Міцність і ширина розкриття тріщин сталефібробетонних елементів, що працюють на згин, армованих фіброю малих розмірів: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. нау

AeIIAANUeEA AeA?AEAAIA AEAAeAI?ss

AOAe?AIEOeOAA ? A?O?OAEOO?E

Naeooai’yia Iaeee Ioiaaea

OAeE
624. 012.4

“I?oei?noue ? oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??uei

noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo

o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a“.

05.23.01 — Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? ? nii?oaee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iae??aea -1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa e
a?o?oaeoo?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
E?e/aanueeee

Ieaenaiae? Iaaeiae/, Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia

aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*eoeaaeca Aeoaaeaea Aeaa?aeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aoae?aaeueii?
iaoai?ee Oa?e?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? cae?cie/iiai o?ainii?oo,

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee *a?aiiiaaaa
A?eai??e A?eoi?iae/, caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?ii ianoaaeaiiy eiino?oeoe?e
?inoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeee I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeo

Aieiaia i?aai?caoe?y Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “21“ o?aaiy 1999 a i 10 aiaeeie ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 12. 085.01. o Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e: (Oe?a?ia, 339023,
Aeiiaoeueea iae., i. Iae??aea, aoe. Aea?aeaa?ia, 2, I iaa/aeueiee
ei?ion, cae can?aeaiue).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaanuee?e
aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee: “20” ea?oiy 1999

A/aiee nae?aoa?
A.A.Iia?aaiye

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi. iaoe,i?ioani?

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A oiiaao ao?oeeaiai ?inoo aoae?aaeueii? ?iaeono???
a e?a?iao, Ac??, Eaoeinueei? Aia?eee e Ao?eee, ui ?icaeaathoueny, aei
yeeo a?aeiineoueny ? ?anioae?ea Caia?y, c’yaey?oueny iaiao?aei?noue
oe?ieiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo, aoaeoeaieo aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a ?
eiino?oeoe?e, ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo oaeeo eiino?oeoe?e,
canoinoaaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?e ? nenoai eiio?ieth yeino? aoae?aieoeoaa.
Aeieea? oaeiae iio?aaa a aoaeoeaiiio aeeiiaii? ?aiiio?a ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
?nioth/eo aoaeeie?a ? nii?oae.

Aei iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo no/anieo aoae?aaeueieo iaoa??ae?a a?aeiineoueny
noaeao?a?iaaoii, yeee caaaeyee aaaaeaiith a aaoiiio iao?eoeth noaeaaeo
aieieii iaea?aeo? ?yae aaaeeeaeo ia?aaaa ia?aae aaoiiii. Noaeaa? aieieia
a aaoiii?e iao?eoe? aenooiathoue a yeino? aioo??oiueiai a?ioaaiiy ?
caaaeyee oeueiio ca?eueoothoueny i?oei?noue ia ?icoya i?e aeaei?, o
na?aaeiueiio, o 1,5 — 2 ?ace ? i?aeaeuothoue aia?a?th ?oeioaaiiy
noaeao?a?iaaoiia a 10 — 20 ?ac?a o ii??aiyii? c aaoiiii. Noaeao?a?iaaoii
aoaeoeaii canoiniao?oueny a eiino?oeoe?yo, aei yeeo iaaeathoueny aeiiae
i?aeaeuaii? o??ueiino?eeino?, aenieiio ii??o oaea?iei ? ciaeiia?ai?iiei
iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Iaoa??ae ia? oaeiae aenieo ii?icino?ee?noue, ei?ic?eio
no?ee?noth ? aiaeiiai?iieei?noue, aeia?ee ii?? ?noe?a?iino? ? aieeao
aenieeo oaiia?aoo?.

Iaeiei c iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo ??ciiaeae?a noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?
noaeao?a?iaaoii, a?iiaaiee o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a (aeiaaeeia aieieii aei
30ii). Aei oeueiai ??ciiaeaeo a?aeiineoueny oi?e?aonoaeao?a?iaaoii, ui ?
aoaeoeaiei iaoa??aeii aeey ?aiiio?a ? iineeaiiy cae?ciaaoiiieo ?
eai’yieo eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae noaeao?a?iaaoii, yeee canoiniao?oueny
aeey aeaioiaeaiiy oiieino?iieo eiino?oeoe?e.

Aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a, o oiio /ene? iaiineiiai iaoiaeii oi?e?aooaaiiy, aeinyaa?oueny
a ?acoeueoao? cieaeaiiy o?oaeicao?ao o 1,5 — 2 ?ace, ianaiia?aae ca
?aooiie aeeeth/aiiy a?iaoo?ieo ?ia?o ? cieaeaiiy iaoa??aei?ieino?
eiino?oeoe?e, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy ?oiuei? aa?oino? i?e iaeii/aniiio
i?aeaeuaii? aenieoaoaoe?eieo yeinoae ? aeiaaia?/iino?. Aeey iineeaiiy
?yaeo cae?ciaaoiiieo nii?oaeaeaiue, ui iathoue aaeeeee o?ce/iee ?ciin,
oaeeo ye neeini? ei?iona, a?aaee?i? ? aoa?euei? aaae?, eiino?oeoe??
iino?a oaoiieia?y oi?e?aonoaeao?a?iaaoiio i?aeoe/ii ia ia?
aeueoa?iaoeae. Aiia aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe iano/ee i?ioa?ie iineeaiiy, ui
ia? aenieo aeiaaia?/i?noue, ii?icino?ee?noue ? ei?ic?eio no?ee?noue, ia
aoaeue-yeeo aaaeeiaeinooiieo iiaa?oiyo eiino?oeoe?e, i?e oeueiio oe?eeii
aeeeth/athoueny o?oaeii?noe? a?iaoo?i? e iiaeoai? ?iaioe. ?iaioa ii
aeine?aeaeaiith oaeeo nii?oae, aeeiiai? a ?yae? aoc?a ? IAe? Oe?a?ie,
cie?aia, o AeAeAAA (A.I.Eaaei), OAOONA (A.E.Oaa?i, N.A.Oii?i), OAAAEO
(A.Ae.*eoeaaeca), Aeiiaoeueeee I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeo (A.A.*a?aiiiaaaa),
na?ae/aoue i?i aaeeeo iio?aao a aoaeoeaieo iaoiaeao ?o iineeaiiy.

I?ioa, canoinoaaiiy oeueiai ia?niaeoeaiiai iaoa??aeo i?e iineeaii? ?
?aiiioao cae?ciaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e aoaeeie?a ? nii?oae no?eio?oueny
/a?ac a?aenooi?noue aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai
o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ? iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo eiino?oeoe?e. Cie?aia,
a?aenooi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? ? ii aecia/aiith oe?eie
?ice?eooy o??uei o noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaioao, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei
?c o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, a oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ii?ioaaiith iii?o
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?anoyao i?e caei?. .A?aenooi? oaeiae ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui
aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe ye?noue oaeiai oeio noaeao?a?iaaoiia.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao iaoeiai — aeine?aeii? ?iaioe, i?iaaaeaii? ii
ainoai? E-3-2-96 «Aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a
?ic?aooieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ?iaeaia?ieo nii?oae c o?aooaaiiyi oaiia?aoo?ii
– aieia?noiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, aeeth/ath/e ?ic?iaeo iaoiae?a ?o
iineeaiiy».

Oe?eue ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy: Oe?eeth aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy
o??uei noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo
o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ? ?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo,
aeine?aeaeaiiy iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a
?icoyao i?e caei? ? ?ic?iaea a?aeiia?aeieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,a oaeiae
?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ioe?ioe? yeino? oaeiai oeio noaeao?a?iaaoiia.

