, caeiiii??iino? ? oa?aeoa?
iioeiaeaeaiue aaciaeo aoce?a oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy, i?iaaaeaia
nenoaiaoecaoe?y iioeiaeaeaiue ca aeaeaie oa ?ioaineai?noth ciiooaaiiy.
Aeaia e?euee?nia ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo
iaoiae?a oa eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a aeey ci?oeiaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
?iai/eo i?aai?a iaeaaeiaiiy oa ?ic?iaeai? ocaaaeueiai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
i?aeaeuaiith ?o aeiaaia?/iino? c o?aooaaiiyi na?aaeiaeu.

3.Aeyaeaii? caaaeuei? caeiiii??iino? aieeao o?i?/iiai ? oaciaiai neeaaeo
oa no?oeoo?e iaoa??ae?a ? iie?eoo?a ia i?ioeane ciiooaaiiy a
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao. Anoaiiaeaiii, ui aaaeo/ee i?ioean
ni?aoethaaiiy ? ?oeioaaiiy aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa a
oiiaao oa?oy ia? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iee oa?aeoa?, ia ?ioaineai?noue
i?io?eaiiy yeiai aecia/aeueiee aieea ni?aaeythoue neeaae, aeanoeaino?
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa ?o aca?iiae?y c iiaa?oiaaeie oa?aie.
Iieacaii, ui ciinino?ee?noue iie?eoo?a a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny
aeaeo?io?i?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui i?io?eathoue a cii? oa?oy, oaeaee?noue ?
oa?aeoa? yeeo caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oeoo?e iie?eooy, eiai o?i?/iiai ?
oaciaiai neeaaeo. I?aeoaa?aeaeaia iiaeeea?noue ea?oaaiiy i?ioeanii
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iie?eoo?a oeyoii ?aaoethaaiiy
iioaioe?aeo ciie oa?oy iiey?ecaoe??th a?ae ciai?oiueiai aeaea?aea no?oio
oa aaaaeaiiyi aei ?o neeaaeo a?aeiia?aeieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

4. ?ic?iaeaia iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ??caeueieo
i?eno?i?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei, yea eyaea a iniiao i?iaeooaaiiy ?
aeaioiaeaiiy ?o iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e c i?aeaeuaiith aeiaaia?/i?noth
iiae?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iiae?a
iaeoaaeueieo iaoei ? i(yni??caeueieo aia/e?a.

5. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaoaeiaai? iiaeae? ni?aoethaaiiy caoenieo iie?eoo?a a oaoiieia?/ieo
na?aaeiaeuao. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue e?iaoeee ciiooaaiiy
iie?eoo?a aeey aecia/aiiy ciinino?eeino? ? ?ano?no ci?oeiaieo caoenieie
iie?eooyie aeaoaeae, ui aaco?oueny ia anoaiiaeaieo a ?iaio?
caeiiii??iinoyo iae?i-? i?e?iiaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a.

?ic?iaeaia oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaeue ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ? caoenieo iie?eoo?a a oaoiieia?/ieo oa?/iaeo
na?aaeiaeuao, a ye?e i?eaaaeaia oaeaee?noue i?ioeano aecia/a?oueny
noiith u?eueiinoae iioie?a iane ieeneaieo ? iaieeneaieo i?iaeoeo?a
ciino. Anoaiiaeaiii, ui oaeaee?noue ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy ia?
i?yiie?i?eio caeaaei?noue a?ae iaaaioaaeaiiy ? oaeaeeino? eiacaiiy ?
ia?aaie?/io a?ae ciai?oeiaiiy iaoa??aeo ei?ic?eii-aeoeaiei na?aaeiaeuai.

6. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aecia/aiiy ?ano?no oa ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii?
?iaioe iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa ca e?eoa??yie ei?ic?? oa ciino .
Iaoiae aeicaiey? ia iniia? ai??i?ii? aeo?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai
iaoei /e aia?ao?a, iiaeeea? oiiae ?o aenieoaoaoe??, i?e ioe?ioe? ao?aoe
i?aoeacaeaoiino? ca oaeaee?noth ei?ic?? aai ciiooaaiiy, ?ic?aooaaoe
?ano?n i?e iio??ai?e ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe, aecia/eoe ye?
caoiaee ia noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy, aeaioiaeaiiy oa aenieoaoaoe?? aoaeooue
iaoe iaea?eueoee aoaeo aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ? c?iaeoe e?euee?nio
ioe?ieo cia/eiino? eiaeiiai oaeoi?o.

7. Aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ia?aiao??a ?iaioe
iaoa??ae?a a ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeuao oa i?e i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo?ao –
ooai?aiiy ieneaeieo ie?aie, aeeiiaii oa?iiaeeiai?/ia iiaeaethaaiiy
aca?iiae?? iie?eoo?a c eeniai oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu. ?acoeueoaoe
oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai aiae?co iieeaaeai? a iniiao iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeeiiai?
iiaeeeaino? i?iaiicoaaiiy ooai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo ca neeaaeii ? oiaueiith
caoenieo ieneaeieo ie?aie oeyoii i?aeai?o iaaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a
iaoa??ae?a aeey aeei?enoaiiy a eiie?aoieo oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao.

8. Ia iniia? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? iia? caoeni? iie?eooy,
oaoiieia?? iaianaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o canoinoaaiith.
Aea/aii iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy, o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino?, oaciaee ?
no?oeoo?iee noai aeaeo?ie?oe/ieo acioi?noeeo, aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo
iie?ia?ieo ? aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a. C iiceoe?? o?ceei-o?i?/ii?
iaoai?ee ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy aea/aii aieea ie?aieo
eiiiiiaio?a ? oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo ae?iaieoeoa
ia ?ioaineai?noue ?o ciiooaaiiy, ui oiiaeeeaeth? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiee
i?aeo?ae aei aeai?o ciinino?eeeo iaoa??ae?a ? caoenieo ieie?eoo?a aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy.

9. I?iaiae?ciaaia iiiaieeaoo?a oaeaeeiciiooaaieo aeaoaeae a ia?a?iaieo
aaeocyo AIE, iai?/ai? oeyoe noai?aiiy ? iniauaiiy ae?eueieoeue
ci?oeithaaeueieo oaoiieia?e ia i?aei?e?inoaao oa?/iai? ? ia?a?iaii?
aaeocae. ?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeaiaioe ? ia 6 i?aei?e?inoaao
noai?ai? ae?eueieoe? ii ci?oeiaiith oa a?aeiiaeaiith aeaoaeae.
Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ia 30
i?aei?e?inoaao neeaa iiiaae 3 iei. e?a ( a oe?iao aei 1991?.).

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? II AeENA?OAOe??

1.Nooaiei TH.A., Iaeic I.?., Noa/eoei I.N. Oaoiieia?/i? iaoiaee
caaacia/aiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? .- Ee?a.:
Aea?ii, 1993.-108n.

2.No?oeoo?iooai?aiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy o?eaioaoi?/ieo aeanoeainoae
aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a /I.A.E?iae?a/oe, TH.A.Eoieoeueeee, TH.A.Nooaiei ?
?i.-E.: Aeua oeiea., 1997.-120n.

3.Oi?ioaaiiy ciinino?eeeo aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a eiioeaio?iaaieie
aeaea?aeaie aia?a?? / I.A. E?iae?a/oe, I.?. Aeoaeea, TH.A. Nooaiei, A.N.
*a?iaiei.-E.: ?CII, 1997.-119n.

4.Nooaiei TH.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aa?aceaii? ciinino?eeino? aeaoaeae
iaieaaeaiiyi iaoa??ae?a c aenieei ai?noii e?aii?th // Iaoaeiciaanoai oa
ia?iaea iaoae?a.-1997. ? 3-4.-N.57-60.

5.NooaieiTH.A. Iniaeeaino? eaa?oaoe?eii-a?ic?eiiai ciiooaaiiy
aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a // Iaoaeiciaanoai oa ia?iaea iaoae?a .-1998.
?4.-N.67-69.

6.Nooaiei TH.A. Iiaeaeue ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy iaoa??ae?a a
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa // I?iaeaie o?eaieia??.
– 1998. — ? 3. – N. 108-110.

