Морфофункціональні основи формування морського фітобентосу: Автореф. дис… д-ра біол. наук / Г.Г. Мінічева, НАН України. Ін-т біології півден. морів

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Iaoeiiiaeueia Aeaaeaiiy Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iinoeooo aiieiai? iiaaeaiieo ii?ia ii. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai

Iiii/aaa

Aaeeia A?eai?iaia

OAeE 581.526.323

II?OIOOIEOeIIIAEUeII INIIAE OI?IOAAIIss

II?NUeEIAI OIOIAAIOINO

03.00.17 —
a?ae?ia?ieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Naaanoiiieue — 1998

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeie oiei? ?inoeoooo a?ieia?? i?aaeaiieo ii??a

?i. I.I. Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Iaeana

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio Aeaaeaiie IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? aiieiae/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Caeoeaa THaaiaeie Iao?iae/,

IO IiAII IAIO,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee
niia?iaioiee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

iieiaeo?e iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee,

ai?ia Aieoi? Ieeieaae/,

IiAII IAIO, caa. aiaeaeieii

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee,

Ei?aeaiaanueeee Aeaaeineaa
A’y/aneaaiae/

AeIAN, caa. aiaeaeieii

aeieoi? aaia?aoi/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee,

A?yioeaa Aaeaioei Ieaenieiae/,

IiaaeaiII?I, caa. aiaeaeieii

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ii.
I.I.Ia/iieiaa

a?ieia?/iee oaeoeueoao, i.
Iaeana

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “_22_”_a?oaeiy__1998 ?. i __11 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.214.01 i?e Iinoeoooi
aiieiai? iiaaeaiieo ii?ia ii. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 335011, i. Naaanoiiieue, i?. Iaoiiiaa, 2

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo aiieiai?
iiaaeaiieo ii?ia ii. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
335011, i. Naaanoiiieue, i?. Iaoiiiaa, 2

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee __11 eenoiiaaea__1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.214.01

eaiaeeaeao aiieiai/ieo iaoe I.E.Iaa?iaa

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. A no/anieo oiiaao, ii?nuee? i?eaa?aaei?
aeinenoaie noaee i?oaiith eiioeaio?iaaiiai oaea?o aio?iiiaaiieo
oaeoi??a. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?, i?iieneia?, iiaooia? noiee,
ia?iieaanoai, a?ae?ioaoi?/ia aoae?aieoeoai, ?ae?aaoe?y, cae?eniththoue
aaniina?aaei?e aieea ia aa?aaia? ae?eyiee ii?y, ni?e/eiythoue
?aaeeeaeuei? ia?aaoaeiae a no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeuei?e i?aai?caoe??
a?ioe/iiai eiiiiiaioo, ci?iththoue oaeaee?noue oa iai?aaeai?noue
aeieia?/ieo i?ioean?a, ciaioothoue a?i?icia?ooy (Zaitsev, 1992; Zaitsev,
Mamaev, 1997; Zaitsev, Alexandrov, 1998).

A i?eaa?aaeieo ciiao aaoio?ioiee i?ioean ia 90-95% cae?enith?oueny ca
?aooiie ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?oiaaioino. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aee?eoeo,
iaeaa?/ieo aeinenoai, aea iniiaio ?ieue a?ae?a?a? o?oiieaieoii, ia
i?eeiaiaeieo ae?eyieao aeiiia ?ineeii?noue — aieiaia aeaea?aei
i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie oa aia?a??. Iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino aaniina?aaeiuei ca’ycai? c ?yaeii aaaeeeaeo
a?ae?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a ii?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua, ??aiai o?ioiino?,
oa?aeoa?ii oa?/iaeo eaioetha?a, caaaeueiith ?ioaineai?noth
i?iaeooe?eii-aeano?oeoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Caeiiii??iino? i?aai?caoe??
oa?oioaaiue iae?io?o?a — iaeia c aaaeeeaeo neeaaeiaeo, iaiao?aeieo i?e
aenia?oi?e ioe?ioe?, i?iaiicoaaii? oa oi?aae?ii? ?ineeiieie ?ano?naie oa
caaaeueieie aeieia?/ieie ianoaaeiaie a i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoaiao. O
ca’yceo c oeei, iiooe iaoai?ci?a oa iaoiae?a e?euee?niiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo ? i?iaeooe?eieo
ia?aiao??a aaoio?ioieo oa?oioaaiue aiaeieo aeinenoai aiaeii/an neeaaea?
aeooaeueio aioai?/io, a?ae?ia?ieia?/io, aeieia?/io oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io i?iaeaio.

Oni?o ??oaiiy aoaeue-yei? i?iaeaie cia/iith ii?ith caeaaeaoue a?ae
aaeaeaaoiino? ia?aieo iaoiae?a oa i?aeoiae?a. O?aaeeoe?eiee
o?oioeaiieia?/iee iaoiae ioe?iee aeiiii? ?ineeiiino? c?iaea cia/iee
aianie o ?icaeoie aiaeii? aioai?ee oa a?ae?ia?ieia??, aea i?e oeueiio
cia/iith i??ith ae/a?iaa nai? oai?aoe/i? iiaeeeaino?. Iiaee iai?yiie
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? aeieia?? iae?io?o?a, yeee ii/aa na?e ?icaeoie a
70-o? ?iee, a oaia??oi?e /an noaa iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/iiai
aia?aoo aeine?aeaeaiue ii?nueeeo aaaaoiee?oeiieo aiaei?inoae (Oaeeia,
Ia?/aanueeee, 1983; Oaeeia, I?acoe?i oa ?i., 1992). ?ic?iaeaiiee a
iaaeao oeueiai iai?yio eiiieaen iieaciee?a, ye? a?oioothoueny ia
ia?aiao?ao aeoeaii? iiaa?oi? aiaei?inoae-iae?io?o?a (I?i?/aaa, 1987,
1989), aeaa iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a o
?ie? ?ino?oiaioo e?euee?niiai iieno i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino. Ia oeae /an
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae yaey? niaith no/aniee iaoiaeieia?/iee
?ino?oiaio iiooeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae, ia iniia? yeeo
iiaeeeaa ??oaiiy i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai ae?aaiinoeee, e?euee?niiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy oa ?aaoeyoe?? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo, a?iiane oa
i?iaeooe?eieo iieaciee?a aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Ia iniia? ooieoe?iiaeueii? ii?oieia??
aiaei?inoae-iae?io?o?a ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th oi?ioaaiiy oa
i?iaiinoe/io iiaeaeue ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa?oioaaiue ii?nueeiai o?oiaaioino caeaaeii a?ae
?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano, yeee caaacia/o?oueny eiiieaenii
oiia aiaeii? aeinenoaie. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaiii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue
oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aiae?c no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue aiaei?inoae-iae?io?o?a aeey aecia/aiiy
i?noey oa cia/aiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai iai?yio;

— oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/iiai aia?aoo ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? ioe?iee
o?oiaaioino;

— ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/iiai oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e oa
ooieoe?? aiaeii? ?ineeiiino? i?e ca?eueoaii? iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a??,
yeee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oa?oioaaiiy;

— e?euee?niee iien ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
iieaciee?a caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo, a?iiane oa
i?iaeoeoe?? iiioeyoe?? o?oiaaioino i?e ci?i? ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae aieeao yeino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa
noano?ao?a ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aiaeii?
?ineeiiino?;

— ioe?iea no/aniiai noaio oa aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e ci?ie
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino a i?eaa?aaei?e cii?
oe?a?inueeiai oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y;

— i?iaaaeaiiy ia i?aenoaa? iaoiaeo na??? i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a
i/?eoaaieo ci?i o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae? oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao?ao
aeiiii? ?ineeiiino? ??cieo ae?eyiie oe?a?ineiai ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai
ii?y.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Ia iniia? nenoaiii-???a?o?/ii? iaoiaeieia?? oa
i?ea?iaeueiiai oyaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiiy o oi?i? /enaeueieo
?yae?a iiioeyoe?e ?c c?inoath/ith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noth,
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaineaiino? iioieo ?a/iaeie oa
aia?a??, yeee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oa?oioaaiiy.

Ca aeiiiiiaith eiiieaeno ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a

anoaiiaeai? oa e?euee?nii iienai? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy oei?enoe/iiaineeaaeo,a?iiane oa i?iaeoeoe?? oa?oioaaiiy
ii?nueeiai o?oiaaioino caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano, yeee cae?nith?ony a aeinenoai?.

Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaii? eiioeaioe?? i e?euee?ni?e a?aeiia?aeiino? ?yaeo
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo aei ?ioaineaiino?
ieiath/aai e??c oa?oiioaaiiy iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a??, a oaeiae
eiao?oe??io?a aii??e/ieo caeaaeiinoae iienoth/eo oeth a?aeiia?aei?noue,
?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino, yea aia?oa aeey aiaeieo oa?oioaaiue aeicaiey?
oai?aoe/ii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe aeaee, ye? aeiaaeooue ?c no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiiy,
oa aeaee, ye? io?eiathoue i??i?eoao ?icaeoeo i?e ci?i? a aeinenoai?
oaeaeeino? aeieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaeae? aeeeaaeaii iaoai?ci ci?ie aeii?iaio?a ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue i?e
aao?io?eaoe?? aeinenoai oa caeiiii??iino? aeeiai?ee i?iaeooe?eieo
ia?aiao??a aaoio?ioieo oa?oioaaiue, aeey anueiai iiaeeeaiai niaeo?o
?ioaineaiino? i?iaeoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano, a?ae ie?aio?ioieo aei
a?ia?o?ioieo oiia.

Aeeeaaeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiith i?aai?caoe??th
aiaeii? ?ineeiiino? oa ye?noth ii?nueeiai na?aaeiaeua. Iienai?
iine?aeiai? ???a?o?/i? ?aaeoe?? iae?io?o?a ia ca?eueoaiiy o?ioiino?
aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, ?ioa?aaeueiee ?acoeueoao yeeo ni?e/eiy?
?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie o ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei?e o?c?iiii?? oa?oioaaiue i?e
ia?aoiae? a?ae ie?aio?ioieo aei aao?ioieo oiia. Aia?oa ia e?euee?ni?e
iniia?, ca aeiiiiiaith ioe?iee ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
oa?oioaaiiy aeiiii? ?ineeiiino? cai?iiiiiaaia o?ioi-nai?ia?iioia
eeaneo?eaoe?y yeino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaa?oioiaaii iaae?iiy ?ie?
o?oiaaioino ye ia’?eoa naiii/euaiiy aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?e ia?aoiae?
a aeinenoaie c aenieei ??aiai o?ioiino?.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aeeeaaeaia
oa?aeoa?enoeea no/aniiai noaio i?eaa?aaeiiai o?oiaaioino oe?a?inueeiai
ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai ii?y. Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e o?eaaei? aeeiai?ee
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?oioaaiue iae?io?o?a ca
inoaii?e 40-??/iee ia??iae aeicaieea a?aecia/eoe c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
aeinoia??ia cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano o aaioini?e
?ineeiiino?, yea iia’ycaia c oaiaeaioe??th cieaeaiiy aao?io?eaoe??
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue. Ia iniia? iiaeae? ia?aaoaeiae
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino ?ic?iaeaia
i?eeeaaeia i?ia?aia aeey AIO «O?oiaenia?oeca», yea yaey? niaith
oi?aa?naeueiee aaoiiaoeciaaiee ?ino?oiaio aenia?oii? ioe?iee noaio
aeiiii? ?ineeiiino?, aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeee yeino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua
oa e?euee?niiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i no?oeoo?ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a o?oiaaioino.Aeaia i?ia?aia iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey
ae??oaiiy eiiieaeno i?eeeaaeieo ieoaiue ioi?iie oa aenieoaoaoe??
i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai a oiiaao ??ciiai ??aiy o?ioiino?.

Ia iniia? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? iae?io?o?a,
?ic?iaeai iaoiae anoaiiaeaiiy aeae?a, ye? noaiooue ia?niaeoeaieie
ia’?eoaie ii?aeoeueoo?e aai neeaaeooue iniiao i?iieneiaeo ?ano?n?a, i?e
ci?iao a aeinenoai? ??aiy o?ioiino?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue ieaioaaiiy
a?ioaoiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie c o?aooaaiiyi oaiaeaioe?e aeieia?/ii?
neooaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny a aeinenoai?.

E?euee?ni? caeaaeiino? i?ae ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiith i?aai?caoe??th
o?oiia?inoaiiy oa eiioeaio?aoe??th o?oiiiceoeaiiai noano?aoo o aiaeiiio
na?aaeiaeu? aeicaieythoue ?ic?aooaaoe ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/i? eiao?oe??ioe
i?e i?iaeooaaii? oa ?ici?uaii? a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae, aeei?enoaiiy
yeeo ia caoeiaeeoue i?eaa?aaeiei aeinenoaiai. Io?eiaia e?euee?nia
caeaaei?noue, ia iniia? yei? iiaeia ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia??iae aeeo/aiiy
?ineeiii? a?iiane caeaaeii a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa?oioaaiue c iaoith caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaieo
aoaeo?a aoi?eiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua i?aai?/ieie
?a/iaeiaie ?ineeiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia iiaeeeaiai ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano a
eieaeueieo ciiao i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai ia iniia? oiai, ui
eiio?ieth?oueny, iae?io?oiia?inoaiiy ooo/ieo noano?ao?a. ?acoeueoaoe
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iae?io?o?a aeicaieythoue io?eiaoe
eiie?aoi? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy caaaeaiue i’yoe iniiaieo aoai?a
cai?iiiiiaaii? noaie.

Na??? i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a ci?ie no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii? ?ineeiiino? aeey noeaia???a aa- aai
aeaaao?io?eaoe?? i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai oa noiniaieo aei ieo ii?nueeeo
oa i??nieo aiaeiei, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaa?oiooaaii?
no?aoaa?? i?aai?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? aeey oe?a?inueei?
aa?aaiai? ciie *i?iiai ii?y.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?iiiiothoueny aei caoenoo

— Iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae, yeee aeicaiey? iao?aaeeoe?ei? oyaeaiiy
oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino a oi?i? ?yae?a
iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino?.

— Eiioeaioe?y oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe??
oa?oioaaiiy o?oiaaioino i?e ca?eueoaii? iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a?? a
aaioae? aeinenoaie.

E?euee?ni? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo a?iiane oa
i?iaeoeoe?? o?oiaaioino, iienai? ca aeiiiiiaith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
iieaciee?a.

— I?iaiinoe/ia iiaeaeue ci?ie no?oeoo?ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
o?oiaaioino i?e ci?i? a aeinenoai? ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano.

— Iniiai? iane?aeee aieeao ia noai i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai ?acoeueoao?a
ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino i?e
aao?io?eaoe??.

Aeaniee aianie. Aeena?oaio i?eeiaa aaniina?aaeith o/anoue o a?aeai??,
ia?iaoe? oa aiae?c? aiii?e/iiai iaoa??aeo. Aoa ?i?oe?aoi?ii ?icaeoeo o
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiio iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa?oioaaiue
aiaei?inoae-iae?io?o?a (n?iaeieia?/ia aeiii?oieia?y). An? iniiai? ?aea?,
i?ea?iaeuei? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee, oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee oa i?aeoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy iaeaaeaoue aaoi?o, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny naiino?eiith
ioae?eaoe??th iniiaieo iaoa??ae?a ?iaioe.

Ai?iaaoe?y. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia VIII
eiioa?aioe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo eii?oao?a e?a?i No?aeii? ?a?iie ca
i?ia?aiith THIANEI «Ethaeeia oa a?inoa?a» (Ee?a, 1990), ia?aae?
aanaeiiai? naeoe?? » I?aaeaii? ii?y oa ?iae?enueeee ieaai»
(Naaanoiiieue, 1990), II oa III Ananithcieo ia?aaeao c aeueaieia??
(Eai?ia?aae, 1989, 1991), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeieia?y oa o?i?y *i?iiai ii?y» (Aa?ia, 1991), i?aeia?iaeiiio
neiiic?oi? «Aio?iiiaaiia aeieia?y oaeueoo, ae?e ??/ie oa eeiai?a»
(Iaeana, 1992), I oa II c’?caeao a?ae?iaeieia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa Oe?a?ie
(Ee?a, 1993, 1997), ath?i a?aeae?eo Caaaeueii? A?ieia?? i?aceae?? IAI
Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1995), i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Iaeana — aa?aaiaa
ciia’95» (Iaeana, 1995), i?aeia?iaeiiio o?ai?ia-eo?n? (Iaeana-Aeeeiai,
1995), III i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Partnership and coastal
management. Littoral’96», (Ii?onioo, Aaeeeia?eoai?y, 1996),
i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? «Oi?aae?iiy oa ioi?iia ocaa?aaeaey
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y» (Iaeana, 1996), can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo
aeaieia?? ?inoeoooo aioai?ee ?i. I.A.Oieiaeiiai (Ee?a, 1997), ca?oi?e
nan?? IO ?iAII IAI Oe?a?ie (Iaeana, 1998), ?iai/?e ia?aae? oi?aae?iiy
aeinenoaiith Noaioeianueei-AEaa?eyinueeeo ieaaaiue (Eeeanoaae,
Aieeaiae?y, 1998), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aoe?? “Aiaea
oa caei?ia’y-98” (Iaeana,1998), ?icoe?aiiiio can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo
o?oiaaioino oa eoeueoeaaoe?? iae?ioeo?a ?i AII (Naaanoiiieue,1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 30 ?iaio. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a 10 noaooyo, iaae?oeiaaieo a aeaaeai?/ieo
aeo?iaeao aac ni?aaaoi?noaa; 4 ?iaioe a aiaeiiiaieo iaoeiaeo ca??eao.

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 356 noi??iie,
a?aoiaoth/e 47 iaethie?a; 31 oaaeeoeth, 2 aeiaeaoee; nienie e?oa?aoo?e —
440 aeaea?ae, a?aoiaoth/e 116 ia ?iicaiieo iiaao. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, ainueie ?icae?e?a, caeeth/ii? /anoeie,
aeniiae?a, nienea aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.

Iiaeyea. Aeena?oaio aeeaiei aaey/iee ca oai?aoe/ia ea??aieoeoai,
aecia/aiiy iaoeiai? no?aoaa?? aeine?aeaeaiue oa ii?aaee c caaaeueii? oa
oai?aoe/ii? a?ae?ia?ieia?? — iaoeiaiio eiinoeueoaioo ?iaioe aeaaeai?eo
IAI Oe?a?ie TH.I.Caeoeaao. Ue?a iiaeyea ia?oiio a/?oaeth-aeueaieiao
e.a.i. O.?.A?aiaiei ca iino?eio i?aeo?eieo, aeiiiiiao oa iaaeaiiy
aeanieo aii??e/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?i noai o?oiaaioino i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie *i?iiai ii?y a 60-o? ?iee. Aaoi? aeyeo? ni?a?ia?oieeo IO ?iAII
N.I. Aieeiao ca aeeiiaiiy i?aeaiaeieo ?ia?o, a oaeiae i?ia?ai?noo
A.A.Caaeiaeei, c aeiiiiiaith yei? aoea iaienaia i?ia?aia
«O?oiaenia?oeca». Aaoi? aaey/iee iaeanueeei, naaanoiiieuenueeei,
ee?anueeei eieaaai-a?ae?ia?ieiaai, aioai?eai, aeueaieiaai ca e?eoe/i?
caoaaaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i? ii?aaee i?e iaaiai?aii? iaoa??ae?a ?iaioe.
Iniaeeaa iiaeyea — ni?a?ia?oieeai ?iAII ?.A.Ae??iaiia?e oa I.I.Einaiei
ca aeiiiiiao i?e oaoi?/iiio ioi?ieaii? iaoa??ae?a ?iaioe.