Iinoaaeaii? oe?e? a?aeiia?aeathoue oae? aieiai? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei ? i?oeiino?
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei;

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oeio e e?eueeino? noaeaai?
o?a?e ia ii?? ?icoyao ? aeaoi?iaoe?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e aeaei?, a
oaeiae ia oa?aeoa?enoeee yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia;

— ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii ii?ioaaiith iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia c
o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a ?icoyao i?e aeaei? ? ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
ioe?ioe? eiai yeino?;

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao oeio e e?euee?noue noaeaai?
o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a ia i?oei?noue, coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy ? oe?eio
?ice?eooy o??uei noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a i?e aeaei?;

— ?icaeoie iiaeae? aeaoi?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiiiiai aeaiaioa, ui
i?aoeth? ia caei c o??ueiaie, ia aeiaaeie eiai a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a ? ?ic?iaea ia oe?e iniia? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy oe?eie ?ice?eooy
o??uei o oaeeo aeaiaioao;

— ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? oa aecia/aiith coneeue
o??ueiiooai?aiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei,
?c o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a;

— cae?eniaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe.

O yeino? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? noaeao?a?iaaoii? aaeee
c iaae??cii, a oaeiae noaiaea?oi? eoae ? i?ecie, aeaioiaeai? c?
noaeao?a?iaaoiia.

Iaoeiao iiaecio ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeathoue:

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i i?oei?noue ? oe?eio ?ice?eooy o??uei
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith
iaeeo ?ici???a, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co ?oiueiai
iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio;

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? ? iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a,
?icoyao i?e aeaei?;

— oiiae, ui caaacia/othoue aoaeoeai?noue a?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia
o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a;

-iaoiaeeea ioe?iee yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a ? aeniiaee i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue noaeao?a?iaaoiia, c
??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a, aeiiaai yeino? ia iniiaieo
noaae?yo iaaaioaaeaiiy aeaiaioa, ui i?aoeth? ia caei;

-iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui
i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a;

-iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei o noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo
aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, ?c o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, yea
aaco?oueny ia iiaeeo?eiaai?e iiaeae? aeaoi?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo
aeaiaio?a ?c o??ueiaie ?icaeiai?e o oe?e ?iaio?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui i?iaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeueii — oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? noai?ththoue iaiao?aei? oiiae aeey oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
noaeao?a?iaaoiia c o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, cie?aia aeey canoinoaaiiy
oi?e?aonoaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e iineeaii? ? ?aiiio? cae?ciaaoiiieo
eiino?oeoe?e. Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei ? ?ic?aooiie
i?oeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, aea?
iiaeeea?noue ca?eueoeoe iaae?ei?noue i?iaeoieo ??oaiue.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaeeee aeicaieeee aoaeoeaii canoinoaaoe
oi?e?aonoaeao?a?iaaoii i?e iineeaii? ? ?aiiio? ?yaeo eiino?oeoe?e
aoaeeie?a ? nii?oae, aeeiiaieo oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeei NI “NOAEII“, o
oiio /ene? iiiie?oieo cae?ciaaoiiieo ia?ae?eoo?a ? iiiie?oii?
cae?ciaaoiiii? iaieiiee a?aaee?i?.

Iniaenoi io?eiai? aaoi?ii ?acoeueoaoe:

— ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?oeiino? ? oe?eie
?ice?eooy o??uei, a oaeiae ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iai?oaeaii —
aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia
caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a;

— oiiae aoaeoeaiino? a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a ? ooieoe?? aieeao
o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ia ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei?;

— ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ioe?ioe? yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith
iaeeo ?ici???a, ? aeniiaee, ui aei i?eionoeiiai ae?aiaciio eiai
aenieoaoaoe??;

— iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? ? coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith
iaeeo ?ici???a;

— — iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei o aeaiaioao, ui
i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee iiaeai? ia
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa
e a?o?oaeoo?e (Iae??aea 1995-1998 ??) ia ia?o?e ?anioae?eainuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii cae?ciaaoiio (Ee?a, 1997 ??e) ? ia tha?eaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? ?inoeoooo Aeiiaoeueeee I?iiaoaeIAe?i?iaeo (Aeiiaoeuee,
1997??e).

Ioae?eaoe??: Ii oai? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 4 ae?oea?nueeeo ?iaioe a
ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

No?oeoo?a e ianya ?iaioe: Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?noeoue aaaaeaiiy, 4
?icae?ea, aieiai? aeniiaee, nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoee.
Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 149 noi??ieao, o oiio /ene? 99 noi??iie
aieiaiiai oaenoo, 12 .noi??iie nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, 36 .iiaieo noi??iie ?c
iaethieaie ? oaaeeoeyie, 2 noi??iee aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O aaaaeaii? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai? oe?eue ?
caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?eaaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai?
aaoi?ii, iieacaia ?o iaoeiaa iiaecia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ?icae?e? 1 i?iaiae?ciaai noai i?iaeaie ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei. Aeeiiai iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e ii o?ueii iai?yieai: no?oeoo?a, i?oei?noue ? aeaoi?iaoeai?
aeanoeaino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia; eiio?ieue yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia;
aenia?eiaioaeueii — oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiaee ?ic?aooieo
i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui
i?aoeththoue ia caei.

I?e aiae?c? no?oeoo?e noaeao?a?iaaoiia ? aeine?aeaeaii? eiai i?oeiino? ?
aeaoi?iaoeaieo aeanoeainoae o aieiaiiio ?icaeyaeathoueny oae? ieoaiiy,
ye aieea aeaeo, e?eueeino?, i???ioaoe?? ? oi?ie noaeaai? o?a?e, a oaeiae
no?oeoo?e ? i?oeiino? aaoiiii? iao?eoe? ia i?oei?noue, aeaoi?iaoeai?noue
? o??ueiino?ee?noue noaeao?a?iaaoiia. Oe? i?iaeaie ciaeoee a?aeaeoie o
/eneaiieo ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo a/aieo:. A.A. A?ii/eea,
A.ss. Aa?aoeeiaa, I.A. Aieeiaa, A.A. Aaooi, E. Eaaayoe, A.A. Eo?aaoiaa,
I.A. Ei?ioeoaanueeiai, I.I. E?e/aanueeiai, A.E. Eenaiea, A. Iaeaeey,
O.I. ?aa?iiae/a, A.E. Oaeaeoeiaa, A. O?eea?ai?aa, A. Oi?oa?oa, A
Oithoaaia., O. Ooaiaaiaa?aa. , O..Ooaiaa ? aaaaoueio ?ioeo a/aieo.

?iaioe, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith aieeao o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a
(picscalex1000100090000031c010000020015000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
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00000fb0220fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d6
16e000069040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac0012a00010000006c0
015000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526
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0660015000000fb0220fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e65772
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00000333010000000fb0220fe000000000000bc02000000020002001053796d626f6c000
2040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ac0013c0201000000a3000a00000
026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000c
c0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000 ?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 ia iniiai? o?ceei-iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, aeyaeeeny
aeoaea ia/eneaiieie, o ?oiueiio /ene? ?iaioe I. E?enoainaia ? N.I.
E?e/aanueeiai.