7. Nooaiei TH.A. Ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ia ni?aoethaaiiy iaoa??ae?a o
oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao ieai-aacaeeiaieueieo ae?iaieoeoa //
Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai.–E.: Oe??IOA?. – 1999. — ?
7. – N.9-11.

8.Nooaiei TH.A. Ei?ic?eia no?ee?noue aacioa?i?/ieo iie?eoo?a ia aeaoaeyo
oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy // Oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue: I?aea?aeii/. oaiao.
iaoe. ca. – E.: OAeOOO, 1998. — ? 43-44. – N. 197-199.

9.Nooaiei TH.A., Iaoa/ei I.?. ?ic?aooiie ?ano?no o?eainenoai oa?/iaiai
iaeaaeiaiiy ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy o?eeoe?eii-eiioaeoii?
no?eeino? caoenieo iie?eoo?a //I?iaeaie o?eaieia??. — 1999. — ?1. —
N.38-43.

10.Nooaiei TH.A. Aieea oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeu ao?yeioeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ia ciinino?ee?noue iaoae?/ieo nieaa?a ? iie?eoo?a a
naeueieeiaeo ou?eueiaiiyo a?aeoeaio?iaeo ianin?a //I?iaeaie o?eaieia??.
— 1999. — ?1. — N.44-48.

11.Nooaiei TH.A. Aecia/aiiy ?ano?no oa ?iia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe
iaoei ? aia?ao?a oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? ca e?eoa??yie ei?ic?? oa ciino
// I?iaeaie o?eaieia??. — 1998. — ?4. — N.44-47.

12.Nooaiei TH.A. I?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy
oeoe?iaeo caaiae?a aeaeo?ie?oe/iei aciooaaiiyi. // Aeni?an-iiaeie:
iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. -E.: Oe??IOA?. — 1999. — ?7. — N.6-8.

?C.Nooaiei TH.A. Ia?niaeoeai? iie?eooy aeey caoenoo aeaoaeae
oieiaeeeueieo iaoei a?ae ni?aoethaaiiy // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea,
oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. — E.: Oe??IOA?.-1999. — ? 6. — N.6-9.

14.Nooaiei TH.A. Nooaiei A.TH. Aeina?ae i?aai?caoe?? ae?eueieoeue
ci?oeithaaeueieo oa a?aeiiaethaaeueieo oaoiieia?e o oa?/ia?e oa
ia?a?iaieo aaeocyo AIE // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai.
— E.: Oe??IOA?.- 1999. — ?5. — N.3-6.

15. Ei??iceiiii-iaoaie/aneia eciaoeaaiea n?aaeiaoaea?iaeenoie noaee n
yaoaeoe/aneeie iie?uoeyie a nieaaii ?anoai?a / Aieoaaoeue A.I., I?aen
A.A., Aectha A.A., Iaoa/ei I.E., Nooaiei TH.A. //Oeceei-oeie/aneay
iaoaieea iaoa?eaeia. — 1986. -?6. -N. 27-30.

16. Eciininoieeinoue aaciieaciaiiuo iie?uoee a oaoiieiae/aneeo n?aaeao
ie-.uaauo i?iecaiaenoa / TH.A. Nooaiei, A.E. Neuiueei, A.E. Iaeuaei,
Ae.E. Aiaoaiei //I?iaeaiu o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey. — E.: Oaoieea. — 1988. —
Aui. 34 — N.71-75.

17. Aeeyiea e?aiiey ia iaoaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee e eciininoieeinoue
iaoa?eaeia, iieo/aiiuo iaoiaeii ieaciaiiie iaieaaee / A.A. Ii?icthe,
A.A.Oeoeei, I.A. Oiie/aaa, TH.A. Nooaiei // I?iaeaiu o?aiey e
eciaoeaaiey.- E.:Oaoieea.-1992.-N.49-51.

18. Eciininoieeinoue ieaciaiiuo iie?uoee a iia/iie aiaea naaeeinaoa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa / Iaeic A.E., Eethe A.Ae., Nooaiei TH.A. e ae?. //
I?iaeaiu o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey.-E.: Oaoieea.- 1991.- Aui. 40 — N. 16-18.

19.Nooaiei TH.A. Aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a
iiae?a iaeoaaeueieo iaoei // Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea,
ae?iaieoeoai. — E.: Oe??IOA?- 1999. — ?8. — N.13-16.

