Наукові основи підвищення надійності районних водопровідних систем центрально-степової частини України: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / А.А. Ткач, У

3

OE?A?INUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AIAeIIAI AINIIAeA?NOAA

ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OEA* AIAOIE?E AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 628.1.147 / 628.1.148.16

IAOEIA? INIIAE I?AeAEUAIIss IAAe?EIINO?

?AEIIIEO AIAeII?IA?AeIEO NENOAI

OeAIO?AEUeII-NOAIIAI? *ANOEIE OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.23.04 — Aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, eaiae?caoe?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

??AIA

1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiiia?ao?y: “?ac?aaioea iooae
iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe aiaeii?iaiaeiuo nenoai”, Aea?aeaaia
oeaio?aeueii-oe?a?inueea aeaeaaieoeoai, E??iaia?aae, 1996. — 244 n.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?aaianueeee Iao?i Ieaenaiae?iae/,
Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e aiaeiiinoa/aiiy;

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaoeiaa-Eeeiaiei Iaoae?y A?eaae??aia,
?inoeooo eiei?aeii? o?i?? oa o?i?? aiaee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/a
a?aeae?eii aaeni?aoe?? oa aaeni?aoe?eii? oaoiieia?? i/enoee aiaee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aa?iai A`y/aneaa Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo
a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th o?oaii?iaiaeiiai
a?ae?io?ainii?oo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oa?eoi??aeueia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/a ia?aeiaiiy “Oa?e?aeiioii?iiaiae”,
i.Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “23” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei?, ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 47.104.01 i?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ca aae?anith:

266028 i.??aia, aoe.Niai?ia, 11.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ca aae?anith:

i.??aia, aoe.I?eoiaeueea, 75.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao

oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A.I.Aino??eia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. ?icoe?aiiy aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a
Oe?a?ie noai?eei ?yae neeaaeieo aiaeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?iaeai, na?aae
yeeo iaeaaaeeea?oith ? i?iaeaia ieoii? aiaee. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny
oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, yea ?icoaoiaaia o iaeiaiaei?e
i?noeaaino?, aea ?ioaineaiee ?icaeoie i?iieneiaino? oa o?aai?caoe?y i?no
i?ecaaea aei ianoa/? ieoii? aiaee, yeo iaiiaeeeai iie?eoe ca ?aooiie
i?noeaaeo aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy. Oae, ianaeaiiy i?noa E??iaia?aaea a
i?neyai?ii? ?iee c?inei c 125 oen. /ieia?e aei 300 oen. /ieia?e, a
iio?aaa o ieoi?e aiae? c?inea aei 140 oen. i3 / aeiao i?e iaeneiaeuei?e
iiaeeeaino? i?noeaaeo aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy 40 oen. i3 / aeiao. A
ca’yceo c oei, ui oaea noaiiaeua neeaeiny a a?eueoino? i?no
oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, aeieeea iio?aaa o iinoa/aii?
aiaee ?c a?aeaeaeaieo iiooaeieo aiaeieo aeaea?ae, iai?eeeaae c ?.
Aei?i?i, aiane?aeie /iai aeieeei aaaaoi ?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai:
Aei?i?i-Ieeiea?a, Aei?i?i-Aa?aeyinuee, Aoeuenueeee ?aeiiiee aiaeii?ia?ae
i. Aei?i?iiao?ianueea, Aei?i?i-Iieoaaa, Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae oa ?io?,
eiaeiee ?c yeeo iinoa/a? ieoio aiaeo ie?aiei aeiiii?/iei ?aeiiai. Oae,
?aeiiiee aiaeii?ia?ae «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», yeee ? oa?aeoa?iei
i?aaenoaaieeii oaeeo nenoai, ? ia yeiio i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ia? iiooaei?noue 200 oen. i3 / aeiao, iinoa/a? ieoio aiaeo i?noai:
E??iaia?aaeo, Ciai’yioe?, 0eaenaiae???, Na?oeiaiaenueeo ? 56 n?euenueeei
ianaeaiei ioieoai, /ei i?aeoe/ii ae??oaii i?iaeaio aiaeiiinoa/aiiy
E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeano?. ?acii c oei, aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe?? oaeeo
nenoai iieaco?, ui iaae?ei?noue ?o cia/ii ieae/a a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo
eieaeueieo aiaeii?iaiae?a, ui aacothoueny ia i?noeaaeo aeaea?aeao. Oaea
noaiiaeua aeieea? oiio, ui ?aeiii? aiaeii?iaiaee neeaaeai? ?c
iine?aeiaii c’?aeiaieo ia?aea/oth/eo aiaeo ae?eueieoeue, oiio a?aeiiaa
aoaeue-yei? ?c ieo /iniaeeai ia?oeo/ i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaeii/aniiai,
?ieiee aaaaoiaeaiiiai, i?eieiaiiy aiaeiiinoa/aiiy aaaaoueio ianaeaieo
ioieo?a, iaiineoue iaoa??aeueio oa ii?aeueio oeiaeo ianaeaiith, ni?ey?
ii?ooaiith aeieia?/iiai aaeaino o ?aa?iiao. Iniaeeai no?aaeaeathoue i?e
oeueiio i?noa, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a e?ioe? oaeeo aiaeii?iaiae?a,
caeeoath/enue aac aiaee 15-20 ae?a ia ??e. Aeina?ae aenieoaoaoe??
?aeiiieo aiaeii?iaiae?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui eiaeia iaeiaioa ci?ia
ia?aiao??a ?o ?iaioe, c aie? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ia?niiaeo, aai
iacaeaaeieo a?ae iueiai i?e/ei, iia’ycaia c oaoi?/iei ?eceeii ao?aoe
iaae?eiino? ? noai?th? oaeei /eiii iaaecae/aeio neooaoe?th. Ia
i?aeoeoe?, a oiiaao iaiao?aeiino? iino?eiiai iia?oaaiiy ?aeiiiith
aiaeii?ia?aeiith nenoaiith, aenieoaoaoe?eiee ia?niiae cono??/a?oueny c
aaeeeeie o?oaeiiuaie uiaei i?aeo?eiaiiy iaae?eiino?, ine?eueee aaaaoi
ni?e/eiaiue, ui aieeaathoue ia aiaeii?ia?aeio nenoaio, ia caeaaeaoue
a?ae iueiai. Oea, a ia?oo /a?ao aeiaaeeia? oa ia’?eoeai? ni?e/eiaiiy, ui
aeeeeeathoueny i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie. Iniaeeai caaea/a i?aeo?eiaiiy
iaeaaeiiai nooiaith iaae?eiino? oneeaaeith?oueny a oiiaao aeeiai?ee oa
iaeeaaeaiiy oeeo ni?e/eiaiue, oiio ?ic?iaea oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai a oiiaao ?o ae?? yaey?
niaith no/anio ? aaaeeeao iaoeiao ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io caaea/o.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o a?aeiaeaeaii? niinia?a aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
iaae?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ieoiith aiaeith oa iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio
ianaeaieo ioieo?a oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, ye? aeeaeyoueny
?c a?aeaeaeaieo aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy /a?ac ?aeiii? aiaeii?ia?aei?
nenoaie, ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino?, oeyoii
noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo iniia ioe?iee noaio ? noaiai? iaae?eiino?, iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy cania?a ciaioaiiy aieea?a ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue
aeiaaeeiaiai, ooo/iiai oa i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai i?eieiaiiy aiaeiiinoa/aiiy /e iia??oaiiy yeino?
aiaee, a oaeiae ?ic?iaee oa iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoi?/ieo
oaeineiiaeaiue iaeiiaae?eieo oaoiieia?/ieo nii?oae ? onoaoeoaaiiy c
iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ?o no?eeino?.

Aaoi? caoeua?:

— eiioeaioe?th ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aiao?a iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai
? (t) o iaeei ?c iniiaieo ia ?yaeo c I ? I, yeee a iiaeo oiiaao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaaoaa? cia/aiiy ia o?eueee ye aioo??oi?e oaoi?/iee
oaeoi? iiaeeeainoae o aacia?aa?eiiio aiaeiiinoa/aii?, a e ye ciai?oi?e
aeiiii?/iee ? th?eaee/iee, o ieai? aca?iia?aeiinei noa’?eo?a aeaniino?.

— iia? iaoiaee/i? i?eioeeie aecia/aiiy noai?ith iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai o aoaeue-yeee /an aenieoaoaoe??.

— iaoeia? iniiae ciaioaiiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue ? ?aaeoe?th
ia ieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai.

— iaoeiai oa aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino?
??ciiiai?oiei ni?e/eiaiiyi iaeiiaae?eieo aeaiaio?a aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai.

i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iioei?caoe??? ?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? o:

— iiaiio iaoeiaiio i?aeoiae? aei oai??? iaae?eiino?, noiniaii
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai, yeee aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? ia?yaeo c
ia?aiao?ii eiia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ? (t) oaoi?/iiai Io oa
aeiiii?/iiai Ia ?iaeaen?a iaae?eiino?, aeey a?eueo iiaii? ioe?iee noaio
?aeiiieo aiaeii?iaiae?a.

— iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? ??cieo noai?a iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo
aiaeii?iaiae?a o ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? oa iaoeia?e nenoaiaoecaoe??
aieea?a ia ieo ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue aeiaaeeiaiai, ooo/iiai /e
i?e?iaeiiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e.

— noai?aii? iaoeiaeo iniia oaoi?/ii aoaeoeaieo ? aeiiii?/ii aeioe?eueieo
oeyo?a cieaeaiiy aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue, i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino?
iaeiiaae?eieo nii?oae ? onoaoeoaaiiy oa iioei?caoe?? oaoiieia?/ieo
?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe??.

— iaoeiaiio iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino? iio??eiiai caoenoo aeiaaeo
aiaeiaii?a ?aeiiieo aiaeii?iaiae?a a?ae aieeao a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a ia
a?aei?io a?ae o?aaeeoe?eieo iaeiinooiaiaaeo, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny ia
eieaeueieo aiaeii?iaiaeao.

— a?aeiaeaeai? iaoeiaeo ca’yce?a i?ae eiiieaeniith ae??th aeiaaeeiaeo,
ooo/ieo ? i?e?iaeieo ni?e/eiaiue o in?iiuei-aaniyiee ia??iae c oaea?iith
a’yce?noth iaoa??aeo no?iie o?oa aiaeiaii?a, a iane?aeie yeeo
ca?eueoo?oueny e?euee?noue a?aeiia ia aiaeiaiiao.

— iiaiio i?aeoiae? aei ae??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie ca?eueoaiiy
o?eueo?ioeeeeo ia o?eueo?oaaeueieo noaioe?yo o ia??iaee aaniyiiai
oea?o?iiy ca?eueoaiiyi o?eueo?oth/i? iiaa?oi? caaaioaaeaiiy aac ci?ie
?nioth/eo aaaa?eo?a o?eueo??a, ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy iii?oi?ii
iiaa?oiaaeo e?i?eieo ai?icai.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

Aeey oe?iei? ?aae?caoe?? ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe ia noaae?yo i?iaeooaaiiy,
aoae?aieoeoaa oa aenieoaoaoe?? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai ?ic?iaeaii:

— aiae?oe/i? caeaaeiino? aecia/aiiy ae?? ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue ia
iaae?ei?noue aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai, ye? a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeeaino?
?ic?aooie?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oa nenoaie o
oe?eiio c iiaeeea?noth ?o ii??aiyiiy.

— i?ea?iaeuei? eiino?oeoe??: aanieea a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a,
naeueieeiaiai eiiiainaoi?a, aeao/eea aeicoaaiiy ?aaaaio?a ii
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino?, oei?aoi?a, i?eno?ith noai?aiiy oaeeynoi? iiaa?oi?
ia o?eueo?oth/iio caaaioaaeaii? oaeaeeeo o?eueo??a, ye? i?aeaeuothoue
caaaeueio iaae?ei?noue.

