Національний характер як предмет соціально-філософського аналізу: Автореф. дис… д-ра філос. наук / А.В. Швецова, Київ. нац. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. — К

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EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAAOeIAA

AIOII?IA A?EOI??AIA

OAeE 13:159.922.4

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OA?AEOA? ssE I?AAeIAO

NIOe?AEUeII-O?EINIONUeEIAI AIAE?CO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03 –

nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aieeiea
A?eai??e ?aaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I.I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?einio??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aiae?ouaiei A?eoi? Iao?iae/, ?inoeooo aeui? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,
aee?aeoi?;

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Ae/ei Aaea Ei?i??aia, Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee ?inoeooo oaao?aeueiiai ienoaoeoaa ?i. ?.E.

Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e noni?eueieo iaoe;

aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Neo?ao?anueeee A?oae?e Aiae??eiae/,
Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?

Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? oa aoiai?oa?ii? iie?oeee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.17 aeey caoenoo aeena?oaoe?e ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) o?einionueeeo iaoe o
Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea ca aae?anith: 252017, i.
Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae. 328.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

ciaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.17 Ne?eiea I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. O?einionueea aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ? aeooaeueiei ye o caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiio, oae
i nioeiieoeueoo?iiio ieai?. Iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o (ui ia?
oeieo ieceo oa?iiiieiai/ieo aeaiaaeaioia oa nieneiaeo neiiiiiia), yea
oieno? oaeo iaaii? ineoieiai/ii? naiiaooiinoi i aiaeiiiiinoi ?icieo
ia?iaeia, iaeaaeeoue aei /enea oe?iei aaeeaaieo o nioeiioieinionueeeo
eiioaenoao, aea ?acii c oei – i aei /enea iaeaieueo iaaecia/aieo,
aeeneonieieo ca ciinoii. Noai?th?oueny ia?aaeienaeueia neooaoeiy:
iiiyooy, ui aa?a ia naaa aaeeea iiciaaaeueii-iaoiaeieiai/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy o oe?ieiio eiei nioeiaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue, iaeii/anii
caeeoa?oueny eiioeaiooaeueii iaonoaeaiei. Oea ?ac o ?ac i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaaieo oai?aoe/ieo noea?a, iaoiaeieia?/ieo iaii?icoiiiue i
iaocaiaeaeaiinoae, ianeiaeeii /iai ? aiae/ooia aeene?aaeeoaoeiy naii?
iaea? iaoeiiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye caniao aoiaiioa?iiai iiciaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea oeueiai iiiyooy, oi/ia aecia/aiiy eiai naino i
iiciaaaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?, c iaeyaeo ia aeuaneacaia, aacoiiaii
iaaaeueieie. Oei aieueoa, ui iaeay iaoeiiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oiniaeth? a
niai ia ie?aia, oi/ i aaaeeeaa, oieinionueei-eoeueoo?ieiai/ia iiiyooy, a
oeieee iai?yiie oieinioi? inoi?i?, yeee iiaeia iacaaoe oa?aeoa?ieiai?th
ia?iaeia. Nain oei?? aaeoci oieinionueei-inoi?e/ieo aeineiaeaeaiue
iiaeia aecia/eoe ye inieneaiiy inoi?e/iiai iinooio ethaenoaa oa eiai
eoeueoo?e /a?ac ?o i?iaeoei? oa oiniaeaiiy o ineoieiai/ieo oeiao
ethaenueei? iniaenoinoi (aeei?enoiaoth/e iiiyooy “ethaeeia eoeueoo?e”).
Oaeee iiaeoiae noai?th? oe?iei iiaeeeainoi aeey ?ic?iaee
ia?niiaeinonueei? aa?ni? ethaenueei? inoi?i? i iaaea? iiao ia?niaeoeao
aeey ?icaeoeo oieinionueei? aio?iiieiai? oa aaaaoueio o?aaeeoeieieo oai
nioeiaeueii? oieinioi?.

Ae?oaei, ii?o/ c caaaeueiioai?aoe/iei, /eiieeii aeooaeueiinoi oaeiai
aeineiaeaeaiiy ? no/ania neooaoeiy aio/eciyiiai eoeueoo?iiai i
nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iiai naiiaecia/aiiy. Ic caeiaoooyi iacaeaaeiinoi
Oe?a?ia noaea ia oeyo iaoeiiiaeueiiai aiae?iaeaeaiiy, i aaea ia?oi e?iee
ia oeueiio oeyoo canaiae/eee iaaaeueio iio?aao o aeaaaeaieo
naioiaeyaeii-oai?aoe/ieo i?i?ioe?ao uiaei ?icaeoeo iaoeiiiaeueii?
naiinaiaeiiinoi i eoeueoo?iiai iiiaeaiiy. Ana e?aua onaiaeiieth?oueny ye
iaoeiaoeyie, oae i iieioeeaie aaaa aoiiineoieiai/ii? neeaaeiai? oeeo
i?ioeania i iaiaoiaeiinoue aiaeiiaiaeiiai oai?aoe/iiai iino?oiaioa?ith
aeey ?icoiiiiy neeaaeieo i?iaeai ia?aoai?aiiy i ?icaeoeo naiaeiiinoi
ia?iaeo, i?ioeania iaoeiiiaeueii? iaeaioeoieaoei?, ni?yioaaiue
eoeueoo?ii? iieioeee oiui.

A?aooaaiiy ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, o?aaeeoe?eieo
aoiiineoieia?/ieo ?en oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo noa? iaeiei c aeaiaio?a
?acoeueoaoeaiino? noni?eueieo ae?e (i ia?aaeon?i aea?aeaaieo ?aoi?i).
Oei a?eueoa, ui a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, ia oi?ioaaiiy yeiai iiaeii?
ni?yiiaoaaoeny ?aoi?iaoi?nuee? coneeey no/anii? aeaaee, iaaea?
iaaecae/aeii? aaae o ?icai? iaoe?? aeoeai?e o/ano? iniaenoino? oa ??
a?aeiia?aeiei ineoieia?/iei yeinoyi, ye? noai?ai? iaoe?iiaeueiei aeeooyi
? a?aeoai?ai? iaoe?iiaeueiith eoeueoo?ith. Oiio iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?
ye iaaiee i?iaeo “ethaeeie iaoe??” ? iaei??th c iaeaeooaeuei?oeo i?iaeai
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii? aeoiee.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia oaeiae ?c i?iaeaiaie
i?aeaoi?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei ia?iae?a Oe?a?ie. Iiooe aoaeoeaii? nenoaie
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia e?ea?aeaoe?th iai?oaeaiue, ye? aeieeathoue o
noa?? iaoe?iiaeueieo oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo eiioaeo?a, i?aeaeuaiiy
eoeueoo?e i?aeaoi?/iiai ni?eeoaaiiy o?nii iia’ycai? c aea/aiiyi
i?e?iaee, nooiino? ? /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye ia
??ai? aoiino, oae ? ia ??ai? iniaenoino?.

Aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iaiao?aeia aeey iaoeiaiai
ia?aaeaa/aiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy aeeiai?ee iaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioean?a, ui
aeicaieeoue ?acoeueoaoeaii ei?eaoaaoe oi?ie ? iaoiaee iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee, aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi yei? ia? aooe caaacia/aiiy aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ia?aoai?aiiy ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie o iia?oith iaoe?th – a?aeiiai i?aaenoaaieea
anana?oiueiai Ethaenoaa.

Nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie. O noni?euei?e iaooe? neeaeany aeineoue
onoaeaia o?aaeeoe?y oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a, ii/eiath/e ua c /an?a
aioe/ii? A?aoe??, eiee ?noi?eee oa o?einioe iaiaaaeeny iienaoe
niaoeeo?/i? ?ene ??cieo ia?iaeieo oa?aeoa??a oa aaea oiae?, aiaeae o
caaaeueieo ?enao, aecia/eoe ?noi?eei-nioe?aeuei? oa i?e?iaei? /eiieee ?o
oi?ioaaiiy.

Ii/eiath/e c aiioe A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
i?aeiyeany ia iiaee uaaaeue, iia’ycaiee ?c ?aoe?iiaeueiei, aiae?oe/iei
oa ?noi?e/iei iaoiaeaie ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiaeii/an a/aiiy
i?ioanoaioecio i?eaaei aei ?icoi?iiy aaciina?aaeiueiai ca’yceo i?ae
eoeueoo?iith ?aei?noth aoiino (a oiio /ene? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o) ?
aioo??oi?i na?oii iniaenoino?.

O i?ina?oieoeuee?e oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a (I.Aieueaao, O.Aaeii,
O.Iiioane’?, AE.-AE.?onni, Ae.Ae?ae?i, E.Aaeueaaoe?e oa ?i.) aia?oa
iine?aeiaii noaaeoueny ? ?ica’yco?oueny caaaeaiiy nenoaiaoe/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o ia?iae?a ye iaoeiai? i?iaeaie. O o?aaeeoe??
i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii? o?einio?? (?.Eaio, ?.Aaaaeue, E.O?ooa)
cae?enith?oueny ?ic?iaea iiiyoue “ia?iae”, “iaoe?y”, “oa?aeoa? iaoe??”,
ye o?einionueeeo eaoaai??e, ui ianooue ia eeoa ?noi?e/ia, a e
na?oiaeyaeii-iaoiaeieia?/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy. ?icii/eia?oueny o?einionueeee
aiae?c iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye oaiiiaia, nooo?ai iia’ycaiiai ?c
i?ioeanii naia iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Ii/eiath/e c aiioe ?iiaioecio, yeee iaa?oiooaaa ?aeath “aeooo ia?iaeo”
ia eeoa ye ?aoe?iiaeueii?, aea e iica?aoe?iiaeueii? ae?eniino?,
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aenooia? ye i?aaeiao eiiieaenieo, ??ciia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue c aieo ineoieia??, aoiia?ao??, eoeueoo?ieia??, o?einio??.
I?e oeueiio ae??ciy?oueny ia?aaaaeath/a oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeyaeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye oaiiiaia eoeueoo?e. Oeiee “ineoieia??
ia?iae?a” (A.Aoiaeo), “ineoieia?? ian” (A.Eaaii), oai??y a?oaoei?a
(E.THia), oaiiiaiieia?y (A.Aonna?eue), oai??y nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
(A.O?iii), eoeueoo?ieia?y OO noie?ooy (I.Aaaa?, A.Aaaa?, A.O?ueieue/ oa
?i.), oeiea “Aiiae?a” (E.Oaa?, I.Aeie), eiioeaioe?? aaciai?
(A.Ea?aeeia?) oa iiaeaeueii? (A.?ieaean) iniaenoinoae, “iiaeoeueii?
ethaeeie” (A.Aaeeia?), oai??y “iiaaae?ieiaeo eiiieaen?a” (Ae.Oii?iai,
O.Onth), eiioeaioe?y “iiaiai nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o” I.Oiooea?a oa ?io?
aeeaaeathoue o iiiyooy nioe?aeueiiai e iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye ia
??ai? ni?eueiioe, oae ? ia ??ai? iniaenoino?, ianaiia?aae
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieia?/iee nain.

Eiioeaio iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o XIX noie?oo? noaa /e ia
iaeaeooaeuei?oith i?iaeaiith oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueei?
noni?eueii-o?einionueei? aeoiee, ui aoei iia’ycaii c aeoeaieie
iaoe?iiaeueieie i?ioeanaie, ye? ?icai?ioeeny o a?aeiia?aeieo e?a?iao.
?in?enuee? ieneeoae? – I.Aeaieeaanueeee, E.Eaiioue?a, A.Nieiaeia,
I.Aa?aey?a, A.Oiao, N.O?aie oa ?io? – ?icaeaaee ?in?enueeo iaoe?iiaeueio
?aeath, iaa?oioiaoaaee caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueio, anana?oiuei-ian?ainueeo
?ieue ?in??, aeoiaey/e ia?aaeon?i ?c aecia/aiiy iniaeeaeo yeinoae
?in?enueeiai aeooo (oa?aeoa?o) oa eiai i?eioeeiiaeo a?aei?iiinoae a?ae
?a?iiaenueeiai.

Aiaeii/an ii/aea ?icaeaaoeny ? o?einio?y oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea?, yea aoea nooo?ai iia’ycaia ?c aiae?cii niaoeeo?ee aeeoo?aiai
na?oo oe?a?ioe?a oa ?o eoeueoo?e ye /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ii/eiath/e c ae?yeueiino?
Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai a?aonoaa, iniaeeai I.Einoiia?iaa, eiioeaio
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o io?eiaa noaoon iaoeiai?,
na?oiaeyaeii? i?iaeaie. O? /e ?io? aniaeoe oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, iia’ycai? ianaiia?aae c ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea?, aeine?aeaeoaaee iaea?aeii?o? ae?y/? oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e –
A.Aioiiiae/, I.Ae?aaiiaiia, I.Iioaaiy, ?.O?aiei, I.A?ooaanueeee,
I.Oaeeueiaee, Ae.Aeiioeia, I.I?oiianueeee, TH.Eeia, A.Eeieinueeee oa
?io?.

O ?aaeyinuee?e iaooe? ieoaiiy uiaei iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
ao?ooaaeeny ianaiia?aae iaaeiei ?aeae ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?cio oa iiaoaeiae
iaaeiaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe “?aaeyinueeee ia?iae”. Oiio aeayeeie
aaoi?aie ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o niioai?thaaeany /e acaaae?
a?aeeeaeaeany ye iaoeiaa (O.E?yee?ia, A.Eiceia, A.Oaeaiia oa ?i.). O? ae
aeine?aeieee, ye? aeciaaaee iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye ?aaeuei?noue, a
neeo oiai/anieo iie?oe/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo ianoaaei, i?aeoe/ii ia
?icae?eyee iiiyoue “ia?iaeiee” oa “iaoe?iiaeueiee”, aeoeaiooaaee oaaao
ia nioe?aeueii-eeania?e oa aoiia?ao?/i?e i?iaeaiaoeoe? ? ia iia’ycoaaee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ?c eiioeaioe??th iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. Iii?e oa,
ia iiaeia ia a?aecia/eoe nooo?aee aianie o ?ic?iaeo aecia/aii?
i?iaeaiaoeee oaeeo a?aeiieo a/aieo ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo, ye ?.Aiioe?i,
A.Aaa?aiia, TH.A?iieae, O.Ai?ianueeee, A.Aeaoaeai??ia,
I.Aeaeaiae?eueae?i, I.Aeaeoionia, N.Eaeoao/yi, I.Eoe?/aiei, A.Iaaeo?a,
A.Iai?aoaeueeanea, TH.?eia?aiei, I.Oaaein??a, ?.Oieiiai?ia,
I.*aa/aaaaeca oa ?io?, eio??, aea/ath/e ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo
aoii-iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio, c iaiao?aei?noth caa?oaee oaaao ia
ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa iaoe?iiaeueii? ineoieia??.