Ci?no ?iaioe

NO*ANI? IAI?ssIEE AEA*AIIss O?OIAAIOINO:

I?IAEAIE OA IA?NIAEOEAE

A ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaiee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo o aaeoc?
aaiaioai?/ieo, o?oioeaiieia?/ieo oa i?iaeooe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ii?nueeiai o?oiaaioino, yeee aeia?a, ui ca inoaii?e i?aa?eiaee oa?i?i
iaeiie/aiee aaeeeee oa ??ciiiai?oiee aiii?e/iee iaoa??ae i?i ?iciiae?e,
aeeiai?eo oa i?iaeoeoe?th iae?io?o?a a i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoaiao ??ciiai
oeio. Aea i?e oeueiio iaeaaeeoue aeciaoe iaaeinoaoith ?ieue oeeo
iai?yie?a o ?ic?iaoe? no/anieo iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?. ?ioi?iaoe?y, yea iaaeoiaeeoue i?e
noaoenoe/iiio oa aeeiai?/iiio iien? i?inoi?iai-oa?i?iiai? ci?ie
o?oioeaiic?a a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iineoue eiinoaooth/ee oa?aeoa?. Ca
i?aeoe/iith cia/ei?noth i?iaeooe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue iae?io?o?a ye
?ineeiieo ?ano?n?a oa ia’?eo?a ii?aeoeueoo?e i?aeoe/ii aac oaaae
caeeoathoueny oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy ?ie? o?oiaaioino ye
ia?aeiii-i?iaeooe?eii? eaiee ii?nueeeo i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai.

Oaeiae iaaeiioe?ith?oueny ?ieue ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano ye
iaeii?? ?c iniiaieo oiia, yea iaoiiaeth? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueio
i?aai?caoe?th aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?.

Iniiaiith ia?aaaaith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai iai?yieo, o ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie o?oiaaioino, ? aeei?enoaiiy nenoaiii?
iaoiaeieia??. Oe?e?nii-???a?o?/iee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea ia’?aeiaoe
no?oeoo?i? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iaoiaee ioe?iee, anoaiiaeoe ?aaeuei?
ei?aeiie ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?aoiaoth/e oaeoi?e, ye? iaoiiaeththoue
eiai i?aai?caoe?th, a oaeiae ioiieoe on? ???a?o?/i? ??ai?
aiaei?inoae-iae?io?o?a. Iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao??a aiaei?inoae iae?io?o?a e?eoa???i ioe?iee ?acoeueoao?a
?ioaa?aeueiiai aieeao eiiieaeno ciai?oi?o oiia a?aee?eaa? ia?niaeoeao
??oaiiy caaaeaiiy e?euee?niiai iieno caeiiii??iinoae naiii?aai?caoe??
o?oiaaioino.

IAOIAeIEIA?*I? I?AeOIAeE AEA*AIIss AAOIO?IOIEO OA?OIOAAIUe AIAeIEO
AEINENOAI OA IANssA AEEIIAIEO AeINE?AeAEAIUe

A ?icaeoeo iaoiaeieia?? aeine?aeaeaiue ii?nueeiai o?oiaaioino
aeae?eaii o?e iniiaieo aoaie: iaeiie/oaaeueii-iieniaee (na?aaeeia 19-ai
noi??//y); aeieiai-aaiaioai?/iee (30-o? ?iee 20-ai noi??//y);
nenoaiii-???a?o?/iee (70-o? ?iee 20-ai noi??//y).

C ii/aoeii o?aoueiai aoaio ii/aa aeoeaii oi?ioaaoeny iaoiaeieia?/iee
aia?ao ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai iai?yieo, iniiao yeiai neeaa
oe?e?nii-???a?o?/iee i?aeo?ae. I?aeoe/ia ??oaiiy ieoaiue
naiii?aai?caoe?? oa?oioaaiue aiaeii? ?ineeiiino? i?iiiio?oueny
ae??ooaaoe o iaaeao iniiaii? iaoiaeieia?/ii? i?iaeaie
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo: “oaeoi? – ooieoe?y – oi?ia”, yeee
a?aeia?aaea? aeeiaie/ii-??aiiaaaiiee oa?aeoa? ca’yce?a a
???a?o?/ii-oe?e?ni?e nenoai?: ciai?oi? na?aaeiaeua — iae?io?oe (iae.1).
Oea oe?e?nia oyaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a o?oiaaioino c aiaeiei na?aaeiaeuai
aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ?ieue ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a a i?ciaii?
caeiiii??iinoae no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?
?ineeiiino?. Ia?aiao?e, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ii?oieia?/i? iniaeeaino? oa
?ici??e oaeii?a, ia?oeie o no?oeoo?? ???a?o?/ieo ??ai?a ?aaaothoue ia
aieea eiiieaeno oaeoi??a. A naith /a?ao,aiie aaniina?aaeiuei iia’ycai? c
ii?oieia?/iith no?oeoo?ith oa ooieoe?iioaaiiyi aeua ?icoioaaaieo ??ai?a
i?aai?caoe??. Ioaea, ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeoe?? iae?io?o?a

Iae. 1. Oa?aeoa? aca?iica’yce?a a ???a?o?/ii-oe?eini?e nenoai?:
ciai?oiy na?aaea — iae?io?oe.

iiaeooue noaoe o??th iniiaith, ca aeiiiiiaith eio?i? iiaeeeaee
e?euee?niee iien i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino c o?aooaaiiyi
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ca ??aiyie.

C iaoith noai?aiiy nenoaiii-???a?o?/ii? no?oeoo?e oa?i?iieia??, yea
iaiao?aeia i?e iien? i?ioean?a naiii?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino, aoa
i?iaiae?ciaaiee iiiyo?eiee aia?ao i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano. A ?acoeueoao?
/iai cai?iiiiiaaia noaia oanoo?o oa aeyaey? eia?/i? iaa?aeiia?aeiino?
i?ae oa?i?iii oa iienoaaiei iiiyooyi. Aeey caiia?aaiiy i?ioe??//yi oa
ieooaiei?, cai?iiiiiaaii ?iciaaeoaaoe oa?i?ie, ye? aecia/athoue, oa
oa?i?ie, ye? ioe?iththoue ??ci? neeaaeia? i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano. I?e
oeueiio nenoaia oa?i?i?a iiaeiia iaoe ???a?o?/io i?aai?caoe?th,
aiieia?/io ?aaeuei?e no?oeoo?? ia’?eoa.

?aae?caoe?y iniiaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iae?io?o?a caeienithaaeanue ia aii??e/iiio iaoa??ae?,
io?eiaiiio ca inoaii?e 18 ??/iee ia??iae (1987-1997 ?.?.) ?c ??cieo
?aeii?a oe?a?inueeiai oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y, eeiai?a i?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y, ieaaiaaeo aeinenoai aeaeueoe Aeoiath, a oaeiae c ?aeii?a
i?aaeaiiiai ocaa?aaeaey Aaeeeia?eoai?? oa Aioa?eoe/iiai ocaa?aaeaey a
?aeii? oe?a?inueei? iiey?ii? noaioe??. Anueiai aeeiiaii aeecueei 100
oen. aei???a ii?oicaeaaeieo ia?aiao??a iae?io?o?a, a?eueo i?ae ?c 20
oen. ye?nieo i?ia o?oiaaioino.

II?OIOOIEOe?IIAEUeI? IA?AIAO?E IAE?IO?O?A

Ia iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo, yeee aeicaieea i?iaiaeeoe aeeaie?
aiieia?? c nenoaiaie ??ciiiai?oiiai iioiaeaeaiiy,i?iiiio?oueny iaoiae,
yeee ca aiieia??th c o?ceeith ?icae?ey? an? aeanoeaino? a?iia’?eo?a ia
aea? a?oie: iioaioe?ei? oa e?iaoe/i? (?aae?ciaai?). E?euee?nia
aeeeaaeaiiy iioaioe?eieo aeanoeainoae aeaiaio?a nenoaie, aeicaiey?
ia?aeoe aei aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa ae??oeoe
iaea?eueo neeaaeio i?iaeaio — i?iaiicoaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo
oa?oioaaiiy (i?iaiic no?oeoo?e). A?aeiia?aeii, e?euee?nia a?aeia?aaeaiiy
aeaniei /eiii ?aae?ciaaieo aeanoeainoae aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?, aeicaiey?
i?iaiicoaaoe i?iaeooe?ei? ia?aiao?e (i?iaiic ooieoe??). a?aeiia?aeii aei
oeueiai caniao eiiieaen ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a, caniiaaiee ia
ia?aiao?ao aeoeaii? iiaa?oi? aiaei?inoae, cai?iiiiiaaii ?icae?eeoe ia
iioaioe?ei?, ye? oa?aeoa?ecooue ooieoe?iiaeueio iioaioe?th no?oeoo?e
??cieo ??ai?a i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino, oa ia e?iaoe/i?, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?aae?ciaaio ooieoe?th iae?io?o?a (oaa.1.)

Aeei?enoaiiy ieoiii? iiaa?oi? ye e?euee?nii? ioe?iee iioaioe??
no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiiy o?oiaaioino aea? ciiao ia?aeoe a?ae ye?niiai,
nenoaiaoe/iiai aei

Oaaeeoey 1. Eiiieaen ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a iae?io?o?a.

e?euee?niiai, aeieia?/iiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo.
I?iiiio?oueny iao?aaeeoe?eiee i?aeo?ae,i?e yeiio oei?enoe/ia no?oeoo?a
oa?oioaaiiy aeeeaaeaia o oi?i? ?yae?a iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino?
iae?io?o?a, oi?ioaaiiy yeiai i?ioiaeeoue ca i?eioeeiii ca?eueoaiiy
eiao?oe??io?a S/Wi iiioeyoe?e, ye? aoiaeyoue aei eiai neeaaeo.O oaeiio
aeaeyae? oei?enoe/iee neeaae io?eio? oi?io /enaeueiiai ?yaeo, yeee ia?
aecia/ai? e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e oae?, ye: S/Won(min), S/Won(max),
S/Won(x), S/Won(), a oaeiae e?euee?nia a?aeia?aaeaiiy eiaeiiai aeaiaioa
no?oeoo?e ca aeiiiiiaith S/Wi(i). O caeaaeiinoe a?ae ?ioaineaiino?
aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano, caeaaeiei /eiii ci?iththoueny e?euee?ni?
ia?aiao?e ?yaea iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino? iae?ioeo?a, ui iia’yciii ca
ceaiith a?i??ciiiai?ooy oa aeaeiaiai neeaaeo oa?oioaaiue. A i?aeoe/ieo
oe?eyo iiaoaeiae ?yae?a iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo
aeey 9 ?aeii?a, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano, a?aoiaoth/e iniiai? ae?eyiee oe?a?inueeiai ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai
ii?y oa eeiai?a I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y, aeaii 240 eiao?oe??io?a S/Wn,
aeey 147 aeae?a aiaei?inoae ?c a?aeae?e?a Chlorophyta, Rhodophyta,
Phaeophyta oa Cyanophyta.