— oaoiieia?th nooiaiaaiai ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/? ii aiaeiaiiao,
iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy aiaee i?ney ianin?a aeey
ai?ioueae c caaeaaiiyi ooaith aiaeicaa??ieo n?oie.

— cai?iiiiiaai? caaaeuei? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noiniaii ?ic?aooie?a
? aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue ??ciiiai?oieo aieea?a ia
iaae?ei?noue aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a oa aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe.

Io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeia? oa i?aeoe/i? aeai?,
aeiaoiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? ia ?aeiiiiio aiaeii?iaiae?
«Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», Aoeuenueeiio ?aeiiiiio aiaeii?iaiae? i.
Aei?i?iiao?ianueea,

Iaeanueeiio aiaeii?iaiae? /Oei?aoi? OO-2, nooiaiaaa ?aaoethaaiiy,
aeei?enoaiiy aiaee i?ney ianin?a aeey ia?a??ao aniieooth/eo n?oie i?e
ooainoai?aii?, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aenieoaoaoe?? aiaeiaii?a/. Aeaye? ?c
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy / aeianaiiy aniieooth/eo iaieiae?a a ?onei
?. Aei?i?i/ ciaoiaeyoueny a noaae?? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia aiaeii?iaiae?
«Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», a ?io? ia?aaeaa/ai? ieaiaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o
iaeaooi?o ?aeiino?oeoe?yo. I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai, ca ?aooiie yeiai ciaioeoueny a?aeeeth/aiiy i?no a?ae nenoai
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy eeoa ia iaeio aeiao, ia i?eeeaae? aiaeii?iaiaeo
«Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», o?eueee aeey i?iieneiaino? i?noa E??iaia?aaea
aea? ciiao oieeiooe caeoe?a o ?ici??? 500 oen. ea?a. o oe?iao 1981 ?ieo.
I?yiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oei?aoi?a OO-2, yeee
aeei?enoiao?oueny a?eueoa 20 ?ie?a, noaiiaeoue 136 oen. ea?a. ui??/ii o
oe?iao 1981 ?ieo. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue iai?aaeai? o aaaeo/? i?iaeoi?
i?aai?caoe??, a?o?oaeoo?ii-aoae?aaeuei? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee aeey
i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Ie?ai? aoaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, i?iaaaeaii? ia ?aeiiiiio
aiaeii?iaiae? «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ananithci?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i. Eeoei?a, 1981 ??e, ia
?anioae?eainuee?e ia?aae? niaoe?ae?no?a ii aiaeiiinoa/aiith oa
eaiae?caoe??, i. A?ieoey 1979 ??e, i. E??iaia?aae 1997?. O iiaiiio
ianyc? aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa caneooiaoaaeanue ia ni?eueiiio can?aeaii?
A/aii? ?aaee E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa Oaoi?/ii? ?aaee E??iaia?aaenueeiai Iaeaniiai
ae?iaie/iai i?aei?e?inoaa «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», 1996 ?., o Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?oeoaeoo?e 23. 10. 1977 ?ieo oa
ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? a Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaai?e
aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa 1.07.1998 ?.

I?ae iaoeiaei ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a o 1997 ?. a?aee?eoa ani??aioo?a ii
i?iaeaiai iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeii-eaiae?caoe?eieo nenoai. Aeiaoiaee
aeena?oaioa a?aei?/aii ciaeii «Aeiao?aeiee N?N?».

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 23 i?aoe?, c yeeo 22
neeaee iniiao aeena?oaoe??, na?aae yeeo 1 iiiia?ao?y, 19 iaoeiaeo
noaoae, 2 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa ia aeiaoiaee, 7 iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
iioae?eiaaii aac ni?aaaoi??a.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiiia?ao??
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, i?iiiceoe?e, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e c 139 iiceoe?e ? aeeeaaeaia ia 226 noi??ieao iniiaiiai oaenoo
c 54 ?enoieaie oa 26 oaaeeoeyie. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe 244 noi??iee.
Iiiia?ao?y aeaeaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aea?aeaaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith
i?ia?aiith 1.6 «A?aeiiaeaiiy yeino? i?e?iaeieo aiae Oe?a?ie» ca
?acoeueoaoaie iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo ca?aeii
ainiiaea?nueeiai aeiaiai?o ? 2 a?ae 5 n?/iy 1995 ?. oa ni?eueiiai
??oaiiy A/aii? ?aaee E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy oa E??iaia?aaenueeiai
Iaeaniiai ae?iaie/iai i?aei?e?inoaa «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», i?ioieie ? 12
a?ae 14.11.1996 ?.

CI?NO ?IAIOE.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiaia o aeaeyae? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? iiiia?ao??,
ui a?aeiia?aea? iine?aeiaiino? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiai
caaaeueiiai noaio iaae?eiino?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy c oai???
iaae?eiino? o ieai? iiaeeeaino? i?enoinoaaiiy ?? aei ioe?iee noaio
neeaaeieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai. Cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th noaio
iaae?eiino? oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a iaae?eiino? ia
i?eeeaae? ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae».

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith iniiaieo ni?e/eiaiue, iaoeiaiio
iaa?oiooaaiith ?o aieeao ia iaae?ei?noue aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai,
?icaeoeo iiae?e a oiiaao aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e,
i?iiiio?oueny ?o eeaneoeeaoe?y oa ?aaeoe?y ia ?o ae?th ??cieo aeaiaio?a
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? iienai? iniiai? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai a oiiaao aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo
ni?e/eiaiue aeiaaeeiaiai, ooo/iiai oa i?e?iaeiueiai iioiaeaeaiiy. A
?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaai? oaoi?/i? oaeineiiaeaiiy
oaoiieia?/ieo nii?oae oa onoaoeoaaiiy, ui i?aeaeuothoue iaae?ei?noue c
a?aeiia?aeieie na?ae/aiiyie i?i ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iei iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai.

Ia?oee ?icae?e. ?aeiiiee aiaeii?ia?ae «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», ia?oa /a?aa
yeiai iiaoaeiaaia o 1973 ?ioe?, ia? aeiaaeeio 116,5 ei, caae?a? aiaeo c
E?aiai/ooeueeiai aiaeinoiaeua, neeaaea?oueny ?c 6 i?aenenoai iine?aeiaii
c’?aeiaieo a?ae ?.Aei?i?a aei E??iaia?aaea. C aoae?aieoeoaii ae?oai?
/a?ae aiaeiaiio, iaae?ei?noue ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo aeaui c?inea, aea
oea ana ae ia caaacia/eei iiaii? eiai iaae?eiino?. Aiae?c ui??/ieo
a?aeiia, ia aiaeii?iaiae? «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» oa ?ioeo aiaeia?/ieo
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie aeaco? ia
oa, ui aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e caeaaeeoue a?ae oaoi?/iiai
noaio nenoai, ii?e ?ieo, no?ieo aenieoaoaoe?? nii?oae, a?ae?aae?/ieo oa
oaiia?aoo?ieo iniaeeainoae, oaoi?/iiai ??aiy ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo
oa i?e?iaei?o iniaeeainoae, ye? ua iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aii.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? i?iaaaeai? ia ?aeiiiiio aiaeii?iaiae?
«Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeiieo
a/aieo o iai?yieo iaae?eiino?, a oiio /ene? aiaeieo i?iaeai: I.I.
Aa?aiiaa, TH.A. ?eue?ia, ?.O. Ai?iiianueeiai, A.A. E?ea/aeoa?e?, A.A.
Oa?iiaoeaaa, N.O. Aicithea, A.ss. Ie?eieea, ?.?. Iaoiaiei, N.I.
Aii/a?iaa, ?.I. Aaa?/a, I.0. A?aaianueeiai, A.A. A?oaiiiiaa, ?.A.
Aa?aiia?/a, A.A. Iao?iniaa, A.A. ?oaeaiei, N.A. Eiaeooei, I.?. Eoe?eiaa,
A.Ae. Aei?o???aa, Oe.?. I??oeooeaaa, I.Ae. Oi?oaeiai, A.I. ?iaiaa, I.I.
A??ieue, A.0. I?eiaa, A.O. Oth??aa, A.E. Iieyeiaa, ss.0. Iieue/aea, A.A.
sseiae?aa, A.O. Aei?o???aa, I.Ae. Aoaecy, A.A. Ao??ia, A.?. Eiaaeaiea,
I.I. Eaca?/oea, I.A. I?aiaa?a, I.?. ?iiauaiei, i?aoe? yeeo ni?yiiaai?,
ia oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ca?eueoaiiy no?ieo neoaeae
nii?oae ? onoaoeoaaiiy oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo aeae?a iaeaaeiaiiy c
i?aeaeuaiiith iaae?ei?noth, ye? ? aianeii o caaaeueio iaae?ei?noue.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e. Aiaeii?ia?aei? nenoaie iaeaaeaoue aei neeaaeieo
oaoi?/ieo nenoai, aeey yeeo iaae?ei?noue iiaeiia eiio?iethaaoenue ii
o?ueio ia?aiao?ao: I — iiaea/a, I — iaii?, R — iieaciee yeino? ii
aoaeue-yeiio ia?aiao?o. ?acii n oei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe ?nioth/eo
?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai iieacothoue, ui ?o iaae?ei?noue, a?eueo
iiaii, aeioe?eueii ioe?ithaaoe ca nenoaiith ?iaeaen?a: It — oaoi?/iee
?iaeaen iaae?eiino?, Ia ~ aeiiii?/iee ?iaeaen iaae?eiino?, ye? ?acii c
?(t) — eiia??i?noth aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe aeathoue ciiao ioe?ieoe
noai?iue iaae?eiino? o aoaeue-yeee iiiaio /ano oa aea?aoe iioeiaeueiee
aa??aio i?e i?iaeooaaii? /e i?iaaaeaii? caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino?. I?e oeueiio:

aea: Ia, Ia, -Ea — a?aeiia?aei? iaeiaio? aeicaieai? iieacieee o
aiaeiniiaeeaa/a; N, i, N — nia?aa?o?noue i3 aiaee, e?euee?noue a?aeiia,
oa /enei ae?a a?aeeeth/aiiy ianaeaiiai ioieoo a?ae nenoaie
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ca oiia a?aenooiino? ?aca?ao aai cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino?; Ni, ii, Ni -~ oaae naia, aea c caniaaie i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? /e ?aca?ao. Iaeii/anii, a?aoiaoth/e iniaeea?noue
aiaeii?iaiaeieo nenoai, yea iieyaa? o ooioe?iio-aaii? iaa?oue i?e
a?aeiiaao ??cieo aeaiaio?a, ui a?ae??ciy? ?o a?ae ?ioeo oaoi?/ieo
nenoai, cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eoaaoe noai aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai ca
oaeeie ??aiyie iaae?eiino?: iiaia a?aeiiaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy — noai, i?e
yeiio iiai?noth i?eieiaia iiaea/a aiaee an?i niiaeeaa/ai —