Aiaeii/an o oai?/ino? i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e i?iaeaia
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ?ic?iaeyeany aeineoue a?oioiaii ? aoea
iia’ycaia, ye i?aaeei, c eiioeaioe??th oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea?. Oea – ?iaioe I.Ai/eianueeiai, I.Eoeue/eoeueeiai,
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, ?.Iaeaithea, ?.I??/oea, Ae.*eaeaanueeiai,
I.Oeaieaae/a, A.ssi?aa oa ?i.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y, o ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?, i?iaeaia
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iaaoea iniaeeai aeooaeueiiai cia/aiiy.
I?aeoe/ii an? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny i?iaeai ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa naiina?aeiiino?, iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?,
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, iaoe?iiaeueii? ineoieia??, iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee, i?iaeai aca?iia?aeiinei iaoe?? oa iniaenoino? ? o.?i. – o??th
/e ?ioith i??ith iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aei i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iiaeia aeae?eeoe iniiai? iai?yiee no/anieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee, aeinyaiaiiy yeeo (?acii ?c
cacia/aieie aeua) noaee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
aeena?oaoe??:

– ?icaeoie i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o ca’yceo c oai???th
aoiino oa aoiiaaiaco (TH.A?iieae, ?.Aa?ca?, ?.Aeiie/aiei, E.Aoi?eueia,
A.AEie?, ?.?aai/aiei, A.?aiaoia, ss.Eaeieaieionueea, I.Ea?ooiia,
I.Ee?e/aiei, I.Eiaeei, TH.Ei?ae, ?.E?an?ia, A.E?ena/aiei, A.E?uoe,
A.Eicei, I.Iaeai?iaea, A.Ia?eia, ?.Ioceea, I.Iaeueaa, A.Ia??/oe,
A.Iai?aoaeueeanea, ?.Iiaeieueiee, A.Iiooeueieoeueeee, TH.Naiaiia,
A.Nie?oo, I.Noaieei, A.Oeoeia, A.O?iueinueeee, A.*aio?ei, N.*aoei,
A.Oaa/aiei, A.Oeieueiye, I.Ooeueaa oa ?io?);

– ?icaeoie i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e (?.Aiae?in, I.Aioiithe, A.Aoaianue?a, A.Ae/ei,
?.Ae/ei, I.Aiaoaiei, A.Ai?nueeee, N.A?aaianueeee, I.A?eie/, N.Cae?i?oe,
ss.Eaeieaieionueea, O.Eann?ae?, N.E?einueeee, I.Eoeue/eoeueeee,
?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee, A.Iacaia, I.Iaeai?iaea, ?.Iaeaithe, ?.I??/oe,
I.Ie?eiee, I.I?i/oe, I.Iiiiae/, N.I?ie??a, A.Neo?ao?anueeee,
?.Noa?iaieo, I.Noaieei, A.Oaaa/eianueeee, A.O?aiiaa, O.*aeea,
A.Oeieueiye, I.Ooieaeo oa ?io?);

– ?icaeoie i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith
naiiaecia/aiiy iniaenoino? (?.Aiae?in, A.Aiae?ouaiei, ?.Aeno?eoeueeee,
A.A?eeia, A.Ayoe?i, I.Aeii/aiei, A.?aaiia, A.E?uoe, A.Iaeaoia,
I.Ieoaeue/aiei, ?.Iaaeieueiee, A.Ia??/oe, A.I?aeaeoaiee, A.Oea/aiei,
A.Oioeiaoeue, A.Oaa/aiei, A.Oeiea?oe, E.Oeey?, I.Ooeueaa oa ?io?);

– ineoieia?/i? oa nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/i? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o (A.Aaaee, A.Ai?iii?a, I.Aiaoaiei, A.Aea?ea/,
I.Aeii/aiei, E.Ae?ia?aeaaa, O.Eann?ae?, ?.Eii, I.Ei?ae, ?.E?an?ia,
A.E?enueei, I.Eociaoeue, A.Eicei, A.Iaaeaiei, A.Iai?aoaeueeanea,
A.Ia?aoiinueeee, N.Oaae?i, A.O?aiiaa, E.Oeey?, A.Oeo?aoia oa ?io?);

– iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye oaeoi? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai, i?aeaoi?/iiai
ni?eeoaaiiy (I.Aaaaiei, A.Aaeo?i, ?.A?ea, ?.Aeno?eoeueeee, A.Aa/aa,
?.?aai/aiei, I.Eiaooi, I.Ei?ae, I.Eoe?i?/, ?.Eo?an, I.Ia?ooianueea,
I.Iieeye, I.Iie/aiia, I.Iai/oe, TH.?eia?aiei, A.Neo?ao?anueeee,
A.Nieiaeia, A.Nooa??a, I.TH?aiei, A.Oeieueiye oa ?io?);

– iie?oeei-i?aaia? aniaeoe oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
(O.Aiae?onye, A.Aiae?ouaiei, A.Aioiithe, ?.Aeno?eoeueeee, A.Aieiae/,
?.Aecthaa, A.?aooo, A.AEie?, ?.?aai/aiei, A.?aiaoia, O.Eaiae,
?.Ea??cueea, I.Ea?ooiia, A.Eanueyi, A.Ee?e/aiei, I.E?oii, I.Eiiiiaiei,
A.E?aiaiue, A.Eoeee, ?.Eo?an, E.Eo?/aanueea, I.Iaeai?iaea, I.Ie?iiaiei,
I.Ieoaeue/aiei, I.Iieeye, ?.Ioceea, A.Ia??/oe, A.Iai?aoaeueeanea,
I.Iai/oe, A.Iiiia, TH.?eia?aiei, N.?oaeieoeueeee, A.Neo?ao?anueeee,
A.Nie?oo, I.Noaieei, A.Oea/aiei, I.Oiei/ei, I.Oiiaiei, ?.Onaiei,
A.Oaa/aiei, E.Oeey?, I.Ooeea, I.Ooeueaa, A.ss?aiaiei oa ?io?);

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.
Ii-ia?oa, aea/aiiy i?e?iaee, ci?noo oa ooieoe?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o aeiaaee /an iineei aeeneon?eiee /e iaiaaeaiee oa?aeoa?, ui
aoei iia’ycaii c ?aeaieia?/iith oa nioe?aeueiith neooaoe??th a iao?e
e?a?i?. Ii-ae?oaa, nenoaiieo ?noi?e/ieo, ineoieia?/ieo oa o?einionueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oe??? i?iaeaie iaaeinoaoiuei. Nenoaiieie,
oe?eani?yiiaaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie i?iaeaiaoeee iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e o?einio?? a?aecia/a?oueny oai?/?noue
A.Ae/ei, ?.Ae/ei, ?.Noa?iaieoa, iniaeeai – I.Aiaoaiea, eio?ee, iiaeia
neacaoe, canioaaa ? i/ieea o?einionueeo oeieo, i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiue
yei? ? ia eeoa caaaeueii-oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a
e eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy naia oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o. Ii-o?ao?, a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeaino? no/aniiai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai noaio ethaenoaa, iaea?eueo
aeooaeueiith oa i?iaeoeoeaiith ia nueiaiaei? aenooia? oaiaeaioe?y
aiae?co iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o ca’yceo c oaeeie eeth/iaeie
iiiyooyie ?, a?aeiia?aeii, i?iaeaiaie, ye iaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay,
iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioe/i?noue, iaoe?iiaeueiee ?i?aeae, aeaiie?ao?y,
iaoe?iiaeueii aecia/aia iniaeno?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea,
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai ? o.?i. I?e oeueiio aieiaiith oiiaith
aoaeoeaiino? o?einionueeiai aiae?co oaiiiaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
(o caaaeueiiio eiioaeno? oai??? iaoe?e) ? eiai (aiae?co) nooo?aee
ca’ycie c eiie?aoieie i?iaeaiaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o ?one? aea?aeaaiiai eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
“Oe?a?inueea o?einionueea aio?iiieia?y o eiioaeno? na?oiai? o?einio??”
(iiceoe?y ? 65), caoaa?aeaeaiiai I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie ( iaeac ?
37 a?ae 13 ethoiai 1997 ?.).

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy o?nii iia’ycaia c caaaeueiith iaoeiaith
oaiith eaoaae?e o?einio?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?noi??? ? oai??? o?einio??
oa ?? aea/aiiy nooaeaioaie iaaeaaia?/ieo aoc?a”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei? eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, a?aoiaoth/e iniiai? /eiieee aoooy oa ?icaeoeo
aoii-iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio, a oaeiae no/ani? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Aecia/aia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iinoaiiaeo oa ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaea/:

i?iaiae?coaaoe o?aaeeoe?th oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a o noni?euei?e
na?oia?e aeoioe?, ii/eiath/e c aioe/iino? oa cae?i/oth/e no/anieie
eiioeaioe?yie;

aeie?aieoe iaea?eueo nooo?a? ?noi?eei-o?einionuee? eiioeaioe?? nooiino?,
ci?noo, iniaeeainoae ? oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

i?iaiae?coaaoe ? aecia/eoe iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

aeyaeoe ? ?icaeyiooe aieiai? nioe?i-eoeueoo?i? i?iaeoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o;

aeine?aeeoe aieiai? aniaeoe ? oiiae ineoieia?/ii?, aeooiaii? ?aeiino?
aoiino ye oe?e?niiai, ii?aeiaiiai aioo??oi?ie ?ioaa?aoeaieie /eiieeaie
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai noa’?eoa;

?icaeyiooe iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye onoaeaio ineoieia?/io no?oeoo?o,
aeae?eeaoe eiai neeaaeia?;

ae/eaieoe aieiai? i?e?iaei? oa ?noi?e/i? /eiieee oi?ioaaiiy oa?aeoa?o
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

aeaoe eiioeaiooaeueiee aiae?c aieiaieo eoeueoo?ieo a?oaoei?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o;

aeine?aeeoe i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?ioe?a (ye
oeooeueiiai ia?iaeo) a oiiaao iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, a oaeiae o
ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth iiaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaith Oe?a?ie ia canaaeao aeaiie?ao??;

i?iaiae?coaaoe (ia iniia? eiie?aoiiai nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy)
iniaeeaino? oa?aeoa?o oa naiina?aeiiino? aieiaieo aoi?/ieo a?iiaae E?eio
– oe?a?ioe?a, e?einueeeo oaoa? oa ?in?yi – a oiiaao no/aniiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny cia/aiiyi oa
?ieeth iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o a no/anieo i?ioeanao iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaith Oe?a?ie, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii aeaiie?ao??, iiaoaeiaith
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, oi?ioaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? oa
naiina?aeiiino?, ?aaeeeaeueiei i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ie? naiiaecia/aii?,
na?aeiii? iniaenoino? o iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeeoo?, iaiao?aei?noth
oaeineiiaeaiiy eoeueoo?e i?aeaoi?/iiai oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai
ni?eeoaaiiy.

A?aoiaoth/e oea, a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?aaenoaaeaia
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye
oaiiiaia eoeueoo?e. Oey eiioeaioe?y aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui:

iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye ?acoeueoao ?icaeoeo iaoe?? oa iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?e a iaaieo i?e?iaeieo oa ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao ? neeaaeiei
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iei oaiiiaiii, ui aeicaiey? ae/eaieoe ? c?icoi?oe
iaoe?th (ia?iae) ye naiino?eiee, oe?e?niee, ii?aeiaiee aioo??oi?ie
?ioaa?aoeaieie /eiieeaie noa’?eo ?noi?e/ii? ae??, eio?ee ao?eth? a
aeeooy aeanio i?ia?aio noni?eueiiai ia?aoai?aiiy, noai?th? aeanio
eoeueoo?o, a?aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie na?oini?eeiyooy oa
na?oi?icoi?iiy;

iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye i?iaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
iaoe?? ? oaiiiaiii, a yeiio ia no?eueee aeyaeythoue naaa i?e?iaeaeai?,
a?oaeuei? iniaeeaino? aoi?/ieo ?iaeea?ae?a, ne?eueee eoeueoo?iee
aeina?ae naiiaecia/aiiy oa iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iaoe??;

iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ia iiaeia ?icoi?oe ye noaoe/iee ia?ae?e
iiae?aieo ?en, aeanoeaeo i?aaenoaaieeai iaaiiai aoiino. Iiae?ai?noue
ineoieia?/ieo ?en o i?aaenoaaiee?a ie?aiiai aoiino ? iio?aeiith a?ae
?noi?e/ii-eoeueoo?iiai ono?ith aeeoo?aiai na?oo oa aeiia aei iniaenoino?
c aieo eoeueoo?e, eio?a noai?th? ? a?aeoai?th? iaaio “iiaeaeue”
aaaeaiiai aeey oe??? eoeueoo?e oeio iniaenoino? – “ethaeeie eoeueoo?e”;

“ethaeeia eoeueoo?e” aenooia? ia no?eueee ye iaoo?aeueia yaeua, ne?eueee
ye “i?iaeo ethaenueei? iniaenoino?”, eio?ee ae?iaey?oueny iaaiith
eoeueoo?ith ye iaea?eueo i?eeiyoia ? aeaaeaia iath ao?eaiiy ethaeeie
acaaae?, ? a oeueiio nain? aeeiio? ?aaoeyoeaio ?ieue o oi?ioaaii?
aoi?/ii-aecia/aiiai oa?aeoa?o eiie?aoieo ?iaeea?ae?a;

nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea eaoaai??y “iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?” neoaeeoue
aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeieia?/iei ?ino?oiaioii aiae?co aeooiaii-ineoieia?/ieo
aniaeo?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy ye ia ??ai? iaoe??, oae ? ia ??ai?
eiie?aoii? iniaenoino?.

O ca’yceo c aecia/aieie caaea/aie, o aeine?aeaeaii? caeiaoo? oae? iia?
iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

– ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie nenoaiaoecaoe?y i?ioeano ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo oa o?ainoi?iaoe?? eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ?icoi?iiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?ioyaii anueiai /ano ?nioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueei?
o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe??;

– cae?eniaia iiaeaeueoa aecia/aiiy aieiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a
aei ?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aeae?eai? aoiiineoieia?/iee
(iaoo?ae?noe/iee) oa nioe?ieoeueoo?iee (eoeueoo?ieia?/iee) i?aeoiaee,
aeine?aeaeaiee ?o aa?enoe/iee iioaioe?ae oa aiinaieia?/i? iaae?;

– anoia?a/ iioe?aiei iaoeiaei i?aeoiaeai aei i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o ye aei noaoe/ii? noeoiiino? iaaieo ineoieia?/ieo ?en, aia?oa
iaa?oioiao?oueny noaoon iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye iaoao?ce/ii? ?aea?,
eio?a noai?th? oiiae ?icoi?iiy iaaieo eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo yaeu,
iia’ycaieo c aeooiaii-ineoieia?/iith ?aei?noth iaoe??;

– aia?oa aeae?eaia ? aeine?aeaeaia nenoaia aieiaieo nioe?i-eoeueoo?ieo
i?iaeoe?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o (aeey yeeo a?i iaeii/anii aenooia? ?
oi?iiooai?thth/ei /eiieeii) – iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioe/i?noue,
iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, iaoe?iiaeueiee aoin, iaoe?iiaeueiee ?i?aeae,
eiiieaen iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ace;

– oaeineiiaeaia iieiaeaiiy, ui nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea ?icoi?iiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye oaiiiaia eoeueoo?e aeicaiey? cae?enieoe
“ia?niiae?caoe?th” aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe. Aia?oa
iaa?oioiao?oueny iiaeeea?noue oaei? “ia?niiae?caoe??” o aeaeyae?
“ethaeeie eoeueoo?e” – ?aeaaeueiiai ethaenueeiai oeio, yeee
noai?th?oueny ? a?aeoai?th?oueny iaoe?iiaeueiith eoeueoo?ith, ? aaaeaiei
aeey ia? ? aenooia? ye ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiee oei, ui aeieea? a ?acoeueoao?
aca?iiae?? aieiaieo eoeueoo?ieo ia?niiaae?a, eio?? i?aaenoaaeythoue
aieiai? nioe?aeuei? neee oa noaie noni?euenoaa;

– ?icaeiaia aeae? ? iaa?oioiaaia ei?aeyoe?y i?ae no?oeoo?ieie aeaiaioaie
oa?aeoa?o ye oaeiai oa no?oeoo?ith iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. sse
aieiai? neeaaeia? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aeae?eai? ? i?iaiae?ciaai?:
oaiia?aiaio, ye ocaaaeueiaia ?ai?acaioaoe?y aio?iiieia?/ii?
(niiaoe/ii-o?c?ieia?/ii?) niaoeeo?ee aoiino; ooieoe?iiaeueii iaaeaai?
(?noi?e/i?) yeino? – ineoieia?/i? ianoaiiae ? aeii?iaioe (eio?eie
?aaoeth?oueny oa ni?yiiao?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae, aecia/a?oueny
?aaeei ?o oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy); aioo??oi? aii??? ( eio?? a?aeia?aaeathoue
neeaaeiino? ?noi?e/ii? naii?aae?caoe?? aoiino); noeioeyoe?ei? oa
a?ae?aceea? /eiieee (eio?eie coiiaeth?oueny ineoieia?/iee aoaeo ae?? oeo
/e ?ioeo ciai?oi?o aieea?a, neooaoe?e, yaeu); onoaeai? iiaaae?ieia?
eiiieaene;

– ae?noaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aiae?c ?noi?e/ieo oiia oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ?, cie?aia, aaoi?ii cae?eniaiee
aiae?c iaaaoeaii? oi?ie eiai ?icaeoeo o i?ioean? ?noi?e/ii? aca?iiae?? c
iieuenueeei oa ?in?enueeei iaoe?iiaeueieie oa?aeoa?aie;

– eiie?aoeciaai? ? i?iaiae?ciaai? aieiai? a?oaoeie oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, noai?ai? o?aaeeoe?eiith oe?a?inueeith
eoeueoo?ith: aiaaiai?noue uiaei canioaaiiy aeeooy ia ?aaoey?ieo
o?oaeiaeo coneeeyo; iaiaai?noue uiaei ?icii?yaeaeaiiy caeiaooeaie
aeanii? i?aoe? oa iinooieea?noue oiio, ooi aeyaeoue a?eueo ??oo/a “i?aai
aie?”; a?aenooi?noue o naiiaecia/aii? oe?a?inoaa ioae?/iiai aei??o
aeeooy oa aeii?ioaaiiy o iueiio ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo /eiiee?a i?eaaoiino?
oa ia?oeeoey?iino?; iieeaaeaiiy a?eueoa ia aeieth, i?ae ia aeanio
naiia?yaeio aieth a?aeiinii ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aeaniei aeeooyi; a?oaoei
niiioaiii? a?eueiino? /e caacyoi? a?ae/aeaeooiino?, eio?a aeieeea ye
a?aeaoe ia aeaye? ciai?oi? aeeeeee aoooy;