Caaaeyee i?enooiino? noaeaai? o?a?e a aaoiii?e iao?eoe? c?inoa?
i?oei?noue ia inueiaee ?icoya ?, iniaeeai, ia ?icoya i?e aeaei?, oiio ui
a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo iaea?eueo iiaii aeyaey?oueny ni?iiiaei?noue aei
ia?a?iciiae?eo iai?oa ii ianyc? c?acea. Ia ??no iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia
?icoyao aecia/aeueiee aieea ?iaeyoue oae? /eiieee, ye a?aeiioaiiy
aeiaaeeie noaeaai? o?a?e aei ae?aiao?a
picscalex100010009000003e70000000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00220051200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffafffffffe00400006f0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000800015000000fb02c0fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000069040000002d01000008000000320a380246040100000066000800
0000320a3802f50001000000660015000000fb0220fe0000000000009001010000000402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000069040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320ac001fb0201000000640008000000320ac0012a00010000006c0015000000
fb0220fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00
0069040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320ac0011b02010000002f000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020000
00cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000030000000000
, oi?ia ? aeae iiaa?oi? noaeaai? o?a?e, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie o?a?e
? ?ici??o e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a. Oae, i?e ca?eueoaii? a?aeiioaiiy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?ae 20 aei 100 i?e i?enooiino? o?a?e ii?yaeeo 1% a?ae ianyao aaoiiii?
iao?eoe? i?oeiinoue ia ?icoya c?inoaea ia 50%. A on?o ?iaioao
a?aecia/a?oueny aaeeeee aieea noaeaai? o?a?e ia niaaeio a?eeo ae?aa?aie
aeaoi?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e ?icoyao ? aeaei?, ui aeyaey?oueny a
iiya? ia a?ao?eao “iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei“ niaaeii? a?eee cia/ii?
i?ioyaeiino?, o aaaaoi ?ac?a ia?aaaaeath/o niaaeio a?eeo aeey aaoiio.

Ieoaiiy ioe?iee yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ? aeoaea aeooaeueiei aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeueiai iiaiai iaoa??aeo, ui i?ecaaei aei iiyae a ?yae?
e?a?i ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? noaiaea?o?a ii ioe?ioe? eiai yeino?. O
aia?eeainueeiio noaiaea?o? ASTM-C1018-92 ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ioe?ithaaoe
ye?noue noaeao?a?iaaoiia oeyoii ?nieoo aaei/ie ?ici??aie 10o10o40ni,
aeei?enoiaoth/e 4-o e?aieiao noaio iaaaioaaeaiiy, ? ii io?eiaieo
a?ao?eao “iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei“ aecia/aoe ?iaeaene yeino? I5, I10 ? I20
i?e o?eniaaieo cia/aiiyo i?iaei?a. Oea aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ye?noue
noaeao?a?iaaoiia aeey iniiaieo noaae?e iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio
aeaiaioa, ui i?aoeth? ia caei.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iii?o noaeaoea?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei? oe?iea
iioe?aiiy iaea?aeaea iaoiaeeea i?iaoeueeeo ii?i (Merkblatt), ui
aeicaiey? ii ae?aa?ai? a?ao?ea “iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei“, io?eiaii? i?e
?nieo? noaiaea?oieo noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie, aecia/aoe ii??
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei? aeey o?ueio ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/ie:
oi/ea 1 a?aeiia?aea? ooai?aiith o??uei, oi/ea 2 — ?iaio?
noaeao?a?iaaoiia c o??ueiith iaiaaeaii? oe?eie ?ice?eooy, ui
i?eionea?oueny ii ii?iao aeey noaae?? aenieoaoaoe??, oi/ea 3 —
ae/a?iaiith iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiii? aaeee.

Iiaeae?, ui iienothoue ?iaioo noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e aeaei? ? aacothoueny
ia ??ciiiai?oieo oai??yo i?oeiino? aaoiia ? eiiiiceoieo iaoa??ae?a ia
iaea?aeaee oe?ieiai iioe?aiiy. Iaea?eueo no/aniith ? iiaiith ? iiaeaeue
Ooaiaa-Aa?a, ui aaco?oueny ia oaiiiaiieia?/ieo i?aeoiaeao. Aiia
aeinoaoiuei iiaii ? a??ia?aeii iieno? iai?oaeaii -aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, ui
aeieea? a noaeao?a?iaaoiii?i aeaiaio? i?e aeaei? a i?ioean? ooai?aiiy ?
?ice?eooy o??ueie, a oaeiae o noaae?? ?oeiaoe??. Iiaeaeue i?eionea?
iiae?e caeiaiiai aeaiaioa ii aeiaaeei? ia ciio ?ioaineaiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aeiaaeeiith lcb (ciio ?iaioe c o??ueiith) ? ciie oi?oai?
?iaioe iaoa??aeo. Ia iniia? oe??? iiaeae? io?eiai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo caeiaieo
aeaiaio?a. I?ioa, iniaeeaino? ?iaioe noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai
o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, cie?aia i?oei?noue ? oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??uei o
caeiaieo aeaiaioao, aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Aeey oeueiai oeio
noaeao?a?iaaoiio a iiaeae? Ooaiaa-Aa?a a?aenooi? iniiai? ia?aiao?e, ui
aeicaieythoue iienaoe eiai iiaaae?ieo i?e iaaaioaaeaii? ? iiaoaeoaaoe
iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei. Aeoiaey/e c
aiae?oe/iiai iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e noi?ioeueiaai? oe?eue ? caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiue.

O ?icae?e? 2 iienaia iaoiaeeea ?nieo?a noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie.
Aaeee ?ici??aie 15o15o60ni, a oaeiae 15o8o60ni ? 15o20o60ni iaee iaae??c
o oeaio?? i?ieueioo c aieo ?icoyaiooi? ciie ? i?ecia/aeeny aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo
caeiaieo aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae aeey aecia/aiiy ia?aiao??a, iaiao?aeieo
aeey aiae?co ?oiueiai iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio. Aaei/ee
?ici??aie 10o10o40ni i?ecia/aeeny aeey aea/aiiy aieeao oeio ? e?eueeino?
noaeaai? o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee yeino? ? ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?oeiinoi? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, cie?aia aeey aecia/aiiy
iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia a 3-o ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/eao, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
ooai?aiith o??uei (ia?aiao?e/ia oi/ea 1), ?oiueiio iaiaaeaiiio
?ice?eooth (ia?aiao?e/ia oi/ea 2) ? ae/a?iaiith iano/i? ni?iiiaeiino?
iaoa??aeo (ia?aiao?e/ia oi/ea 3) ii iaoiaeeoe? i?iaoeueeeo ii?i
(Merkblatt), yea iaaaaeaia o oeueiio ?icae?e?.

Aeey c?ace?a iaio oei?a aoei ia?aaeaa/aia a?ioaaiiy aeaiia oeiaie
noaeaai? o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a — oaeeynoi? oeio O-1
(picscalex1000100090000039e010000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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 ? i?yii? oeio O-3
(picscalex100010009000003ae010000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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, a oaeiae ?oiueith noi?ooth. O aenia?eiaioao ia?aaeaa/ai? oaeiae
aa??aoe?? neeaaeii aaoiiii? iao?eoe?, e?euee?noth noaeaai? o?a?e
eiaeiiai oeio, a oaeiae aecia/aeiny iioeiaeueia niieo/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oei?a o?a?e. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue noaeaai? o?a?e,
aaaaeaii? o aaoii, ci?ithaaeanue a?ae 0,5% aei 2% ianyao aaoiiii?
noi?o?. Aoei i?eeiyoi aeaa neeaaee aaoiiii? iao?eoe?, iaeei ?c yeeo iaa
iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? caiiaithaa/a aei 10ii ? a?aeiia?aeaa ii neeaaeo
oi?e?aonoaeao?a?iaaoiio, a ae?oaee iaa iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? caiiaithaa/a
aei 20ii ? a?aeiia?aeaa neeaaeo iiiie?oiiai noaeao?a?iaaoiia. ?acii ?c
aaeeaie eiaeii? na??? aaoiioaaeeny eoae 10o10o10ni, 15o15o15ni ? i?ecie.
?nieoe noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie ?c iaae??cii i?iaaaeeeeny ia
niaoe?aeueiiio iaeaaeiaii?, yea ?icoaoiaoaaeinue ia i?an?, ui aeicaieyei
noai?thaaoe iaiao?aeiee ?aaeei iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aei??thaaoe an? ia?aiao?e
aenia?eiaioo ia o?eueee ia ano?aei?e, aea ? ia niaaei?e a?eoe? ae?aa?ai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaeee. O i?ioean? ?nieoo i?iaaaeeeeny aei??e ?ici???a
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui i?eeeaaea?oueny a?aeiinieo aeaoi?iaoe?e ? i?iaei?a
aaeee, oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie ? ?? aeiaaeeie.