?(t) = 0, I-a < I, Ia > 1; aaa??eiee noai — noai nenoaie i?e a?aeiia?
iniiaieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?eaaei aei ii?ooaiiy aiaeiiinoa/aiiy iaeiiai aai
aeae?eueeio ianaeaieo ioieo?a, aai aiaea ia a?aeiia?aea? AeNO — 0,7 >
?(t) > I, 7o < 0, ?ae > 1; e?eciaee noai — noai nenoaie i?e a?aeiia?
iniiaieo aai aeiiii?aeieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy
iiaea/? aiaee ia a?eueoa 30%, aeei?enoaiiy ?aca?ao aai oi?niaaiee ?aaeei
aenieoaoaoe?? — ?(t) = 0,7, Io = I, Ia = 1; ?aiiioiee noai — noai
nenoaie i?e aeaiae? iniiaieo aai aeiiii?aeieo aeaiaio?a ia ieaiiaee aai
i?io?eaeoe/iee ?aiiio — ?(t), ?o, Ia — iaaoaathoue aoaeue-yeiai
cia/aiiy; aenieoaoaoe?eiee noai — noai nenoaie a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??,
i?e yeiio ia niinoa??aa?oueny iaaieo iciae ii?ooaiiy, i?e oeueiio aiia
ia? caian iaae?eiino? — 0,7 < ?(t) < Io, 0 < ?o < ?, 0 < Ia < 1; iaaecae/aeia neooaoe?y — i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ?c iaeiiai noaio a ?ioee, aai ci?ia ia?aiao??a a iaaeao iaeiiai noaio, aeeeeeaiee ??ciiiai?oieie ni?e/eiaiiyie. Aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee noaio aeei?enoiaothoueny aeniiiaioe?aeueiee ? ii?iaeueiee caeii ?iciiae?eo aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei, i?e oeueiio aeey aaeeeeo nenoai, yeeie ? ?aeiii? aiaeii?iaiaee, neeaaeai? ?c iine?aeiaii i?aoethth/eo N i?aenenoai, c e?aoi?noth ?aca?aoaaiiy m ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ?n(t) aecia/a?oueny ca a?aeiiith caeaaei?noueth: aea: ?i(t) — ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ?-i? iine?aeiaii i?aoethth/i? i?aenenoaie. Ia iniia? oe??? caeaaeiino? iiaoaeiaaii oeiiaee a?ao?e i?enoiniaaiee aei i?aenenoai aeaeo "ianin - aiaeia?i - ?acaaoa?", yeee i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 1, a a?ao?/ia ae??oaiiy caeaaeiino? (2) c aeiiiiiaith oeueiai a?ao?eo i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 2. Ia oeueiio ae ?enoieo iaianaii 7o ? 1^ a iaaeao aenieoaoaoe?eiiai noaio. ?en. 1. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? ?en. 2. A?ao?e caeaaeiino? ?c ?en. 2 aeaeii, ui ?iia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe nenoaie o oe?eiio (n), ia aoaeue-yeiio ??ai? caaaeaiiy ia a?aeiiao, caaaeaee iaioa eiia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ie?aii? i?aenenoaie (A) i?e iine?aeiaiiio c'?aeiaii?. I?e oeueiio aeaeii, ui eiia??i?noue aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe i?aenenoai ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo "Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae" iaeaea ??aiicia/ia ? neeaaea? 450-1300, a nenoaie o oe?eiio — 200-250 aiaeei, ui ??aiicia/ii 7-18 a?aeiiaai ia eiaei?e i?aenenoai? ? 32-40 a?aeiiaai ia nenoai? o oe?eiio aoaeue-yeee ??e ?iaioe. ?aca?a oaoi?/ii?" iaae?eiino? nenoaie aoaeue-yeiio ia?aiao?o yeino? neeaaea?: I?e Ir > 0 — nenoaia ciaoiaeeoueny o aenieoaoaoe?eiiio
noai?, i?e ?-oe = 0 nenoaia ciaoiaeeoueny o e?eciaiio noai?, a i?e Ir < 0 ianoa? a?aeiiaa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ii aeaiiio ia?aiao?o. I?e oeueiio, /ei a?eueoa 7ae, oei a?eueoa iaae?ei?noue ii aeaiiio ia?aiao?o. O?ao?e ?icae?e. An? ni?e/eiaiiy ia nenoaio aiaeiiinoa/aiiy iiaeeeai ?icae?eeoe ia aeiaaeeia?, ooo/i? oa i?e?iaei?. Aei aeiaaeeiaeo ni?e/eiaiue iiaeeeai a?aeianoe: aaniyia "oea?o?iiy", yea aeieea? ??aeei ca iaaieo i?e?iaei?o ianoaaei, ?aioiaa aeieeiaiiy ianin?a oa ooainoai?aiiy. Aei ooo/ieo ni?e/eiaiue iaeaaeaoue: ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/?, ieaiiaa aieeiaiiy oa aeieeiaiiy ianin?a, a oaeiae aea?ae nii?oae ia i?io?eaeoe/i? oa ieaiia? ?aiiioe. Aei i?e?iaeieo ni?e/eiaiue iiaeeeai a?aeianoe: noa??iiy nenoai, oaiia?aoo?i? aieeae, ia?aaeuaiiy aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy iaae iiaea/ath (??no aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy), e?oi? "oea?o?iiy". ?icaeoie iiae?e i?e aeieeiaii? iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe?? a?ae ??cieo ni?e/eiaiue, ?aaeoe?y aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ia oe? ni?e/eiaiiy oa iiaeeeaee e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao iieacaii ia noai? ?en.3. Oeyoii aea/aiiy ??cieo ni?e/eiaiue anoaiiaeaii: a) ?aioiaa aa?ieiaiiy (aeieiaiiy) ianin?a, ca ?aooiie aeieeiaiiy a?ae?aae?/iiai oaea?o, iiaea iaoe oa?aeoa? caith, ?iceaaeiaiiy oa iioeiaeaeaiiy. O?ainoi?iaoe??th ??aiyiiy Ae. Aa?ioee? o ??aiyiiy aia?aaoe/iiai aaeaino iaea?aeaii oi?ioeo iaeneiaeueiiai iaii?o I, ui ca'yco? an? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie: aea: I — iaeneiaeueiee iaii?, i., (Z2 - Z) — aaiaeace/iee ia?aiaae, E — eiao?oe??io iii?o l-aeiaaeeia aiaeiaiio, t — /an ae?? ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano, Oa, Vm— a?eueoa ? iaioa oaeaee?noue i?e aieeaii? (aeieeaii?) ianina, O? — ?iai/a oaeaee?noue aei ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano. ?en. C Noaia ?icaeoeo iiae?e a oiiaao iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe?? A oiiaao ae?? ni?e/eiaiiy iiaeooue aeieeiooe iiiaioe eiee : O? = Oa, Oi = O?, Oa= I, V" = 0 Aiae?c i?io?eaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano iieaco?, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae ciaioaiiy aai ca?eueoaiiy iiaea/? ia aeiaaeo aiaeiaiiao 22 iiaea iaoe ??ci? cia/aiiy, yea iia'ycaii c iiaeeea?noth ?ic?eao nooe?eueiino? iioieo o ??cieo eiai oi/eao. Ui ae aei c?ooiaooaaiiy cono??/ieo oaea?ieo oaeeue, oi aeei?enoiaoth/e oai?aio ?iioeuen?a, a oaeiae ca oiia, ui oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e iane io?eia?ii oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy neee c?ooiaooaaiiy: ca?aeee, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeieeiaiiy i?e c?ooiaooaaii? aaee/acieo nee, ye? i?aoeththoue ia ?ic?ea e?eueoey o?oae. a) "Aaniyia oea?o?iiy" aeieea? ?aiiueith aaniith o iiiaioe ??ceiai iioaie?iiy ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei ?icie?aeiaiiyi ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae o aa?oiueiio oa?? o?eueo?oth/iai caaaioaaeaiiy oaeaeeeo o?eueo??a, ia caaaeath/e ia i?aeaeuaio aeico oei?o, aiane?aeie /iai ianoa? oaeaeea eieueiaoaoe?y caaaioaaeaiiy, ui nei?i/o? o?eueo?ioeeee aei 3-4 aiaeei; i?iaeoeoeai?noue aiaeii?iaiaeii? noaioe?? cieaeo?oueny aei 50%, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aiaeii?ia?aeia nenoaia ia?aoiaeeoue o aaa??eiee noai ia i?ioyc? 3-4 ae?a. ??cea cieaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioo o?eueo?aoe?? ii a?aeiioaiith aei a?aenooiino? "oea?o?iiy" iaea?aeaia oeyoii eiio?iethaaiiy /ano cieaeaiiy ??aiy aiaee iaae eieueiaoiaaiei o?eueo?oth/ei caaaioaaeaiiyi iieacaii ia ?en. 4 ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue oie oaeo, ui ?acii c iaeiie/aiiyi o aa?oiueiio oa?? caaaioaaeaiiy a?iiane aiaei?inoae, i?ioiaeeoue ?o ?ioaineaia ?ic-ie?aeiaiiy, i?e/iio ia'?i iaeiie/aiiy aeeaeo ee?oei i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny oae?e caeaaeiino?: ?en. 4. *an cieaeaiiy ??aiy aiaee iaae eieueiaoiaaiiei o?eueo?oth/ei caaaioaaeaiiyi: 1 - ia??iae aaniyiiai "oea?o?iiy". 2 - a?aenooi?noue "oea?o?iiy"; aea: i — /enei ae?eaiiy ee?oei, ui iaae?eoee o o?eueo?oth/a caaaioaaeaiiy ieiuath i'- E - e?euee?noue ee?oei, ui iaae?eoee o caaaioaaeaiiy i?ioyaii oeeeeo ae?eaiiy, vi - ia'?i iaei??? ee?oeie. Ca?aene /enei ae?eaiiy ee?oei i aei iiaii? eieueiaoaoe?? ia'?ia ii? caaaioaaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith: E?euee?noue aeeaeo ee?oei E, ui iinooiathoue ia o?eueo?oaaiiy, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny iaae?eia ?iaioa o?eueo??a, aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith: aea: a — ia??iae ae?eaiiy iaei??? ee?oeie. a) Ooainoai?aiiy. Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ii?ooaiiyi iaae?eiino? aiaeicaai?o ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo "Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae" o ia??iaee ooai-noai?aiiy, na?ae/aoue, ui ooai?aiiy aace?/? eueiaeeiie ia iiaa?oi? aiaeinoiaeua aeia?a i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny, yeui ?icaeyaeaoe oea yaeua c oi/ee ci?o o?ceei-o?i?/ii? iaoai?ee aeey naiiieeaieo i?ioean?a ia iaae? ?icae?eo oac ca?aeii a?aeiii? aa??aoe?? a?eueii? aia?a??: I?e oeueiio iiaa?oiaaee iaoya ? ci?ith?oueny o?eueee iiaa?oiy ?icae?eo oiaoi neeaae iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o iino?eiee: (a?eueia aia?a?y ia iaae? c oaa?aeei o?eii). Oiiaith iiaeeeaino? i?ioeana o oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?: oiaoi, an? naiiieeai? i?ioeane ?aeooue ii oeyoo ciaioaiiy ieiu? iiaa?oi? ?icae?eo aei i?i?ioia, ui iiaeeeai o?eueee cai?iith iiaa?oi? aiaee oaa?aeith iiaa?oiath (eueiaeeieaie), c ianooiiei ooai?aiiyi ??aiiaaaeiiai i?ioeano ia iaae? "e?ae-aiaea", a iane?aeie /iai eueiaeeiee aeeooiaeothoue o oiauo aiaee. a). ?aaoethaaiiy nenoaie aiaeiiinoa/aiiy. Aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo aeiaaee?a ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/? ia i?aenenoaiao ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo "Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae" na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iiaeeco ianina, a iiiaio ci?ie iaaaioaaeaiiy, caaaeaee aeieea? ii?ooaiiy, aia?aaoe/ii? ??aiiaaae, ??aaiue yei? caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aaeeio ?aaoethaaiiy. Iaeii/anii anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic?yaeea oaea?ii? oaee? i?e aeoiae? o ?aca?aoa? a?aeaoaa?oueny a noi?iie, aea oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e N = 0. Anoaiiaeaii oaeiae, ui o e?eueoeaaeo ia?aaeao a?aeaoaa?oueny ?icae??aeaiiy oaea?ii? oaee?, o i?noeyo ?icaaeoaeaiue, ui caaaeii ciaioo? aoaeo a?ae?aae?/iiai oaea?o. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?aeo?eiaiiy oiia ?aaoethaaiiy o iaaeao iaae?eiino? aeiaaa? eiio?ieth aeaio ia?aiao??a: Q— ci?ie aeo?aoe oa t — /ano ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/? aiaee. ae). Aea?ae o ?aiiio aeaiaio?a aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai. Iniiaiei ieoaiiyi i?e aeaiae? o ?aiiio, iniaeeai aiaeiaii?a, ? aecia/aiiy /ano nii-?iaei?iiy ?aiiioieo ae?eueieoeue A? oa /ano caiiaiaiiy ?o aiaeith i?ney ?aiiioo. A?aoo? aea/aiiy a?ae?aae?/ieo iniaeeainoae, oa i?aeoe/ieo cai??thaaiue i?e neeaeao aiaee c ?aiiioieo ae?eueieoeue cai?iiiiiaaia caeaaei?noue, yea iia'yco? a?ae?aae?/i? ia?aiao?e ae?eueieoe?, ui i?aeeyaa? nionoioaiith: aea: — ieiu? iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co aiaeia?ia oa aeioneo, i2; ?o, Ia — aeiaaeeia aiaeiaiio oa aeioneo, i; — ieoiiee ii?? ii aeiaaeei? aeioneo; Ii — ii/aoeiaee iaii? ia e?ioe? aeioneo, i. *an caiiaiaiiy ?aiiioieo ae?eueieoeue aiaeiaii?a, c iaoith caiia?aaiiy aeieeiaiiy oaea?ieo oaeeue iaaacia/ieo aeey iaae?eiino? o?oa i?e c?ooiaooaaii? ?ooiieo ? noiy/eo eieii aiaee, cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith: aea: EO — ia?'i caiiaiaiiy, i3; N — oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, i/n.; I— ?iai/ee iaii? o oi/oe? aeioneo, i., (e — ieiua iiia?a/iiai ia?a??co aiaeiaiio. Ia aac? oeeo oi?ioe aeeiiai? i?aeoe/i? ?ic?aooiee, ye? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c i?aeoe/ieie aeaieie neoaeae aenieoaoaoe??. a). Noa??iiy nenoai aiaeiiinoa/aiiy. O i?iaeiaae ?iaioe oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaieo aeaiaio?a aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai cia/ii ci?ith?oueny. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy noa??iiy aiaeiaiio ?aeiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo "Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae" aoei iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii ciaioaiiy i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? c /anii aenieoaoaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaia caeaaei?noue: aea: — ii/aoeiaa, i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue oa i?ney ?-ai ?ieo aenieoaoaoe??, iC/n; Eae , Eae - ii/aoeiaa aea?aaeaioia oi?noe?noue oa i?ney ?-ai ?ieo aenieoaoaoe??; E - eiao?oe??io eiie?aoiiai aiaeiaiio: aea: ?, — aeiaaeeia ? ae?aiao? aiaeiaiio, I — ?iai/ee iaii?. I?aeaeuaiiy iiooaeiino? aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy ??aiy iiaea/? o i?ioean? noa??iiy cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith: aea: — ao?aoe iaii?o iiaiai aiaeiaiio ? i?ney ?-ai ?ieo aenieoaoaoe??, i; — iiooaei?noue iaiao?aeia aeey iiaea/? ii iiaiio aiaeiaiio ? i?ney a-ai ?ieo aenieoaoaoe??, eao. ae). Aieea ?inoa aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy. Iaae?ei?noue aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ii?ooo?oueny a oiiaao, eiee aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy (?a ia?aaeuo? iiaeeeaino? iiaea/? I. I?e oeueiio iacia/iee aeao?oeeo iiaea/? (I - (?a < I) i?ecaiaeeoue aei ??ceiai nionoioaiiy on?o ?aca?a?a, aiane?aeie ae?? ii?aeueiiai oaeoi?o. Ni?iae neoaeae aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aaanoe ?aeiiio nenoaio aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ia iiaea/o ca a?ao?eii, ye oea o?aaeeoe?eii aeei?enoiao?oueny ia aiaeii?iaiaeao, iiaoaeiaaieo ia i?noeaaeo aeaea?aeao, i?eaiaeeoue aei iiaiiai ?iceaaeo c /anoeie a?aeiiaaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy. c). Aieea oaiia?aoo?ieo ni?e/eiaiue. O ?iaio? nenoaie aiaeiiinoa/aiiy aiaeiaiie ? iniiaieie aeaiaioaie, ye? ?aaaothoue ia oaiia?aoo?i? eiiieaeni? ae?? ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue, oiio iaae?ei?noue aiaeiaii?a iiaeeeai ae?aceoe /a?ac eiao?oe??io E: aea: — iaaea oaeo/ino? aeey iaoa??aeo o?oa, — iiia?aaei? iai?oaeaiiy iaoa??aea o?oa i?e oeeaae?, — iai?oaeaiiy a?ae ?iai/iai oeneo, —iai?oaeaiiy a?ae oaiia?aoo?ii?' aeaoi?iaoe??, —iai?oaeaiiy a?ae a?ae?aae?/iiai oaea?o. Iaae?ei?noue ?nio? o?eueee yeui E>E, i?e E = 1 —
e?eciaee noai, i?e — ao?aoa iaae?eiino?. Aea oeueiai aecia/aiiy
aeyaeeinue iaaeinoaoi? aeey iiaii? ioe?iee iaae?eiino?, aac a?aooaaiiy
no?oeoo?e iaoaeo o?oa aiaeiaii?a, oiaoi oaea?ii? a’yceino? (ENO), yea
??cei ciaioo?oueny i?e iiieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee. Ia ?en. 5 iieacaii
ci?io ENOa aeey o?oa ?c niie?eii? noae? (NI), eeiey/i? (EI) oa /aaoio, a
oaeiae iaianaii iai?oaeai?noue o aiaeiaiiao i?e noia?ieo ae?yo
ni?e/eiaiue (?o) a oiiaao ae?? a?ae?aae?/iiai oaea?o ? a?aenooiino?
eiai, i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee.