20.Nooaiei TH.A. Canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?ioi?aoe/ieo iie?eoo?a aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae oa?/iaiai iaeaaeiaiiy //
Aeni?an-iiaeie: iaoea, oaoi?ea, ae?iaieoeoai. — E.: Oe??IOA?.- 1999. —
?8. — N.3-5.

21.Nooaiei TH.A., I?aen A.A. Aeeyiea aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia ia
eciininoieeinoue aoiaai?aaeoueo iiaeae caaa?oi/iuo aaoiiaoia // I?iaeaiu
o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey. — E.: Oaoieea. — 1983. — Aui. 29 — N. 58-60.

22.Nooaiei TH.A., Eiaoia A.E. I?iaeoe?iai/iue ?an/ao n iiiiuueth YAI
aoiaai?aaeoueo ono?ienoa aeia?aiee/aneie neiiao?e/iie noaiu ?acaiey aeey
caaa?oi/iuo aaoiiaoia ECI / Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. — E.: Oaoieea. —
1983. — Aui. 29 -N.99-103.

23.Nooaiei TH.A., I?aen A.A. Auai? noaeae aeey aoiaai?aaeoueo iiaeae
caaa?oi/iuo aaoiiaoia // I?iaeaiu o?aiey e eciaoeaaiey. — E.: Oaoieea. —
1983. — Aui. 23-N.29-33.

24.A.N. 1375218 NNN?, IEE A 22 N 17/00. ?aoaoea e ono?ienoao aeey
eciaeue/aiey iyna /A.E.Aaeue, A.E.Iaeic, A.Ae.Eethe, E.A.Aaeue
TH.A.Nooaiei (NNN?) — ? 4081923/28-13; Cayaeaii 29.04.86; Iioae.
23.02.88, Athe. ?12. — Cn.

25.A.N. 1259689 NNN?, IEE N 23 N 8/46. Niinia acioe?iaaiey noaeueiuo
aeaoaeae /A.O. Iaaeaiei, A.I. Ica?yineee, A.I. Iia/ai TH.A. Nooaiei
(NNN?) — ? 3844566/22 — 02; Cayaeaii 11.01.85; AeNI — Cn.

26.A.N. 1244211 NNN?, IEE N25 Ae 3/56. Yeaeo?ieeo aeey inaaeaeaiey
nieaaa ia iniiaa aieueo?aia e ieeaey /A.O. Iaaeaiei, A.I. Ica?yineee,
A.I. Iia/ai e TH.A. Nooaiei (NNN?) — ? 3828997/22 — 02; Cayaeaii
22.11.84; Iioae. 15.07.86, Athe. ? 26 –3 n.

27. A.n. 1338403, IEE 4N21 Ae 1/78. Niinia ecaioiaeaiey ?aaeouaai
eino?oiaioa /A.O. Iaaeaiei, A.I. Iia/ai, A.I. Ica?yineee, TH.A. Nooaiei
(NNN?)–? 3893408/22-02; Cayaeaii 11.05.85; AeNI- 3 n.

28. A.n. 1219226, IEE 4A22 N3/00. Ninoaa caueoiiai iie?uoey /A.O.
Iaaeaiei, A.I. Ica?yineee, A.I. Iia/ai, TH.A. Nooaiei (NNN?) — ?
3806242/22-02; Cayaeaii 30.10.84; Iioae. 23.03.86. Athe. ? 11.

29.Iao. Oe?a?ie ? 10721A, IEA AI2N7/14, AI2N7/18. Aeeneiaee ieei / E.A.
A?eieie/, N.Ae. Aeoaeei, I.A. Ianei, ? TH.A. Nooaiei (Oe?a?ia) — ?
94117735; Cayaeaii 24.11.94; Iioae. 25.12.96, Athe. ? 4.

30.Ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa / Nooaiei TH.A., Iaeic I.?., Eeoaeiaiei I.A.; Oe?. aea?ae.
oi-o. oa?/. oaoiieia?e. — Ee?a, 1997. — 9 n.: ?e. — Aeai. a AeIOA
Oe?a?ie 29.01.97, ? 110-Oe. 97.