?nieo aaei/ie ?ici??aie 10o10o40ni ia aeaei i?iaaaeeeiny ia
niaoe?aeueiiio iaeaaeiaii? c iaoith iiaoaeiae a?ao?e?a
“iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei”. ?ici?? iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui i?eeeaaea?oueny
eiio?iethaaany ca aeiiiiiaith c?aceiaiai aeeiaiiiao?a AeINI 3-5, a
i?iaeie — ca aeiiiiiaith ?iaeeeaoi?a aiaeeiieeiaiai oeio c oe?iith
?iciiae?eo 0,01ii. ?acoeueoaoe ?nieoo oeeo aaeie aoee aeei?enoai? aeey
aecia/aiiy iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei? a o?ueio
ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/eao ii iiaeeo?eiaai?e aeey aaeie aeaieo ?ici???a
iaoiaeeoe? Merkblatt ? aeey aecia/aiiy ?iaeaen?a yeino? ca iaoiaeeeith
ASTM -C 1018-92. Ii iiaeeo?eiaai?e iaoiaeeoe? Merkblatt iaaaioaaeaiiy
P1, ui a?aeiia?aea? oi/oe? 1, a?aeooeoaaeiny ye iaeneiaeueia
iaaaioaaeaiiy, io?eiaia a ?nieoao, a iaaaioaaeaiiy P2 ? P3, ye /anoea
a?ae ae?e?iiy ieiu? i?ae e?eaith P- ia ae?eyioe?, ui a?aeiia?aea?
caaeaiei i?iaeiai 2 ? 3, ia ?ici?? a?aeiia?aeiiai i?iaeio, oiaoi ii
a?aeiia?aeii? aia?a?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy aaeee. ?iaeaene yeino? aecia/aeeny
ii o??? ae e?ea?e P-, ye a?aeiioaiiy aia?a?? aeaoi?ioaaiiy
noaeao?a?iaaoiii?e aaeee aeey o?ueio caaeaieo i?iaei?a aei aia?a??
aeaoi?ioaaiiy a i?oaeii? noaae?? ? iio?i niiinoaaeyeenue c aiaeia?/ieie
iieacieeaie aeey ?aeaaeueiiai i?oaeii-ieanoe/iiai iaoa??aeo. ?nieo
c?ace?a ia inueiaee noene i?iaaaeeany ii noaiaea?oieo iaoiaeeeao,
iienaieo o AINO 10180-90.

O ?icae?e? 3 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei?, anoaiiaeai?
oiiae aoaeoeaiino? a?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a ?
ooieoe?? aieeao ??ciiiai?oieo oei?a ? e?eueeino? o?a?e ia ii??
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei? a ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/eao, ?ic?iaeai?
i?iiiceoe?? ii ii?ioaaiith aeanoeainoae ? ioe?ioe? yeino?
noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e aeaei?, a oaeiae anoaiiaeai? ae?aiaciie eiai ?iaioe
i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi i?e a?ioaaii? ??ciiiai?oieie oeiaie o?a?e iaeeo
?ici???a. Caaaeueiei aeey an?o a?ao?e?a «iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei» ?
ca?eueoaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, yea ni?eeia?oueny aaeeaie, ?
iiyaa niaaeii? a?eee cia/ii? i?ioyaeiino? i?e aaaaeaii? a aaoiiio
iao?eoeth noaeaai? o?a?e. Anoaiiaeai? aieiai? /eiieee, ui caaacia/othoue
aoaeoeai?noue o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy, oiaoi ??no iaeneiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? iie?ioaiiy oi?ie ae?aa?aie «iaaaioaaeaiiy-i?iaei», ui
aeicaiey? iaaeeceoe ?? ii oi?i? aei ae?aa?aie I?aiaeoey. Aei ieo
a?aeiineoueny oei o?a?e (eiino?oeoe?y aieieia) ? ?? e?euee?noue o
aaoiii?e iao?eoe?, a oaeiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie o?a?e ?
iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o caiiaithaa/a. Aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, c
iaeneiaeueiei ?ici??ii e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a aei 20ii aoaeoeai?noue
a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith oeio O-3 aeiaaeeiith 12,5ii aeyaeeany aeoaea
iaaenieith, ?ici?? iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca?eueoeany eeoa ia 20%
i?e 1% ia’?iiiai a?ioaaiiy, oiae? ye canoinoaaiiy o?a?e oeio O-1, ui
iaea aeiaaeeio 28ii, aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe ?ici?? iaeneiaeueiiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy a 1,5-1,6 ?aca. A?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia, ui iaa ?ici??
e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a aei 10 ii, o?a?ith oeio O-3 aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe
?ici?? iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaeeo a 1,73 ?aca i?e 1%
ia’?iiiai a?ioaaiiy. Iaea?eueoa aoaeoeaiei aeaeii a?ioaaiiy aeyaeeany
noi?o o?a?e oeio O-1 ? O-3 (“o?a?iaee eieoaeeue”). I?e 2% ia’?iiiai
a?ioaaiiy oaeith o?a?iaith noi?ooth aoei io?eiaii a?eueo, i?o aeaoe?aoia
ca?eueoaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaeeo a ii??aiyii? c
aaoiiiith aaeeith. ?noioii iie?iooaaeany a oeueiio aeiaaeeo ?iaioa
(oi?ia ae?aa?aie) noaeao?a?iaaoiia ia niaaei?e a?eoe? — ?ici??
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? ooai?aiith o??uei, caeeoaany o
iiaeaeueoiio iino?eiei aai iaa?oue aeae?eueea c?inoaa i?e ca?eueoaii?
i?iaei?a aaeie a?eueo, i?ae o 3 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c i?iaeiaie, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue ooai?aiith o??uei. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aenia?eiaio?a
aeicaieeee noi?ioethaaoe oae? aea? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai
a?ioaaiiy:

— aeiaaeeia o?a?e iiaeiia ia iaio, i?ae o i?aoi?a ?aca ia?aaa?ooaaoe
iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a;

— iiaeiia aooe caaacia/aia iaae?eia c/aieaiiy o?a?e c aaoiiiith
iao?eoeath oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aieieii, ui iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie
aei ae?aiao?a ia iaioa 80 ? (aai) aoaeoeaio oi?io aieieia.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ici??e ia?aoeio aaeie o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ae?aiacii?
ia ?iaeyoue ?noioiiai aieeao ia caeaaei?noue «a?aeiiniee ?ici??
iaaaioaaeaiiy — i?iaei» aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie. Ii ae?aa?ai?
“iaaaioaaeaiiy — i?iaei” aoee aecia/ai? cia/aiiy iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia
?icoyao a 3 ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/eao ? anoaiiaeai aeae ooieoe?e aieeao
a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a (?en.1), ye? oaeiae caeaaeaoue a?ae
oeio ? e?eueeino? i?enooii? o?a?e ? a?ae aeio?eiaiiy oiia aoaeoeaiino?
o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aaaaeaii? a aaoiiio iao?eoeth
aei 2% noaeaai? o?a?e oeio O-1 ? O-3 ? ?oiuei? noi?o? i?e aeio?eiaii?
oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia a oi/oe? 1
c?inoa? a 1,7-2,2 ?ace a ii??aiyii? c i?oeiinoth iao?eoe? (?en.1a, 1a).
Ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao a oi/oe? 2 oaeiae caeeoaany aenieei ?
neeaaeaa 66%-107% a?ae iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao a oi/oe? 1 (?en.
1a, 1a). Aeey ia?aiao?e/ii? oi/ee 3 ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao
caa??aaany ia ??ai? 33%-76% a?ae iii?o a oi/oe? 1 ? caeaaeaa a?ae oeio ?
e?eueeino? o?a?e a aaoiii?e iao?eoe?. O aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy oiia
aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy aaee/eia iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia aeey
an?o ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/ie aoea iaaaaaoi iaioa, i?ae aeey aeiaaeeo
aoaeoeaiiai a?ioaaiiy (?en. 1a ? 1a -a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith oeio O-2, ?en .1a
? 1a — a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith oeio O-3 i?e iaeneiaeueiiio ?ici???
caiiaithaa/a aei 20ii).