Aeey aiaeieo oa iacaiieo aeinenoai iieacaia caaaeueia i?yiii?iii?oe?eia
caeaaei?noue i?ae ?iaeaenii ?ineeiii? iiaa?oi?, yeee a?aeia?aaea?
?aae?ciaai? aeanoeaino? oa?oioaaiue, oa ??/iith i?iaeoeoe??th. Oea
aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe iaoiae ioe?iee ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano, yeee i?ioiaeeoue a aaioae? aiaeieo aeinenoai ia iniia? aaee/ei
?iaeaen?a iiaa?oi? aeiiii? ?ineeiiino?, ui iaiao?aeii aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
iia?aoeaii? aeni?an-ae?aaiinoeiee ??aiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano oa
o?ioi-nai?ia?iioii? yeino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua, a oaeiae caaeaiiy
i?iaiicoth/eo neooaoe?e i?e iiaeaethaaii? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa?oioaaiue.

EIIOeAIOe?ss OI?IOAAIIss NO?OEOO?E OA OOIEOe?? AAOIO?IOIEO OA?OIOAAIUe
AIAeIEO AEINENOAI

?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? aaoio?ioieo oa?oioaaiue aiaeieo aeinenoai i?iaiaeeeanue
a?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaiiai i?aeoiaeo ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o ?aieao oe?e?nii? aeeiai?/ii? nenoaie: oaeoi? – ooieoe?y
— oi?ia. Ci?ie o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae? oa i?iaeooe?eieo ia?aiao?ao
oa?oioaaiue aiaeii? ?ineeiiino? i?aaenoaaeai? ye i?ioean aaeaeaaoii?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? naiii?aai?caoe?? (a?ioe/ii? /anoeie) nenoaie
o a?aeiia?aeue ia ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? aieeao eiiieaeno oaeoi??a
(a?ioe/ii? /anoeie).

Cai?iiiiiaaii ianoaiaea?oiee can?a oi?iae?ciaaiiai i?aaenoaaeaiiy
nenoaie: aiaeia na?aaeiaeua — iae?io?oe, iniiaieie iniaeeainoyie yeiai
?:

· nenoaiii-???a?o?/ia i?aai?caoe?y, i?e ye?e eiaeai ??aaiue
neeaaea?oueny c aeaiaio?a ieae/iai ii?yaeeo;

· iiaeeea?noue e?euee?niiai ae?aaeaiiy iioaioe?eieo oa ?aae?ciaaieo
yeinoae aeaiaio?a aoaeue yeiai ??aiy;

· i?aaenoaaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?? aeaiaio?a eiaeiiai ??aiy o oi?i? ?yae?a
iioaioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino?;

· i?aaenoaaeaiiy eiiieaeno oaeoi??a, ye? cae?eniththoue aieea ia
aaoio?ioiee eiiiiiaio o oi?i? iaei??? ci?iii?;

· i?eeiyooy aeeiai?/ii? ??aiiaaae — iniiaiith oi?iith ca’yceo i?ae
aeaiaioaie nenoaie.

Ia iniia? aeaiiai oi?iae?ciaaiiai oyaeaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci
ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?e oa ooieoe?? aaoio?ioieo oa?oioaaiue i?e
ca?eueoaii? iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a?? (iae.2). Aaee/eia iioieo ?a/iaeie
oa aia?a?? (Q), yeee i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac oa?oioaaiiy aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?
aecia/a? ?? no?oeoo?o: — S = f(Q) (oei?enoe/iee neeaae) oa ooieoe?th: F
= f(Q) (i?iaeoeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e). ?ioaineo?eaoe?y i?ioeano (Q1>Q2)
aeeeeea? iaai? ci?ie a eiiiiceoe?? aeaiaio?a, ye? i?ioiaeyoue
a?aeiia?aeii c oaeeie i?aaeeaie:

1.Iiioeyoe??, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue yeeo ?
ieae/ith i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy ?yaeo iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino?
oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo (S/Wi(i) S/Won(min)), aeoiaeyoue ?c neeaaeo
oa?oioaaiiy.

2.Iiioeyoe??, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ooieoe?iiaeueia aeoeai?noue yeeo ?
aeecueeith aei na?aaeiueiai cia/aiiy iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino?
oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo (S/W i(i) S/Won(x)), iaea?aeothoue i?aaaae
?icaeoeo, noathoue ianiaeie aeaeaie.

3.Iiioeyoe?? c aenieith iioaioe?eiith aeoeai?noth ia iathoue iaiaaeaiue
aeey i?enooiino? a no?oeoo?? oa?oioaaiiy. Ae??ai?, ei?ioeioeeee?/i?,
aenieii?iaeoeoeai? aeaee iiaeooue aooe i?enooi?ie i?e oiia? ye iecueeeo,
oae ? aenieeo iieaciee?a Q.

a?aeiia?aeii c oeeie i?aaeeaie a oiiaao aao?io?eaoe?? aiaeieo aeinenoai
aai a ?ioeo no?aniaeo neooaoe?yo, aeeeeeaieo ??ceith ?ioaineo?eaoe??th
i?ioean?a, niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy aeaeiaiai ?icia?ooy. I?e oeueiio
?ioaa?aeueia ooieoe?y oa?oioaaiiy (F3), yea c?inea, ?iniiae?ey?oueny
i?ae iaaaeeeith e?euee?noth iiioeyoe?e, ye? caeeoeeenue o no?oeoo??
oa?oioaaiiy, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?iuaiiy no?oeoo?e oa «oea?o?iiy»
iaeiiai aai aeae?eueeio aeae?a.

Iae. 2. Iaoai?ci ci?ie no?oeoo?e (S) oa ooieoe?? (F) aaoio?ioieo
oa?oioaaiue i?e ca?eueoaii? iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a?? ( Q).

E?EUeE?NI? CAEIIII??IINO? OI?IOAAIIss NO?OEOO?II-OOIEOe?IIAEUeIEO
IA?AIAO??A O?OIAAIOINO

a?aeiia?aeii aei eia?/ii? noaie, yea a?aeia?aaea? iaoai?ci ia?aaoaeiae
no?oeoo?e oa ooieoe?? aaoio?ioieo oa?oioaaiue, i?iaiae?ciaaii aii??e/iee
iaoa??ae aca?iica’yceo oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo, a?iiane oa i?iaeoeoe??
o?oiaaioino a aeinenoaiao c ??ciith ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano. Aeey e?euee?niiai iieno caeiiii??iinoae, oei?enoe/ia no?oeoo?a
oa?oioaaiue oa ?ioaineai?noue aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano ae?aaeaeenue ca
aeiiiiiaith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a, a?aeiia?aeii – ieoiii?
iiaa?oi? oa ?iaeaen?a iiaa?oi? o?oioeaiic?a.

Iieacaii, ui i?ae iioaioe?eiith aeoeai?noth oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo
o?oiaaioino oa ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano, yeee cae?enith?ony
o aaioae? aiaeii? aeinenoaie, ?nio? i?yiii?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue. A
ca’yceo c oei, ui c iniiaieo ia?aiao??a ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?yaeo :
S/Won(min), S/Won(x), S/Won(max), S/Won(), iaea?eueoo i?iaiinoe/io
aaaii?noue iathoue ia?o? aeaa, aeey ieo io?eiai? eiao?oe??ioe ??aiyiue,
ye? iia’ycothoue aeai? ia?aiao?e c ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano
(?IO):

S/Won(min) =
-2,28+0,3143*?IO,

S/Won(x) = 9,09
1,25 * ?IO,

aea S/Won(min) – i?i?iaeueia iiaeeeaa cia/aiiy ieoiii? iiaa?i? aeey
aeae?a o ?yaeo iioaioe?aeueii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo;

S/Won(x) – na?aaeia cia/aiiy ieoiii? iiaa?i? aeae?a ye? aoiaeyoue
aei oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo;

?IO – aaee/eia ?iaeaen?a iiaa?oi? o?oioeaiic?a.

Aeai? ??aiyiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia iniia? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a S/Wi iae?io?o?a ?ic?aoiaoaaoe aeaee, ye?
aeeaeooue c oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiue, oa aeaee, ye?
iaea?aeaoue ia?aaaae ?icaeoeo o aeiaaeeo ci?ie a aeinenoai? na?aaeiueiai
??aiy cia/aiue ?IO.

Iieacaii, ui a ?yaeo iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo
caeaaei?noue, yea c’ayco? a?iiano iiioeyoe?? c aaee/eiaie ?o ieoiii?
iiaa?oi?, iieno?oueny ??aiyiiyi oeio : A= a * (S/W) -b, yea ni?aaaaeeeaa
ca oiia ?IO = const. Aiae?c aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo aeaii? caeaaeiino?
aeey ??cieo ??ai?a aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano (?IO — 10-300 iae.) iieacaa, ui
eiao?oe??io «a» iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ye iino?eia aeee/eia, yea
aei??aith? 13,08. Aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??ioo «b» aeey ??cii?
?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano io?eiaii ??aiyiiy: b =
1,13899-0,00936611*(?IO). Aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo ??aiyiue aeicaiey?
?ic?aoiaoaaoe aaee/eio i/?eoaaii? a?iiane aeey aoaeue-yeiai aeaeo, yeee
oa?eaea

aei no?oeoo?e iiaiai oa?oioaaiiy, a oaeiae ia iniia? S/Won (min) e S/Won
(o)- iaeneiaeueio oa na?aaeith aaee/eio a?iiane aeey ?ineeiiiai
oa?oioaaiiy. Oey caeiiii??i?noue ia? aaaeeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?e
aeei?enoaii? ?ano?n?a aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?, a oaeiae aeai?? ia’?eo?a
ii?aeoeueoo?e a aeinenoaiao c ianoaa?eueiei ??aiai i?iaeooe?eiiai
i?ioeano. ?c nooiaiaaiai oa?aeoa?o caeiiii??iino? aeo?ea?, ui i?e
iaaiiio cia/aii? ?IO iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie a?iiane, ? ye iane?aeie
aeii?ioth/a iieiaeaiiy, aoaeooue iaoe ?ano?ni? aeaee, o yeeo
?iaeea?aeoaeueia cia/aiiy S/Wi(i) iaaeeaea?oueny aei cia/aiiy S/Won(min)
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?yaeo. Naia oae? iiioeyoe?? ?icoaoiaothoueny o cii?
iaea?eueoiai aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo. Ca oiiae ca?eueoaiiy a aeinenoai?
iieaciee?a ?IO ia iaaio aaee/eio aeai? aeaee ia?oeie iieiythoueny ca
iaaeaie ?yaeo ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? oa caeeoathoue no?oeoo?o
oa?oiioaaiiy.