31.Eciininoieeinoue iaieaai/iuo iaoa?eaeia, eaae?iaaiiuo e?aiieai /
Nooaiei TH.A., Eeoaeiaiei A.A.; Oe?. ain. oi-o ieu. oaoiieiaee. – Eeaa,
1996. – 9 n. – ?on. – Aeai. a AIOA Oe?aeiu 11.11.96, ? 2184 – Oe 96.

32. Inueiaa ia?ai?uaiiy eie?i/anoeo aae?a a eiii?ani?ao oieiaeeeueieo
iaoei /Nooaiei TH.A., ?aaiaoeue I.I. Oe?. aea?ae. oi-o. oa?/.
oaoiieia?e. — Ee?a, 1996. — 12 n.: ?e. – Oe?. – Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie
04.12.96, ? 2307 — Oe. 96.

33.Nooaiei TH.A., Iaeic I.?. I?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino? aeaoaeae
iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieie
iaoiaeaie// I?aoe? i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi. eiio. “?ic?iaea oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio
aaeoc? AIE”, – Ee?a: EO?OI. – 1993.- N.581.

34.Nooaiei TH.A., Iaeic I.?. Aiae?c oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
ci?oeithaaeueiiai iaieeaiiy // I?aoe? i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-oaoi. eiio.
“?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa
ia?a?iaio aaeoc? AIE”, – Ee?a: EO?OI. – 1993.- N.581.

35. Iniiai? iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiino? ? aeiaaia?/iino?
??aeo/eo eiiieaeo?a iiae??aithaaeueieo iaoei / I.?. Iaeic, A.?. A?eee,
I.?. Neeiueei, TH.A. Nooaiei // I?aoe? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi.
eiio. “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy
o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”.–Ee?a: OAeOOO. 1995.- N.457.

36.E?iae?a/oe I.A., Aeoaeea I.?., Nooaiei TH.A. Iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee
noai oa o?eaieia?/ia ioe?iea aaoaeoe/ieo iie?eoo?a // I?aoe? 3-ai
I?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio oe?a?inueeeo ?iaeaia??a-iaoai?e?a. – Euea?a. –
1997. – N. 216-217.

AiIioaoe?y

Nooaiei TH.A. Iaoeiai-i?eeeaaei? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?
aeaoaeae iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.05.09.-iaoeie oa aa?aaaoe oa?/iai? ,
i?e?ia?ieia?/ii? oa oa?iaoeaaoe/ii? i?iieneiaino?. – Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? ? ai?iaaaeaeaiith eiiieaeno
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo o?eaioaoi?/ieo, oaoiieia?/ieo ? eiino?oeoeaieo
??oaiue c o?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaee ?iai/eo na?aaeiaeu, ui caaacia/othoue
noai?aiiy oaoiieia?/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy c i?aeaeuaiiei ?ano?nii aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a ??cieo aaeocyo oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii
iiaee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie iaae?eiino? ?
aeiaaia?/iino? iaoei ? aia?ao?a oa?/iaeo ? ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE, ui
aaco?oueny ia iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaii? o?eaieiioaeoii? aca?iiae?? oa
oa?iiaeeiai?/iiio iiaeaethaaii? ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ciiooaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a a oaoiieia?/ieo na?aaeiaeuao c o?aooaaiiyi e?eoa???a ei?ic??
? ciino. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaa?oioiaai? i?ia?aneai? oaoiieia?/i? i?ioeane iaianaiiy caoenieo
iie?eoo?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?iieneiaa aeei?enoaiiy
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oaoiieia?/iiai
iaeaaeiaiiy AIE.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaae?ei?noue, aeiaaia?/i?noue, ciinino?ee?noue, ei?ic?y,
ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iee ciin, oaoiieia?/i? na?aaeiaeua, iie?eooy, oa?/iaa ?
ia?a?iaia aaeoc?.

ABSTRACT

Sukhenko Yu. H., “Scientific applied foundations of upgrading the
durability of parts of equipment of the food and process industries of
the AgroIndustrial Complex (AIC)” – Manuscript.

Dissertation for a doctor’s degree (Technology) in specialty 05.05.09. –
“Machines and equipment of the food, microbiological and pharmaceutical
industries”. – The Ukrainian State University of Food Technologies,
Kyiv, 1999.