?en.1 Aieea o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a ia ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?acoyao i?e
aeaei? aeey ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/ie 1 ? 2. a) oi/ea 1, D=10 ii., a)
oi/ea 2, D=10 ii., a) oi/ea 1, D=20 ii., a) oi/ea 2, D=20 ii. Oeie
oea?e: 1 – O-1, 2 – O-2, 3 – O-3, 4 – O-1 (1%) + O-3 (vario). D-
— iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? caiiaithaa/a

Oi/eaie iicia/ai? yenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy, e?i?yie – ?o
aii?ieneiaoe?y.

Ooieoe?? aieeao a?ioaaiiy o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a oeio O-1 ? O-3 ia ii??
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao aeey ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/ie 1,2 ? 3 i?e
aeio?eiaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy i?iiiio?oueny
iienoaaoe oi?ioeith:
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 ( 1)

aea ??f – aaee/eia o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy a i?ioeaioao a?ae ianyao aaoiio;
kij ? nij — aii??e/i? ia?aiao?e aeey a?aeiia?aeii? ia?aiao?e/ii? oi/ee,
ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oeio o?a?e; i — oei canoiniaaii? o?a?e, j — iiia?
ia?aiao?e/ii? oi/ee.

Aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai noi?ooth aeacaieo oei?a o?a?e,
ooieoe?th aieeao ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aecia/aoe ii o??? ae oi?ioe?,
aeei?enoiaoth/e i?eioeei iaeeaaeaiiy aieeao ie?aieo oei?a o?a?e
(i?eioeei aaeaeeoeaiino?). O aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy oiia aoaeoeaiino?
o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy (o?a?a oeio O-2 ? o?a?a oeio O-3 i?e iaeneiaeueiiio
?ici??? e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a aei 20ii) oi?ioea aeey aecia/aiiy ooieoe?e
aieeao o?a?e ia ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao ia? ?ioee aeae.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?nieo?a noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie ? ?oiueiai ianooiiiai
ii?aoethaaiiy ii iiaeeo?eiaai?e iaoiaeeoe? Merkblatt aoee io?eiai?
ae?aa?aie «iai?oaeaiiy-aeaoi?iaoe??» noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e ?icoyao.
Io?eiaii 2 oeie ae?aa?ai, ui ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny oi?iith niaaeii?
a?eee. Aeey aeiaaeeo o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy aac ii?ooaiiy oiia eiai
aoaeoeaiino?, i?ney ooai?aiiy o??uei ia ae?aa?aiao a?aecia/a?oueny
aeayeee ??no iai?oaeaiue i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo o 3-4 ?ace ia?aaeuoth/eo
aeaoi?iaoe?? o?aueiiooai?aiiy. Aeey aeiaaee?a ?c ii?ooaiiyi oiia
aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy a?ae?aco ae i?ney ooai?aiiy o??uei ia
ae?aa?aiao a?aecia/a?oueny ?ioaineaia iaae?iiy iai?oa o
noaeao?a?iaaoii?, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iiaaia c/aieaiiy noaeaai? o?a?e c
aaoiiiith iao?eoeath. Ii/aoeiaee iiaeoeue i?oaeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia
i?e ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? noaeaai? o?a?e ci?ithaaany iacia/ii ? iaei
a?ae??ciyany a?ae ii/aoeiaiai iiaeoey i?oaeiino? aaoiiii? iao?eoe?.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ?ic?aooieia? iii?e noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao aecia/aoe
oeyoii iiiaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o ?icoyao aaoiiii? iao?eoe?,
aecia/a?iiai ii NIeI 2.03.01 — 84, ia ooieoe?th aieeao o?a?iaiai
a?ioaaiiy. C?noaaeaiiy io?eiaieo o oaeee niin?a ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue
?c aecia/aieie c aenia?eiaioo ii iiaeeo?eiaai?e iaoiaeeoe? Merkblatt
na?ae/eoue i?i ?oith aa?io ca?aei?noue — aeey an?o ia?aiao??a, ui
c?noaaeyeeny, ??cieoey ia aeoiaeeea ca iaae? 9%. I?ioa, aeei?enoaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?eionea?oueny, ia iaoo aeoieo, eeoa i?e
i?iaeooaaii? neeaaeo noaeao?a?iaaoiia, i?ecia/aii? eeano aaoiiii?
iao?eoe?, oeio ? e?eueeino? o?a?e aeey ?? a?ioaaiiy. I?e ?ic?aooieo
i?oeiino? ? o??ueiino?eeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e
i?iiiio?oueny ?ioee i?aeo?ae — aeey eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai aeiaaeeo
i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe ?ic?aooieia? oa?aeoa?enoeee noaeao?a?iaaoiia ca
?acoeueoaoaie ?nieo?a 6 noaiaea?oieo noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaei/ie ?ici??ii
10o10o40ni. Oea aeicaieeoue ooi/ieoe ?oi? cia/aiiy aeey aeoaea
??ciiiai?oieo oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia, ui
canoiniaothoueny o aeaiee /an ? a?aeiia?aea? i?aeoiaeia?, i?eeiyoiio a
i?iaoeueeeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo ia i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoe?e i?iieneiaeo
iie?a ? oiiaeae ?c noaeao?a?iaaoiia. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ?nieo?a oeeo aea
aaei/ie i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe ?iaeaene yeino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia. Oaeei
/eiii, aeey ioe?iee iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao i?e aeaei? ?
ia?aiao??a eiai yeino? i?iiiio?oueny eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae.

Anoaiiaeaii aenieo aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeeee eiio?ieth yeino?
noaeaoea?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ?c aecia/aiiyi
?iaeaen?a yeino? i?e o?eniaaieo cia/aiiyo i?iaei?a. Oey iaoiaeeea
aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe a?aeiia?aei?noue noaeao?a?iaaoiia iaiao?aei?e
yeino? ia an?o aoaiao eiai ?iaioe i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi. Cie?aia,
?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieth yeino? aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a ?c
noaeao?a?iaaoiia aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe, ui aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia,
a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith oeio O-1 ? O-3, a oaeiae ?oiueith noi?ooth i?e
aeio?eiaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy iaiaaeaiiy ae?aiaciio
eiai ?iaioe ia an?o noaae?yo iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia aa?oi
ia?aaeaa/aoe. O aeiaaeeo iaaeio?eiaiiy oeeo oiia noaeao?a?iaaoii,
a?iiaaiee o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, aeioe?eueii canoiniaoaaoe o?eueee a
eiino?ooeeyo, ui i?aoeththoue aac o??uei.

O ?icae?e? 4 iiaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue i?oeiino? ? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo
aeaiaio?a c iaae??cii, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a.