E?i?eiee ca’ycie i?ae aaeiaith i?iaeoeoe??th iae?io?o?a oa
?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano: I = b0+ b1 * ?IO, iiaea aoaee
aeinoia??ii e?euee?nii ae?aaeaiee o?eueee ca oiiae S/W = const. A
ca’yceo c oeei ia iniia? aiae?co i?iaeooe?eieo aeanoeainoae iae?io?o?a c
??ciith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noth (S/Wi: 10-170 i2.ea-1) io?eiai?
??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooie?a b1 e bi aeey ??cieo cia/aiue ye ie?aieo
iiioeyoe?e oae ? ia?aiao?a? oi?enoe/iiai ?yaeo oa?oiioaaiiy:

b1 = 0.007842 + 0.143036 / S/W

b0 = 0.084520 + 5.5208 / S/W

Nenoaia oeeo o?ueio ??aiyiue aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe aeey iaaiiai ??aiy
?IO aaeiao i?iaeoeoe?th iiioeyoe?? (ia iniia? cia/aiue S/Wi(i)), a
oaeiae na?aaeith i?iaeoeoe?th oa?oioaaiiy oa eiai aeii?iaio?a, ia iniia?
— S/Won(x) aai S/Won(min).

IIAeAEUe IA?AAOAeIAE NO?OEOO?II-OOIEOe?IIAEUeII? I?AAI?CAOe??
OA?OIOAAIUe AIAeII? ?INEEIIINO?

Ia iniia? aiae?co no/anieo iaoiae?a iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aaaaoiaeaeiaeo oa?oioaaiue iieacai? i?eioeeiia? iaoiaeieia?/i?
a?aei?iiino?, ye? aoee aeei?enoai? i?e noai?aii? iiaeae? ia?aaoaeiae
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino, aiie
neeaaeathoueny ?c oaeeo iieiaeaiue:

— no?oeoo?a ?ineeiiiai oa?oioaaiiy e?euee?nii aeeeaaeaeanue c
aeiiiiiaith iieaciee?a, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue iioaioe?eio ooieoe?iiaeueio
iiaeeea?noue iiioeyoe?e, ye? aoiaeyoue aei eiai neeaaeo;

— eiiieaen aa?ioe/ieo oiia ?icaeyaeaany ye ciai?oi?e oaeoi?, ui aecia/a?
i?ioean naiii?aai?caoe?? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo ?ineeiiiai oa?oioaaiiy;

— aeeiai?/ia ??aiiaaaa aoea i?eeiyoa ye iniiaa iaoai?cio, yeee
i?eaiaeeoue o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?ioaineai?noue iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a??
(oaeoi?), iniaeeaino? ainaiaeth oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo (oi?ia) oa
?ioaineai?noue i?iaeooe?thaaiiy ?ineeiii? a?iiane (ooieoe?y);

— iio?e ?a/iaeie oa aia?a?? e?euee?nii ae?aaeaany ca aeiiiiiaith
?iaeaen?a iiaa?oi? aaioinii? ?ineeiiino?.

Aeai? iniaeeaino?, a oaeiae eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae i?ae
aeaiaioaie aeeiai?/ii? nenoai?: oaeoi? — ooeoe?y — oi?ia aeaee
iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeoaaoe i?iaiinoe/io iiaeaeue, yea a?aeia?aaea? i?ioean
oi?ioaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao??a o?oiaaioino i?e ci?i? a aeinenoai?
?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano (iae.3). Ia?anoaaiiyi ii in? Z,
iiaeeeai caaeaaaoe oiiae i?iaiico ca’ycai? c ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano, aa- /e aeaaao?io?eaoee?th aeinenoaie. Inue X a?aeia?aaea?
a?aeiia?aei? e?euee?ni? ci?ie, ye? aoaeooue a?aeaoaaoeny o ?yae?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo. Inue Y , o ia?oiio
aeiaaeeo, oa?aeoa?eco? aaee/eio a?iiane, o ae?oaiio – i?ny/io
i?iaeoeoe?th, eio?o aoaea ooai?thaaoe aeae o iiaea?ei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
aaee/eie nai?? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? — S/Wi(i) (inue X) oa
?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano yeee a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeinenoai? —
EIO ( inue Z).

Aeeeaaeai? caaaeuei? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae iiaeae?, i?iaiinoe/i?
iiaeeeaino? oa aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo i/?eoaaieo ci?i o oei?enoe/iiio
neeaae?, a?iian? oa i?iaeoeoe?? iiioeyoe?e oa oa?oioaaiue aeiiii?
?ineeiiino? ca oiia ci?ie cia/aiue ?IO, iia’ycaieo c ??aiai
aao?io?eaoe?? aeinenoaie.

Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeae? aoei iienaii iaoai?ci ci?ie
aeii?iaio?a ?ineeiiiai oa?oioaaiiy i?e ci?i? ??aiy aao?io?eaoe??.
Iniiaia nooue oeueiai iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e c?inoaii? a aeinenoai?
aaee/eie ?IO a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii ca?eueoo?oueny cia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai
ia?aiao?a ?yaeo iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo. Oeae
i?ioean i?eaiaeeoue aei caeiiii??ii? ci?ie aeii?iaio?a ?ineeiieo
oa?oioaaiue ca i?eioeeiii ca?eueoaiiy ?o ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?.

?icaeyiooi io?eiaio ca aeiiiiiaith caeiiii??iinoae aeeiai?eo
i?iaeooe?eieo ia?aiao??a oa?oioaaiue aeey anueiai iiaeeeaiai o
i?e?iaeieo oiiaao niaeo?o ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano.
Aeaiaa?oeiiee oa?aeoa? e?eai? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? c iaeneioiii a
ie?aio?ioieo oa a?ia?o?ioieo oiiaao, a oaeiae i?i?iaeuei? cia/aiiy
i?iaeoeoe?? aaioinii? ?ineeiiino? o ae?aiacii? 50-70

Iae. 3. Iiaeaeue aca?iica’yceo no?oeoo?e (S) oa ooieoe?? (F) o?oiaaioino
c ?ioaineai?noueth iioieo ?a/iaeie oa aia?a?? (Q).

iae. ?IO iiyniththoueny ia?aaoaeiaith oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e, i?e ye?e
niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo aeniea oaeaee?noue cieaeaiiy aaaiaeo
oa?aeoa?enoee o iae?io?o?a o ii??aiyii? c iaeiiee?oeiieie aiaei?inoyie.

?icaeyaea?oueny no?oeoo?a oa i?aeoe/i? iiaeeeaino? i?eeeaaeii? i?ia?aie
aeey AII «O?oiaenia?oeca», yea noai?aia ia iniia? iiaeae? oa
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aeie?a. Aeie «Ii?oieia?y» aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
aaoiiaoeciaaiee ?ic?aooiie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a aeey
iae?io?o?a aoaeue-yei? ii?oieia?/ii? aoaeiae. Aeie «Ioe?iea» aeicaiey?
i?iaiaeeoe ia iniia? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ? a?iiane
o?oiaaioino aeni?an-aenia?oeco ??aiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano oa ci?ie
a?ae?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua o ?acoeueoao?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iae?io?o?a. Aeie «I?iaiic» cae?enith? i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i
o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae?, a?iian? oa i?iaeoeoe?? oa?oioaaiiy o?oiaaioino,
ye? aoaeooue i?ioiaeeoe aiane?aeie ?acoeueoaoo aao?io?eaoe?? aai c ?ioeo
i?e/ei, ui aeceaathoue ci?ie ??aiy aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano.

AIEEA ssEINO? AIAeIIAI NA?AAeIAEUA OA NOANO?AO?A IA II?OIOOIEOe?IIAEUeIO
I?AAI?CAOe?TH OA?OIOAAIUe AIAeII? ?INEEIIINO?

Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae, e?euee?nii aeaoa?i?ioth/ee a?aeiineie
i?ae oiiaaie na?aaeiaeua oa no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiith i?aai?caoe??th
o?oiaaioino, a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iia?aoeaieo
iaoiae?a aeni?an-ioe?iee noaio aiaeieo aeinenoai ia iniia?
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? o?c?iiii?? ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue. Iienai? ?aaeoe??
iae?io?o?a ia ??ai? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, ?iaeeaeaea, iiioeyoe??,
oa?oioaaiiy, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue ci?io ii?oieia?/ieo oa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ca oiiae ca?eueoaiiy o?ioiino?
aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua (iae.4). Cai?uaiiy aiane?aeie aao?io?eaoe??
aaeeeeo, a?oai?icaaeoaeaieo ieanoei/aoeo aeae?a, ae??aieie
oiiei?icaaeoaeaieie oeee?iae?e/ieie oi?iaie ?aaeeeaeueii ci?ith?
ii?oieia?/io o?c?iiii?th ?ineeiiiai oa?oioaaiiy. Ci?ia aaaaoi??/ieo
oa?oioaaiue, aeaiaioaie yeeo ? iecueeii?iaeoeoeai? iae?io?oe c
iaaaeeeith ieoiiith i?iaeoeoe??th, anioe?aoe?yie aiaei?inoae c aenieith
anei?eyoe?eiith iiaa?oiath oa oaeaee?noth iaa?oo a?iiane i?ecaiaeeoue
aei oiai, ui i?e ia?aoiae? a?ae ie?aio?ioieo aei aao?ioieo oiia
o?oiaaioin ?c a?iaeoioeyoi?a i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie ia?aoai?th?oueny a
ia’?eo, yeee iineeth? i?ioean aoi?eiii? aao?io?eaoe??. Aeey aecia/aiiy
ia??iaeo aeeo/aiiy ?ineeiii? a?iiane c iaoith caiia?aaiiy iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a a?ia?i?iaeoeoe?? iienaii ??aiyiiy, yea ca’yco? ia??iae
aeeo/aiiy aeiiane (/an

Iae. 4. Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ?aaeoe?? iae?io?o?a ??cieo ??aiae
i?aai?caoe?? ia ca?eueoaiiy o?ioiino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua.