The Dissertation is dedicated to the development and introduction of a
complex of the scientifically substantiated triboengineering,
technological and design decisions, with regard to the nature of the
operating environment which ensures creation of the processing equipment
with an upgraded service life for application in various branches of
food production. The paper contains a new conceptual approach to the
solution of the problem of reliability and durability of machines and
apparatus of the food and process industries of the AIC, which is based
on the mathematical modeling of tribocontact interaction and
thermodynamic modeling of the corrosive and mechanical wear of materials
in the processing environment, with allowance made for the corrosion and
wear criteria. Based on the obtained mathematical models, the
progressive technological processes of application of protective
coatings are experimentally substantiated. The main results of the work
have found an industrial application for improvement of the operational
characteristics of the process equipment of the AIC.

Key words: reliability, durability, resistance to wear, corrosion,
corrosive and mechanical wear, processing environment, coating, food
and process industries.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nooaiei TH.A. Iao/ii-i?eeeaaeiua iniiau iiauoaiey aeieaiaa/iinoe
aeaoaeae iai?oaeiaaiey ieuaauo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae AIE. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.05.09. -iaoeiu e aa?aaaou ieuaaie,
iee?iaeieiae/aneie e oa?iaoeaaoe/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. – Oe?aeineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ieuaauo oaoiieiaee, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aieth eiiieaena
iao/ii-iainiiaaiiuo o?eaioaoie/aneeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e eiino?oeoeaiuo
?aoaiee n o/aoii i?e?iaeu ?aai/eo n?aae, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho nicaeaiea
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey n iiauoaiui ?ano?nii aeey eniieueciaaiey
a ?acee/iuo iaeanoyo ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa. A ?iaioa ?ac?aaioai iiaue
eiioeaiooaeueiue iiaeoiae ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iaaeaaeiinoe e aeieaiaa/iinoe
iaoei e aiia?aoia ieuaauo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae AIE, eioi?ue
aace?oaony ia iaoaiaoe/aneii iiaeaee?iaaiee o?eaieiioaeoiiai
acaeiiaeaenoaey e oa?iiaeeiaie/aneii iiaeaee?iaaiee
ei??iceiiii-iaoaie/aneiai eciaoeaaiey iaoa?eaeia a oaoiieiae/aneeo
n?aaeao n o/aoii e?eoa?eaa ei??icee e eciina.

Ia iniiaaiee iieo/aiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae yenia?eiaioaeueii
iainiiaaiu i?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeanu iaianaiey caueoiuo
iie?uoee ia aeaoaee ieuaaiai e ia?a?aaaouaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey.
Nicaeaiu e caiaoaioiaaiu iiaua yeaeo?ieeoe/aneea e eeanoa?iua iie?uoey
nenoaiu “aieueo?ai-ieeaeue-acio” n aunieeie oeceei-iaoaie/aneeie
naienoaaie, eioi?ua eniieueciaaiu aeey oi?i/iaiey iii?iuo yeaiaioia
oeaaiiaea?iuo ia/ae, iiaeae oiaeiai/iuo iaoei , neo
ca?iiia?a?aaaouaathuaai iai?oaeiaaiey.

I?aaeeiaeai iaoiae inaaeaeaiey yeaeo?ioi?aoe/aneeo iieeia?iuo iie?uoee
(YOI), eioi?ua eia?oiua ii ioiioaieth i?aeoe/anee ei anai
oaoiieiae/aneei n?aaeai ieuaauo i?iecaiaenoa. Eniieueciaaiea oaeeo
iie?uoee a oa?ie?ao oiaeiai/iuo iaoei iiauneei eo eciininoieeinoue aieaa
/ai a 3 ?aca. I?eiaiaiea YOI a aaoiiaoao AAE-3I aeey auiaeaiey ie?iaeeia
a 4-5 ?ac oaaee/eei aeieaiaa/iinoue ia? o?aiey “?ioi?-ieoiaea?” e
“?ioi?-ei?ion” aeicaoi?ia oanoa e eneeth/eei aai iioa?e.