Aieea o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ia coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy, i?eaeecii,
a?aeiia?aeaa eiai aieeao ia iii? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao aeey
ia?aiao?e/ii? oi/ee 1. I?e aeio?eiaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai
a?ioaaiiy aaaaeaiiy 1% o?a?e oeio O-1 o aaoiiio noi?o i?ecaaei aei ?inoo
coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy a 1,5-1,63 ?aco, a a?ioaaiiy noi?ooth o?a?e
oeio O-1 ? oeio O-3 o e?eueeino? 1,5% ia’?iiiai a?ioaaiiy i?aeaeueei
coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy, i?eaeecii, o 2 ?ace. Coneeeth o??ueiiooai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeaee aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoyao noaeao?a?iaaoiia a ae?aiacii?
(18-27)o10-5. Aiie ia?aaa?ooaaee a 1,5-2 ?ace aeaoi?iaoe?? aaoiio a
iiiaio ooai?aiiy o??ueie a aaoiiieo aaeeao, ui neeaaeaee (11-13)o10-5.
Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ?noioia iie?ioaiiy ?iaioe aaoiiii? iao?eoe? ia ?icoya
i?e aaaaeaii? noaeaai? o?a?e.

I?ney ooai?aiiy o??ueie aieiaiee aieea ia caeaaei?noue caeiaeueiiai
iiiaioo a?ae oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie i?e iino?ei?e oaeaeeino?
ca?eueoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ?icoyaiooi? ciie aaeee iathoue oei o?a?e,
e?euee?noue aaiaeeii? o aaoiiio noi?o o?a?e ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie
o?a?e ? iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a. Aeey
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith oeio O-3, yea i?e ?ici???
e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a aei 20 ii ? iaaoaeoeaiith, niinoa??aaeiny
?ioaineaia cieaeaiiy caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo ?c ?inoii oe?eie ?ice?eooy
o??uei ? a noaae??, aeecueei? aei ?oeiaoe??, a?i neeaaeaa eeoa 0,4-0,45
a?ae coneeey ?oeiaoe?? a aaoiii?e aaeoe?. Aeey coaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie,
a?iiaaieo o?a?ith oeio O-1, i?ney ooai?aiiy a ieo o??uei ia o?eueee ia
a?aecia/aeiny ciaioaiiy iiiaioo, aea niinoa??aaany eiai aeayeee ??no i?e
oe?ei? ?ice?eooy o??uei aei 0,1 ii ? ianooiia aeoaea iacia/ia cieaeaiiy
iiiaioo i?e ?ice?eoo? o??ueie aei 2 ii. Aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie,
a?iiaaieo noi?ooth o?a?e O-1 ? O-3, a?aecia/aany cia/iee ??no
caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo i?ney ooai?aiiy o??uei ? i?e oe?ei? ?? ?ice?eooy
aei 0,1 ii ? ianooiia ieaaia ciaioaiiy caeiaeueiiai iiiaioo i?e
ca?eueoaii? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei aei 2ii.

Aiae?c iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie ?c
iaae??cii c o?aooaaiiyi ?ice?eooy iaeeii/ii? o??ueie ? iia’ycaii? c oeei
ia?ai?iiith aei?noe?noth aeaiaioa ii eiai aeiaaeei? aoa aeeiiaiee ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie “NOAO?A,» ?ic?iaeaii? ia iniia? iiaeae?
Ooaiaa-Aa?a. O iiaeae? aeae?ey?oueny ciia ?ioaineaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy
aeaiaioa, ui i?aoeth? ia caei a ?aeii? o??ueie, o ye?e cina?aaeaeai?
iai?oaei? aeaoi?iaoe??, ? i?eieeath/? aei ia? /anoeie aaeee, ui
i?aoeththoue a oi?oaie noaae??. Aieiaieie ia?aiao?aie iiaeae?, ui aoee
aecia/ai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaio?a, ? caeaaei?noue i?ae
iai?oaeaiiyie a noaeao?a?iaaoii? i?ney ooai?aiiy o??ueie ? oe?eiith
?ice?eooy o??ueie ? aeiaaeeia ciie ?ioaineaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy lcb.
Caeaaei?noue “iai?oaeaiiy — oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??ueie” aeey
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a (?en.2),
ci?ith?oueny a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio o?a?e, ??
e?eueeino? ? a?ae aeio?eiaiiy oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy.
Aeey o?a?e oeio O-1 ? noi?o? O-1 ? O-3 a?aecia/a?oueny aeio?eiaiiy
aenieeo cia/aiue iai?oaeaiiy i?e ca?eueoaii? oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie
aei 0,8-1,0 ii, a iio?i ?oi? ieaaia cieaeaiiy. Aeey o?a?e oeio O-3 i?e
ii?ooaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy a?aecia/a?oueny
?ioaineaia iaae?iiy iai?oaeaiue ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ? noaa?e?cac?y c
?inoii oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei. Aeey aiae?oe/iiai iieno oeeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo caeaaeiinoae ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
oi?ioeo, cai?iiiiiaaio Ooaiaii:

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ay3/4yAth ???&? ?MathType??o ye?e
ia?aiao?e w0 ? ? aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia c o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a
aecia/ai? c aenia?eiaio?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio ? e?eueeino? o?a?e.

?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy aeiaaeeie ae?eyiee lcb na?ae/aoue, ui aiia
?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie, oeio o?a?e ? a?ae
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?? aeiaaeeie ? ?ici??o e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a. Aeey
noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a aac ii?ooaiiy oiia
aoaeoeaiino? a?ioaaiiy, aaee/eia lcb ?c ?inoii oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie
aeae?eueea c?inoa? i?e oe?ei? ?ice?eooy o??uei 0,2 ii ? iio?i
caeeoa?oueny iino?eiei ?ici??ii, a o aeiaaeeo ii?ooaiiy oiia
aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy — ??cei ciaioo?oueny aaea i?e oe?ei?
?ice?eooy o??uei aei 0,1 ii. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
aenia?eiaio?a ?aeiiaiaeiaai? oae? cia/aiiy aeiaaeeie ciie lcb. I?e
oe?ei? ?ice?eooy o??uei aei 0,1 ii ?? ?ici?? ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ? ??aiei
0,65 h aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith oeio O-1 ? noi?ooth
o?a?e oeio O-1 ? oeio O-3, ? 0,5 h — aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai
o?a?ith O-3 ?c ii?ooaiiyi oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy. I?e
oe?ei? ?ice?eooy o??ueie a?eueo 0,2 ii aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai
aoaeoeaieie oeiaie o?a?e, aeiaaeeia lcb anoaiiaeth?oueny 0,74 h ? aeey
noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai iaaoaeoeaieie oeiaie o?a?e — 0,3 h. O
ae?aiacii? 0,1 ii — 0,2 ii ?ici?? lcb aecia/a?oueny ii ?ioa?iieyoe??.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?co aenia?eiaio?a ia aaeeao aoa oaeiae anoaiiaeaiee
aieea oeio ? e?eueeino? o?a?e ia caeaaei?noue «aenioa ?icoyaiooi? ciie
aaeee -ia?ai?uaiiy a ??ai? ei?aiy o??ueie».

?en. 2 Caeaaei?noue “i?eaaaeai? iai?oaeaiiy — oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??ueie“
aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei

Oiiai? iicia/aiiy i?eaaaeai? ia ?en.1 .

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaia
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie ?c iaae??cii, ui aeeiiai? c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?ia?aie “NOAO?A”, c?noaaeai? c ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaio?a ?
anoaiiaeaia ?oiy aa?ia ca?aei?noue.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ?nieo?a noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aaeie ?c
iaae??cii cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy
aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei c o?aooaaiiyi
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o ?icoyaioo?e cii?. Aeoiaey/e c ?ic?aooieiai?
noaie coneeue, i?eaaaeaii? ia ?en.3a, aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a
i?yiieooiiai ia?aoeio, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei oiiaa o??ueiino?eeino?
ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

I wmetafile8? ??A????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ay»yAu ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????aeawmetafile8? ??I????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? a
???&??yyyy?????Ayµya• ???&? ?MathType??p????u`th?????? I?e
iayaiino? a noaeao?a?iaaoiii?i aeaiaio?, ui i?aoeth? ia caei,
noa?aeiueiai? a?iaoo?e aeey ?ic?aooieo coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee NIeI 2.03.01-84, i?e oeueiio
?ic?aooieia? oi?ioee ei?aeoothoueny oeyoii aaaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaiai
iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ooai?aiith o??uei cai?noue ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o
aaoiio ?icoyao, a oaeiae a?aoiao?oueny eiai i?aeaeuaia a?aie/ia
?icoyaei?noue.