– iaa?oiooaaiee aeniiaie, ui aecia/ai? a?oaoeie oe?a?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o
a?aeiia?aeathoue ia?aaeon?i eoeueoo?canaaeie/?e oi?i? naiiiieeaaeaiiy
oe?a?inoaa, aea a?eueo aaaeeeaith aeey ?icaeoeo iaoe?? ?
?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaia oi?ia, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aoai?aiiy noa?eo ?
oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo yeinoae ethaeeie o a?aeiia?aeiino? c nooo?aeie
caaaeaiiyie oa iniaeeainoyie iia?oiuei? iaoe??, aieiaieie oaeoi?aie
?icaeoeo yei? aenooiathoue iaoe?iiaeueia aeaiie?aoe/ia aea?aeaaa,
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai oa aeoeaia, na?aeiia, iaoe?iiaeueii
naiiaecia/aia iniaeno?noue;

– ae?noaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie aeoiea i?i oa, ui a i?ioean? cae?eniaiiy
?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaii? oi?ie naii?aae?caoe?? iaoe?? i? a yeiio ?ac? ia
a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiiaa a?ae ?? eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? naiiaooiino?
(oi/a, ca?nii, aeaye? ?? ?ene iathoue aooe ci?iai?), a eeoa oi?io?oueny
?aeeia aiey ia?iaeo uiaei eiai iaeaooiueiai. O ca’yceo c oeei, aeey
oe?a?inoaa ye oeooeueiiai ia?iaeo aecia/ai? iaea?eueo aaaeeea?
noni?euei? caaaeaiiy: iiaoaeiaa aeaiie?aoe/iiai, a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa; noai?aiiy aeaniiai iiceoeaiiai ?i?aeaeo; cao?ooaaiiy ?ioeo
ia?iae?a e?a?ie o i?ioean? caaaeueii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo; a?aeia
ianaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca anth Oe?a?io, ca ana, ui a i?e
a?aeaoaa?oueny, oa an?o oeo, ooi a i?e i?iaeeaa?;

– ia iniia? niaoe?aeueii i?iaaaeaiiai aaoi?ii nioe?ieia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy (o?aaaiue-/a?aaiue 1998 ?.) aoiieoeueoo?ieo oyaeaiue
aieiaieo aoi?/ieo a?iiaae E?eio (oe?a?ioe?a, ?in?yi, e?einueeeo oaoa?)
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i ia?aaaaeaiiy o ?aniiiaeaio?a aoiieoeueoo?iiai
?icoi?iiy naino iaoe?? iaae ?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaiei, ui ? a?ae/ooiith
ia?aiiiith oi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i? no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe ?
cana?ae/o? iaaio a?oa?/i?noue (“?icii?ioai?noue”) oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ia nueiaiaei?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiie:

– i?aaenoaaeythoue iiaee iai?yiie nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia iniia? aeie?aieaiiy oeo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oa
ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ye? iiee ui
iaaeinoaoiuei i?eaa?oaee oaaao aeine?aeiee?a;

– ni?eythoue aaeineiiaeaiith eaoaai??aeueii-iiiyo?eiiai aia?aoo
nioe?aeueii? o?einio??, eoeueoo?ieia??, iaoe?ieia??, oe?a?iiciaanoaa;

– iathoue i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy aeey oai?aoe/ii? ?ic?iaee ? i?aeoe/iiai
aeeiiaiiy i?ia?ai aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaoi?/ieo oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo
a?aeiinei, i?ia?ai aea?aeaaii? ina?oe, iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy,
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a
?icaeoeo i?ioean?a noni?eueiiai aeeooy acaaae? ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai –
cie?aia;

– iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a c
ia?iaeiciaanoaa, nioe?aeueii? o?einio??, o?einio?? ?noi???,
eoeueoo?ieia??, iie?oieia??, nioe?ieia??, oe?a?iiciaanoaa.

Aeai? i?iaaaeaiiai o?einionueeiai oa nioe?ieia?/iiai aiae?co iiaeooue
neoaeeoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaeueoeo
eiie?aoieo nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a aoiieoeueoo?iiai oa
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?ic?iaeai? aeena?oaioii iieiaeaiiy
oa ?acoeueoaoe nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei? eiioeaioe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o a?aeia?aaeai? a ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e iiiia?ao??, o iaoeiaeo
noaooyo, a oaeiae aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?aa?iiaeuei?e i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Eoeueoo?a oa ?eiie” (Oa?iii?eue, o?aaaiue 1993), ia
?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eoeueoo?a E?eio ia iaae? a?e?a:
e?iaoeue O?O-ii/aoie OO” (N?ioa?iiieue, 1993), ia anaoe?a?inuee?e
oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie ?
ia?niaeoeae” (E??iaia?aae, 1993), ia ?anioae?eainuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaoiaeieia?? oa
iaoiaeeee anoaoe/iiai iaa/aiiy oa aeoiaaiiy” (Ee?a,1996), ia
i?aeia?iaei?e o?einionuee?e oeie? “Iie?oe/ia o?einio?y ? no/ani?noue”
(Ee?a, 1998), ia 10-oe ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo “I?iaeaie
iaoa??aeueii? oa aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ia?iae?a E?eio oa I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y a?ae /an?a aioe/iino? aei iaoeo aei?a” (N?ioa?iiieue,
1996-1999 ).

?yae aeniiae?a oa iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny aaoi?ii o
aeeeaaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo o?einionueeeo eo?n?a (“Nioe?ieia?y”,
“Iie?oieia?y”, “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? o?einio??”) oa eo?no “Oe?a?inueea ?
ca?oa?aeia eoeueoo?a” o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao E?eio.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iaeiiin?ai?e
iiiia?ao?? “Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e” (N?ioa?iiieue,
“Oaa??y”, 1999), o 16 noaooyo a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao (c ieo iaeia – o
ni?aaaoi?noa?), o 7 noaooyo a ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa iaoa??aeao
eiioa?aioe?e, o 3 oacao a iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe, aecia/aieo caaea/ oa
eia?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, n?iiaaeoeyoe i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae

Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 400 noi??iie, c ieo 378 noi??iie
iniiaiiai oaenoo ? 22 noi??iee nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee
iae?/o? 250 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea
nooiaiy ?? aeine?aeaeaiino?, aecia/a?oueny iaoa oa caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai oai?aoe/ia oa iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiae, ca’ycie c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoeiaa a?iioaca,
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe ? ai?iaiaai?noue ??
?acoeueoao?a.

Ci?no ia?oiai ?icae?eo – “I?iaeaia aoi?/ii? ni?eueiino?: oaiiiai
ia?iaeo” – coiiaeaiee iaiao?aei?noth c’ynoaaiiy ei?aeoiino? oa
iaoeiaino? naiiai iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aecia/aiiyi oiai,
yeith i??ith ia?iae (iaoe?y) iiaea aenooiaoe o aeaeyae? oe?e?nii? iniae
c iaaieie ineoieia?/ieie iciaeaie. Aeena?oaioii iaa?oioiao?oueny
iiaeeea?noue iiaeyaeo ia ethaenueeo ni?eueiioo ye ia oe?e?niee,
naiino?eiee noa’?eo ?noi???. Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oiio, ui ia iiaea
aooe e iiae i?i ye?nue onoaeai? iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio
(oei a?eueoa i?i oaeo ?icaeiaio ? aioo??oiuei onoaeaio oi?io aeooiaii?
eiinoeoooe??, ye oa?aeoa?), yeui aiie ia ? ie?aieie ?noi?e/ieie
noa’?eoaie, eio?? iathoue aeani? canaaee naiiaecia/aiiy oa iaoe?
naiiaooiuei? aeie?.

Aeae?eythoueny ? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaa ?noi?e/ieo eiioeaioe ?icoi?iiy
ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio: aoii?caoe?? oa oioae?caoe??. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui
eiino?oeoeaia ?icoi?iiy noni?eueieo i?ioean?a iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae
ae?aeaeoe/iiai ii?aeiaiiy aecia/aieo i?aeoiae?a – oiaoi ethaenuee?
ni?eueiioe iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe ye noni?euei? ooai?aiiy, a iniia? yeeo
eaaeeoue niin?a ii?aeiaiiy ? ocaiaeaeaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aieue oa
naiiaecia/aiue c iio?aaaie caaaeueiiai aeeooy ethaeae. O iaaeao oe???
ii?aeiaiino? ethaeae ni?eueiioa iaaoaa? iciae naiiae?yeueiiai noa’?eoa,
aea ia aoei ? ia iiaea aooe, ca naiith noooth noni?euenoaa, oaei?
?aeiino? (a a?aeoae ? oaei? ni?eueiioe), yea a iiai?noth iiaeeioea
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? ethaeae ? iicaaaeea ?o iioieia?/ii? aaae o
aecia/aii? ci?noo oa ni?yiiaaiino? ethaenueeiai aoooy. Aeoiaey/e c
oeueiai, noi?ioeueiaaia aaaeeeaa iaoiaeieia?/ia canoa?aaeaiiy a?aeiinii
?icoi?iiy ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio: eeoa caiia?aaiiy ?aaeoeoe?? ethaenueeeo
?iaeea?ae?a aei oi?i ?o ni?eueiiai aeeooy ?iaeoue iiaeeeaei
ianoia?a/eeaa aeei?enoaiiy ?aea? noni?eueiino?. Noni?euei?noue, o
eiie?aoiino? nai?o ?noi?e/ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo oi?i, ? ia ui ?ioa, ye
ii?aeiaiiy aeaio /eiiee?a ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy – caaaeueiiai aeeooy ?
iniaeno?niiai naiiaecia/aiiy. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aoiin, ia?iae, iaoe?y
aecia/athoueny ye ?aaeuei? ni?eueiioe, nioe?aeuei? noa’?eoe, ui nooo?ai
aecia/athoue noni?eueiee ?icaeoie oa iathoue oa?aeoa?ieia?/i?
iniaeeaino?, eio?? aenooiathoue o aeaeyae? oi?i ii?aeiaiiy, ni?eeoaaiiy
oa naiiaecia/aiiy ethaenueeeo iniaenoinoae. Iniaeno?noue iano?eueee ae ?
?acoeueoaoii i?iaeoe?e ia eiie?aoio ethaeeio aeanoeainoae ni?eueiio, aei
neeaaeo yeeo aiia caeo/aia, iane?eueee ? aoaeue-ye? ni?eueiioe ? oi?iaie
naiiaecia/aiiy ethaenueei? iniaenoino?. Ni?eueiioa caeia? iiaea?eia
i?noea o ethaenueeiio aooo?: ii-ia?oa, neeaaea? na?aaeiaeua ethaenueeiai
?nioaaiiy ? eiai iaoe? (ye oaea, aiia ? na?oii ethaeeie); ii-ae?oaa –
ao?eth? a nia? ?ioaa?iaaio ethaenueeo ae?th ? ? oi?iith ??
eiinoeoothaaiiy oa cae?eniaiiy (ye oaea, ni?eueiioa ? eieaeoeaiei
noa’?eoii). O ca’yceo c oeei, aeena?oaioii ae??oo?oueny ieoaiiy i?i o?
oi?ie, a yeeo ?noi?e/ii cae?enithaaeiny noni?eueia naiiaecia/aiiy
ethaeeie ?, aieiaia, i?i oa, yea i?noea na?aae oeeo oi?i caeia? oaea
nai???aeia ni?eueiioa ethaeae, ye ia?iae – iin?e oa oai?aoeue
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

?icaeyaeathoueny aoi?/i? ni?eueiioe, ui ?noi?e/ii ia?aaeothoue ia?iaeo –
??ae oa ieai’y, iniiaith ?aeiino? yeeo ? “eiithiioa?iee” oa?aeoa?
ni?eeoaaiiy oa iaoo?aeueii-aaiaaeia?/iee i?eioeei cao?ooaaiiy. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae ieo, ?aei?noue ia?iaeo ye aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe ia?aaaaeii
caaacia/o?oueny ?inoeoooe?eieie oa eoeueoo?ieie /eiieeaie, ui ia?
nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai oaiiiaia, ye iaoe?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa?.

Aiane?aeie ao?aeoacieo ?aaiethoe?e aeiee iiaee oei noni?eueii?
i?aai?caoe?? – a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai ? a?aeiia?aeiee eiio oei
aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe – iaoe?y (c a?aeiia?aeiith iie?oe/iith oi?iith –
aeaniith aea?aeaai?noth), yea iio?aao? aeey naiai eiinoeoothaaiiy
aoi?/iiai naiiaecia/aiiy iniaenoino?, ui noa? iaeii/anii ??
naiiaecia/aiiyi ye /eaia noni?euenoaa. C iaeyaeo ia oea, aieiaiei
ooai?thth/ei /eiieeii iaoe?? ? ia no?eueee aoi?/ia ni?eueiioa ye oaea,
ne?eueee aoi?/ia naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?y /e aoi?/iee aea?? iniaenoino? ia
ei?enoue iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? a?aeiia?aeiiai noni?euenoaa. E??i
oiai, iaoe?y, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaei?o aoi?/ieo ni?eueiio,
aecia/a?oueny ia aeeeth/ii ii a?aeiioaiith aei nai?o non?ae?a
(?noi?e/ieo eiioaeoa??a) – aiia naiiaecia/a?oueny o na?o?. Naia
iaoe?iiaeueia aeeooy caeo/a? ethaeae aei caaaeo ethaenoaa ? ?iaeoue
inoaii? iiaeeeaei. Oaeei /eiii, iaoe?y iinoa? ye oaea oi?ia ?nioaaiiy
aoiino, ca yei? iniaeno?noue io?eio? a?oio aeey naiiaecia/aiiy ?
naiaiaee, a nai aoiin noa? o/anieeii caaaeueiiethaenueeiai aeeooy
uiiaeiaioa o aeaio aieiaieo aei??ao: ii-ia?oa, /a?ac naith caeo/ai?noue
aei i?aeia?iaeiiai ?iciiae?eo i?aoe?, na?oiaeo iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo
oa eoeueoo?ieo no?oeoo?; ii-ae?oaa – /a?ac ia?aoai?aiiy aioo??oi?o oi?i
aeeooy, ae?iaieoeoaa, ?a/iaiai na?aaeiaeua a?aeiia?aeii aei iaeiia?oeo
aeinyaiaiue na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??. Caeo/ai?noue aei na?oiai? ?noi???
a?aeaoaa?oueny iano?eueee ae /a?ac aioo??oi? aeeooy iaoe??, iane?eueee e
/a?ac ?? ciai?oi? eiioaeoe.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ieoaiiy i?i oa, yeee nain oa iaae?
canoinoaaiiy ia? iiiyooy aoi?/iiai, ye aiii ni?aa?aeiineoueny c iiiyooyi
iaoe?iiaeueiiai, ye iia’ycai? i?ae niaith aoi?/iee oa noni?eueiee aei??e
ethaenueeiai aoooy ? a /iio – a i?e?iaeieo /e eoeueoo?ieo /eiieeao –
o?einionueea aeoiea aaa/a? nooi?noue aoiino. ?iaeoueny aaaeeeaa
iaoiaeieia?/ia canoa?aaeaiiy uiaei aeayei? oa?i?iieia?/ii?
iaiine?aeiaiino? aeei?enoaiiy o aeena?oaoe?? iiiyoue “ia?iae” oa
“aoiin”, aiane?aeie /iai caea?oueny, ui iaeia e oa ae ni?eueiioa ethaeae
iicia/a?oueny aeaiia oa?i?iaie. Cacia/aii, ui oea – ?acoeueoao
na?aeiiiai iaoiaeieia?/iiai aeai?o, uia i?aee?aneeoe ??ci? aniaeoe
nieneo iaeiiai e oiai ae iiiyooy c iaoith caiia?aaiiy ia caaaeaee
aeioe?euei?e ?aaeoeoe?? na?oiaeyaeiiai, o?einionueeiai naino iiiyooy
ia?iaeo aei eiai iiceoeaiiai cia/aiiy, cao?eniaaiiai iiiyooyi aoiin o
aoiia?ao??. Noiniaii iiiyoue ia?iae-aoiin oa iaoe?y, oi o
eoeueoo?canaaeie/iio ?icoi?ii? naino iaoe?? aiie aenooiathoue ye
iaeiii??i?, a a ?noi?eei-i?iaeoeaiiio – a?ae??ciythoueny o ca’yceo c
?noi?e/iith iaiao?aei?noth oi?ioaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae, a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa a?aeiia?aeii? iniaenoino?.