?oeioaaiiy neai?a) oa ieoiio iiaa?oith iae?io?o?a: O = 2.56+853.03 /
(S/W).

Aenieee nooi?iue caeaaeiino? i?ae ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiith i?aai?caoe??th
iae?io?o?a oa ??aiai i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano, a oaeiae iayai?noue
aiie??/ieo aeaieo, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o aaioinii? ?ineeiiino?
o anueiio niaeo?? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano, a?ae ie?aio?ioieo oiia
Aioa?eoe/iiai ocaa?aaeaey aei a?ia?o?ioiiai ??aiy ieaaiaaeo aeinenoai
aeaeueoe Aeoiath, aeicaieea cai?iiiioaaoe o?ioi-nai?ia?iioio
eeaneo?eaoe?th aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua ia iniia? ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi?
aaioinieo aiaei?inoae (oaae.2).

Iieacai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
o?oiia?inoaiiy caeaaeii a?ae yeino? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? noano?ao?a a
ii?nueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Io?eiaii e?euee?ni? caeaaeiino?, ye? caycothoue
ieoiio iiaa?oith oaa?aeiai noano?aoo (o?oiiiceoeaia iiaa?oiy) o
?ic?aooieo ia iaeeieoeth ia’?io aiaeii? oiau? c ??ciiiai?oieie
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieie ia?aiao?aie aeueaiia?inoaiiy, ui aeicaiey?
?ic?aoiaoaaoe eiie?aoi? ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/i? eiao?oe??ioe i?e
i?iaeooaaii? oa ?icoaooaaii? a?ae?io?i?/ieo nii?oae, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo
ia aoaea niinoa??aaoeny aoaeo aoi?eiii? aao?io?eaoe?? i?e ?iceeaae?
?ineeiii? a?iiane. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia iiaeeeaiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano a eieaeueieo ciiao i?eaa?aaeieo aeinenoai,
caniiaaia ia aeei?enoaii? iaaii? e?eueeino? oa yeino? aio?iiiaaiiiai
noano?aoo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai iiaeeeai ?aae?coaaoe aaoio?ioiee i?ioean
/a?ac iae?ioi?ie aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?. Aeaia noaia oaoi?/ii ni?iuo?
oi?aae?iiy aaoio?ioiei i?ioeanii o ii??aiyii? c? noeaia???i ?aae?caoe??
i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano /a?ac i?e?ioi?ie ieaieoiiieo aiaei?inoae. Ia
iniia? ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo i?e ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo o?oiaaioino, aea?oueny eiie?aoia ae??oaiiy i’yoe
iniiaieo ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo caaaeaiue aeey noaie, ui i?iiiio?oueny:

— ioe?iea ao?aeiiai ??aiy o?ioiino? i?eaa?aaeii? aeinenoaie, a ye?e
ieaio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe ?aaoethaaiiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano;

— aecia/aiiy oeio noano?aoo oa aaee/eie o?oiiiceoeaii? iiaa?oi? i?e
ooo/iiio aianaii? aei aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oaa?aeiai noano?aoo;

— i?iaiic oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e, i?iaeooe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa ci?ie
a?ae?io?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua aiane?aeie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?oiia?anoaiiy, yea noi?ioaaeiny ia ooo/iiio a?ioii?;

— aecia/aiiy ia??iaeo aeeo/aiiy ?ineeiii? a?iiane aeey i?aeo?eiaiiy
iaiao?aeii? yeino? aiaeiiai na?aaeiaeua oa iaaeiiouaiiy aoaeoo
aoi?eiiiai caa?oaeiaiiy;

— i?iaiicoaaiiy aeae?a, ui aoaeooue neeaaeaoe iniiao ?ineeiii? a?iiane,
c iaoith i?iaaaeaiiy iiia?aaei?o iiooeiai-oaoiieia?/ieo ?ia?o c
aeyaeaiiy ei?enieo aeanoeainoae ?ineeiii? a?iiane, iaea?aeoaaii? c
o?oiiiceoeaieo iiaa?oiiue.

Oaaeeoey 2. O?ioi-nai?ia?iioia eeaneo?eaoe?y na?aaeiaeua ia i?aenoaa?
ia?aiao??a iiaa?oi? oa?oioaaiue aaioinieo aiaei?inoae.

No/aniee Ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiEE NOAI ? i?iaiic ci?i o?oiaaioino
oe?a?inueeiai oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y

Ia iniia? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea no/anii?
i?inoi?iai? oa oei/aniai? i?ieeaino? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? i?eaa?aaeieo o?oioeaiic?a iae?io?oiaaioino oe?a?inueeiai
oaeueoo.

Iieacaii, ui ia ae??aiiianooaaio i?inoi?iao aaoa?iaaii?noue
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aaioinii? ?ineeiiino? aieeaathoue oae?
/eiieee, ye i?ici??noue, aeniiceoe?y oa eiioeaio?aoe?y i?e?iaeiiai aai
aio?iiiaaiiiai noano?aoo, eieaeuei? aeaea?aea aao?io?eaoe??,
iica?/i?noue a?ioiio. Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee no/anieo aaeeeiianooaaieo ci?i
iicia/aiue a ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei?e i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii? ?ineeiiino?
io?eiaia ea?oa ?iciiae?eo cia/aiue ?IO aeey o?oiaaioino oe?a?inueeiai
oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y, yea iaeii/anii a?aeia?aaea? o?io?/iee noaoon
??cieo ae?eyiie ocaa?aaeaey.

?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino? naciiii?, i?ae??/ii? oa o?eaaei? aeeiai?ee
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino. Iieacaii, ui
iniiaiee i?eioeei naciiii? ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?e o?oioeaiico iieyaa? a
oiio, ui ci?ia aeae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeiia?aeii c aaee/eiith ?oiuei?
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? (S/Wi) a i?yiii?iii?oe?ei?e caeaaeiino? a?ae
ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano (?IO) i?ioyaii ?ieo. Aiae?c
i?ae??/ii? aeeiai?ee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a
i?eaa?aaeiiai o?oiaaioino Aeoiaenueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai iaaee??//y ca
inoaii? 17 ?ie?a iieacaa aeinoia??ia cieaeaiiy c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a
?aae?ciaaii? ooieoe?? i?eaa?aaeii? ?ineeiiino?, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i
oaiaeaioe?th cieaeaiiy ??aiy o?ioiino? aeaiiai ?aeiio (iae.5). Iieacaii
oa?aeoa? oa aecia/aii ia?aeiii? iiiaioe ? oaiaeaioe?? o o?eaae?e
aeeiai?oe? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa
?ioaineaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eaa?aaeiiai o?oiaaioino
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y ca inoaii?e 40-??/iee ia??iae.
Iaea?eueo ?noioi? ci?ie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? o?c?iiii?? ?ineeiieo
oa?oioaaiue a?aeaoeeny a ia??iae 70-o — 80-o ?ie?a, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue cai?iith iecueeiooieoe?iiaeueieo aeae?a (o?eioi?a,
oeenoic??a) aeaeaie c aenieith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath (oeueaa, eeyaeioi?a,
aioa?iii?oa, oea?ai?oi). O 80-o ?ieao a?aeaoeany noaa?e?caoe?y oeueiai
i?ioeano. C 90-o a?aecia/aia oaiaeaioe?y cieaeaiiy aaee/ei ?IO oa aeaye?
ci?ie o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae?, iia’ycai? ?c iiyaith aeae?a-anaeaioe?a.
iei? aeaiee i?ioean

Iae. 5. Aeeiaieea ooieoe?iiaeueiie aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo (1)
oa ?ioain?aiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano (2) i?eaa?aaeiiai o?oiaaioino
Aeoiaenueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai i?ae??//y i?ai?/ii-cao?aeiie /anoeie *i?iiai
ii?th ii ?ieai.

ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny e?euee?niith ci?iith ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?
oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? i?eeeaaeaii? i?ia?aie aeey AII
“O?oiaenia?oeca”, aeeeaaeai? oa i?iaiae?ciaai? na??? i?iaiicieo
?ic?aooie?a ci?ie no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aiaeii?
?ineeiiino? aeey ae?eyiie oe?a?inueeiai ocaa?aaeaey, ui a?ae??ciythoueny
iioaioe??th oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e oa ?ioaineai?noth aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano. Aeey i?eaa?aaeiiai o?oiaaioino Iaeanueei? caoiee, yeee
noaiiaeoue iaea?eueo oeiiao aeiiio ?ineeii?noue ii??niaii-aao?ioii?
aeaaoi??? i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y, i?iaaaeai? na???
i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a aeey neooaoe?e, ui iiaeaeththoueny – 75 oa 100
iae. ?IO. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iieacaee, ui ?aaeeeaeuei? ia?aaoaeiae,
iia’ycai? c cai?iith aeii?iaio?a no/anieo oa?oioaaiue a?aeaoaeooueny
o?eueee o aeiaaeeo ca?eueoaiiy aao?io?eaoe?? aei 100 iae ?IO, ui ?
iaeieiia??iei noeaia???i o ca’yceo c no/aniith oaiaeaioe??th cieaeaiiy
??aiy aao?io?eaoe?? Aeoiaenueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai iaaee??//y. A?aoiaoth/e
no/anio aeieia?/io neooaoe?th, a?eueo ?iia??ii i/?eoaaoe iaae?iiy
cia/aiue ?IO aei 35 – 40 iae. ?IO, i?e yeiio iiaea a?aeaooeny
?aeiino?oeoe?y ?ineeiii? no?oeoo?e c a?aeiiaeaiiyi ca?inoae oeenoic??e,
ui aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey oeueiai ?aeiio o 60-o? ?iee.