?ic?aooiie oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei o noaeao?a?iaaoiii?i aeaiaio?, ui
i?aoeth? ia caei ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiioaaoe ii i?ia?ai? “NOAO?A”,
?ic?iaeaii? ia iniia? iiaeae? Ooaiaa-Aa?a, aieiai? ia?aiao?e yei? aoee
aecia/ai? ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui caaacia/o?
aenieo aeinoia??i?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a. I?eionoeia oe?eia
?ice?eooy o??ueie anoaiiaeth?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeio
canoiniaoaaii? o?a?e e oiia aenieoaoaoe?? eiino?oeoe??.

?en. 3. Noaia coneeue ? aith?e iai?oaeaiue o iiia?a/iiio ia?aoei?
noaeao?a?iaaoiiiiai

aeaiaioa, ui i?aoeth? ia caei, a) i?e ?ic?aooieo ii ooai?aiith o??ueie,
a). i?e ?ic?aooieo i?oeiino?.

?ic?aooiie i?oeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?ioeththoue ia
caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeeiioaaoe c
o?aooaaiiyi ?icaeoeo ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o ?icoyaioo?e ? noeniooi?
ciiao, aeoiaey/e c ?ic?aooieiai? noaie coneeue, iaaaaeaii? ia ?en.3a.
Oiiaa i?oeiino? aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a i?yiieooiiai ia?aoeio,
ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, ia? oaeee aeaeyae:

I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 0,94 b h 0,5 h =
0,47
picscalex97010009000003be00000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c02c002a0021200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffbcffffff600200007c0200000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000600017000000fb0200ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657
720526f6d616e2043797200cc67040000002d01000008000000320a37018b01010000006
60008000000320a70028b0102000000337417000000fb0260fe000000000000900100000
0cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc67040000002d0101000
4000000f001000008000000320a000240000100000052000a00000026060f000a00fffff
fff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc01020222537973746
56d00cc040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000b h2 ; ( 4)

aea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 — ?ic?aooieiaee ii??
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao.

?ica?aei?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo caeiaeueieo iiiaio?a o
noaae?? ?oeiaoe?? ciaoiaeeeany a iaaeao +3,6% — -2,2%. O aeiaaeeo
canoinoaaiiy noa?aeiueiai? a?iaoo?e ?ic?aooiie i?oeiino?
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
?iaeoe ca iaoiaeeeith NIeI 2.03.01-84 c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaioe
noaeao?a?iaaoiia a ?icoyaioo?e cii?.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaieo ?ic?aooieiaeo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?e ?ic?aooieo
iineeaiiy iiiie?oiiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai aaeeiaiai ia?ae?eooy
noaeao?a?iaaoiiii iieacaei eiai aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ? aeicaieeei cia/ii
i?aeaeueoe i?oei?noue ? o??ueiinoiee?noue iineethaaieo eiino?oeoe??e

INIIAI? AENIIAEE

1.Iayai?noue noaeaai? o?a?e a aaoiii?e iao?eoe? i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ca?eueoaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ni?eeiaiiai aeaiaioaie, ui
i?oeththoue ia caei, ? aei iiyae niaaeii? a?eee aaeeei? i?ioyaeiino? ia
a?ao?eao «iaaaioaaeaiiy — i?iaei». Aieiaieie /eiieeaie, ui aecia/athoue
aieea noaeaai? o?a?e ia aeanoeaino? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, ? oei o?a?e
(eiino?oeoe?y aieieia), e?euee?noue aaiaeei?e o?a?e ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aeiaaeeie noaeaaiai aieieia ? iaeneiaeueiiai ?ici??o e?oiiiai
caiiaithaaa/a aaoiiii? noi?o?.

2. Aoaeoeai?noue a?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a
caaacia/o?oueny i?e aeio?eiaii? oaeeo oiia:

— aeiaaeeia o?a?e iiaeiia ia iaio, ye o 1,5 ?ace ia?aaa?ooaaoe
iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? e?oiiiai caiiaithaa/a;

— iiaeiii aooe caaacia/aii iaae?eia c/aieaiiy o?a?e c aaoiiiith
iao?eoeath oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aieieii, ui iathoue a?aeiioaiiy aeiaaeeie
aei ae?aiao?a ia iaio 80 ? (aai) aoaeoeaio oi?io aieieia, ui caaacia/o?
?? iaae?eio ?iaioo c iao?eoeath.

3.Ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiieo aeaiaio?a, ui
i?aoeththoue ia caei, iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aaee/eiaie iii?o
noaeao?a?iaaoiia a ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/eao 1, 2 ? 3, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue
noaae?? ooai?aiiy o??uei, o noaae?? aenieoaoaoe?? i?e iaiaaeai?e oe?ei?
?ice?eooy o??uei ? noaae?? ?oeiaoe??.

I?e aeio?eiaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy i?e iayaiino?
noaeaai? o?a?e aei 2% a?ae ia’?io aaoiio iii?o noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao
aeey ia?aiao?e/ii? oi/ee 1 ca?eueoo?oueny ia — 170 -220% o ii??aiyii? c
i?oei?noth aaoiio ia ?icoya. I?e aeio?eiaii? oeeo aea oiia ii??
noaeao?a?iaaoiia a ia?aiao?e/i?e oi/oe? 2 i?ney ooai?aiiy o??ueie
neeaaea? 66-107%, a a oi/oe? 3 — 33-76% a?ae ?ici??o iii?o
noaeao?a?iaaoiia a oi/oe? 1.

4. Aieea o?a?e iaeeo ?ici???a oeio O-1 ? O-3 ia ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia
?icoyao aeey an?o ia?aiao?e/ieo oi/ie i?e aeio?eiaii? oiia aoaeoeaiino?
o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny a?aoiaoaaoe ooieoe??th aieeao, yea
aecia/a?oueny ii oi?ioe? (1). Aeey noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai noi?ooth
oeeo oei?a o?a?e, cia/aiiy ooieoe?? aieeao aecia/a?oueny ii o??? ae
oi?ioe?, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?eioeei iaeeaaeaiiy aieeao ie?aieo oei?a o?a?e
(i?eioeei aaeaeeoeaiino?).

5. ?ic?aooieia? iii?e noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
a?aoiaoaaoe ye aeiaooie ?ic?aooieiaiai iii?o ?icoyao aaoiiii? iao?eoe?
ca?aeii NIeI 2.03.01. -84 ia cia/aiiy ooieoe?? aieeao o?a?iaiai
a?ioaaiiy. I?eaaaeaio ?aeiiaiaeaoe?th aa?oi i?ei?iaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii?
neeaaeo noaeao?a?iaaoiia, i?ecia/aii? oeio ? e?eueeino? o?a?e, eeano
aaoiio iao?eoe? ? neeaaeo aaoiiii? noi?o? ? o.ae. I?e ?ic?aooieo
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo eiino?oeoe?e ii a?aie/iei noaiai ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
?ioee i?aeo?ae — aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee noaeao?a?iaaoiia
oeyoii ?nieoo ia aeaei 6 noaiaea?oieo aaei/ie ?ici??aie 10o10o40ni,
aeaioiaeaieo ?c noaeao?aiaaoiia oiai ae neeaaeo ? ii o??? ae oaoiieia??,
ui ? i?iaeoiaaia noaeaoea?iaaoiiia eiino?oeoe?y. Oeei a?aoiaoaa?oueny
iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue oaoiieia?e aeaioiaeaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?
iia’ycaiee ?c oeei ?iceeae eiai aeanoeainoae.