Iiiyooy aoiino ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ianaiia?aae ye niin?a ?icoi?iiy
i?e?iaee ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio, ui aeie?aieth? nooi?niee aei??
ethaenueei? ni?eueiino? acaaae? – aoi?/iee, a oiio ao?eth?oueny o
nenoaio eiioeaio?a /e i?eioeei?a, ye? aecia/athoue, ia ui caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa a inieneaii? aoi?/ieo yaeu. Oeeie i?eioeeiaie aoi?/ii?
aecia/aiino?, ui a?aeaeaathoue eiioeaiooaeuei? iai?aoethaaiiy
aoiia?ao?/ieo ? nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ?: ii-ia?oa,
i?eioeei nii??aeiaiino? oa ni?eueiino? iioiaeaeaiiy (aaiaaeia?/iee);
ii-ae?oaa – aaiethoe?eiee, yeee o?eno? oaeo ?icaeoeo aoiino ? ?noi?e/iee
oa?aeoa? ethaenueei? ni?eueiino?; ii-o?ao? – i?eioeei
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe??, oiaoi naiia?aeianaiiy ethaeae aei a?aeiia?aeiiai
aoiino; ii-/aoaa?oa – ?aeyoeaiee i?eioeei, nooue yeiai iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aoiine ?niothoue ? aecia/athoueny eeoa o a?aeiioaii? iaeei aei
iaeiiai, o nenoai? aca?iieo aieea?a; ii-i’yoa – i?eioeei aaoa?iaaiiino?
aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei, iaeaaei?noue ethaeeie
aei aoiino ia ? iaeiaeiaith aeey an?o, a ia? ??ciee ci?no caeaaeii a?ae
oiai, yea i?noea caeia? ethaeeia o nenoai? aoi?/ii? naiii?aai?caoe??;
ii-oinoa – i?eioeei “ia?niiae?ciaaiino?” aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe, eio?a
?nio? ia eeoa o aeaeyae? iaae?iaeea?aeoaeueii? caaaeueiino? aeeooy, a
ia?aaeon?i ao?eth?oueny a iniaeeaiio ethaenueeiio oei?, niaoeeo?/i?e
?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, eio?a noai?th?oueny eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iei aeeooyi
ia?iaeo. Aeooiaiei, ineoieia?/iei aea?aaeaioii oeueiai ethaenueeiai oeio
aenooia? iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?.

Oaeei /eiii, o ia?o?e aeaa? aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeea?noue
?nioaaiiy ia?iaeo (iaoe??) ye ?aeeii?, oi?eaeueii? ni?eueiioe ethaeae,
nooo?aei /eiieeii eiinie?aeaoe?? yei? ? naiiaooi?e oei iniaenoino?,
eio?ee noai?th?oueny a?aeiia?aeiith eoeueoo?ith ? aecia/a? oi?ioaaiiy
iniaeeaeo ?en oa?aeoa?o eiie?aoieo iniaenoinoae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “?icaeoie eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o” – eaeaoueny i?i ?icaeoie iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?eioeei?a oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a, ii/eiath/e a?ae /an?a aioe/iino?, oa
i?i aecia/aiiy noaoono ieoaiiy i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. O ca’yceo c
oeei a?aecia/aii, ui iiaeeea?noue ? aeeaeia i?ciaiiy ia?iaeii ?ioeo
ia?iae?a, aeyaeaiiy ? ona?aeiieaiiy ?o eoeueoo?ii? naiiaooiino?
aaciina?aaeiuei iaoiiaeai? nooiaiai ?icaeoeo eiai (ia?iaeo) aeanii?
naiina?aeiiino?. *ei aeeaoa ? iiai?oa ?icaeiooa aeania naiina?aeii?noue
ia?iaeo, oei oe?oa eiai iiaeeea?noue (caeaoi?noue) inieneeoe
nai???aei?noue ? iniaeea?noue ?ioeo aoiin?a. Iai/iei i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi
oe??? caeiiii??iino? ? o?aaeeoe?y ?noi?e/ieo na?ae/aiue, yea aoea
noai?aia aoiinaie, ui aeinyaee aenieiai ??aiy eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai
naiiaecia/aiiy, a oaeiae oie oaeo, ui naia ia aeiao iaeaeoeai?oeo
i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai naiiaecia/aiiy i?eiaaeathoue
iae/eneaii?o? ?ica?aeee a?aeiinii ia?iae?a ? iniaeeainoae ?o aoooy. C
iaeyaeo ia oea, iinoa? ieoaiiy i?i oa, /ei aeania ? eiioeaio
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o – /e oi na?oiaeyaeiith ?aea?th, eio?a ia? nain
aeeeth/ii a iaoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoe?iiaeueieo naiiona?aeiieaiue, /e oi
oi?iith ia’?eoeaiiai ciaiiy, yea aeeiio? ?ieue iaoeiaiai i?ciaaaeueiiai
caniao.

C iaoith ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie aeena?oaioii c’yniaaia iiiyooy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa eiai a?aei?iiino? a?ae aeecueeeo aei iueiai iiiyoue
aoi?/iiai e ia?iaeiiai. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ia?
nieneiao aia?aaeaioi?noue ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ye o aocueeiio, oae
? oe?ieiio nain?. O aocueeiio nain? “iaoe?iiaeueia” ? i?eeiaoith
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ? aaiaceno iaoe?? ye niaoeeo?/iiai oeea?e?caoe?eiiai
ooai?aiiy, nain yeiai ia ae/a?io?oueny aoi?/ieie /eiieeaie. O
neiainiieo/aii? “iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?” iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeei?enoiao?oueny, ye i?aaeei, o eiai oe?ieiio nain?, yeee caaaeii
ca?aa?oueny c iiiyooyi aoi?/iiai. I?e oeueiio aeena?oaioii ?iaeoueny
oaea iaoiaeieia?/ia canoa?aaeaiiy: oa?aeoa? ia?iaeo – yaeua, yea ia
iiaeia ?aaeoeoaaoe aei nooi ineoieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a, ai inoaii?,
ii-ia?oa, iaa?ae’?ii? a?ae oeo oi?i aeeoo?aiai na?oo, oi?i ae?yeueiino?,
iniaeeainoae o?eanii? i?aai?caoe?? ethaeae oa ?ioeo ianoaaei, eio??
cia/iith i??ith ia eeoa coiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy ineoieia?/ieo
oaiiiai?a, a e neoaeaoue i?aea?oioyi iino?eiiai ?o naiia?aeoai?aiiy,
cae??ieththoue ?o ye onoaeai? ineoieia?/i? oi?ie. Ii-ae?oaa,
ineoieia?/i? ?ene, ine?eueee iiaa eaea i?i ineoieia?th ia?iae?a,
iaa?ae’?ii? a?ae eoeueoo?ieo a?oeeoeyoe?e oeeo ?en – na?oo neiaie?/ieo
oi?i ? eoeueoo?ieo cia/aiue, a yeeo oe? ?ene aeeacothoue naaa,
ao?eththoueny, ona?aeiieththoueny, ci?iththoueny oiui. Ineo?ea ?nio?
iaa?ae’?iii a?ae eoeueoo?e, a ineoieia?y – a?ae eoeueoo?ieia??.

Oaeei /eiii, iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aenooia? ye eiioeaio, ui ae?aaea?
eoeueoo?io ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue iaaiiai ia?iaeo, a ye?e ciaoiaeeoue
a?aeia?aaeaiiy aeeoo?aee na?o oeueiai ia?iaeo ? yea iinoa? ia eeoa o
aeaeyae? iaaiiai ainaiaeth ineoieia?/ieo ?en, a ia?aaeon?i o aeaeyae?
onoaeaiiai eiiieaeno eoeueoo?ieo aeeniiceoe?e oa a?oeeoeyoe?e, /a?ac
eio?? a?aeaoaa?oueny (ye /a?ac oiiae iiaeeeaino?) naiiiieeaaeaiiy
ethaeeie iaaii? eoeueoo?e (i?aaenoaaieea a?aeiia?aeiiai ia?iaeo,
aoiino).

Aeae?, ia iniia? cia/iiai ianeao ?noi?e/ii-o?einionueeiai iaoa??aeo
aeena?oaioii ?icaeyaea?oueny ?icaeoie oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a.
A?aecia/aii, ui aia?oa iaaia ocaaaeueiaiiy ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio oa ?o
?aaeoeoe?y aei iniaeno?niiai ia?aco c iaaieie ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie
iciaeaie a?aeaoaa?oueny ua a aioe/i?e i?oieia??. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a iia’ycaiee c aeieeiaiiyi ?noi?e/ii? iiia?ae? oa
i?ica?/iiai aeai?o, oaiith yeeo noaee ?aaeueii ?nioth/? ia?iaee, a
iniiaith “?noi??e” (“aeine?aeaeaiue”) – ia?oiaeaea?aea oa aaciina?aaei?
ciaeiinoai aeine?aeiee?a c ?oi?i aeeooyi oa cae/ayie, caaaeyee /iio
ca?iaeeeeny aieiai? canaaee ?aoe?iiaeueiiai, iaoia?aaeaeaiiai,
o?einionueeiai i?ciaiiy aeeooy ia?iae?a.

O?enoeyinoai, cina?aaeeaoe oaaao ethaeeie ia aeani?e aeoo?, oe?eeii
caeiiii??ii a?aenoioei ia ae?oaee ieai eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/io aecia/ai?noue
ethaeae, ae?acii yei? neoaeeoue iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Aac ?ic??ciaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiinoae ? nioe?aeueiiai noaiiaeua an? ethaee ii?aeioaaeeny ye
a?aoe ? nano?e o O?eno?, a ?iciaaeoaaiiy ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeiny ia aoi?/iiio, a eiioan?eiiio i?eioeeio. Noaiiaeua
ci?ieeiny iai?ee?ioe? Na?aaeiueia?//y ? a aiioo A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, eiee
a?aee?eooy ?ai?oa iaa?aeiieo e?a?i oa ia?iae?a iinoaaeei ia?aae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeie ieneeoaeyie aeiiao ?aoe?iiaeueiiai iiyniaiiy
i?e/ei a?aei?iiinoae i?ae aea?aeaaieie ?inoeoooaie, noeeyie aeeooy,
aeooiaieie yeinoyie ??cieo ia?iae?a. Oey aiioa, ye aeacaii o
aeena?oaoe??, iciaiaioaaeany “a?aee?eooyi ia?iae?a” ia eeoa ia ?ioeo
eiioeiaioao. Aeey noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia iaioa
cia/aiiy iaei a?aee?eooy ia?iae?a o nai?e ?a?ii?, ni?e/eiaia i?ioeanii
?aoi?iaoe??, yea c?iaeea Nayoa Ienueii iaaeaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo iia ?
eoeueoo?. I?aaiaiiy ?aoi?iaoe?? iiaeieaoe a?ae/oaeaiiy o?enoeyinueei?
a??e a?ae iniae “a?aee?eei” aoi?/i?noue ye iaeei ?c aieiaieo aei???a
iniaenoino?. Iaaecia/aiee aeioiae? ca’ycie i?ae aoi?/iei (eoeueoo?iith
?aei?noth aoiino) oa iniaeno?niei (aioo??oi?i na?oii ethaeeie) noaa
aeo?aeiei ioieoii ?aaeeeaeueii iiaiai i?eioeeio noni?eueii-aoi?/ii?
?aeiino? o aeaeyae? iaoe??. Naia i?ioanoaioeci oa?a i?eioeei: oa, ui
?nio? ye aeanoea?noue ni?eueiiai aeeooy ia?iaeo (eoeueoo?ia ye?noue),
ia?aoai?th?oueny a /eiiee aioo??oiueiai na?oo iniaenoino? (ineoieia?/iee
oaeo).

O aeiao I?ina?oieoeoaa noni?eueia aeoiea iaiaaaeany ?aoe?iiaeueii
inieneeoe oaiiiaie ethaenueeiai aeeooy (a oiio /ene? ? iaoe?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa?), ae/eaieaoe ia?aaeon?i ia’?eoeai? /eiieee ?o oi?ioaaiiy ?
?icaeoeo. ?icoii?noue aoea aeciaia i?e?iaeiith aeanoea?noth ethaeeie,
??aiith aeey an?o iiaeeea?noth, a oiio eeoa a ??cieo ianoaaeiao aa?oi
aoei ooeaoe iiyniaiiy iaiaeii??aeiino? ethaenoaa. Aieiaiith a?aeciaeith
i?ina?oieoeueei? oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a noaei oa, ui a i?e aia?oa aoei
iine?aeiaii iinoaaeaia ? nenoaiaoe/ii ae??oaia caaaeaiiy iiyniaiiy
ineoieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae ia?iae?a, ia a?aei?io a?ae iaioth/iai
aeioiae? iieno ??ciiiai?oieo ia?iaeieo cae/a?a oa ?en. Aia?oa
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? i?ae ?iaiai “aeoo ia?iaeo” noaa i?aaeiaoii
aeania aeine?aeaeaiiy, a ia niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Caeiaooeii i?iaoeueei? eeane/ii? o?einio?? noaea ?ic?iaea iiiyoue
“ia?iae”, “iaoe?y”, “oa?aeoa? iaoe??” ye o?einionueeeo eaoaai??e, ui
ianooue ia eeoa ?noi?e/ia, a e na?oiaeyaeii-iaoiaeieia?/ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?iaoeuee? o?einioe caeeaee, ii noo?, iniiao no/aniiai
?icoi?iiy oaiiiaia iaoe?? ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye iaaiiai ?aeaaeo
/e “iiaeae?” iaoe??, ye na?oiaeyaeiiai i???ioe?a, yeee aeie?aieth?
iaoe?th na?aae ?ioeo ni?eueiio ? iaeii/anii ii?aeio? ?? c ieie oa
aenooia? /eiieeii iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? iniaenoino?.

Ianooiiee aoai ?icaeoeo oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a, ?icaeyiooee o
aeena?oaoe??, iia’ycaiee c ?iiaioeciii, yeee iaiaaaany iiaeieaoe
iaaeie?ee ?aoe?iiae?noe/ii? o?aaeeoe??, caa?ioaoe oaaao ia
iica?aoe?iiaeuei? aeaiaioe ia?iaeiiai aeooo, eio?? aeyaeythoueny
ia?aaeon?i o ia?iaei?e eoeueoo??. Aeoo (oa?aeoa?) ia?iaeo iinoaa ye
iaaiee iaaeiniaeno?niee /eiiee ?noi???, ui iaoiiaeth? iniaeeaino? aeooo
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai. E??i oiai, naia i?aaenoaaieee ?iiaioecio (O.Iiaae?n,
O.Oeaea?iaoa?, A.Aoiaieueaeo oa ?i.) ae/eaieee, ye iaoeiao, i?iaeaio
“ethaeeia-iaoe?y” oa caeeaee iniiae o?einionueeiai inieneaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? ye i?iaeoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o ieiueio
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/iiai i?iaeoo noni?eueii? ae??.

?aea? ?iiaioecio i?aeaiooaaee a?oio aeey niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ia?iaeii? ineoieia?? o 2-e iieiaei? XIX noie?ooy, ii/aoie
yeei iieeaee O.Ooaeioaeue, I.Eaoea?on oa A.Aoiaeo – caniiaieee a?aeiii?
oeiee “ineoieia?? ia?iae?a”, eio?? iaiaaaeeny a?aee?eoe caaaeuei? caeiie
oi?ioaaiiy e ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?iaeiiai aeooo, aeoeaiooth/e oaaao ia
iica?aoe?iiaeueieo, iaona?aeiieaieo /eiieeao aeooiaiino?. ?ieue
iana?aeiiiai o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aea/aee oaeiae
i?aaenoaaieee oeiee “ineoieia?? ian” A.Oa?ae, N.N?aaea ? iniaeeai –
A.Eaaii, yeee aaaaeaa, ui naia eieaeoeaia iana?aeiia, yea ciaoiaeeoue
na?e ae?ac o iaoe?iiaeueiiio oa?aeoa?? ? iin??i yeiai aenooia?
“na?aaei?e oei” ethaeeie, ? nooo?aei ?aaoeyoeaii ia’?aeiaiiy ethaeae o
iaoe?th oa ?aeeio aea?aeaao.

Aeae? ?icaeyiooi ineoiaiae?oe/io eiioeaioe?th, yea i?aee?anethaaea
niaaeeiaee oa?aeoa? iniia aeooiaiino? iaoe?? (C.O?aeae), oa noi?ioaaea
iiiyooy a?oaoei?a eieaeoeaiiai iana?aeiiiai (E.THia) – ia?a?nieo oei?a
aai ia?ac?a, ae?iaeaieo aaaaoia?eiaith eoeueoo?ith ? oaeeo, ui
aecia/athoue iiaaae?ieo iaoe?? a oe?eiio.