Aeey aeiiii? ?ineeiiino? A?eai??anueeiai eeiaio (i?ai?/ia I?e/i?iiii?’y)
i?iaaaeai? i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee aeey neooaoe?e, ui iiaeaeththoueny – 70
oa 90 iae. ?IO. A?eueo iecueea iioaioe?y oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e
?ineeiiino? eeiaio, iia’ycaia c iayai?noth ii?nueeeo o?aa, aeey yeeo
oa?aeoa?i? iecuee? cia/aiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino?, ? i?e/eiith
oiai, ui e?eoe/iee aa?’?? ?aaeeeaeueii? ci?ie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii?
o?c?iiii?? aeiiieo o?oioeaiic?a ? a?eueo iecueeei, o ii??aiyii? c
Iaeanueeei ocaa?aaeaeyi: ??aaiue aao?io?eaoe?? ??aiee 70 iae. ?IO.

C iaoith aeaiiino?aoe?? oe?ieeo i?iaiinoe/ieo iiaeeeainoae caniao oaeiae
i?iaaaeai? i?iaiici? ?ic?aooiee aeey caio?aii? ?ineeiiino? ieaaiaai?
aeinenoaie aeaeueoe Aeoiath. Aeniea iica?/i?noue oiia ieaaiaai?
aeinenoaie ? i?e/eiith e?aeiuei? iaiaeii??aeiino? ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo (S/Won(min) – 10 i2.ea-1; S/Won(max) –
2000 i2.ea-1; S/Won(x) – 260 i2.ea-1) oa ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai
i?ioeano (?IO min – 20 iae; ?IO max – 350 iae; ?IO o – 80 iae.). I?e
oaeeo iniaeeainoyo no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aaoio?ioieo
oa?oioaaiue aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe i?iaiic e?eoe/ieo cia/aiue ?IO, i?e
yeeo aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny ?aaeeeaeueia ia?aaoaeiaa no?oeoo?e c cai?iith
aeii?iaio?a ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue.

Iieacaii, ui ?ic?aooieia? aaee/eie, iaea?aeai? ca aeiiiiiaith

cai?iiiiiaaiiai caniao oa i?eeeaaeii? i?ia?aie “O?oiaenia?oeca”,
a?aeiia?aeathoue aii??e/iei aeaiei aeey ??ciiiai?oii?
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino iaeanueeiai ia
75-80 %.

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1. Aiae?c ?noi??? oa no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii?nueeiai o?oiaaioino
na?ae/eoue, ui iniiai? iaoiaeieiai-oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee iia’ycai? c
?aaeoe??th no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? iae?ioeo?a ia ci?io
oiia aeinenoaie , o ae?eniee /an, aeeiiothoueny a iaaeao
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai iai?yieo.

2. Aeei?enoyiiy nenoaiii-???a?o?/iiai i?aeoiaeo, ye iniiaii?
iaoiaeieia?? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aiaeii? ?ineeiiino?
aeicaiey? ca aeiiiiiaith i?iaeaie “Oaeoi? – Ooieoe?y – Oi?ia”, yea
?icaeyaea? ??aiiaaaeii-aeeiai?/io nenoaio: aiaeia na?aaeiaeua –
iae?io?oe, i?ae?eoe aei ??oaiiy caaeaiiy e?eueeeniiai iieno i?ioean?a
naiii?aai?caoe?? oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiue aiaeieo aeinenoai.

3. Caaaeaiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa i?iaeooe?eieo
ia?aiao??a o?oiaaioino, aeiaaa? e?euee?nii? oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e oa ooieoe?? ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue. O ca’yceo c oeei eiiieaen
ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe o yeino?
?ino?oiaoo e?euee?niiai iieno iioaioe?? no?oeoo?e – ae?aaeaiiy
iioaioe?aeueii? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? aeae?a ca aeiiiiiaith
ieoiii? iiaa?i? (S/Wi) oa ?aae?ciaaii? ooieoe?? ca aeiiiiiaith ?iaeaen?a
iiaa?oi? (?II, ?IO).

4. Ia?ao?ae a?ae nenoaiaoe/ii? aei aeieia?/ii? oi?ie a?aeia?aaeaiiy
no?oeoo?e aiaeii? ?ineeiiino? o aeaeyae? ?yae?a ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? iiioeyoe?e, ye? aoiaeyoue aei oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo, ?
iniiaith e?eueeeniiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ia?aaoaeiae aeaeiaiai neeaaeo
o?oiaaioino i?e ci?i? ??aiy o?ioiino? aeinenoaie.

5. Oi?ioaaiiy oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? e?euee?nii? a?aeiia?aeiino? iniiaieo
ia?aiao??a a ia?ae?eo iioaioe?eii? aeoeaiino? iae?io?o?a, ?ioaineaiino?
aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano. Aeaee, ?iaeea?aeoaeueia ooieoe?iiaeueia
aeoeai?noue (S/Wi) yeeo ? ieae/ith cia/aiiy S/W(min) ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
?yaeo, aeoiaeyoue c no?oeoo?e oa?oioaaiiy. Ia?aaaae ?icaeoeo io?eiothoue
aeaee, S/Wi yeeo iaeneiaeueii iaaeeaeathoueny aei S/Won(x) oei?enoe/iiai
?yaeo. Aeaee c aenieei cia/aiiyi S/Wi ia iathoue iaiaaeaiiy aeey
i?enooiino? a no?oeoo?? oa?oioaaiiy.

6. A?iiana oa i?iaeoeoe?y iae?io?o?a ? iio?aeieie a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano

?ineeiiino?. O ca’yceo c oeei eiao?oe?aioe ??aiyiue io?eiai? ii iniia?
aiie?e/ieo caeaaeiinoae : A=f (S/W), ca oiiae ?IO=const oa I=f (?IO) ca
oiiae S/W=const, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?iaiicoaaoe aaee/eie a?iiane oa
i?iaeoeoe?? o?eueee o o?ueioi??i?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao, yaea iaeii/anii
a?aoiao? ci?io ?ioaineaiino? aaoio?ioiiai i?ioeano oa ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo oa?oioaaiiy.

7. Nooue iaoai?cio ci?ie aeii?iaio?a ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiiue i?e
aao?io?eaoe?? aeinenoaie iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?e c?inoaii? ?IO
ca?eueoo?oueny cia/aiy ia?aiao?o, ui iaiaaeo? oei?enoe/aiee neeaae —
S/Won(min). I?e oeueiio aeaee ye? aoee aeii?iaioaie oa?oiioaaiue oa
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeaith ieoiiith iiaa?oiath iiioeyoe??
iieiythoueny o cii? iaea?eueoiai aeieia?/iiai ?eceeo oa onooiathoue
i?noea aeaeai c a?eueo aenieith ooieoe?iiaeueiith aeoeai?noueth.

8. A i?ioean? aao?io?eaoe?? a?aeaoaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? iiaa?oi?
no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a neai?, oaeii?a oa iiioeyoe?e. Ia ??ai? oa?oioaaiiy
?ioaa?aeueiee ?acoeueoao oeeo ?aaeoe?e aeyaey?oueny o ?aaeeeaeuei?e
ci?i? ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? o?c?iiii?? o?oioeaiic?a: aaeee? aaaaoi??/i?
a?oai?icaaeothaeaeai? ieanoei/ao? aeaee c iaaenieith ieoiiith
i?iaeoeoe??th cai?iththoueny ae??aieie ei?ioeioeeee?/ieie
oiiei?icaaeoaeaeaieie oeee?iae?e/ieie aenieii?iaeoeoeaieie oi?iaie.
Aiane?aeie oeeo ?aaeoe?e i?e aao?io?eaoe?? aeinenoaie o?oiaaioin c
a?iaeoioeyoi?a i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie o?ainoi?io?oueny o ia’?eo, ui
iineeth? i?ioean aoi?eiii? aao?io?eaoe??.

9. E?oiiiianooaaia i?inoi?iaa ioe?iea ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino a iaaeao oe?a?inueei? aa?aaiai? e?i?? *i?iiai
ii?y aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe o?e ciie: iacio?ioio (E?einueeee i?aino??a oa
caoiee i?ai?/ii-cao?aeii? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y); aao?ioio
(Aeoiaenueei-aei?i?ianueea iaaee??//y oa eeiaie i?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y); iie?o?ioio (ieaaiaa? aeinenoaie).

10. Aiae?c iaae??/ii? aeeiai?ee no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
o?oiaaioino Aeoiaenueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai iaaee??//y ca 17-??/iee ia??iae
na?ae/eoue, ui c 90-o ?ie?a ia oii? noaa?eueiiai ??aiy ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/ii? no?oeoo?e (S/Won(o)) a?aeaoeiny aeinoia??ia
cieaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a: ?IO, a?iiane oa aaeiai?
i?iaeoeoe??, ui iiynith?oueny e?ieii cai?ciaiiy i?e ci?i? no?oeoo?e oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ineeiieo oa?oioaaiue.

11. Aiae?c o?eaaei? aeeiai?ee ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a
i?eaa?aaeieo o?oioeaiic?a Aeoiaenueei-Aei?i?ianueeiai iaaee??//y ca
inoaii?e 40-??/iee ia??iae na?ae/aoue, ui iaea?eueo ?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie a
no?oeoo?? oa ooieoe?? o?oiaaioino o ca’yceo c i?ioeanii aao?io?eaoe??
a?aeaoeeny a ia??iae c 70-o aei 80-o ?ie?a. A 80-o ?ieao niinoa??aaany
i?ioean noaa?e?caoe?? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? aeiiii?
?ineeiiino?. Aeinoia??i? ci?ie, ui aaea a?aeaoeeny a ooieoe?iiaeueieo
ia?aiao?ao oa ii/aee a?aeaoaaoeny o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae? i?eaa?aaeieo
o?oioeaiic?a, ii/eiath/e c 90-o ?ie?a, na?ae/aoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th
cieaeaiiy aao?io?eaoe?? oa noaa?e?caoe?th aeieia?/ieo oiia a
i?eaa?aaei?e cii? oe?a?inueeiai oaeueoo *i?iiai ii?y.