Aiae?c a?ao?e?a iieaco?, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee a iaaeao 0-5°N
(iaeanoue A) a?ao?e iai?oaeaiino? -?o iaaeeaea?oueny aei a?ao?ea ENOa
aeey noae? EI ? /aaoia, oiio o aaniyiee ? in?ii?e ia??iaee caian
iaae?eiino? i?i?iaeueiee, a aeey noae? EI e?eciaee.

?en. 5. A?ao?ee caeaaeiino? ENO ? oaea?iiai iai?oaeaiiy o no?ieao o?oa
?o i?e ci?i? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee.

A — iaeanoue ao?aoe caiano iaae?eiino?

Aiae?c iiaaae?iee aiaeiaii?a o oeeo oiiaao aeaco? ia oa, ui o?oae ?c
noae? EI ia i?aeoiaeyoue aeey aiaeiaii?a ?c iiaa?oiaaeo aeaea?ae
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, o yeeo oaiia?aoo?a aiaee cieaeo?oueny ieae/a 5°N.

?). E?oi? «oea?o?iiy» aeieea? iino?eii o oaieee ia??iae ?ieo ia a?aei?io
a?ae aaniyiiai, ui i?iyaey?oueny eeoa ca ca?aii ianoaaei. A ?acoeueoao?
aea/aiiy oeueiai yaeua ia E?aiai/ooeueeiio aiaeinoiaeu? aeyaeaii, ui
?ioaineai?noue «oea?o?iiy» ? aeaeiaee neeaae aiaei?inoae aeey ??cieo
aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ??ciee, aea o aiaeinoiaeuao neiuei-caeai?
aiaei?ino? neeaaeathoue a?eueoa 50% a?ae caaaeueii? iane o?oiieaieoiio.
I?e oeueiio, i?e iaa?iieo yaeuao oa aa?oeeaeuei?e aeiaia?e i?a?aoe??
o?oiieaieoiia, ye?noue aeo?aeii? aiaee iino?eii ci?ith?oueny, ui ?
yaeuai iaaacia/iei aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy iaae?eiino? ?iaioe aiaeii?ia?aeii?
noaioe?? ? iio?aao? iniaeeai? oaaae uiaei aaaeaiiy oaoiieia?/iiai
i?ioeano i/euaiiy aiaee.

Aeniiaee. Aea/aiiy ae?? ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue ia ?aeiii?
aiaeii?ia?aei? nenoaie iieaco?: a) eiaeia ni?e/eiaiiy a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe?? /eieoue nooo?aee aieea ia iaae?ei?noue aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai; a) nooi?iue aieeao ni?e/eiaiue caeaaeeoue a?ae aaaaoueio
oaeoi??a, o oiio /ene? ? i?e?iaeieo oiia; a) o aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoaiao
caaaeaee ? aeaiaioe, ye? iai?yio ?aaaothoue ia aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeii?
neooaoe??, caoaeaeaii? ni?e/eiaiiyi, i?e/iio iaae?ei?noue aeaiaio?a o
??cieo eiia?iaoe?yo ni?e/eiaiue — ??cia; a) iaeiaaacia/i?oeie aeey
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai ?c iiaa?oiaaeo aeaea?ae ? in?ii?e ? aaniyiee
ia??iaee, eiee aeieeathoue oiiae iaeeaaeaiiy ni?e/eiaiue.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e. Iiooee oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai cae?enithaaeenue aea/aiiyi ? aeine?aeaeaiiyi
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aaae?iiy oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, iioei?caoe??th
aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, ?aoe?iiae?caoe??th ?aaeei?a
aenieoaoaoe??, oaoi?/iei oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaeiiaae?eieo i?ioean?a ?
onoaoeoaaiiy c iaoith i?aeneeaiiy ?o i?ioenoiyiiy ??ciiiai?oiei
ni?e/eiaiiyi c a?aeiia?aeieie iaoeiaeie iaa?oiooaaiiyie. Aieiai? c ieo:

1. Cieaeaiiy aieeao a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o
i?io?eaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano i?e aa?ieiaii? (aeieiaii?) ianinieo
aa?aaao?a iieacaee iaaeinoaoi?noue iaeiinooiaiaaiai caoenoo ?aeiiieo
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai c aeiiiiiaith aaniee?a a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny ia eieaeueieo aiaeii?iaiaeao. Oae, /an cai?ciaiiy
ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy aaniee?a eeaiaiiiai oeio aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

aea: (I — ieiua eeaiaia oa aenioa anoaiiaeaiiy eiai iaae aiaeia?iii, A —
iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? aiaee, A? — iaaeeeoeiaee oene, Q — aeo?aoa o a?e
eeaiaia, tc — /an oaeaeeiae?? eeaiaia (aeey no/anieo eeaiai?a tc > 0,01
n).

Ca oeae /an /anoeia oaea?ii? oaee? i?aeoe/ii i?ineaeo? eeaiai,
?ooath/enue aeae? o aeaeyae? i?iaee, i?ae??caiii? aanieeii ccaaeo.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? aeiaaeo aiaeiaii?a
iiaeeeai caaacia/eoe o?eueee o?ueionooiaiaaei caoenoii:

a) caiia?aaiiy cieaeaieo oene?a oeaoooaaiiyi ia?aieeaiiy, c? cai?ioi?i
eeaiaiii, i?ae aniieooth/ith ? iaii?iith e?i?yie ianinieo noaioe?e
ae?aiao?ii:

aea: A, — eiao?oe??io Aea?n?, l — aeiaaeeia ia?aieeaiiy, I— iaii? aiaee
iaae a?nnth ianina c? noi?iie aniieooaaiiy, I — iiaea/a ianiniith
noaioe??th.

a) aeei?enoaiiyi aoaeoo ?icae??aeaiiy oaea?ieo oaeeue, ui
caaacia/o?oueny o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iino?eii a?aee?eoeie
ia?aie/eaie i?ae aiaeiaiiaie.

a) i?aeaeuaiiyi /ooeeaino? aaniee?a a?ae?aae?/iiai oaea?o, aeey /iai
cai?iiiiiaaii eiino?oeoe?th ai?eciioaeueiiai iia?o?yiiai eiaiaea c
aeanoe/iith iaieiieith, noaia yeiai i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.6

Ca?aeii eeaneo?eaoe?? i?io. Ao??ia A.A. eiai iiaeeeai a?aeianoe aei
iiaeeia/?a iaaeeeoeiaiai oeneo. Aaniee a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ioeo oei,
ui ia ia?oi?iaai?e o?oa? 4, yea a?a? ?ieue ea?eano, iaeyaiooa aoiiaa
o?oaa C, e?ioe? yei? caaaaeai? i?ae oeaioeaa? niieo/aiiy 5. Oea
noai?th?, ?acii c ei?ionii, iia?o?yio ii?iaeieio A, o yeo /a?ac i?iaeue
6 iiia?aaeiuei iaea/o?oueny iia?o?y c oeneii ??aiei ?iai/iio. I?e ?ooia?
oaea?ii? oaee? o ii?iaeiei? A, aoiiaa o?oaa 3 iinooiiai iiacaeiaae
a?aeaeeia?oueny, ciaiooth/e iia?o?yio ii?iaeieio A, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
oaea?ia oaeey aaneoueny caaaeyee ?i?oaoe?? a?eueiiai aeeeao, i?e oeueiio
caeeaee oeneo ia ia?aaeuothoue 0,07 ean/ni^. Cai?iiiiiaaia caeaaei?noue
aeey aecia/aiiy ?ici???a aanieea:

aea:O^, O,- —ii/aoeiaee ? noeniaiee ia’?i aaco, ?) — ii/aoeiaee
(?iai/ee) oene, Ao — iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? aoie, th — ieiua ia?a??co
aoiiai? o?oae, Aa — ca?eueoaiiy ?aae?ono i?e a?ae?aae?/iiio oaea??.