A?aecia/ath/e, ui o ?icaeoeo o?aaeeoe?? oa?aeoa?ieia?? ia?iae?a XIX –
ii/aoeo XX noie?oue niinoa??aa?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aea/aiiy oa
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? yaeu noni?eueii? ? iniaeno?nii? ineoieia?? c iiaeyaeo ?o
eoeueoo?iiai naino, aeena?oaio aea? aiae?c “eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai iiai?ioo”
o aea/aii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o a OO noie?oo?. A?aeii?
i?aaenoaaieee eoeueoo?ieia?? OO noie?ooy (I.Aaaa?, A.Aaaa?, A.O?ueieue/
oa ?i.) iinoaaeee i?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ia eeoa
ye oaiiiaia eoeueoo?e, aea, aeoiaey/e ?c aeaniiai, na?oiaeyaeiiai naino
iiiyoue “iaoe?y” oa “iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a”, aecia/eee aieiaio
iniaeea?noue naia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o – caaacia/oaaoe
iaoe?iiaeueio ?aei?noue ia eeoa /a?ac ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ethaeeie c
iaaiith eoeueoo?ith, a ia?aaeon?i /a?ac ?? iniaenoee naiiaea??. ?aea?
eoeueoo?ieia?? iiaeeaea caniiaiee oaiiiaiieia?? A.Aonna?eue,
aeoeaiooaaaoe oaaao ia oi?aa?naeueieo, caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoyo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeooo, ui caaacia/othoue iiaeeea?noue iiaeieaiiy
iaoe??th nai?o aoi?/ieo iaiaaeaiue oa cae?eniaiiy ?? iniaeeai? ooieoe??
– aeoiaeo o i?ino?? anana?oiueiai ethaenoaa.

O ca’yceo c i?iaeaiith iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aeena?oaioii ?icaeyiooa
oai??y iaioae?oaoo, caniiaaia o?aioeocueeith oeieith “Aiiae?a”. O
iaoiaeieia?/iiio ieai? iiiyooy iaioae?oaoo eiinoaoo? oa, ui ?icoi?iiy
ethaenueei? ae?eniino? – noni?euenoaa, ?noi???, aeiiii?ee, eoeueoo?e
oiui – iaiiaeeeaa aac a?aooaaiiy aeeaei aeooiaiiai aeeooy ethaeae c
iaaieie ?ioaioe?yie aie? oa na?oia?ae/oooy.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iia’ycaiee c oeie
iai?yieaie noni?eueii? aeoiee, ye?, oi/a ? noaoe/ii, iaiaaaeeny
“ia?niiae?coaaoe” iaoe?iiaeueio ni?eueiioo, aeoeaiooth/e oaaao naia ia
a?aeiia?aei?e eoeueoo?? oa ia iniaenoino?, yea iath noai?th?oueny. Oea
ianaiia?aae oai??y “aaciai?” /e “iniiaii? iniaenoino?” (O.Aian,
?.Aaiaaeeeo), oai??y “iiaeaeueii? iniaenoino?” (A.?ieaean, Ae.Eaa?inii,
?.E?ioii), yea a?eueo eiie?aoii “ia?niiae?coaaea” ni?eueiioo, aecia/eaoe
aeae?eueea aieiaieo oei?a iniaenoinoae. Oaeee aea i?aeo?ae aei oaie
nioe?aeueiiai, a oiio /ene? iaoe?iiaeueiiai, oa?aeoa?o i?iaeaiiino?oaaee
i?aaenoaaieee no/anii? ca?oa?aeii? o?einio?? (I.Aeaeie, ?.A?i/,
I.Oiooea?, A.Aaeeia?), ye? caa?ioee oaaao ia ?ieue iaaiiai oeio
iniaenoino? (ye iin?y nioe?aeueiiai, iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o) o
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo.

Oaeei /eiii, ia iniia? aiae?co ?noi??? oa eia?ee ?icaeoeo eiioeaioa
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o o na?oia?e noni?euei?e aeoioe?, a aeena?oaoe??
c?iaeaiee aeniiaie, ui aieiaiith oaiaeaioe??th o ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeaiue
oaiiiaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ? ia?ao?ae aei a?aooaaiiy ana oe?oiai
eiea /eiiee?a, ye? eiai aecia/athoue ( a oiio /ene? iniaeno?niiai
oaeoi?o), oa i?i ae?aaeaio o?aaeeoe?th iaaeaiiy i??i?eoaoiiai cia/aiiy o
oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iei oaeoi?ai.

O o?aoueiio, iaoiaeieia?/ii eeth/iaiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoe?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ye /eiiee naiiaecia/aiiy oa eiinoeoothaaiiy aoiino” ?icaeyioo?
aieiai? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? ?c aiae?cii
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye nooo?aiai /eiieea aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeeooy. I?aee?aneaii aaaeeea?noue oaiiiaiieia?/ii?, a ia iaoo?ae?noe/ii?
(iiceoeaii-iaoeiai?) ianoaiiae o aecia/aii? eoeueoo?ieo oaiiiai?a.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeena?oaioii aeaieioaia iniiaia iaoiaeieia?/ia
iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeii: iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? iaeaaeeoue aei
eiea oeo iaoao?ce/ieo ?aeae, eio?? noai?ththoue oiiae ?icoi?iiy iaaieo
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo yaeu, ao?eththoue niin?a oi?ioaaiiy i?iaeai ?
iinoaiiaee caieoaiue, yeeie oaiaoeco?oueny ? aeie?aieth?oueny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaia aaeocue o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeieo
caoe?eaaeaiinoae. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye iaoao?ce/ia ?aeay – oea
caieoaiiy a?aeiinii oiai, /e iiaeeeaa (a yeui iiaeeeaa, oi ye) oaea
ineoieia?/ia ?aei?noue ia?iaeo (aoiino), eio?a ia?aoai?th? iaaiee
ethaenueeee caaae ia oe?e?nio, ii?aeiaio aioo??oi?ie ?ioaa?aoeaieie
/eiieeaie eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/io iniaeno?noue, oe?eeii a?aei?iio a?ae
?ioeo /e iaa?oue i?ioenoaaeaio ?i. Oea – caaaeueiioai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ? oaiaoecaoe?y ieoaiue a?aeiinii aaae ? ?ie?
ineoieia?/ieo, eoeueoo?ieo, a??ooaeueii-aeooiaieo /eiiee?a o noai?aii?
ethaenueeeo ni?eueiio ? ia?aaeon?i oaei? ni?eueiioe, ye ia?iae, aoiin,
iaoe?y. Aaoi?ii aecia/aiee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei aiae?co
ineoieia?/ii? ?aeiino? iaoe??, yeee iieyaa? o aeciaii? nooo?ai? ?aeiino?
eoeueoo?ii-aooo?aeo ? aeooiaii-ineoieia?/ieo oaiiiai?a. Aeoiaey/e c
oeueiai, ie?aneai? nooo?a? /eiieee ineoieia?/ii? ?aeiino? aoiino.
Aaoi?ii a?aecia/a?oueny, ui naia ineoieia?/ia ?aei?noue caaacia/o?
?nioaaiiy oa oe?e?ni?noue aoiino (ia?iaeo, iaoe??). Oea aeinyaa?oueny
/a?ac aeeth/ai?noue i?aaenoaaiee?a aoiino a iioieia?/ii ni?eueio
ethaenueeo neooaoe?th, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioa?noa’?eoeai?noth
(ni?aae??th ethaeae), “na?oia?noth” (ae?eni?noue ye na?o, iaoe? iaaieo
niene?a) ? naiiaecia/aiiyi iniaenoino?. Oe? aieiai? iioieia?/i? iciaee
ethaenueei? neooaoe?? a?aeia?aaeathoueny a?aeiia?aeii o aieiaieo
eiiiiiaioao ineoieia?/ii? ?aeiino? aoiino, eio?a a nai?io oiniaeaiiio
aeaeyae? iinoa? ye iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Oea – eiioaeoi?noue
(ineoieia?/ia caeaoi?noue aei o/ano? o eiioi?eaoe??), oyaeaiiy (“ea?oeia
na?oo”, ui a?aeia?aaea? “naio ae?eni?noue” a ?? ia’?eoeaieo yeinoyo) oa
?aaeoe?? (aeeniiceoe?? ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee). O ca’yceo c oeei aaoi?
oi?ioeth? i?eioeei aoi?/ii? ?ciia??? eiioi?eaoe?? ? noni?eueiiai aeeooy
caaaeii, ui icia/a? iiina?aaeeiaai?noue ae??oaiiy aoaeue-yeeo
noni?eueieo caaaeaiue eoeueoo?ieie yeinoyie aoiino.

O aeaiiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaia aiae?oeea oa
eiioeaiooae?caoe?y oaiiiaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ii-ia?oa, ye
onoaeaii? naiia?aeoai?thaaeueii? ineoieia?/ii? no?oeoo?e, ii-ae?oaa – ye
eiiieaeno ineoieia?/ieo ?en, ui ?noi?e/ii aeieea? o i?ioean? ?aaeueiiai
aeeooy ? naiiaecia/aiiy iniae, ii-o?ao? – ye ae??oaeueiiai
ineoieia?/iiai /eiieea, iaoiiaethth/iai a?aeiia?aeio iiaaae?ieo. Oe? o?e
iiiaioe aecia/ai? aaoi?ii ye “aaciaa iaoiaeieia?/ia o??aaea”, eio?o
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe ye iaoiaeieia?/ia i?aaeei inieneaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Ia?oee aeaiaio o??aaee iiaea? “ea?oeio”
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye iaaii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? oe?e?niino?,
neeaaeia? yei? o?nii iia’ycai? i?ae niaith ? ooai?ththoue ?aeeiee
ineo?/iee eiiieaen, ui a?aeoai?th? naaa o ??ciiiai?oieo neooaoe?yo aoooy
? ?aaeoe?yo ia ieo. Ae?oaee aeaiaio aeicaiey? ?icaeyiooe iaoe?iiaeueiee
oa?aeoa? ye eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ia ooai?aiiy, ui ia? na?e aaiacen,
noi?ioaaeiny oeyoii a?aeaoeo ia iaai? ciai?oi? “aeeeeee” aoooy oa
ae?noa? iiyniaiiy ?c ci?noo eiie?aoieo neooaoe?e ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
ia?iaeo. O?ao?e aeaiaio noai?th? iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe yaeua
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aaea ia no?eueee o ieiuei? aeania
ineoieia?/iiai aeeooy, ne?eueee o aeaeyae? onoaeaieo eiiieaen?a
iiaaae?iee, i?aeoe/ieo ianoaiia oa ?aaeoe?e, a yeeo ao?eth?oueny
oa?aeoa? ? aei yeeo a?i niiioea?. Oaeei /eiii, ?icaeyae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o o ?aeiino? oeeo o?ueio aeaiaio?a aeicaiey? ?ice?eoe eiai
oaiiiai, ii-ia?oa, o ?aeo?n? onoaeaiiai ineoieia?/iiai ci?noo,
ii-ae?oaa, o ?aeo?n? i?ioeano ooai?aiiy ? ci?ie eiai ci?noo, ii-o?ao?, o
?aeo?n? iaoai?cio ae?? oa “ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy” oa?aeoa?o a eiie?aoieo
neooaoe?yo ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, a yeino? neeaaeiaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye
onoaeaii? no?oeoo?e (aiae?c yeeo aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe eiai iaoeiao
?aeiino?oeoe?th) ?icaeyioo? niiaoe/ii-o?c?ieia?/i? iniaeeaino?
(ia?aaeon?i – oaiia?aiaio) oa ?noi?e/ii iaaoo? ?ene (ineoieia?/i?
ianoaiiae oa aeii?iaioe, eio?eie ?aaoeth?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ethaeae;
aioo??oi? aii???, eio?? a?aeia?aaeathoue neeaaeiino? ?noi?e/ii? aeie?
aoiino; noeioeyoe?ei? oa a?ae?aceea? /eiieee, eio?eie coiiaeth?oueny
ineoieia?/iee aoaeo ae?? oeo /e ?ioeo ciai?oi?o aieea?a – oei
ia?aaeeaaiiy). Ine?eueee i?ae iiaaae?ieith ? oa?aeoa?ii ?nio?
a?aeiioaiiy aca?iiiaa?iaiino?, oiio inoaii?i aeaiaioii, yeee iaiiaeeeai
iaieiooe i?e aiae?c? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ? onoaeai? iiaaae?ieia?
eiiieaene, eio?? ciaeueiaothoue oa?aeoa?i? aeey iniaenoino? ineoieia?/i?
?ene.

Aeae? a ?icae?e? i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aoaeue-yea aiae?oeea yaeu
oa?aeoa?o iiaea aanoeny ? nie?aoeny eeoa ia oaiiiai iniaenoino? oa
cae?enithaaoeny o iaa?ae’?iiino? a?ae iueiai. Naia eaoaai??y iniaenoino?
o ineoieia?? iieeeeaia ii?aeiaoe o ?aeeia oe?ea “ciai?oi?e” oa
“aioo??oi?e” /eiieee ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, ineoieia?th oa iiaaae?ieo,
aieeae nioe?ieoeueoo?i? oa niiaoe/ii-o?c?ieia?/i?. Aeaiee
iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eioeei a?aeia?aaea?oueny o aeaeyae? ca’yceo yaeua
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o c ?aeaaeueiei oeiii “ethaeeie eoeueoo?e” ye
iaaii? ocaaaeueiaii? (aeey a?aeiia?aeieo noni?eueii-?noi?e/ieo oiia)
ethaenueei? iniaenoino?. Iin??i iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aenooia?
“ethaeeia eoeueoo?e” – ?aeaaeueiee oei aaaeaii? aeey eoeueoo?e
iniaenoino?, yeee oi?io?oueny ? a?aeoai?th?oueny iaoe?iiaeueiith
eoeueoo?ith ye aacoiiaia, ?aeeii i?eeiyoia oi?ia ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy.
Eoeueoo?ieia?/ia ianoaiiaa o ?icoi?ii? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
?icaeyaea? eiai ye “i?iaeo ethaenueei? iniaenoino?”, ye aeiiao ?
i?iiiceoe?th eoeueoo?e aei ia?. A oeueiio nain? o iaoe?iiaeueiiio
oa?aeoa?? i?noeoueny ia no?eueee noua, ne?eueee aeneiaeth? naaa
iaeaaeia. Noiae?noue o ineoieia?/ieo ?enao i?aaenoaaiee?a iaaiiai
ia?iaeo ? aoi?eiiith, iio?aeiith a?ae eoeueoo?iiai ii?yaeeo aoooy oa
aeiia eoeueoo?e aei iniaenoino?. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, oaeei /eiii, ?
oi?iiooai?thth/ei /eiieeii ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ineo?ee, iniaeeaei
eoeueoo?iei aeaeinii – aeiiaith eoeueoo?e aei ineoieia?/iiai neeaaeo
?iaeea?ae?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaoi?ii c?iaeaiee aeniiaie: iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?
(ye iaaia ineoieia?/ia oe?e?ni?noue) aeanoeaee ia eiaeiiio c
i?aaenoaaiee?a oiai /e ?ioiai ia?iaeo. ?aeeia iniaa, ye?e a?i ae?enii
aeanoeaee – oea “ethaeeia eoeueoo?e”, o eio??e ne?ae aa/eoe ia no?eueee
iayaio iniao, ne?eueee iaoai?ci i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy ?
naiiaecia/aiiy iniaenoinoae iio?aaai, i?aaiaiiyi ? oe?iiinoyi
a?aeiia?aeii? eoeueoo?e.

Eoeueoo?a i?noeoue, i?iaeoeo? oa a?aeoai?th? iaaio iiaeaeue ethaenueeiai
aoooy, yea ia? neeaaeio ?ioa?noa’?eoeaio i?e?iaeo – oiaoi o nai?io
aioo??oiueiio ci?no? aiii aaeueie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia, a oiio ia iiaea
aooe cae?eniaia o an?o nai?o i?iyaao oa aeiiaao ethaenueeei ?iaeea?aeii
iaeiiai oeio. A?aeoae ethaeeia eoeueoo?e aenooia? ye ?ioa?noa’?eoeaiee
?aeaaeueiee oei, eio?ee eiinoeooth?oueny o ?aeiino?, neioac? oa
ni?eeoaaii? aieiaieo eoeueoo?ieo ia?niiaae?a. O nai?io nain?
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? ineoieia?/iith aeeniiceoe??th a?aeiinei ??cieo
ethaenueeeo oei?a, oiio ?aeiino?oeoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iiaeiia
ia?aaeaa/aoe ioeueoeiniaeno?nio, ?ioa?noa’?eoeaio nooi?noue ethaeeie
eoeueoo?e.