12. Na??? i?iaiicieo ?ic?aooie?a ye? aeeiiai? aeey aeinenoai c ??ciith
i?aai?caoe??th aaioinii? ?ineeiiino? (ii?nuee? ocaa?aaeaey, eeiaie,
ieaai?) na?ae/aoue, ui e?eoe/i? ii?iae ia?aaoaeiae oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo
oa?oioaaiue c ?aae?eaeueiith ci?iith ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? o?c?iiii??,
caeaaeaoue ia o?euee? a?ae ci?ie ??aiy i?iaeooe?eiiai i?ioeano yeee
aeeeeea?oueny aio?iiiaaiiith aao?io?eaoe??th aai ?ioeie /eieaie, aea ?
a?ae ii/aoeiai? ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeoeaiino? oei?enoe/iiai neeaaeo, yea
aecia/a? iioaioe?th ?ineeiii? no?oeoo?e

13. A?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae ?ic?aooieiaeie aaee/eiaie, iaea?aeaieie c
aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo i?iaiico oa aii??e/ieie aeaieie
iieueiaeo ioe?iie o?oiaaioino, neeaaea? a na?aaeiueiio 75%. Oea aea?
i?aenoaao aeei?enoaoe i?eeeaaeio i?ia?aio “O?oiaenia?oeca” ye i?aeoe/iee
?ino?oiaio iia?aoeaiiai i?iaiicoaaiiy ci?i no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? o?oiaaioino i?e aa-aai aeaaao?io?eaoe?? ii?nueeeo oa
i??niiaiaeieo aeinenoai ??ciiai oeio.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? C OAI? AeENA?OAOe??

1. A??iaiei O.E., Ieie/aaa A.A. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeiiiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe Aai?euoeeiai caeeaa // I?e?iaeiua
eiiieaenu *a?iiii?neiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeinoa?iiai caiiaaaeieea. –
Eeaa : Iaoe.aeoiea. — 1992. — N. 48-55.

2. Alexandrov B., Lonin S., Minicheva G., Tuchkovenko V. A
three-dimersional prognostic model of the ecosystem of the north-western
part of the Black Sea // Environment protection technologies for coastal
areas. – Varna : Union of Scientists in Bulgaria, Publ. Group. — 1995. —
?. 131-141.

3. Minicheva G. Prediction changes of the marine vegetation in the
conditions of euthrophication of the coastal ecosystems // Partvership
in Coastal Zone Management Samara Pub.Lim., 1996. — P. 541-547.

4. Alexandrov B., Garkavaya G., Dyatlov S., Ivanov A., Minicheva G.,
Polischuk L., Sinegub I. The Influence of the Ecosystem of the
Stentsovskie-Zhebrianskie Marshes in the Danube Delta // Limnologische
Berichte Donau 1997, Band I Wissenschaftliche Referate. 32 Konferenz.
Der IAD Wien / Osterreich. — 1997. — P.179-184.

5. Minicheva G. The relationships of structural-functional organization
of ecosystems of submersed vegetation with the water velocity in the
Danube wetland ecosystem // Limnologische Berichte Donau 1997, Band I
Wissenschaftliche Referate. 32 Konferenz. Der IAD Wien / Osterreich. —
1997. — P. 205-206.

6. Ieie/aaa A.A. Aiciiaeiinoue oi?aaeaiey ea/anoaii ii?neeo i?ea?aaeiuo
aiae n iiiiuueth aiaeiie ?anoeoaeueiinoe // Aiaea e caei?iauea-98.-
Iaeanna: Ano?ii?eio.-1998.-N.345-349.

7. Ieie/aaa A.A. I?iaiice?iaaiea no?oeoo?u oeoiaaioina n iiiiuueth
iieacaoaeae iiaa?oiinoe aiaei?ineae // Aioaie/aneee aeo?iae. — 1990. —
O.75, ? 11. — N. 1611-1618.

8. Ieie/aaa A.A. Naycue i?iaeoeoeeiiiuo e ii?oieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia o
ieanoei/aoie aiaei?inee Porphyra leucosticta Thur // Yeieiaey ii?y. —
1991. — Aui.37. — N. 45-49.

9. Oaeeia E.I., Eiaa?aeaeia N.A., Ieie/aaa A.A., Oiaeaaa A.E. Naycue
niaea?aeaiey oei?ioeeea, eioaineaiinoe oioineioaca e ?inoa n aaee/eiie
oaeaeueiie iiaa?oiinoe ii?neeo iiiaieeaoi/iuo aiaei?ineae // Oeceieiaey
?anoaiee. — 1991.- O.38, ? 2. — N. 346-351.

10. Ieie/aaa A.A. Aeeiiao?e/aneee iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey oaeaeueiie
iiaa?oiinoe aiaei?ineae-iae?ioeoia // Aeueaieiaey. — 1992. — O.2, ? 4. —
N. 93-96.

11.Ieie/aaa A.A. No?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
niiauanoa ii?neeo aaioiniuo aiaei?ineae // Aeueaieiaey. — 1993. — O.3,
?1. — N. 3-12

12. Ieie/aaa A.A., A??iaiei O.E. Aeueaieiae/aneea iaoiaeee a
naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe *??iiai ii?y // Aeueaieiaey. — 1993. — O.3, ? 4.
— N. 83-87.

13. Ieie/aaa A.A. Aeeiaieea e aeieaia?aiaiiua eciaiaiey ia?aiao?ia
iiaa?oiinoe oeoiaaioina naaa?i-caiaaeiie /anoe *??iiai ii?y //
Aeae?iaeieiae/. ae. — 1996. — O.32, ? 4. -N. 3-9.

14. Ieie/aaa A.A. Iaoiae i?iaiica i?iiuneiauo aeaeia ii?neiai
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Aiioaoe?y

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Aeena?oaoeey ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ii
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i?aaeaiieo ii??a ?i. I.I.Eiaaeaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, Naaanoiiieue, 1998.

A ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iiaee iai?yiie ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueii? aeieia??
oa?oioaaiue aaaaoiee?oeiieo aiaei?inoae. Ia iniia? nenoaiii-???a?o?/ii?
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aeinenoai. Ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?ii eiiieaena iieaciee?a
c?niiaaieo ia ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao?ao aiaei?inoae-iae?ioeo?a,
e?euee?nii iienai? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? caeiiii??iino? ia?aaoaeiae
oa?oioaaiue o?oiaaioino. Ia oeeo caeiiii??iinoyo ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue oa
i?eeeaaeia i?ia?aia aeey AII “Oeoiyenia?oeca”, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiicoaaoe
ci?ie o oei?enoe/iiio neeaae?, a?iian? oa i?iaeoeoe?? iae?io?o?a i?e aa
— aai aeaaao?ioeeaoe?? aeinenoai. ?ic?iaeaiee can?a
ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiie ioe?iee oa i?iaiico aea? iiaeeea?noue ??oaiiy
i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy ?ineeiieie oa?oioaaiiyie a i?ea?aaeiuo
aeinenoaiao oe?a?inueei? /anoeie *i?iiai ii?y.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aiaei?ino?-iae?io?oe, ii?oiooieoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e,
ioe?iea, i?iaiic, oi?aae?iiy, aao?ioeeaoeey.

Aiiioaoeey

Ieie/aaa A.A. Ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiua iniiau oi?ie?iaaiey ii?neiai
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Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a aeieiae/aneeo iaoe
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thaeiuo ii?ae IAI Oe?aeiu, Naaanoiiieue, 1998.

A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiie yeieiaee
niiauanoa iiiaieeaoi/iuo aiaei?ineae. Ia iniiaa nenoaiii-ea?a?oe/aneie
iaoiaeieiaee i?aaeeaaaaony eiioeaioeey oi?ie?iaaiey
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiie i?aaiecaoeee aaoio?ioiuo niiauanoa aiaeiuo
yeinenoai. N iiiiuueth ?ac?aaioaiiiai aaoi?ii eiiieaena iieacaoaeae,
iniiaaiiiai ia ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ao aiaei?ineae-iae?ioeoia,
eiee/anoaaiii iienaiu ooiaeaiaioaeueiua caeiiiia?iinoe ia?ano?ieee
niiauanoa oeoiaaioina. Aace?othuayny ia yoeo caeiiiia?iinoyo iiaeaeue e
i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia aeey YAI “Oeoiyenia?oeca”, iicaieytho
i?iaiice?iaaoue eciaiaiey ai oei?enoe/aneii ninoaaa, aeiianna e
i?iaeoeoeee iae?ioeoia i?e ya- eee aeayao?ioeeaoeee yeinenoaiu.
?ac?aaioaiiue iaoiae ii?oi-ooieoeeiiaeueiie ioeaiee e i?iaiica i?eiaiai
aeey ?aoaiey i?aeoe/aneeo aii?inia oi?aaeaiey ?anoeoaeueiuie
niiauanoaaie a i?ea?aaeiuo yeinenoaiao oe?aeineie /anoe *a?iiai ii?y.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaei?inee-iae?ioeou, ii?oiooieoeeiiaeueiua ia?aiao?u,
ioeaiea, i?iaiic, oi?aaeaiea, yao?ioeeaoeey.

Summary

Minicheva G.G. The foundations of morphofunctional forming of the marine
phytobenthos. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 03.00.17 — hydrobiology. —
Institute of Biology of Southern Seas National Academy of Sciences of
Ukraine, Sevastopol, 1998.

In this work the new direction of morphofunctional ecology of seaweed

communities was elaborated. The concept of forming stractural-fanctional
organization of the aquatic autothrophic communities is offered on the
bases of system-hierarchical approach. With the help of complex of
parameters based on morphofunctional parameters seaweed, developed by
the author, changes in quantitative fundamental regularities of
phytobentos communities were described . On the basis of the worked out
model a applied program for IBM “Phytoexpertisa” was created, which
allows automatically to calculate the seaweed’s morpho-functional
parameters, to estimate the level of production of the phytobenthos
community and to forecast changes in the floristic composition, as well
as biomass and production under the eu- or deeutrophication of the
ecosystems. The developed method of morphofunctional estimation and
prediction is applicant for solving practical problems of the plant
community management in the coastal ecosystems of the Ukrainian part of
the Black sea.

Key words: seaweed, morphofunctional parameters, evaluation, predict,
management, eutrophication.

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