N eniieueciaaieai iaoiaea iieiioaeoi?iiai ieaie?iaaiey yenia?eiaioa
iieo/aiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, eioi?ua aaeaeaaoii onoaiaaeeaatho nayce
iaaeaeo oeceei-iaoaie/aneeie naienoaaie iie?uoee e iicaieytho
iioeiece?iaaoue oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeanu aacioa?ie/aneiai oi?i/iaiey e
ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaoaeae iai?oaeiaaiey, iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ioth
i?i/iinoue e ei??iceiiioth noieeinoue iie?uoee.

I?aaeeiaeaiu oaeaea i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua eiino?oeoeee ?aaeoueo
ono?ienoa aeey eciaeue/aiey iyna e ?acaeaeaiey oiaeiai/iuo iaoa?eaeia,
eioi?ua caiaoaioiaaiu. Iieacaii, /oi aeaoiiaoeeiiiia iaiueaiea a?aiae
iiaeae e eo oa?aee?iaaiea neioaoe/aneeie aeiacaie, a oaeaea oi?i/iaiea
eiiii-ieaciaiiuie, yeaeo?ieeoe/aneeie e eeanoa?iuie iie?uoeyie iiauoaao
eciininoieeinoue a ianeieueei ?ac. I?e yoii noieeinoue iiaeae ec
oaea?iaeenouo eino?oiaioaeueiuo noaeae i?eaeeaeaaony e noieeinoe
auno?i?aaeoueo. Eniieueciaaiea ieaciaiiiai iaiueaiey aioeo?eeoeeiiiuo
nieaaia ia ?aoaoee iynieciaeue/eoaeueiuo aie/eia iiauneei eo noieeinoue
ca n/ao ia?aciaaiey na?aiaeoiuo ieaiie a 2-2,5 ?aca, a iiaeae aie/eia —
ia 30%.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee iaoee i?iiuoeaiiia eniieueciaaiea
aeey iiauoaiey yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee oaoiieiae/aneiai
iai?oaeiaaiey.

I?eaiaeeony naoaaie a?aoee i?aaiecaoeee o/anoeia ii oi?i/iaieth e
ainnoaiiaeaieth aeaoaeae ia ieuaauo e ia?a?aaaouaathueo i?aaei?eyoeyo
AIE. Iainiiaaia iiiaieeaoo?a aeaoaeae e iieacaia yeiiiie/aneay
oeaeaniia?aciinoue eo oi?i/iaiey e ainnoaiiaeaiey. I?eaaaeaiu i?eia?u
i?aaiecaoeee o/anoeia oi?i/iythuae oaoiieiaee ia oanoe i?aaei?eyoeyo.
I?aaenoaaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ?aaeaiaiou, oeiiaay ieaie?iaea o/anoeia,
ia?a/aiue iaiaoiaeeiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e iaoa?eaeia.

Iienaiu ?acoeueoaou iiuoii-i?iiuoeaiiiai ai?iae?iaaiey oi?i/iaiiuo ii
iiaui oaoiieiaeyi aeaoaeae iai?oaeiaaiey: yenoeaio?eeiauo e eieai/anouo
aaeia oieiaeeeueiuo aa?aaaoia ANa0,7 e OAE-0,7, iaeueoeaa
aooei/ii-?ieeeiauo oeaiae naaeeiyeaaaoi?ia, caueoiuo aooeie
oeaio?iaaaeiuo ianinia, eaioi/iuo oiaeia e iii? o?ainii?oiie nenoaiu
aeeoooceiiiuo aiia?aoia naoa?iuo caaiaeia oeia IAeN-20, ei?ionia
aaioeeyoi?ia, eiianoae e?ueue/aoie, aoiaeiuo eiionia neaa?aoiuo iaoei,
iynieciaeue/eoaeueiiai eino?oiaioa e ?aaeoueo ono?ienoa oiaaeiai/iiai
iai?oaeiaaiey eiiaeeoa?neie i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie aiaae?aiu ia 30 i?aaei?eyoeyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaaeiinoue, aeieaiaa/iinoue, eciininoieeinoue,
ei??icey, ei??iceiiii-iaoaie/aneee eciin, oaoiieiae/aneea n?aaeu,
iie?uoey, ieuaaay e ia?a?aaaouaathuea io?anee.

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