O ca’yceo c eoeueoo?iith aecia/ai?noth iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, o
aeena?oaoe?? i?aeiyoa aaaeeeaa ieoaiiy i?i o? nioe?ieoeueoo?i?
aenie?eaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aiae?coth/e ye? ie a ciic?
neeanoe ci?noiaia oyaeaiiy i?i iueiai. Aeyaeaia ? aeine?aeaeaia nenoaia
aieiaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo oaiiiai?a, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei i?acaioothoue
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? ? iaaieie oi?iiooai?aiiyie naiiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. Oeeie aieiaieie (/a?ac ?o ae??oaeueio ?ieue a
i?aai?caoe?? aoooy iaoe??) nioe?ieoeueoo?ieie i?iaeoe?yie
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ?: iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioeo?eaoe?y, yea i?noeoue
ia?ac ethaeeie oa ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy, c yeei o/anieee iaoe??
ioioiaeiththoue naaa; iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay – eiiieaen oe?eani?yiiaaieo
oyaeaiue, eio?? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue ?ioaioe?e, aeooiaieo ?oo?eieo nee, a
oaeiae canaae inieneaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeie? oa ?? ia?niaeoea o aeeoo?
eiie?aoiiai aoiino; iaoe?iiaeueiee aoin – eiiieaen eoeueoo?ii-ii?aeueieo
ianoaiia i?eeiyoii? ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee, yeiio i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny
ae?? aoi?/ieo ?iaeea?ae?a o ??ciiiai?oieo noa?ao aeeooy; iaoe?iiaeueiee
?i?aeae – ia?ac, a yeiio iaoe?y ni?eeia?oueny i?aaenoaaieeaie ?ioeo
ia?iae?a, i?acaioo? oa noaa?aeaeo? naaa ia?aae ieie, ?, iaeii/anii,
ia?ac, a yeiio i?aaenoaaieee iaoe?? ni?eeiathoue naieo naaa; eiiieaen
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ace – noeoii?noue oeo iaaaoeaieo ?en, ye?
i?aaenoaaieee aeaii? iaoe?? aaaaeathoue iai?eeiyoieie /e iaa?oue
ai?iaeeie aeey naaa. Naia /a?ac nenoaiiee aiae?c i’yoe aeie?aieaieo
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo i?iaeoe?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o noai?th?oueny
iiaeeea?noue ci?noiaii? oa aaaaoiaei??ii? eiai ?aeiino?oeoe??.

sseui ia?o? o?e ?icae?ee aoee i?enay/ai? ae?iaeaiith oa aecia/aiith (a
iniiaiiio) iaoiaeieia?/ii-i?ciaaaeueiiai ?ino?oiaioa??th aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeooiaieo, ineoieia?/ieo /eiiee?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy
?, cie?aia, iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, oi o ianooiieo aeaio ?icae?eao
cae?eniaia inieneaiiy naia oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o –
/eiiee?a eiai oi?ioaaiiy, aieiaieo a?oaoei?a, i?iaeai no/aniiai
?icaeoeo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? o
eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ii? aeie? oe?a?inoaa” – ?icaeyioo? aieiai? aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy i?iaeaie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o a
?noi?e/ieo na?ae/aiiyo, oyaeaiiyo oa aeine?aeaeaiiyo ye i?aaenoaaiee?a
?ioeo eoeueoo?, oae ? o eoeueoo?iiio iaaooeo aeania oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, ii/eiath/e c /an?a Ee?anueei? ?on?. A?aecia/aii, ui, ye
oai?aoe/ii-na?oiaeyaeia oa nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea, i?iaeaia
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oe?a?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o ii/eia? ?icaeaaoeny o eii?
o?einio?? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, yeo caii/aoeoaaee
i?aaenoaaieee Ee?eei-Iaoiae??anueeiai oiaa?enoaa. Naia aiie ae/eaieee
i?iaeaio ?noi?e/ii oa i?e?iaeii coiiaeaiiai oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye iie?oe/ii-i?iaeoeaio, iia’ycaio ?c
iiaoaeiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaeaoooy oe?a?ioe?a o aeani?e aeaiie?aoe/i?e
aea?aeaa?. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aacoiiaiee i??i?eoao a oiiaao no/anii?
Oe?a?ie iathoue aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaia oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o o ca’yceo c i?iaeaiaie aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe??, oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, iiaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa.

?icaeyioaoe iaea?eueo iioe?ai? oa aeaaaeai? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, aeena?oaio aeeeaea nai? aa/aiiy /eiiee?a oa
i?iaeai eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo. Cie?aia, cae?enieea aiae?c ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o a ?noi?e/ii aecia/aiiio
nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio i?ioenoaaeaii? oe?a?inueeiai aoiino ?ioei –
ianaiia?aae iieuenueeiio oa ?in?enueeiio. C?iaeea aeniiaie, ui
iane?aeeii oeeo aca?iia?aeiinei noaee: nioe?aeueia ?icae?iaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai aoiino oa i?ae?ea iiaeeeainoae eiai naiia?aeoai?aiiy ye
oe?e?niiai noni?eueiiai i?aai?cio; ao?aoa oe?a?inoaii iaoe?iiaeueii?
ae?oe; nioe?aeueia ia?a?iae?caoe?y oe?a?inoaa, aeo?niaiiy eiai ia
ia?eoa??th noni?eueiiai aeeooy – o nioe?aeueiee iec, a aiane?aeie /iai
“oe?a?inuee?noue” noaea ia aoi?/iith a?aeciaeith, a ?enith naeyieia,
oieiia ? anioe?thaaeany ia c naiiaooiueith, a c ieciaith
(“iaioiaa?oith”) ia?iaeiith eoeueoo?ith.

Aeena?oaioii i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o o aeaio aieiaieo oi?iao iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy
oe?a?inoaa: eoeueoo?canaaeie/?e oa ?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeai?e. Aieiaiith
ooieoe??th eoeueoo?canaaeie/i? ? a?aeoai?aiiy aeanoeaeo ia?iaeo
/eiiee?a, yeinoae, ianoaiia aoooy. Ia ia?oee ieai a i?e aeoiaeeoue ci?no
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? o?aaeeoe??, aiae?coth/e yeee, aaoi? aeie?aieea
aieiai? eoeueoo?i? a?oaoeie oe?a?inueeiai oa?aeoa?o, a yeeo
a?aeia?aceeeny iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai aeeoo?aiai na?oo. Ia?oee c ieo
– oea canioaaiiy aeeooy ia i?aoe?, aiaaiai?noue, ui aeeooy
a?aeaoaa?oueny ye ?aaoey?i?noue o?oaeiaeo coneeue, a aeinyaiaiiy
aeeoo?aiai oni?oo ia?aaeon?i aeiaaa? oe?eani?yiiaaii?, aoaeoeaii?,
iino?eii? i?aoe?. Ae?oaee – oea iaiaai?noue uiaei ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoaoaie aeanii? i?aoe?, iaaa?aioiaai?noue aeinoaoeo oa aioiai?noue
iinooieoeny iei oiio, ooi aeyaeoue a?eueo ??oo/a “i?aai aie?”. O?ao?e –
oea ia?icaeioo?noue o naiiaecia/aii? oe?a?inoaa aei??o ioae?/iino? oa
aeii?ioaaiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai, ia?oeeoey?iiai, i?eaaoiiai ?icoi?iiy
aeeooy. *aoaa?oee – iieeaaeaiiy a?eueoa ia aeieth, ia iacaeaaeiee
ia?aa?a iiae?e, ai?ae ia aeanio naiia?yaeio aieth a?aeiinii aeeoo?aeo
iaaeaaiue oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy aeaniei aeeooyi. I’yoee a?oaoei – oea
aeii?ioaaiiy a?eueiino? /e caacyoi? a?ae/aeaeooiino?, /ooo?ai?
ii?ea/anoino? (eio?a aeieeea ye a?aeaoe ia aeaye? ciai?oi? aeeeeee
aoooy), a ia a?oioiaii?, ?aoe?iiaeueii aeaaaeaii?, oe?eani?yiiaaii?
ae?yeueiino? ii ae??oaiith aeeoo?aeo caaaeaiue. O aca?iiiia’ycaiiio
eiiieaen? oe? ?ene iaoe?iiaeueiiai oe?a?inueeiai aoino iaoiiaeee iaaiee
oei iiaaae?iee oa ineoieia?/ieo ?aaeoe?e ia neooaoe??, onoaeaio
ineoieia?/io no?oeoo?o, iin??i oa ?ao?aineyoi?ii yei? noaea o?aaeeoe?eia
oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui ooieoe??th iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? ia eeoa
a?aeoai?aiiy aoi?/iiai oeio, a ia?aaeon?i caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo iaoe??, aeena?oaio a?aecia/a?, ui ?noi?e/ii iaiao?aeiei ?
?icaeoie ae?oai?, ?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaii? oi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy ? a?aeiia?aeieo ?en. Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth
?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaii? oi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ? oa, ui aiia
a?aeiia?aea? nooiino? iia?oiuei? iaoe?? oa iia’ycaia c iniaeeainoyie
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, yea: ii-ia?oa, i?noeoue ?noi?e/iee i?iaeo, oiaoi
ia?ac aaaeaiiai aeey iaoe?? iaeaooiueiai; ii-ae?oaa, noa? ?aaoeyoeaii ?
noeioeyoi?ii iaoe?iiaeueii? aie? ii aeinyaiaiith i?iaeoeaii aecia/aiiai
iaeaooiueiai; ii-o?ao?, ia?aaeyaea? ? ia?aoai?th? o?aaeeoe?ei? aeey
aoiino /eiieee aoooy, aeoeaiooth/e ia aeayeeo c ieo, a aeayeei eeaaeo/e
e?ae; ii-/aoaa?oa, eiinie?aeo? aoi?/ieo ?iaeea?ae?a ia iiaeo canaaeao
noni?eueii? oaiaee (eiinie?aeiaaii? ?aeiino? iniaeno?nieo aieue),
ao?eaiiyi yei? aenooia? aeaiie?aoe/ia a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai. Uia
aecia/eoe aaaeeea?noue aeey oe?a?inoaa ?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaii? oi?ie
naiiaecia/aiy, aeena?oaio caa?oa?oueny aei aiae?co naino iia?oiuei?
iaoe?? ? aei i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oa?aeoa?o oe?a?ioe?a naia ye iaoe?? (a
ia aoiino /e ia?iaeo).

Nooi?noue iaoe??, ye a?aecia/a?oueny o aeine?aeaeaii?, ciaoiaeeoueny o
i?yi?e caeaaeiino? a?ae iaaoooy aoi?/iei aeeooyi aei??o ?noi?e/iino?.
Inoaii?e ia icia/a?, cae/aeii, “aieee” oaeo oiai, ui aeeooy ia?iaeo ia?
naith o?eaae?noue, oiaoi a?aeaoaa?oueny o /an?. ?noi?e/i?noue ia
caiaeeoueny e aei naii? eeoa niaaeeiaino?, oyaeino? aoi?/iiai aeeooy.
Aiia icia/a? iniaeeaa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aoooy c /anii, inai?iiy aoiinii
/ano naiai aoooy (a a?aeoae ? aeanii? aeie?) a eiioaeno? coneeue ?ioeo
ia?iae?a. ?noi??y – ia i?inoi “iine?aeiai?noue ci?i” aai “o?ae ?a/ae”.
Aoooy iaaoaa? iciaee ?noi?e/iino?, a?aeeiee a iueiio ae?? aiey, yea eiai
oii?yaeeiao?. *a?ac oea /an noaaeoueny o i?eioeeiiai iiaa a?aeiioaiiy
aei nouiai – a?i iio?aiey? o na?aaeeio aoooy nouiai, noa? o??th
aioo??oiueith oa?aeoa?enoeeith, ui eiai (noua) aecia/a?. “Na?e” /an aeey
aoiino – oea /an, eio?ee iaeaaeeoue aeaiiio aoiino ? noa? /anii eiai
naii?icaeoeo. A neeo oeueiai iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ia iiaea ?nioaaoe
aac a?ae/oooy /ano, ai naia o ineoieia?/iiio /an? ?icai?oathoueny iiae??
?noi??? ia?iaeo, ia ye? iiaeii? ia?aoai?eoeny i?ieea? ? coiiaeai?
aace?//th ianoaaei ciai?oi? aeiaaeee aeeooy. Aeaniee /an aecia/a?oueny
iiae?yie aeaniiai ?nioaaiiy ia?iaeo, a oiio ?noi??y ia?iaeo aeieea? ye
caeiaoooy iei aeaaee iaae /anii. Iane?eueee ia?iae caeiaoa oeth aeaaeo,
iane?eueee aeaooiao? aeeooy aeanieie coneeeyie – iano?eueee ae a?i noa?
?noi?e/iith iniaith, oiaoi oei, ooi ciaoiaeeoueny a ?noi??? ? aeeaiei
i?e/aoiee aei ia?.

Caaaeueiith oi?iith naiiona?aeiieaiiy oa ?noi?e/iiai naiiiieeaaeaiiy
ia?iaeo noa? iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, aieiaiith ni?yiiaai?noth yei? ?
ia?aoai?aiiy ia?iaeo o iaoe?th, a a?aeoae – aaaaeaiiy oeueiai ia?iaeo a
?noi??th, iiaeieaiiy i?e?iaeii? caieiaiino? eiai aeeooy ?
a?aeie?aieaiino? a?ae na?oiaiai caaaeo. Naia ia?aoai?aiiyi ia?iaeo o
iaoe?th cae?enith?oueny eiai ?noi?e/ii-i?iaeoeaia naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy a
iaoe?? anana?oiuei? ?noi???. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, nooi?noue iaoe??
iiaeia aecia/eoe ye ?noi?e/io ?aei?noue i?e?iaeii-eoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe
ethaeae (aoiino), eio?a aeieea? ia iniia? oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii? ia?iaeii?
aie? ? i?eeeaaeaiiy ?? aei caaaeueiiia?iaeiiai aeeooy, ui ?iaeoue oea
aeeooy o iiaiiio nain? ?noi?e/iei. Aeieeiaiiy naiia?yaeii?
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aie? ci?ith? ia eeoa oa?aeoa? aoooy ia?iaeo, a e
nai ia?iae, eio?ee ia? aooe caeaoiei aei iiai? ?noi?e/ii? ?aeiino?. I?e
oeueiio, iaoe?y (ye iiaa aoooy ia?iaeo ) icia/a? ia a?aeiiao a?ae
aeanii? eoeueoo?ii? naiiaooiino?, a oi?ioaaiiy ?aeeii? aie? ia?iaeo,
aieiaiei ? ae??oaeueiei ao?eaiiyi yei? ? aeaiie?aoe/ia iaoe?iiaeueia
aea?aeaaa. C oeueiai “iiaiai” aoooy ia?iaeo ye iaoe?? aeieeaa? ua iaeia
aaaeeeaa iniaeea?noue: eiee ia?iae noa? iaoe??th, a?i i?eeia? ia naaa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia o?eueee ca naaa naiiai, aea e ca e?a?io caaaeii,
ca ana, ui a i?e ?, ? ia?aaeon?i ca an?o ethaeae, eio?? a i?e
iaoeathoue. Iacaeaoi?noue ia?iaeo ona?aeiieoe iiao ?noi?e/io
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue, iia? iaae? ? iiaeeeaino? naiai aoooy, aeciaiiy iei
i?aai/eiiino? eeoa aeanieo eoeueoo?ieo canaae i?ecaiaeeoue aei
iaoe?iiae?cio o iaaaoeaiiio nain? neiaa ? caoaeo? iiaeeeaino? ia?iaeo ye
?noi?e/iiai noa’?eoa.