2. Cieaeaiiy aieeao aaniyiiai «oea?o?iiy» ia iaae?ei?noue
o?eueo?oaaeueieo noaioe?e. Ia o?eueo?oaaeuei?e noaioe?? ?aeiiiiai
aiaeii?iaiaeo «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» i?ioyaii 1974-1978 ?. ?.
i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? o?eueo??a
ca?eueoaiiyi o?eueo?ioeeeeo ca ?aooiie ooai?aiiy ai?iiie ia iiaa?oi?
o?eueo?oth/iai caaaioaaeaiiy c aeiiiiiaith aeaoooaaiiy i?ae iiaa?oiath
nenoaie o?oa c ioai?aie, o ye? iiaeaaaee aiaeo, iia?o?y. I?e oeueiio
ca?eueoaiiy ioei?iiino? ?o iniaeeai o ia??iae aaniyiiai «oea?o?iiy»,
eiee i?ioean ?inoo a?iiane o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? cae?enithaaany ca ?aooiie
?icie?aeiaiiy ae?aoiiiaeo aiaei?inoae, aecia/aany:

Ae — ieiu? ai?iieiiiae?aii? oa ai?eciioaeueii? iiaa?oiiue caaaioaaeaiiy,
I — aenioa oa?o caa?oaeiaiiy, N — ieoiia ioei?ii?noue, E — eiao?oe??io
iiaiioe caioeaiiy. Aea, ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui oaeee aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino? aeoaea i?eaaaeeaee, iiaeaeueo? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee
aaaaoi eiai iaaeie?e?a, ye? caaaaeathoue eiai oe?ieiio ai?iaaaeaeaiith:
a) neeaaei?noue o caiia?aaii? caaeaaiiy nenoai i?neii, a) iecueea
iaae?ei?noue o?oa /a?ac ei?ic?th i?ae ae??th oei?o, a) i?e i?iieaaii?
o?eueo??a noai?ththoueny i?aeaeuai? oaeaeeino? iao?eaiiy, ui iiaeooue
i?ecaanoe aei aeiino i?neo ?iai/i? e?oiiino?. Caaaeath/e ia oe?
iaaeie?ee, a oaeiae iaiao?aeiino? caa?aaeaiiy oeueiai aoaeoo, o
iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo (1995 ?.) aoei cai?iiiiiaaii noai?thaaoe
oaeeynoo iiaa?oith oeyoii ooai?aiiy ia?aae ii/aoeii o?eueo?ioeeeeo
e?i?eieo ai?icai ia iiaa?oi? caaaioaaeaiiy ia?anoaiei i?eno?i?i, noaia
yeiai iieacaia ia ?en.7.

?en. 7. Noaia onoaiiaee ii ooai?aiith ai?ici:

1 — ianin; 2 — eieaeoi?; 3 — iaii?iee oeaia; 4 — ianaaeie; 5 — aaioaae;
6 — e?ai-aaeea o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caeo; 7 — aeaeo?ioaeueoa?.

Ai?icie ooai?ththoueny oeyoii iiaa?oiaaiai ?icieao no?oiaiai aiaee i?ae
oeneii ua aeinoaoiuei iooei? iiaa?oi? caaaioaaeaiiy i?ney i?iieaee, ca
aeiiiiiaith i?aea?oaiiai aei e?aiaaeee aiaeiiai iii?oi?a, ae?aiao? niiea
yeiai cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/eoe ca oi?ioeith:

aea: Q — aeo?aoa aiaee, I — iaii? ia iii?oi??, m — eiao?oe??io aeo?aoe.
Caaaeath/e ia oa ui noia?ia ieiua oaeeynoi? iiaa?oi?, yea noai?aia
ai?iciaie, iaeaea ia a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ai?iieiiiae?aii?, a
?acoeueoao? io?eiaii aiaeia?/ia ca?eueoaiiy o?eueo?ioeeeeo a?eueo
i?inoei oeyoii c? caa?aaeaiiyi caaaeueiiai aoaeoo.

3. Ca?eueoaiiy iaae?eiino? aiaeicaai??a i?e ooainoai?aii?.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?aeeiith oai?aoe/iith iiaeeea?noth
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? aiaeicaai??a i?e ooainoai?aii? caeeoa?oueny
c?ooaiiy naiiieeaiiai i?ioeano ia ??ai? «e?ae-aiaea» o i?noe? caai?o
aiaee. Aeei?enoaiiy aeey oeueiai ia?iia?a??ao aiaeicaai?o ?aeiiiiai
aiaeii?iaiaeo «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae», iio?aao? 1500 ea/aiae ia?o, a
aeaeo?iaia?a?? 410 eao/aiae, ui aeiiii?/ii iaaeioe?eueii, oa e oaoi?/ii
neeaaeii. Oiio aeine?aeaeaia iiaeeea?noue cai?ioiueiai i?iieaaiiy
aiaeicaa??ieo n?oie aiaeith c iaii?ii? e?i?? ianina /a?ac o?oaii?ia?ae,
ia?aaeaa/aiee aeey ?eaicaoenoo. I?e oeueiio i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
aiaee i?ney i?ioiaeo /a?ac ianin ? aea? iaii?i? canoaee aecia/aeenue
cai?iiiiiaaiith oi?ioeith:

a caaaeueia oaiia?aoo?a i?iieaii? aiaee ? aoaea:

aea: Io, Io — iaii? aiaee o iaii?i?e e?i?? ? ia?aae ianinii, t —
oaiia?aoo?a ooainoai?aiiy (= — 0,03°N). I?iaaaeai? aenia?eiaioe o 1995
?ioe? iieacaee, ui cai?ioiy aiaea, yea iiaeaaaeanue /a?ac iaa?oiao ?aieo
ia aiaeicaa??io n?oeo, iaea oaiia?aoo?o ? = 0,24°N aeinoaoith aeey
c?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae naiiieeaiiai i?ioeano ia iiaa?oi? n?oee ? caiia?aaei
?? iaia?caiith. E??i oeueiai, cai?iiiiiaaii aeianoe iaieiaie aiaeicaai?o
o ?onei aiaeinoiaeua aeey iai?ioethaaiiy aiaeicaai?aie i?e ooainoai?aii?
? iia??oaii? yeino? aiaee.

4. I?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? nenoaie aiaeiiinoa/aiiy a oiiaao ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaea/?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aiaeiaiiao nenoaie ?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo
«Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» iieacaee, ui iaeiaae?ei?oei caniaii ?aaoethaaiiy
iiaea/? ? nooiaiaaa ?aaoethaaiiy c aeeth/aiiyi ianooiiiai nooiaith i?ney
caniiei?iiy a?ae?aae?/ieo eieeaaiue o aiaeiaiiao a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai
nooiaith ?aaoethaaiiy. I?e oeueiio aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue o
aeae?eueeio iai?yieao: a) nooi?iue a?aee?eooy iaii?ii? canoaee ia ia?o?e
nooiai?, a) nooi?iue a?aee?eooy canoaee ia ianooiieo nooiaiyo, a)
aeiionoeia i?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue nooiai?a ?aaoethaaiiy, a) ?ioa?aae
/ano i?ae nooiaiyie ?aaoethaaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ia
ie?aieo aiaeiaiiao ??cieo aeiaaeei ? ae?aiao??a io?eiaia oi?ioea aeey
aecia/aiiy ii/aoeiai? aeo?aoe I i?e aa?ieiaii? ianina:

aea: d — ae?aiao? iaii?ei? canoaee. Aeey aecia/aiiy aeo?aoe ia
iine?aeoth/eo nooiaiyo ?aaoethaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii oi?ioeo:

?io? ia?aiao?e iiaeeeai aecia/eoe ca oiiae, ui aanue aeiaeaoeiaee ia-ii?
I, yeee aeieea? i?e ?aaoethaaii?, aeo?a/a?oueny ia ia?aai?aiiy nee
oa?oy. A ?acoeueoao? io?eiaia oi?ioea aeiaaeeie aiaeiaiio (I), ia ye?e
cae?enith?oueny iiaia aan?iiy a?ae?aae?/iiai eieeaaiiy:

aea: E — a?ae?aae?/iee ?aae?on, V — a?eueoa oaeaee?noue aiaee ia
iaiao?aeii? nooiai? ?aaoethaaiiy, i — eiao?oe??io oi?noeino? o?oa. I
-aeiionoeia i?aeaeuaiiy iaii?o, l — oaeoe/ia aeiaaeeia ae?eueieoe?
aiaeiaiio. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui i?e ?aaeueieo aeaieo aiaeiaiio
?aeiiiiai aiaeii?iaiaeo «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae»: 1200ii, V = 0,7i/n, i =
0,014, aeiaaeeia, ia ye?e aaneoueny oaea?ia oaeey aeiaeaoeiaei oeneii a
1 aoi., aei??aith? l = 29883i. I?e oeueiio iiaeeeai aecia/eoe /enei
ia?aa?a?a i ii eiie?aoiiio aiaeiaiio /ae, oiaoi i’ = 1/?o, ?
a?ae?aae?/iee ooee . Io?eiaia oaeiae caeaaei?noue, ca yeith iiaeeeai
aecia/eoe iaaeeeoeiaee iaii? o aoaeue-ye?e oi/oe? aiaeiaiio I i?e
?ooaii? oaea?ii? oaee?:

oa /an ?, iaiao?aeiee aeey caoooaiiy eieeaaiue ? = 1/n, aea n —
oaeaee?noue ?iciianthaeaeaiiy i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e.

5. Cieaeaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ia iaae?ei?noue. Aiae?ce
a?aeiia ia aiaeiaiiao iieacaee, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo oi/ee
ia?aeiio aiaeiaii?a ia?anoaathoueny ia o?eueee o iiacaeiaae-iiio, a e o
iiia?a/iiio ? aa?oeeaeueiiio iai?yieao, ui acaaae? noai?th? neeaaeio
ea?oeio ?ooo ?o o caie? oi?iacaeiaae ?ieo. I?e aeaoi?iaoe? yo
aeieeathoue cao?oai? ii?iaeieie, ye? caiiaithth/enue, o?enothoue
aiaeia?i o iiaiio iieiaeai?, ui noai?th? aeiaeaoeia? iai?oaeaiiy o
no?ieao o?oa ? ni?ey? aeiiacaiith aiaeiaii?a ia iiaa?oith caie?. *an ?,
ca yeee aiaeia?i aeiiaca ia aaee/eio e, iiaeeeai aecia/aoe ca
caeaaei?noth:

aea: a — eoo i?ae noi?aeieie ae?eueieoeyie aiaeiaiio, Ue. — a?aeiioaiiy

aeiaaeeie a?eueoi? ae?eueieoe? aei iaioi?, A — oaiia?aoo?ia
iiaeiaaeaiiy. ?ic?aooiee ca oi?ioeith (23) iieacothoue, ui aeey
aeiiacaiiy aiaeiaiio ia iiaa?oith iio??aii ia iaioa 100 ?ie?a, aea oaeo
iino?eiiai neeaaeiiai ?ooo noai?th? aeiaeaoeia? iai?oaeaiiy o
c’?aeiaiiyo ? o?e? o?oae, ui ?iaeoue aiaeia?i iaeiiaae?eiith nii?oaeith.

Aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae o?enaoe?? aiaeiaii?a iiee aea? o?eueee iaeia
??oaiiy — eiiiainaoi?e, aea neeaaeiee ?oo aiaeiaii?a i?eaiaeeoue aei
ia?aein?a o naeueieeao, aeieeiaiith oa/?? aiaee. Aeey cai?ie naeueiee?a
iaiao?aeii coieiyoe ? nii?iaeithaaoe aiaeiaiie, oiio ia i?aeoeoe? ?o c
/anii caaa?ththoue, ye iaeiiaae?ei?. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue ia
aiaeii?iaiae? «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» aoei cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeaeueoe
iaae?ei?noue eiiiainaoi??a, noai?aiiyi iiaeeeaino? cai?ie naeueieeiai?
iaaeaee aac coieiee aiaeiaiio. Eiino?oeoe?y cai?iiiiiaaiiai eiiiainaoi?a
i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 8.

Ca?aeii ?en. 8 naeuei?eiaee eiiiainaoi? ia? aeiaeaoeiao eaia?o,
iaiaaeaio oeaioeaaei c’?aeiaiiyi ? oii?ii 3. O eaia?? i?noyoueny aeaa
aoiia? e?eueoey 4, i?ae yeeie ooai?th?oueny caci? 6. I?e aeieeiaii?
oa/?? /a?ac naeueiee 8, o caci? 6 /a?ac i?iaeue 3 iaea/o?oueny nae?aeie
aai ?ioa a’ycea iaoe?aeeeaa ??aeeia, yea ?icaeeia? aoiia? e?eueoey 4 aei
i?eieiaiiy oa/??, ui aea? ciiao cai?ieoe iniiaiee naeuei?e 8. Ie??i
?icaeeiaiiy e?eaoeue ??aeeia oaeiae a?a? ?ieue ciacee, ui ciaioo?
ciioaiiy naeuei?ea.

6. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy iaae?eiino? oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a o ia??iae
e?oiueiai «oea?o?iiy». ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o ia??iae e?oiueiai
«oea?o?iiy» iieacothoue, ui e?euee?noue aeeo/aieo ?c aiaee aiaei?inoae o
cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae aeice aaaaeaieo ?aaaaio?a, i?e /iio /ei
a?eueoa ?o iaaeoiaeeoue ia oaoiieia?/i? nii?oaee, oei aeua iiaeiia
i?aeo?eioaaoenue noai?iue ?o aeeo/aiiy aeey caaacia/aiiy iaae?eiino?
inoaiiueiai aoaio — o?eueo?oaaiiy. ?acoeueoao aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaii ia
?en. 9.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui a ia??iae e?oiueiai «oea?o?iiy» o i?iaeiaae aeiae
niinoa??aa?oueny iino?eia eieeaaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaei?inoae,
ni?e/eiaia aa?oeeaeueiith i?a?aoe??th ?o o aiaeieiieu?, aeicoaaiiy
?aaaaio?a iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy. C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a i/euaiiy aiaee i?iaiaeeeenue aeine?aeaeaiiy
in?aeaiiy ia?ic/eia-ieo aeii?oie aiaee, aecaoa-iioaioe?aeo aiaei?inoae o
aei?i?ianuee?e aiae?, aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? aeice eiaaoeyioo, oei?o,
aecia/aiiy aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? aiaee E?aiai/ooeueeiai aiaeinoiaeua, aeey
/iai aoee ?ic?iaeai? ? aeaioiaeai? a?aeiia?aei? i?eeaaee. Ia?iaea
iaeiie/aieo iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue ? ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue
aeicaieeea ?ic?iaeoe ? cai?iiiioaaoe iaea?eueo a?aeiia?aei? aenieei
aeiiaai iaae?eiino? aeao/eee ? aia?aoe aeey aeicoaaiiy ?aaaaio?a.
Aieiai? c ieo:

a) ?ic?iaea aeao/eea aeey aeicoaaiiy eiaaoeyioa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaeo?ii?ia?aeiino? aiaee iieacaee, ui i?e iaeeo aeicao noeueoaoa
aethi?i?y o ae?aiacii? 0-500ia/e ieoiiee ii?? aiaee ??cei cieaeo?oueny
iaeaea ii e?i?eiiio caeiio (?en. 10a), aea a ia?o?e /anoei? ae?aiaciio
0-THIia/e cia/aiiy ieoiiiai iii?o iiaea ??cei ci?ithaaoenue ca ?aooiie
eieeaaiiy i?ia?ae?caoe?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? a?iiane, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
iioeaie o aeicoaaii? (?en. 10a).

Oiio o yeino? iniiaiiai ae?aiaciia aeicoaaiiy ii aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiin-o?
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ae?oaa /anoeia ae?aiaciio 100-500 ia/e, o ye?e
i?i??ae?caoe?y, eiioeaio?aoe?y a?iiane ? oaiia?aoo?a i?aeoe/ii ia
aieeaathoue ia aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue aiaee. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii aeao/ee c ie?aii? o?oae,
ca’ycaii? c aaiaeii eiaaoeyioo ? iioieii aiaee, aea ooai?th?oueny
caieiaia eiioeaio?iaaia ciia, i?iii?oe?eia iioieo, o ye?e oo?eio?oueny
eiioeaio?aoe?y 100-500 ia/e. I?e oeueiio aeine?aeaeoaaeenue aeaeo?iaee c
aethi?i?th, i?ae?, oeeieo, cae?ca, a?ao?oa, eaooi?, ieaoeie.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai aieeao ia aeico eiaaoeyioa iieacaee, ui
a?aeiinia ci?ia aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiino? aiaee ? aeice eiaaoeyioo n?iaaoi?
(?en. 10a), ui noai?th? oiiae aaoieiiiainaoe??.

a) ?ic?iaea oei?aoi?a. A oiiaao aeei?enoaiiy aiaee c ??ceei eieeaaiiyi
ai?noo ieaieoiio ?nioth/? oei?aoi?e ia caaacia/oaaee iaiao?aeio noai?iue
iaae?eiino?, ye ca i?iaeoeoeai?noth oae ? yeino? aeicoaaiiy. Oae,
ca?eueoaiiy iiaea/? oei?o o ia??iae e?oiueiai «oea?o?iiy» aeiaaaei
i?aeaeuaiiy oeneo aiaee ia?aae oei?aoi?aie, oae ye a aaeaeoi?ao ia
aniieooaaiiy oei?o i?aoethaaea o?eueee iiaa?oiy aee?oath/iai ?c niiea
no?oiaith aiaee. O cai?iiiiiaaiiio a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue oei?aoi??
OO-2, a a iiaeaeueoiio, ai?iaaaeaeaiiio ia aaaaoueio aiaeii?iaiaeao
Oe?a?ie, i?ei?-iaii e?eueoeaaee aaeaeoi?, o yeiio oei? aniieoo?oueny ia
o?eueee iiaa?oiath no?oiaiy, a ? a na?aaeeio no?oiaiy, ui aeicaiey?
i?aeiyoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue oei?aoi?a aei 300 ea/aiae. Noaia oei?aoi?a
OO-2 i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en. 11,a, ?acoeueoaoe eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
noai?aiiy aaeooio /a a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeneo aiaee ia?aae oei?aoi?ii ia
?en. 11,6, ia niiaeeaaiiy iei aiaee I a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeneo aiaee ia
?en. 11,a, ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue ii oei?o o ia ?en. 11,a.

Iniiaieie aeaiaioaie oei?aoi?a OO-2 ?: aaeaeoi? o?oa/aoiai oeio c
e?eueoeaaei caci?ii 3, aaniee cai?ioi?o oaea??a aiaee 10, aei??thaa/
aaeooio 13, aei??thaa/ oeneo aiaee 16, aaio?eue ?aaoethaaiiy iiaea/e
aiaee 2 oa oei?o 11.

Oei?aoi? i?aoeth? ca ?aooiie oiai, ui o iaii?i?e eaia?? 1, c aeiiiiiaith
?aaoethaaiiy aaio?eai 2, noai?th?oueny iaiao?aeiee iaii? aiaee, o
?acoeueoao? /iai aiaea iaaeoiaeeoue ii e?eueoeaaiio caci?o 3, yeee
noai?aiee anoaaeaieie iaeia a ae?oao a?i?ieanoiaeie o?oaeaie 4, 5, o
iao?oaie 4. Aaeooi noai?th?oueny ca ?aooiie e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? iao?eaiiy
e?ioey o?oaee 5, a iane?aeie /iai aeieea? oyaa o na?aaeei? o?oaie 5 ? 8,
ye? c’?aeiai? c oei?ii?iaiaeii /a?ac aaniee 10 ? ?aaoethth/ee aaio?eue
11. Aeo?aoa oei?o i?iii?oe?eia aaeooio ui o?eno?oueny ?ii?niei aeao/eeii
13, ni?iiiaeiei ia?aaeaoe aeai? ia ioieo eiio?ieth aeo?aoe oei?o.

I?e a?aeeeth/aii? aiaee cai?ioi?e iio?e ?? aaneoueny o aanieeo 10, o
yeiio anoaiiaeaia o?oaea 9 c ioai?aie ae?aiao?ii ?ic?aoiaaiei ia aan?iiy
cai?ioiuei? aia?a??. E??i oeueiai ?icoaooaaiiy ioai??a aieco o?oaee 9
aeicaiey? a?aeniieooaaoe aieiao, yea aeieea? o i?ioean? ?iaioe
oei?aoi?a, ui caaacia/o? caa?aaeaiy oei?ii?iaiaeo a?ae eiioaeoo c
aiaeith.

Aenieoaoaoe?y ia ae?th/eo oaoiieia?/ieo nii?oaeao oei?aoi?a OO-2 ia
i?ioyc? 20 ?ie?a iieacaea iiai aenieo iaae?ei?noue a oiiaao aeeiai?ee
yeino? aiaee oa aeiaaino?ieia?noue ? noaa?euei?noue o caaacia/ai?
i?ioeana oei?oaaiiy.

I’yoee ?icae?e. Aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai iieaco?, ui ?o aeioe?eueii ?icae?eeoe ia aea?
a?oie:

a) aeoeai? caniae i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe cieaeothoueny, aai nenoaia i?e oeo aea aeo?aoao
ni?iiiaeia iiaeaoe a?eueoo e?euee?noue aiaee; a) ianeai? caniae
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ia
ci?iththoueny. E??i oeueiai, o i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai aeei?enoaiiy ?aca?aieo aeaiaio?a, c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o,
iiaeeeai ?icae?eeoe ia: a) aeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy, yeui eiai aeeth/aiiy
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a (oa?ieiaiiy
?aca?aieo aiaeiaii?a); a) ianeaia aeei?enoaiiy, yeui eiai aa?ieiaiiy ia
a?aeaeaa?oueny ia oaoi?ei-aeiii-i?/ieo iieacieeao (eeaiaie-aanieee
a?ae?ioaea??a, eiiiainaoi?e); a) oe?aeeeaa aeei?enoaiiy, eiee oa?ieiaiee
ia?aeaeueii ?iai/iio ?aca?a, cieaeo? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee
(aeei?enoaiiy aeoaethth/eo cai?ioi?o eeaiai?a, aei??thaaieo ae?ao?aai,
canoaie, aa?ieiaiiy iacaaaioa-aeaieo ianin?a). Oe? ianoaaeie
aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?e aeai?? cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy
iaae?eiino?, iiaeiai ia?aaeoaaoe ?aoaeueiee oao-i?ei-aeiiii?/iee
?ic?aooiie iane?aee?a. Oae, i?ney ioneo a aenieoaoaoe?th ?aeiiiiai
aiaeii?iaiaeo «Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae» a iaeio ieoeo aiaeia?ia, na?aaei?
/enei a?aeiia aiaeiaiio neeaaeaei 10-15 oo. ia ??e, a ?acoeueoao? /iai
i. E??iaia?aae caeeoaeinue aac ieoii? aiaee aei 20 ae?a ia ??e.
Ieaiiai-aeiiii?/ieie neoaeaaie i. E??iaia?aaea i?ae?aoiaai? caeoee
i?iieneiaino? ca eiaeio aeiao, ui neeaee 500 oen. e?a. o oe?iao 1981
?ieo, oiaoi aei 10 iei. e?a. ui??/ii o?eueee aeey i?noa E??iaia?aaea.

I?yiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o?eueee oei?aoi?a OO-2
neeaaea? 136 oen. e?a. o oe?iao 1981 ?ieo.

Oaeei /eiii, noai?aiiyi iaoeiaeo iniia ioe?iee noaiai? iaae?eiino?,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a eiiieaenieo aenia?aiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ae??oaia e?oiia iaoeiaa ? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ia i?iaeaia
caaacia/aiiy aacia?aa?eiiai iinoa/aiiy aeia?iye?nii? aiaee ianaeaiith ?
i?iieneiaino? oa iie?ioaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio o ?aa?iiao
oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, ye? aeeaeyoueny c a?aeaeaeaieo
aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy /a?ac ?aeiii? aiaeii?ia?aei? nenoaie ca ?aooiie
i?aeaeuaiiy ?o aenieoaoaoe?eii? iaae?eiino?.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE OA I?IIICEOe??

1. ??aaiue iaae?eiino? ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo ia?aiao??a i?e ioe?ioe?
noaio aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie. Anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy iaae?eiino?
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai o no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aaaeeeaei c
oaoi?/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa th?eaee/ii? oi/ie ci?o, oiio aeiaaa? iiaiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oai??? iaae?eiino? noiniaii anoaiiaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo
e?eoa???a. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoeiao iniiao ioe?iee noaio ? noaiai?
iaae?eiino?, yea aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? ia ?yaeo c ia?aiao?ii
eiia??iino? aaca?aeiiaii? ?iaioe ?(?) oaoi?/iiai /o oa aeiiii?/iiai /a
?iaeaen?a iaae?eiino?, ui aeicaiey? aecia/aoe noai?iue iaae?eiino?
aiaeii?iaiaeieo nenoai o aoaeue-yeee iiiaio /ano oa ii??aithaaoe ?o i?e
ai?iaaaeaeaii? ??cieo cania?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?.

2. Ni?e/eiaiiy, ye? aieeaathoue ia iaae?ei?noue, iathoue oa?aeoa?
aeiaaeeiaeo, ooo/ieo oa i?e?iaei?o. ?aaeoe?y aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ia
oe? ni?e/eiaiiy, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe??
caeaaeeoue a?ae noaiai? ?o aieeao oa caiano iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeii?
nenoaie. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue cai?iiiiiaai?: iaoeiaa
eeaneo?eaoe?y iiaeeeaeo noai?a iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai, ui
aeicaiey? ?iaeaoeo?eoaaoe noai nenoaie oa iaoeiaa nenoaiaoecaoe?y
iniiaieo ni?e/eiaiue, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeieo
neooaoe?e, a ?aoo? yeeo ci?ith?oueny noai aai noai?iue iaae?eiino?.

3. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui oaoi?/ii aoaeoeaii ? aeiiii?/ii
aeioe?eueii i?aeaeuoaaoe noai?iue iaae?eiino? aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai ia
o?eueee ca ?aooiie ?aca?aoaaiiy, a eiiieaenii ciaioaiiyi aieeao
??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue, oaoi?/iei oaeineiiaeaiiyi iaeiiaae?eieo
nii?oae ? onoaoeoaaiiy oa ii?ei?caoe??th oaoiieia?/ieo ?aaeei?a
aenieoaoaoe??. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai noi?ioeueiaai? ?
iaa?oioiaai? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iai?yie?a i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino?,
aieiaieie ?c yeeo ?:

— i?e ?aaoethaaii? iiaea/?: ciaiooaaoe aaee/eie a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a
nooiaiaaei ?aaoethaaiiyi iiaea/? c ?ioa?aaeii /ano i?ae nooiaiyie
aeinoaoi?i aeey caniiei?iiy eieeaaiue;

— i?e ooainoai?aii?: cai?ioi?i i?iieaaiiyi aniieooth/eo n?oie
aiaeicaai??a ?c iaii?iiai aiaeiaiio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aiaea, yea i?ieoea
/a?ac ianin ? aea? a?aen?eath/e canoaee iaaoaa? oaiia?aoo?o aeinoaoith
aeey ai?ioueae c iaii?iaeoaaiiyi n?oie.

— i?e noa??ii? nenoai aiaeiiinoa/aiiy: i?aeo?eiaiiyi iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei?a aenieoaoaoe??, cai?iiiiiaai? caeaaeiino? aeey aecia/aiiy
ciaioaiiy iiaea/? oa a?aeiia?aeiiai ca?eueoaiiy aia?aiaeo?ao i?e ??
a?aeiiaeaii?. — i?e ieaiiai-?aiiioieo ?iaioao: cai?iiiiiaai? caeaaeiino?
aecia/aiiy /ano nionoioaiiy ae?eueieoeue aiaeiaii?a oa caiiaiaiiy ?o
aiaeith i?ney ?aiiioo, i?e yeeo ia noai?ththoueny aeiaaeeia? oenee
aaee/eiith a?eueoa ?iai/eo.

4. Aiae?c oa?aeoa?o i?io?eaiiy ia?ao?aeiiai i?ioeano o aeiaaeo
aiaeiaiiao i?e aa?ieiaii? ? aeieiaii? ianinieo aa?aaao?a iieaco?, ui i?e
oaeaeeiae?? iaoai?/ieo aaniee?a a?ae?ioaea??a ? > 0,01n o?iio oaea?ii?
oaee? i?ineaeo? eeaiai, a iia?o?yi? eiaiaee i?ney ni?aoethaaiiy nai?
noathoue aaia?aoi?aie eieeaaiue. E??i oeueiai o aiaeiaiiao aeieeathoue
iiieaeai? oenee, ui ia noai?ththoue iaiao?aeii? iaae?eiino? oo?eiaiiy
aiaeiaii?a. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia
iiaeeea?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? aeiaaeo aiaeiaii?a ?aeiiieo
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai o?eueee iio??eiei caoenoii: aeaoooaaiiyi
ia?aie/ee i?ae aniieooth/ei oa iaii?iei o?oaii?iaiaeii ianinieo
noaioe?e, c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy aoaeoo ?icae??aeaiiy oaea?ieo oaeeue
ia?aie/ee i?ae aiaeiaiiaie cai?iiiiiaaii o?eiaoe a?aee?eoeie, ?ic?iaeaii
? cai?iiiiiaaii aaniee a?ae?aae?/ieo oaea??a c ai?eciioaeueiith
iiia?aaeiuei iaiai?oaeaiiith aeanoe/iith iaieiieith, yea ?aaao? ia
iaeiaio? eieeaaiiy.