E?a?ia ? iaoe?y ? ?aei?noth ?noi?e/iith, a oiio ?o aoooy ia iiaeia
caniiaoaaoe aeeeth/ii ia i?eioeeiao oa?eoi??aeueii? oa
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ii? ni?eueiino?. Iaoe?y aeyaey? naaa ianaiia?aae ye
iiiyooy a?iiaaeyinueea ? ia? a nai?e iniia? ??ai?noue on?o ethaeae
ia?aae ?aeeiith aieath iaoe?? (aea?aeaaith), oiaoi ??ai?noue
a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?aa ethaeae, iacaeaaeii a?ae aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?.
Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeiyoa ieoaiiy i?i oi?ie ?
i?iaeaie naiiaecia/aiiy ia?iaeo a yeino? iaoe??. Iaeaaaeeea?oith
iie?oe/iith oiiaith ia?aoai?aiiy ia?iaeo o iaoe?th ? ooai?aiiy iei nai??
aea?aeaae. Aea i?ioean iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy ia iiaeia caiaeeoe
aei nooi iie?oe/iiai aieo ni?aae, a inoaii?e – aei ooai?aiiy ia?iaeii
naiino?eii? aea?aeaae. O oiae? iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy iiaeii?
aooe cae?eniai? an? i?eioeeie iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoooy, caaaeueiei ae?acii
/iai aenooia? a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, eio?a ne?ae ?icoi?oe oe?iei,
ye iaaiee oei noni?eueiiai ono?ith c a?aeiia?aeiei aeiiii?/iei eaaeii,
nioe?aeueiith no?oeoo?ith, eoeueoo?ieie ?inoeoooaie. Oiaoi iaiao?aeia
aea?aeaaa ia eeoa iacaeaaeia, aea e caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueia,
aeaiie?aoe/ia – aea?aeaaa naiiai ia?iaeo (ia?iaeii anoaiiaeaia ? aieath
ia?iaeo eaa?oei?ciaaia), yea ea?o?oueny /a?ac ia?iae (ia?iae, a inia?
a?iiaaeyi aea?aeaae, nai oi?io? oa eiio?ieth? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee)
oa ?nio? a ?ioa?anao ia?iaeo (iio?aae oa ?ioa?ane a?iiaaeyi aecia/athoue
oe?e?, ni?yiiaai?noue ? caniae ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae). Ae?th/e ?acii,
oe? i?eioeeie caaacia/othoue ni?aaaei? ia?iaeiaeaaeaey, ia?iaeiee
aieaaeya /e aeaiie?ao?th o oi/iiio niene? oeueiai neiaa. Oeae oaeo
aecia/a? iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?en iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, iniiaith ?icaeoeo yeiai iiaeiia noaoe na?aeiia ?aae?caoe?y
ia?iaeii nai?? aie? aei iiaiioe?iiiai aeeooy, aei aeaniiai iaeaooiueiai
o eoeueoo?iiio iie? anueiai ethaenoaa.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? – “Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
oa iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?” – i?aeiyo? ?
i?iaiae?ciaai? eiie?aoi? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c oi?ioaaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o oa iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? no/aniiai
oe?a?inoaa. Aaoi? aeaea oa?aeoa?enoeeo iaea?eueo nooo?aeo ia?aaeien?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a oiiaao iinooioae?oa?iiai
noni?euenoaa. A?aecia/aii, ui aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith ? iaiaei?iiei
eiiiiiaioii aeieeiaiiy oa noaiiaeaiiy oioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa aoea
aeano?oeoe?y an?o noni?eueieo nee, oeo nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a, eio??
aoee caeaoi? ia aeya aaoiiiiii? aie? oa ao?ethaaee o nia? ?ioa?ane /e
i?aaiaiiy, aiaeae iioaioe?eii a?aei?ii? a?ae ianoaiia oioae?oa?ii?
aeaaee. A oeeo oiiaao aoea cai?iaaaeaeaia aei?noea ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ye
noni?eueiiai, oae ? iniaeno?niiai ?icaeoeo, ui aeyaeeiny a i?aaethaaii?
iniaeno?nieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo /eiiee?a ethaenueeiai aeeooy.
Iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aei?iiino? oi/ ? aecia/aeeny ca ?nioth/?, aea o ieiuei?
noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo ieie iaoooaaee ca?aaee ?aeiino?
nioe?aeueii-eeaniaeo ?ioa?an?a. A?aeoae iaoe?iiae?ci (o ieiuei?
eiioi?noe/ii? na?aeiiino?) iaaoa aeeeth/ii iaaaoeaiiai caaa?aeaiiy, ui
a?aeia?aceeiny o iaa?ae’?iiiio a?ae iueiai i?eeiaoieeo “ao?aeoaciee”.
Nioe?ae?noe/ia nenoaia ni?yiiaoaaea naith iie?oeeo ia cieuaiiy iniia
naiia?aeoai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiio, iaiaaaeany iicaaaeoe ?o
naiia?yaeii? aie? oa i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueia ? iniaeno?nia aeeooy
iaa’ycaiei cciai? oioae?oa?iei noni?eueiei ianoaiiaai. Oea ni?e/eieei
iiaeaeueoo aeano?oeoe?th iniaeno?niiai, aieueiaiai /eiieea oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, iane?aeee /iai nooo?ai
a?aeaeaathoueny o aeooiaiiio oa iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? no/anieo oe?a?ioe?a.

O ?icae?e? a?aecia/a?oueny oie oaeo, ui oaeaeeiieeiiee e?ao oioae?oa?ii?
nenoaie noai?ea a Oe?a?i? iniaeeao neooaoe?th, yea ia ia? ?noi?e/ieo
i?aoeaaeaio?a – e?eciao neooaoe?th iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa, yea,
?noi?e/ii, ? eeoa aeoiaeii ?c ieioei? oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie, ia?aoiaeii
aei iiaiai noni?eueiiai ii?yaeeo oa cae?eniaiiyi ?noi?e/iiai aeai?o ia
ei?enoue iaea?eueo i?eeiyoii? aeey e?a?ie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa
eoeueoo?ii? ia?niaeoeae. Oiaoi, a?eueo aaaeeeaei o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo noa?
ia “ca?aeee”, a “eoaee” ?ooa?oueny oea noni?euenoai, ye? aiii iae?a?
iniiae ? oi?ie aeeooy cai?noue c?oeiiaaieo.

Naia a oaeiio noai? ciaoiaeeoueny no/ania Oe?a?ia, a ye?e o?aaeeoe?ei?
canaaee aeeooy ia?iaeo caciaee nooo?ai? aeano?oeoe??. A?aeiiaeaiiy oeeo
canaae ia iniia? “caei?iaiai aeocaeo”, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai
??aiy oeo aaciina?aaei?o ca’yce?a, a?aeiioaiue oa ni?aa, yeeie
ii?aeiothoueny ethaee o noni?euenoai, ? iaea?eueo iaaaeueiei caaaeaiiyi,
yea noi?oue ia?aae oe?a?inueeith ni?eueiioith oa oe?a?inueeith
aea?aeaaith. Aaeaea ?icaeoie aeaiie?ao?? iio?aao? ia eeoa caeiiiiai
ioi?ieaiiy i?aa oa naiaiae ethaeeie, aea e iaaiiai ??aiy aeia?iaooo ?
aeiiii?ee, nioe?aeueiiai niieith, oii?yaeaeaiiai iianyeaeaiiiai aeeooy.
sseui ia aeeiiothoueny i?ia?aie aeaiaioa?iiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo –
cieea? aeia??a ethaeae aei aea?aeaae, aei iaoe??, ui cae??ieth? oae?
iaaaoeai? ?ene iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, ye i?aaiaee i?a?e?ci, oeei?ci,
ianeai?noue, iiaea?eia ii?aeue, iniaeno?nia iaaecia/ai?noue ? o.?i.

Aeena?oaioii i?aee?aneaii, ui iinoeiioi?ci – oa?i?i ca naiith nai?th
noooth iaaaoeaiee. Aoaeue-yea aecia/aiiy, ui aaco?oueny ia i?eioeei?
“i?ney”, /e “ia” – ? ci?noiaii iaaeinoaoi?i ? ia ie?aneth? aeaniee nain
oaiiiaia. Iiceoeaiee nain naiai noni?eueiiai aoooy no/ania Oe?a?ia iiaea
iaaooe eeoa ia oeyoo caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, eio?ee, a naith
/a?ao, iiaea noaoe iiaeeeaei eeoa ca oiiae noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ?
noaa?eueieo canaae iaoe?iiaeueii? eiinie?aeaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
ianaeaiiy. Eeoa iayai?noue ni?aaaeiuei? iaoe?iiaeueii? nie?aea?iino? ?
eiinie?aeaoe?? iiaea ia?aoai?eoe ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o iia?oith iaoe?th.
Oiio nain oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae nueiaiaei? – o anoaiiaeaii? a?aeiioaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa i?ae on?ia ethaeueie, iaoe?iiaeueiinoyie,
i?aai?caoe?yie, noni?eueieie ?inoeoooaie oa ?ioeie aaee/eiaie, ui
neeaaeathoue aeeiai?/io nenoaio aca?iiae?e, yea iaceaa?oueny
noni?euenoaii.

C oe??? oi/ee ci?o, a oiiaao “i?ney eiioi?cio” iiaeii? aooe ?ica’ycai?
aeaa aieiaieo ?noi?e/ieo caaaeaiiy. Ia?oa iieyaa? o a?aeiiaeaii? ?
a?aeoai?aii? aaoaioe/ieo canaae aoooy oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. Oea
caaaeaiiy iiaeia iicia/eoe ye “iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy”, ?icoi?th/e
i?ae iei ia eeoa iiaa?iaiiy aei eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, a ia?aaeon?i a?aeiiaeaiiy eoeueoo?ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
oe?a?inoaa oa ?icaeoie eiai caeaoiino? ae?yoe ? ?icaeaaoeny a?aeiia?aeii
aei aeiia no/anii? na?oiai? oeea?e?caoe??. Ae?oaa caaaeaiiy, o?nii
iia’ycaia c ia?oei, iieyaa? o aeinyaiaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? eiinie?aeaoe??
a Oe?a?i?, o ?icaoaeia? ?aeeii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, o/anieeaie yei?
noaee a an? ethaee, ui aeeaooue o iao?e e?a?i? ? ? ?? a?iiaaeyiaie aac
?ic??ciaiiy ?o aoi?/ii? iaeaaeiino?. Eeoa oae ia?aae oe?a?inoaii
aea?eueieoueny iiaee ? ie?aeiee iaoe? ?noi?e/iiai aoooy – aaea ia a
yeino? aoiieoeueoo?ii? ni?eueiioe, a aoi?/ii-eoeueoo?ii? iniiae iiai?
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. Ae?enia noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? iaoe??
? ia nooi aoiieoeueoo?iei, a ia?aaeon?i nioe?aeueiei ? iie?oeei-i?aaiaei
i?ioeanii, eio?ee ni?aiaaea? caaaeii ?c aaiacenii ? ?icaoaeiaith
aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.
Naia ae a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai eiinoeooth?oueny ianaiia?aae /a?ac
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy an?o noa? ? eaiie aeeooy aeiaia??iiio i?eioeeio, a
yeiio aeeaco? naaa ye ni?eueia aiey ia?iaeo (eiinoeoooe?y ?
i?aaiii?yaeie), oae ? caeaoi?noue eiie?aoieo iniaenoinoae aei ni?ai?aoe?
oa eiino?oeoeaii? aca?iiae??. Ine?eueee ae o i?aea?oio? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ciaoiaeeoueny caeaoi?noue aei aeaniiai aieaaeyao – ye
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai, oae ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai – oi oeae oei
nioe?oio iio?aao? na?aeiii? iniaenoino? c aaoiiii??th aeanii? aie? ?
a?aeiia?aeieie ?enaie oa?aeoa?o.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioo?oueny, ui no/ani? i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaith Oe?a?ie iaaiei /eiii ei?aeththoue c aeayeeie ?enaie
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o – ianaiia?aae c iicaioae?/i?noth
aeeooy ye eiai aecenoaioe?eiei i?eioeeiii. AEeoo?aa no?aoaa?y oe?a?inoaa
aeiaaee /an eiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo aoea iaeaooiaaia ia a?aeiiao a?ae
ioae?/iino?, ia ia?oeeoey?eci oa ia “ie?ai?noue” ?nioaaiiy. Naia oey
“ie?ai?noue” aoooy noaea o??th aecenoaioe?eiith iniiaith, yeiai
aeeaeoueny ? a?aeoai?th?oueny ei?ii?aoea?caoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa nueiaiaei?. Iaoe?y ye ni?eueiioa a?iiaaeyi, ia’?aeiaia
noni?eueiei aeiaiai?ii ??aieo o i?aaao ethaeae, eio?? ?iaeyoue ni?eueio
?noi?e/io ni?aao, ? aaeueie caaioaaeoth/ei oaiiiaiii aeey oe?a?inueei?
ethaeeie, iaeaooiaaii? ii/oaaoeny c?o/ii eeoa o nai?e ie?aiino?. Naia
iiaeieaiiy oe??? ianoaiiae ? aieiaiith i?iaeaiith ia?niaeoeaiiai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o. I?e oeueiio o?aaa iaoe
ia oaac?, ui ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie – ni?aaa ia iie?oe/ieo aanae, a
eiie?aoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, ?? ae?eniiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aeaiie?aoe/i?e a?iiaaeyinuee?e ni?eueiio?.

Aecia/ai? aeena?oaioii ?aea? aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? ia iaoa??aeao
eiie?aoiiai nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae aoiieoeueoo?iiai
oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy i?aaenoaaiee?a ??cieo aoiin?a a oiiaao
E?eio, ui aeaei aaeueie iieaciao aeey an??? Oe?a?ie ea?oeio o?oaeiiu?a,
c yeeie c?ooiaoioany i?ioean nioe?aeueiiai oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
no/anii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Ia iniia? iaea?aeaieo aeaieo
aeena?oaioii aoa cae?eniaiee aiae?c a?aeiia?aeieo iniaeeainoae
oe?a?inueeiai, ?in?enueeiai, e?einueeioaoa?nueeiai oa?aeoa??a oa
c?iaeai? oae? aieiai? aeniiaee: ii-ia?oa, ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ace aei i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo aoiin?a ?
?oi? iaaeia?ice/eeaa noaaeaiiy oa i?aaiaiiy i?aeei?eoe ?io? ia?iaee;
ii-ae?oaa, iaeaea an? ?aniiiaeaioe aeciaee ca aieiaio oiiao
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? ciaiiy a?aeiia?aeii? iiae oa eoeueoo?e, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aenieo ioe?ieo ieie eoeueoo?canaaeie/i? oi?ie
naii?aae?caoe?? aoiino; ii-o?ao?, ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
?aniiiaeaio?a-oe?a?ioe?a oa ?aniiiaeaio?a-?in?yi ia aaaaeathoue (ia
a?aei?io a?ae e?einueeeo oaoa?) iaia’yceiaei /eiieeii iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? aeoeaio o/anoue o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? iaoe?? oa iaaeaiiy
ia?aaaae ?ioa?anai iaoe?? iaae iniaenoeie, ui na?ae/eoue i?i yaii
iaaeinoaoi?e ?icaeoie ?noi?eei-i?iaeoeaii? oi?ie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy oa i?i ?icoi?iiy aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ia?aaaaeii o
ieiuei? iniaenoiai aeeoo?aiai na?oo; ii-/aoaa?oa, iaea?eueo neeueio
?ioaa?iaai?noue o aoi?/io ni?eueiioo oa iaeaeuee ??aaiue iaoe?iiaeueii?
naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? (nooo?aei /eiieeii yei? aenooia? eiioan?eiee
i?eioeei cao?ooaaiiy) i?iaeaiiino?oaaee e?einuee? oaoa?e; ii-i’yoa, o
i?aaenoaaiee?a an?o aoiin?a iaaaoeaia oi?ia iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioeo?eaoe?? – i?ioenoaaeaiiy naaa ?ioei ia?iaeai – ia nueiaiaei? ?
ii??aiyii neaaeith, ui ni?ey? aa?iii?eiiio ?icaeoeo i?aeaoi?/ieo
a?aeiinei; ii-oinoa, iaeiaioee nooi?iue aeiiaeeaino? aei yeinoae naiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o i?iaeaiiino?oaaee oe?a?ioe?, eio??
iaaeinoaoiuei caa?oathoue oaaao ia naith ianiao ineoieia?th oa
naiina?aeii?noue ye /eiieee nioe?aeueieo iaaa?acae?a; ii-nueiia, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe, ui, a oe?eiio, ?icaeoie aca?iieo noinoie?a aieiaieo aoiin?a
E?eio ia? ia nueiaiaei? aeineoue aaaii? i?aenoaae aeey iiaiioe?iiiai
?icaeoeo, aea iio?aao? ?aoaeueiiai, iino?eiiai aiae?co ?o (aoiin?a)
aoiieoeueoo?ieo oa aoiiiie?oe/ieo iniaeeainoae; ii-ainueia, iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ? aeoea?caoe?y
?noi?eei-i?iaeoeaieo, nioe?aeueii-a?iiaaeyinueeeo /eiiee?a, iniaeeai –
iniaeno?niiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?aeiia?aeieo
?en iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

O aeniiaeao i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o,
aea/aiiy eiai yeinoae, /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy, ooieoe?e o noni?eueiiio
aeeoo? ? iniaeeai aaaeeeaeie aeey no/aniiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoe??. Cie?aia, aeae?eai? oae? iieiaeaiiy:

iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? aenooia? nooo?aei /eiieeii iaoe?iiaeueii?
eiinie?aeaoe?? oa iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, a oiio eiai (oa?aeoa?o)
e?eoe/ia inieneaiiy ? iaiao?aeiith oiiaith iiaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/iiai,
a?iiaaeyinueeiai oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;

aaeaeaaoia ioe?iea iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae eiai
iiaiioe?iii? oai?aoe/ii? ?aeiino?oeoe??, ui iiaeiia cae?enithaaoeny ia
ye noaoe/iee ia?ae?e /aniio oa iaaeie?e?a, a ye a?oioiaiee aiae?c
eoeueoo?ieo aeeniiceoe?e ? a?oeeoeyoe?e, /a?ac ye? cae?enith?oueny
naii?aae?caoe?y oe?a?inueei? “ethaeeie eoeueoo?e” ? ye?
a?aeia?aaeathoueny nioe?i-eoeueoo?ieie i?iaeoe?yie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o;

iniaeeao oaaao iaiao?aeii caa?iooe ia ?noi?eei-i?iaeoeaio oi?io
naii?aae?caoe?? oe?a?inoaa, eio?a iio?aao? aeaaaeaiiai, ei?aeoiiai
inieneaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo oaiaeaioe?e oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o, c iaoith ?o ei?eaoaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
aieiaieo i???ioe??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo a no/anieo oiiaao;

ne?ae yeiaeoe?oa o nioe?aeuei?e oa iaoe?iiaeuei?e iie?oeoe? a?aoiaoaaoe
iniaeno?niee oaeoi? noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo, noai?thth/e iaiao?aei? oiiae
aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaii iaaaioaaeaieo yeinoae a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie, eio?a
c iaiao?aei?noth ia? noaa?aeaeoaaoe naaa o i?aeia?iaeiiio,
caaaeueiiethaenueeiio i?inoi??.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye oaiiiai eoeueoo?e.
–N?ioa?iiieue: “Oaa??y”, 1999. – 265 n.

2. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ?icaeoie eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae
aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o: ?noi?e/iee aniaeo // Eoeueoo?a
ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1997. – ? 1. – N. 74-83.

3. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a: na?oiaeyaeiee aniaeo // Oai
naii. – N. 144-146.

4. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Aei i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o:
iaoo?ae?noe/ia oa eoeueoo?ieia?/ia ianoaiiae // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia
I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1977. – ? 2. – N. 229-232.

5. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye onoaeaia ineoieia?/ia
no?oeoo?a // Oai naii. – N. 317-321.

6. Oaaoeiaa A.A. No/ania Oe?a?ia: ia?aaeiene iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a oiiaao iinooioae?oa?ecio // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia
I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1998. – ?3. – N. 274-278.

7. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iaaaoeaio oi?io ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
naiiaooiino? // Oai naii. – N. 306-310.

8. Oaaoeiaa A.A. O?aaeeoe?? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o a
?in??: o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeiee aniaeo // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia
I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1999. – ?5. – N. 317-324.

9. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Oe?a?inoai: ia?en iaoe?iiaeueiiai aoino // Oai naii. –
N.468-472.

10. Oaaoeiaa A.A. I?iaeaia ?in?enueeiai aeooo a oai?/ino? I.A.Aa?aey?aa
? no/ani?noue // Oai naii. – N.501-503.

11. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Aoiin: i?iaeaia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ?
ineoieia?/ii? aeaia?eaoe?? // Eoeueoo?a ia?iaeia I?e/a?iiii?uey. – 1999.
– ?6. – N. 247-256.

12. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Ia?iaee E?eio: aoiiineoieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oa
i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeiino? // Oai naii. – N.509-520.

13. Oaaoeiaa A.A. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? ? ca?oa?aeii? eoeueoo?e oa
?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? Oe?a?ie: iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo. // Oai
naii. – N. 461-463.

14. I?iea?a N.A., Oaaoeiaa A.A. Nain iaoe?? oa oaiiiai iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae // Oai naii.– N.192-198.

15. Oaaoeiaa A.A. E aiaeeoeea iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a eae oaiiiaia
eoeueoo?u // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
oieaa?neoaoa.–1999.–?11 (50).–N.96-100.

16. Oaaoeiaa A.A. No/ania Oe?a?ia: i?iaeaia iaoe?iiaeueii?
eiinie?aeaoe?? // Oai naii. – N.32-38.

17. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Yoiin: enoi?e/aneia ?acaeoea e i?iaeaia
nioeeieoeueoo?iiai aaeeinoaa // O/aiua caienee Neioa?iiieueneiai
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oieaa?neoaoa.–1999.–?12 (51).–O.2.–N.159-163.

18. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaioaeeoao e iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?: i?iaeaia iiiyoee
// Iaoa?eaeu I iao/iuo /oaiee 14-15 iiya?y 1996a. “I?iaeaiu
iaoa?eaeueiie e aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u ia?iaeia E?uia e Naaa?iiai
I?e/a?iiii?uey io aioe/iuo a?aiai aei iaoeo aeiae”. – Neioa?iiieue,
1996. – N. 19-20.

19. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Ia?iae eae i?aaeiao oeeinioneiai enneaaeiaaiey // Oai
naii. – N. 22-24.

20. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?: e iinoaiiaea i?iaeaiu // Oai
naii. – N. 26-27.

21. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaioaeeoao eae oaiiiai eoeueoo?u // Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaocianeie iao/. eiio. “E?ui e ie?iaay eoeueoo?a”. Aui. 1. –
Neioa?iiieue, 1996. – N. 4-7.

22. Oaaoeiaa A.A. ?aa?iiae?ci: iaae? iiaeeeaiai // Oai naii. – N. 38-41.

23. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a e iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea
// O/aiua caienee E?uineiai einoeoooa yeiiiieee e oicyenoaaiiiai i?aaa.
– Neioa?iiieue, 1997. – N. 109-113.

24. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeaioe/iinoue: i?iaeaiu E?uia //
O/aiua caienee Oaa?e/aneiai yeieiae/aneiai einoeoooa. – 1999. – ?1. – N.
244-250.

25.Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaeioi?ua aniaeou eco/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a //
Na. iaoa?eaeia iaaeaeoia?. eiio. “Iooe naiiiiciaiey /aeiaaea”. –
Eeaa-Naaanoiiieue, 1997. – N. 180-181.

26. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Eoeueoo?a eae niinia naii?aaeecaoeee ee/iinoe. (E
aii?ino i ?acaeoee eoeueoo?u a E?uio) // Iaoa?eaeu ?ani. iao/. eiio.
27-29 ai?aey 1993a. “Eoeueoo?a E?uia ia ?oaaaea aaeia (XIX-XX aa.). –
Neioa?iiieue, 1993. – N. 30-32.

27. Oaaoeiaa A.A. Oaiiiai iaoeee e i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
naiiniciaiey // Iaoa?eaeu aoi?ie iaaeaocianeie eiio. “Iieeoe/aneay
noaaeeecaoeey: iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu e iiuo E?uia” (16 ai?aey 1999
a.).–Neioa?iiieue, 1999.–N.68-70.

AIIOAOe??

Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ye i?aaeiao
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 – nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y
?noi???.– Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea. – Ee?a,1999.

Aaoi? ?ic?iaeea nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeo eiioeaioe?th iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, aeoiaey/e ?c ?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ye
iaoao?ce/ii? ?aea?, ui noai?th? oiiae ?icoi?iiy iaaieo
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieo yaeu, iia’ycaieo ianaiia?aae ?c
aeooiaii-ineoieia?/iith ?aei?noth iaoe?? ye oi?eaeueiiai, naiino?eiiai,
oe?e?niiai noa’?eoa ?noi???. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oaea ?icoi?iiy
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o aeicaiey? cae?enieoe nai???aeio
“ia?niiae?caoe?th” aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ni?eueiioe o aeaeyae? “ethaeeie
eoeueoo?e” – ?aeaaeueiiai ethaenueeiai oeio, yeee noai?th?oueny ?
a?aeoai?th?oueny iaoe?iiaeueiith eoeueoo?ith, ? aaaeaiei aeey ia? ?
aenooia? iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueii? naii?aeaioeo?eaoe?? ie?aieo
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoe??.

?icaeyioo? ?noi?e/ii aecia/ai? iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ie?aneai? aieiai? aniaeoe eiai ?icaeoeo o ca’yceo c
i?iaeaiaie iiaoaeiae aeaiie?aoe/iiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a
Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noa’?eo ?noi???, iaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a,
iaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa?, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeaioe/i?noue.

Shvetsova A.V. National Character As the Subject of Social Philosophical
Analysis.– Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 09.00.03-social philosophy
and philosophy of history.–Taras Shevchenko Kyiv University.– Kyiv,1999.

The author elaborated the Social Philosophical Conception of National
Character based on the understanding of National Character as a
metaphysical idea which makes conditions of cognition of definite
cultural-historical phenomena connected, first of all, with
spiritual-psychological unity of nation as unique, independent, integral
subject of history. In the course of investigation it is being proved
that this kind of approach allows to personify ethno-national community
as a kind of “person of culture” – an ideal type of person who is
brought up and moulded by the cultural background of nation; in its turn
it is characteristic of a nation, it is a sort of aidos and plays the
most important role in the self-identification of every other of its
representatives.

There have been thoroughly analysed the peculiarities of the Ukrainian
national character in the course of historical development; besides, the
author determined the main prospects of the formation of democratic
civil society in Ukraine.

Key words: subject of history, nation, national culture, national
character, national identity.

Oaaoeiaa A.A. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? eae i?aaeiao
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneiai aiaeeca.– Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie
noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03.–
nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey enoi?ee. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao eiaie
Oa?ana Oaa/aiei.– Eeaa,1999.

Aaoi? ?ac?aaioaea nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneoth eiioeaioeeth iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a, enoiaey ec iiieiaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a eae
iaoaoece/aneie eaeae, nicaeathuae oneiaey iiciaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo yaeaiee, naycaiiuo i?aaeaea anaai n
aeooiaii-ineoieiae/aneei aaeeinoaii iaoeee eae oieeaeueiiai, oeaeinoiiai
noauaeoa enoi?ee. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? i?aaenoaaeai eae eiioeaio,
au?aaeathuee enoi?e/anee noi?ie?iaaiioth eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ia?iaea, a eioi?ie iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea aeeciaiiue ie?
yoiai ia?iaea e eioi?ay aunooiaao ia oieueei a aeaea ainaiaey
ineoieiae/aneeo /a?o, a i?aaeaea anaai a aeaea onoiyaoaainy eiiieaena
eoeueoo?iuo aeeniiceoeee e a?oeeoeyoeee, /a?ac eioi?ua inouanoaeyaony
(eae /a?ac oneiaey aiciiaeiinoe) naii?aaeecaoeey /aeiaaea aeaiiie
eoeueoo?u (i?aaenoaaeoaey niioaaonoaothuaai ia?iaea).

Iaoiaeieiae/aneei i?eioeeiii enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi
iiaeiaea ?aaeoeee, i?aaenoaaeaiee, iiaaaeaiey i?aaenoaaeoaeae iaeiiai
ia?iaea (ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaei) yaeyaony aoi?e/iui, i?iecaiaeiui io
eoeueoo?iiai ii?yaeea auoey e o?aaiaaiee eoeueoo?u e ee/iinoe.
Ia?niiaeecaoeey yoeo o?aaiaaiee iaoiaeeo naia ieii/aoaeueiia au?aaeaiea
e iaiauaiea a ii?aaeaeaiiii, iniaaiiii oeia ee/iinoe, eioi?oth nicaeaao
e aini?iecaiaeeo iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a. Aeooiaiui, ineoieiae/aneei
yeaeaaeaioii yoiai oeia ee/iinoe aunooiaao iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa? yaeyaony naiaia?aciui eoeueoo?iui
yeaeinii – o?aaiaaieai eoeueoo?u e ineoieiae/aneiio niaea?aeaieth
eiaeeaeaeia, eioi?ue auiieiyao ?aaoeyoeaioth ooieoeeth a i?ioeanna
oi?ie?iaaiey ethaeae ii?aaeaeaiiie iaoeee. Iineoaeai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a aunooiaao “/aeiaae eoeueoo?u” – eaeaaeueiue, eioa?noauaeoeaiue
/aeiaa/aneee oei, eioi?ue nicaeaaony, ainnicaeaaony iaoeeiiaeueiie
eoeueoo?ie e eiinoeooe?oaony a aaeeinoaa, neioaca e iauaiee aeaaiuo
eoeueoo?iuo ia?niiaaeae, i?aaenoaaeythueo aeaaiua nioeeaeueiua neeu
iauanoaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee auaeaeaiu e i?iaiaeece?iaaiu aeaaiua yeaiaiou
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a eae onoiyaoaeny ineoieiae/aneie no?oeoo?u:
oaiia?aiaio eae iaiauaiiay ?ai?acaioaoeey niiaoeei-oeceieiae/aneeo
ea/anoa yoiina; ooieoeeiiaeueii-i?eia?aoaiiua ea/anoaa – ineoieiae/aneea
onoaiiaee e aeiieiaiou (?aaoee?othuea aeayoaeueiinoue e oeaeaiieaaaiea
ethaeae), aioo?aiiea aiii?ee (io?aaeathuea neiaeiinoue enoi?e/aneie
naii?aaeecaoeee yoiina), noeioee?othuea e ioa?auathuea oaeoi?u
(iaoneiaeeaathuea ineoieiae/aneee yooaeo aeaenoaey oao eee eiuo aiaoieo
aeeyiee), onoiyaoeany iiaaaeai/aneea eiiieaenu.

Eae iaiaoiaeeiia oneiaea ?aeiino?oeoeee niaea?aeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a a aeenna?oaoeee auaeaeaia e i?iaiaeece?iaaia nenoaia aeaaiuo
nioeei-eoeueoo?iuo i?iaeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua aai
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?aaenoaaeytho e iaeiia?aiaiii aunooiatho aai
ii?aaeaeaiiuie oi?iiia?aciaaieyie – iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeaioe/iinoue,
iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeay, iaoeeiiaeueiue yoin, iaoeeiiaeueiue eieaeae,
eiiieaen iaoeeiiaeueiiai ioa?auaiey.

A eiioaenoa ?ac?aaioaiiie eiioeaioeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii ?acaeoea
oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, a /anoiinoe a i?ioeanna aai
enoi?e/aneiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n iieueneei e ?onneei iaoeeiiaeueiuie
oa?aeoa?aie.

Auaeaeaiu aeaaiua eoeueoo?iua a?oaoeiu oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a: oaaaeaeaiiinoue ioiineoaeueii iniiaaiey aeecie ia ?aaoey?iuo
o?oaeiauo oneeeyo; iaoaa?aiiinoue ioiineoaeueii ?anii?yaeaiey
?acoeueoaoaie nianoaaiiiai o?oaea e onooi/eainoue oiio, eoi i?iyaeo
aieaa ?aoeoaeueiia “i?aai aiee”; ionoonoaea a naiiii?aaeaeaiee
oe?aeinoaa ioaee/iiai ecia?aiey aeecie e aeiieie?iaaiea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oaeoi?ia aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe; iieaaaiea aieaa ia
noaeueao, iaaeaee ia nianoaaiioth naii?aaoee?othuothny aieth
ioiineoaeueii ?anii?yaeaiey nianoaaiiie aeeciueth; a?oaoei niiioaiiie
aieueiinoe e io/ayiiie ?aoeoaeueiinoe, eioi?ua aicieeatho eae ioeeee ia
iaeioi?ua aiaoiea auciau aeecie. Ioia/aaony, /oi yoe a?oaoeiu ioaa/atho
i?aaeaea anaai eoeueoo?iiieaaathuae oi?ia naiiooaa?aeaeaiey iaoeee, ii
nouanoaaiii iaiaoiaeeiie aeey ?acaeoey iaoeee yaeyaony oaeaea
enoi?e/anee-i?iaeoeaiay oi?ia, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay i?aia?aciaaiea noa?uo
e oi?ie?iaaiea iiauo ea/anoa iaoeeiiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, a niioaaonoaee n
nouanoaaiiuie caaea/aie e iniaaiiinoyie iiaaeoae iaoeee, aeaaiuie
oaeoi?aie ?acaeoey eioi?ie yaeythony iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaiie?aoe/aneia
ainoaea?noai, a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai e iaoeeiiaeueiinaiiii?aaeaeaiiay
ee/iinoue.

Aeieacuaaaony, /oi a i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee enoi?eei-i?iaeoeaiie oi?iu
?acaeoey iaoeee ie a eiai neo/aa ia niaa?oaaony ioeac io aa
eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneie naiiauoiinoe, a oi?ie?oaony aaeeiay aiey ia?iaea
ioiineoaeueii aai aoaeouaai. A nayce n yoei auaeaeaiu iaeaieaa aaaeiua
nioeeaeueii-enoi?e/aneea caaea/e aeey oe?aeinoaa eae oeooeueiiai ia?iaea
Oe?aeiu.

Ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueii i?iaaaeaiiiai aaoi?ii nioeeieiae/aneiai
enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiaeece?iaaiu iniaaiiinoe yoiieoeueoo?iuo
i?aaenoaaeaiee aeaaiuo yoie/aneeo iauiinoae E?uia (oe?aeioeaa, ?onneeo,
e?uineeo oaoa?), naeaeai auaiae i i?aaaee?iaaiee o ?aniiiaeaioia
yoiieoeueoo?iiai iiieiaiey niunea iaoeee iaae enoi?eei-i?iaeoeaiui, /oi
yaeyaony nouanoaaiiui i?aiyonoaeai oi?ie?iaaiey a Oe?aeia nia?aiaiiiai
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa e iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noauaeo enoi?ee, iaoeey, iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a,
iaoeeiiaeueiue oa?aeoa?, iaoeeiiaeueiay eaeaioe/iinoue.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 20.09.99.

Oiiaii-ae?oe.a?e. 2,2

Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oe?aae 100

Oe?ia aeiaia??ia

Aae?ana aeaeaaieoeoaa: N?ioa?iiieue, aoe. sseoeinueea, 4, e. 222.

Aeaeaaieoeoai I?aeaoc?anueeiai oeaio?o “E?ei”

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