5. Iniaeeai neeaaei? oiiae aenieoaoaoe?? ?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai
aeieeathoue o aaniyii-in?ii?e ia??iae, eiee ae?? iaeii/anii aaaaoi
ni?e/eiaiue. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeai? iaoeia? iniiae
ca’yceo i?ae eiiieaeniith ae??th iiia?aaei?o oaiia?aoo?ieo iai?oaeaiue,
i?e oeeaaeaii? aiaeiaii?a, iai?oaeaiue a?ae ?iai/iai oeneo, iai?oaeaiue
a?ae a?ae-?ioaea?o c oaea?iith a’yce?noth iaoa??aea no?iie o?oa
aiaeiaiia, yea ??cei cieaeo?oueny i?e iiieaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e aiaee.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? aiaee ? < 5°N iaeneiaeueii iiaeeea? eiiieaeni? iai?oaeaiiy o no?ieao o?oa (noaeue EI, /aaoi) iaaeeaea?oueny aei iai?oaeaiiy oaea?ii? a'yceino?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai aiaeii?ia?aeia nenoaia ia?aoiaeeoue o e?eciaee aai aaa??eiee noai, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aeieeiaiiy aaaaoueio a?aeiia ia aiaeiaiiao o oeae ia??iae. E??i oeueiai, anoaiiaeaii neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? ia?ai?uaiiy aiaeiaii?a o caie? i?ae aieeaii ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e aiaee. Iaeiaioee ?iciao aeaoi?iaoe?? aeieea?, yeui aiaeiaiie oeeaaeai? ? cao?eniaai? o caie? i?e oaiia?aoo?? iia?o?y 12-13°N. Aeey ciaioaiiy aieeao oaiia?aoo?ieo ni?e/eiaiue cai?iiiiiaaii eiino?oeoe?th eiiiainaoi?a c aeiaeaoeiaei ou?eueiaiiyi, ui aeicaiey? iaiyoe naeueiee ia a?aeeeth/ath/e aiaeiaiie. 6. Aenia?aiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe o?eueo??a a ia??iae aeieeiaiiy aaniyiiai oea?o?iiy iieacothoue, ui ciaioaiiy o?eueo?ioeeeeo aei 3-4 aiaeei iaoiiaeaia eieueiaoaoe??th iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o o?eueo?oth/iai caaaioaaeaiiy oiaueiith 1-2 ni ae?aoiiiaiie aiaei?inoyie, ye? a iueiio ?icie?aeiththoueny. Ae??oaiiy iaoeiai? i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? i?ioeano o?eueo?oaaiiy cae?eniaii oeyoii noai?aiiy ii an?e iiaa?oi? o?eueo?oth/iai caaaioaaeaiiy, ia?aae ii/aoeii o?eueo?ioeeeeo c aeiiiiiaith ?icieaa no?oiaiai aiaee ia?anoaiei iii?oi?ii, oaeeueiiiae?aieo e?i?eieo ai?icai. ?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui oaeei /eiii ca?eueoo?ony iiaa?oiy o?eueo?o o 1,5-2 ?aca, a a?icaa?oaeiaiiy, iaeiie/oth/enue aea?-ae?noaioii iiaa?oi? aeicaieythoue ca?eueoeoe, i?iii?oe?eii ca?eueoaiith iiaa?oi?, ioei?ii?noue ? o?eueo?ioeeee. 7. Iieo/ai? a iane?aeie aeine?aeaeaiue iia? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe eyaee a iniiao noai?aiiy i?ea?iaeueieo eiino?oeoe?e onoaoeoaaiiy c aenieith noaiaith iaae?eiino?: aanieea a?ae?ioaea??a o aeaeyae? ai?eciioaeueieo iia?o?yieo eiaiae?a ?c iaiaa?oaeaiith aeanoe/iith iaieiieith, yea i?iaeia?oueny i?ae ae??th oaea?ii? oaee? o a?e caieiaii? iia?o?yii? ii?iaeieie, noai?thth/e aoaeo aeeeao; naeuei?eiaiai eiiiainaoi?a oaiia?aoo?ieo eiiiainaoe?e c aeiaeaoeiaei ou?eueiaiiyi, yea aeicaiey? cai?ieoe naeueiee aac coieiee aiaeiaiio; oei?aoi?a OO-2 i?iaeoeoeai?noth aei 300 ea/aiae. aeey oei?oaaiiy aiaee a oiiaao aeiaiai? aeeiai?ee o?oiieaieoiia o aeo?aei?e aiae?, yeee i?aoeth? ca ?aooiie aniieooaaiiy aaciiiae?aiiai oei?o ia o?eueee iiaa?oiath no?oiaiy a aaeaeoi??, a e na?aaeeiith no?oiaiy; aeao/eea aeicoaaiiy eiaaoeyioo, anoaiiaeaiiai o o?oa?, o a?aeie?aieai?e eiioeai?iaai?e cii? eiaaoeyioo, o ye?e aeo?aoa noi?o? aiaee ? eiaaoeyioa i?iii?oe?eia caaaeuei?e aeo?ao? iioieo. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo: 1. Oea/ A. A. I?iaeaiu iaaeaaeiinoe aiaeii?iaiaeiuo nenoai. AEo?i. "Oeiey e oaoiieiaey aiaeu", oii 19, ?6, 1997 a, E, n. 646 — 651. 2. Oea/ A. A. ?icaeoie oai??? iaae?eiino? a?aeiia?aeii aei aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aeione 2, 1998 ?, n. 107 — 111. 3. Oea/ A. A., ?oaeaiei A. A., *aeeianeay I. A., Ei?inouoaaneee A. N. Enneaaeiaaiey ii ia?aaioea aiaeu E?aiai/oaneiai aiaeio?aieeeua // Iaoea e oaoieea a ai?iaeneii oicyenoaa. E.: Aoae?aaeueiee,1978. —Auione 38. —N.5-12. 4. Oea/ A. A. Ca?eueoaiiy a?yca?iiino? oaeaeeeo o?eueo??a// Iaoea ? oaoi?ea o i?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa?. —1975. aei. 29. —N.114-118. 5. Oea/ A. A., Eoeaaa I. A. Ioneia? a?ae?ioaea?e o iae?i ? i?e?ia?ae?aae?/ieo nenoaiao. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue E??iaia?aaenueeiai ?inoeoooo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aeione 2, 1998 ?, n. 96-100. 6. Oea/ A. A. Oeaeue — cooaeoeaiinoue e ea/anoai // Ai?iaeneia oicyenoai Oe?aeiu. — 1979. — ? 4. — N. 12-14. 7. Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae., Cayoe I. A. e ae?. I?eai? aeey naaeeiaioaoeeiiiiai aiaeeca // A?eeaoe?iaaiea oaey. — 1975. —? 3. —N.32-36. 8 Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae., Ai?iiianeee E. O., Oa?ouoiue A. I. I?eai? aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aecaoaiioaioeeaea acaaoaiiuo a aiaea aauanoa // Oeiey e oaoiieiaey aiaeu AI ONN?. — 1981. —Na.3. — N.51-54. 9. Oea/ A. A. Ni?ieei A. Ae., Ai?thiia A. N. I?eai? "Aecaoa-2" aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai eco/aiey aecaoa-iioaioeeaea eieeieaeiuo /anoeoe //Iaoea e oaoieea a ai?iaeneii oicyenoaa. —E.,1977. — ? 35. —N.75-79. 10. Oea/ A. A., Eaiooe A. I., Iaae/aiei A. I. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea noaiu aeice?iaaiey eiaaoeyioa // Eioi?iaoeey ? 13, OeAIOCI IAEEO ONN? "Aiaeiniaaaeaiea", Aui.2. — E., 1978. — N.1-6. 11. Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae. I niioiioaiee ceaeo?inoaoe/aneeo e aaeni?aoeeiiiuo nee a i?ioeanna eiaaoeyoeee // Iaoea e oaoieea a ai?iaeneii oicyenoaa. — E.:Aoae?aaeueiee. — 1975. —? CI. —N.73-76. 12. Oea/ A. A., Oo?aeia A. I., Iaae/aiei A. I. Onoaiiaea i?iaiiai eiaaoee?iaaiey n iaaieoiuie iaoaeeaie //Eioi?iaoeey Oe? IEEOCI Ainieaia ONN?. -1979. —? 8-01-16. -N.1-4. 13. Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae. Ecia?eoaeue aeicu eiaaoeyioa ii ceaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoe aiaeu //Oe?. IEEIOE. —1979. —? 79-043. — N.1-6. 14. Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae., Oa?ouoiue A. I. Enneaaeiaaiea ceaeo?ioeie/aneiai ?anoai?aiey ceaeo?iaeia //Iaoea e oaoieea a ai?iaeneii oicyenoaa. — E.: Aoae?aaeueiee. —1979. —? 38. — N.51-54. 15. Oea/ A. A., Ai?thiia A. N. Iaae?eia noaia aeicoaaiiy eiaaoeyioa //I?nueea ainiiaea?noai Oe?a?ie. — 1975. — ? 2. —N. 15-18. 16. Oea/ A. A., oiiaiei TH. A. Oei?e?iaaiea aeeeiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeia //Aiaeiniaaaeaiea e naieoa?iay oaoieea. (I). —1976. —? 4. — N. 18-20. 17. Oea/ A. A. Auioaeaeaiiay ?aeino?oeoeey // Ai?iaeneia oicyeneai Oe?aeiu. — 1978. —? 2. —N.25-28. 18. Oea/ A. A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i/enoee aiaeu ia aiaeii?iaiaeao Ee?iaia?aaeneie iaeanoe // Oacenu aeieeaaea ia Ananithciie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee "Iooe iiauoaiey o?iaiy cenieoaoaoeee ai?iaeneeo nenoai aiaeiniaaaeaiey". — Eeoeiaa: 5-7 iay 1981. —N.46-53. 19. Oea/ A. A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea oei?iiai oicyenoaa // Aeieeaae ia ?anioaeeeaineii niaauaiee niaoeeaeenoia ii aiaeiniaaaeaieth e eaiaeecaoeee IAEEO — ONN? a. Aeiieoea. 1979. 20. Oea/ A. A., Ni?ieei A. Ae. Ono?ienoai aeey aaoiiaoe/aneiai aeice?iaaiey eiaaoeyioa, a. n. NNN? ? 850605, IEE N 02 ? 1/58, iioae. 10.08.81a, AE ? 28. 21. Oea/ A. A. Oei?aoi? OO-2., a. n. NNN? ? 710206, IEE N 02 A 1 /18, iioae. 15.04.80 a., AE ? 14 Aiioaoe?y. Oea/ A.A. Iaoeia? iniiae i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie. ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiiia?ao?y. Aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe. Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.23.04. — Aiaeiiinoa/aiiy, eaiae?caoe?y. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? o a?aeiaeaeai? oeyo?a iie?auaiiy caaacia/aiiy ieoiith aiaeith ianaeaieo ioieo?a oeaio?aeueii-noaiiai? /anoeie Oe?a?ie, ye? aeeaeyoueny c a?aeaeaeaiieo aeaea?ae aiaeiiinoa/aiiy /a?ac ?aeiii? aiaeii?ia?aei? nenoaie ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy ?o iaae?eiino?. Ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe aaaaoi??/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaieo ia ?aeiiiiio aiaeii?iaiae? "Aei?i?i-E??iaia?aae", i?ioyaii 1974-1996 ??. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ? aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo ni?e/eiaiue aeiaaeeiaiai, ooo/iiai oa i?e?iaeiueiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ao?aoe iaae?eiino?. Cai?iiiiiaaia eeaneo?eaoe?y noaio aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ii noaiaith iaae?eiino?, a oaeiae eeaneo?eaoe?y ni?e/eiaiue oa ?aaeoe?y aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie ia oe? ni?e/eiaiiy a oiiaao aeieeiaiiy iaaecae/aeii? neooaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaai? iniiai? oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy iaae?eiino? ?aeiiieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo nenoai a oiiaao iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?e, ye? ? iane?aeeii ae?? ni?e/eiaiue, o oiio /ene?: oaoi?/ia oaeineiiaeaiiy iaeiiaae?eieo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a ? onoaoeoaaiiy, ?ic?iaea oa i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a oaoi?/ii? aenieoaoaoe??, c a?aeiia?aeieie iaoeiaeie iaa?oiooaaiiyie. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe /anoeiai ai?iaaaeaeai? ia ?aeiiieo aiaeii?iaiaeao Oe?a?ie, a o? c ieo, ye? aeiaaathoue aaeeeeo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iaeaooi?o ?aeiino?oeoe?yo. Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaae?ei?noue, aiaeii?ia?ae, nenoaia, ye?noue, oaeineiiaeaiiy, aenieoaoaoe?y, ni?e/eiaiiy, aieea, oea?o?iiy, a?ae?ioaea?, aeaoi?iaoe?y, aeicoaaiiy, ?aaaaioe, o?eueo?e, aiaeia?i. Aiiioaoeey. Oea/ A. A. Iao/iua iniiau iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe ?aeiiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeiuo nenoai oeaio?aeueii-noaiiie /anoe Oe?aeiu. Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay iiiia?aoey. Aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe. Niaoeeaeueiinoue 05.23.04 — Aiaeiniaaaeaiea, eaiaeecaoeey. Oeaeue ?aaiou ninoieo a oeo/oaiee iaania/aiey ieoueaaie aiaeie ianae?iiuo iano e i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oeaio?aeueii-noaiiie /anoe Oe?aeiu, eioi?ua caieouaathony ec ioaeae?iiuo enoi/ieeia aiaeiniaaaeaiey ?aeiiiuie aiaeii?iaiaeiuie nenoaiaie ca n/?o iiauoaiey eo iaae?aeiinoe. Iaiauaiu ?acoeueoaou iiiaieaoieo enneaaeiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo ia ?aeiiiii aiaeii?iaiaea "Aeiai?-Ee?iaia?aae" a oa/aiee 1974-1996 a. a. Iao/ii iainiiaaiu i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey e aeeyiey ?acee/iuo aicaeaenoaee neo/aeiiai, eneonoaaiiiai e i?e?iaeiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ia aiaeii?iaiaeiua nenoaiu, i?eaiaeyuea e iioa?a iaae?aeiinoe. I?aaeeiaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey ninoiyiey aiaeii?iaiaeiie nenoaiu ii noaiaie iaae?aeiinoe, eeanneoeeaoeey aicaeaenoaee e ?aaeoeey aiaeii?iaiaeiie nenoaiu ia yoe aicaeaenoaey. I?aaeeiaeaiu iniiaiua iooe iiauoaiey noaiaie iaae?aeiinoe ?aeiiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeiuo nenoai a oneiayo /?acau/aeiuo neooaoeee aucaaiuo aicaeaenoaeyie, a oii /enea: oaoie/aneia oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaeiiaae?aeiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeania e iai?oaeiaaiey, ?ic?aaioea e i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii nicaeaieth iioeiaeueiuo ?aaeeiia oaoie/aneie aenieoaoaoeee n niioaaonoaothueie iao/iuie iainiiaaieyie. ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou aiaae?aiu ia ?aeiiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeao Oe?aeiu, a /anoue ec ieo, o?aaothueo aieueoeo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, i?eiyou e aiaae?aieth i?e iineaaeothueo ?aeiino?oeoeeyo. Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaaeaaeiinoue, aiaeii?iaiae, nenoaia, ea/anoai, oniaa?oainoaiaaiea, yenieoaoaoeey, aicaeaenoaea, aeeyiea, oeaaoaiea, aeae?ioaea?, aeaoi?iaoeey, aeice?iaaiea, ?aaaaiou, oeeueo?u, aiaeiaiae. SUMMARY Tkach A. A. Scientific Principles of Improving Water Pipe-Line System Reliability in Central Prairie (Steppe) Part of Ukraine. Individual monograph. Doctor of technical science. Speciality 05. 23. 04 - Water Supply and Sewerage. The aim of the work is to improve drinking water supply to populated areas and industry in the central steppe region of Ukraine by means of raising reliability of regional water pipe systems that are fed from remote water sources. The results of long term regional water pipe-line investigations carried out in 1974-1996 are generalized. The reasons of origin and influence of casual, artificial and natural factors that deteriorate water pipe-line system reliability are scientifically grounded. The classification of water pipe-lines according to the degree of their reliability, the classification of exposures and description of water pipe-line system response to those exposures are offered. General ways to improve the degree of regional water pipe-tine system reliability under extreme circumstances caused by external exposures are proposed. These ways include technical improvement of tow-reliable technological processes and equipment, scientifically grounded development and practical recommendations on working out operating conditions. The results of the work are introduced in Ukrainian district water pipe-lines. Some of the projects which require large capital investments are accepted to introduction in further reconstructions. Key words: reliability, water pipe-line, system, quality, improvement, operating conditions, influence, florescence, water hammer, deformation, metering, reagents, filters.

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