6. Eiio?ieue yeino? noaeaoea?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a,
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?iaeoe oeyoii aecia/aiiy ?iaeaen?a yeino? ca
?acoeueoaoaie ?nieoo oeo aea noaiaea?oieo aaei/ie ?ici??aie 10o10o40ni.
Anoaiiaeaii aenieo aoaeoeai?noue oeueiai iaoiaeo eiio?ieth yeino?
noaeaoea?iaaoiia, oiio yeee aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe a?aeiia?aei?noue
noaeao?a?iaaoiia iaiao?aei?e yeino? ia an?o aoaiao ?iaioe eiino?oeoe??
i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi.

7. Iiaeaeue Ooaiaa-Aa?a aeicaiey? a??ia?aeii iienoaaoe
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai noaeao?a?iaaoiiiiai aeaiaioa c o??ueiith,
ui i?oeth? ia caei, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, i?e oeueiio
cia/aiiy aieiaieo ia?aiao??a iiaeae? — aeiaaeeia ciie ?ioaineaiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy lcb ? caeaaei?noue (2) i?ae iai?oaeaiiyie ? oe?eiith
?ice?eooy o??ueie iaea?aeaiei c aenia?eiaio?a.

8.?ic?aooiie noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei ii
ooai?aiith o??uei ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?iaeoe ii oi?ioe? (3) c o?aooaaiiyi
ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o ?icoyaioo?e cii?, aeoiaey/e c ?ic?aooieiai?
noaie coneeue,iaaaaeaii? ia ?en.3a.

9.?ic?aooiie oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??uei o noaeao?a?iaaoiii?i aeaiaio?, ui
i?aoeth? ia caei, a?iiaaiiio o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
?iaeoe ii i?ia?ai? “NOAO?A”, ?ic?iaeaii? ia iniia? iiaeae? Ooaiaa-Aa?a,
aieiai? ia?aiao?e yei? aecia/ai? ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

10. ?ic?aooiie i?oeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ua i?aoeththoue
ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a, ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?iaeoe ii
oi?ioe? (4) c o?aooaaiiyi ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e o ?icoyaioo?e ?
noenioo?e cii?, aeoiaey/e c ?ic?aooieiai? noaie coneeue, i?eaaaeaii? ia
?en.3a.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO ?IA?O C OAIE

AeENA?OAOe??

1. E?e/aanueeee I.I., Naeooaiueyia I.I. Aieea o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ia
i?oei?noue ? aia?a?th ?oeiaoe?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia i?e aeaei?. // A?niee
Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e. —
Iae??aea. -1998. — Aei. 98-1- 4n.

2. E?e/aanueeee I.I., E?e/aanueeee N.I., Naeooaiueyia I.I. I?oei?noue ?
o??ueiino?ee?noue i?e aeaei? noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a. // A?niee Aeiiaanueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aoae?aieoeoaa e
a?o?oaeoo?e. — Iae??aea.1998. Aei. 98-6. 5 n.

3. E?e/aanueeee N.I., Naeooaiueyia I.I., ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oe?eie ?ice?eooy o??ueie a noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaioao,
ui i?aoeththoue ia caei. // A?niee Aeiiaanei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
aoae?aieoeoaa e a?o?oaeoo?e. — Iae??aea. 1998. Aei. 98-6. 4 n.

4. Naeooaiueyia I.I., Aenia?eiaioaeueia — oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui
i?aoeththoue ia caei. // Iaoeiai — oaoi. ca??iee i?aoeue “Eiioiaeueia
ainiiaea?noai i?no”, ?18. — Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y i?nueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, 1999. 5 n.

AIIOAOe?ss

Naeooai’yia Iaeee Ioiaaea. I?oei?noue ? oe?eia ?ice?eooy o??uei
noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo aeaiaio?a, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith
iaeeo ?ici???a. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.23.01 — Aoae?aaeuei? eiino?oeoe??, aoae?ae? ?
nii?oaee. — Aeiiaanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y aoae?aieoeoaa e
a?o?oaeoo?e, Iae??aea, 1999.

Aeeiiaii? yenia?eiaioaeueii — oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe iai?oaeaii — aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, aeieeath/ee a
noaeao?a?iaaoiii?i yeaiaio?, ui i?aoeth? ia caei, a?iiaaiei o?a?ith
iaeeo ?ici???a, ia ??cieo yoaiao iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo
?ic?aooieiaiai aecia/aiiy coneeey o??ueiiooai?aiiy, oe?eie ?ace?eooy
o??ueie ? i?oeiino?? oaeiai yeaiaioa. Anoaiiaeaii aieea ??cieo oei?a
o?a?iaiai a?ioaaiiy ? ?oiuei? noi?o? ia ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?acoyao
i?e aeaei? ? cai?iiiiiaai? a?aeiia?aei? ooieoe?? aieeao o?a?iaiai
a?ioaaiiy. Anoaiiaeai? oiiae, aeio?eiaiiy yeeo caaacia/o? aoaeoeai?noue
a?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiia o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a. ?ac?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aecia/aiith ?ic?aooieiaiai ii??o noaeao?a?iaaoiia
?acoyao i?e aeaei?. Anoaiiaeaia aeniea yoaeoeai?noue eiio?iey yeino?
noaeao?a?iaaoiia ia an?o yoaiao eiai ?iaioe i?ae iaaaioaaeaiiyi oeyoii
?nieoo aaeie ?ici??ii 10o10o40 ni c iine?aeoth/ei aecia/aiiyi aaee/ei
?iaeaen?a yeino?. ?acaeoa iiaeaeue aeaoi?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiiiiai
yeaiaioa, ui i?aoeth? ia caei c o??ueiith (iiaeaeue Ooaiaa-Aa?a) aeey
noaeao?a?iaaoiia, a?iiaaiiai o?a?ith iaeeo ?ici???a. Cie?aia,
onoaiiaeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae iai?oaeaiiyie ? oe?eiie ?ace?eooy o??uei,
a oaeiae onoaiiaeaia aaee/eia ciie ?ioaineaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy lcb.
?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe?? ii ?ic?aooieo noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo yeaiaio?a ii
ooai?aiith o??uei c iae?eii ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a ?acoyaioo?e cii?,
aeeth/ii aeiaaeie a?ioaaiiy noa?aeiueiaith a?iaoo?ith. Oe?eio ?ace?eooy
o??uei i?iiiio?oueny aecia/aoe ii i?ia?ai? “NOAO?A”, ?ac?iaeai?e ia
iniia? iiaeae? aeaoi?ioaaiiy noaeao?a?iaaoiiiiai yeaiaioa c o??ueiith,
?acaeoith a iei?oi?e ?aaio?. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?ic?aooieo
i?oeiino? noaeao?a?iaaoiiieo yeaiaio?a, a?iiaaieo o?a?ith iaeeo
?ici???a, c o?aooaaiiyi ieanoe/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a ?acoyaioo?e ?
noenioo?e ciiao, aeeth/ath/e aeiaaeie a?ioaaiiy noa?aeiueiaith
a?iaoo?ith. Cae?eniaii oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo a ?iaio? ?ic?aooieiaeo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e e iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: noaeao?a?iaaoiii? aeaiaioe, ui i?aoeththoue ia caei,
iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai, iiaeaethaaiiy, noaeaaa o?a?a iaeeo
?ici???a, ii?? noaeao?a?iaaoiia ?icoyao, ooai?aiiy ? ?ice?eooy o??uei,
i?oei?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Naeooaiueyia Iaeee Ioiaaea. I?i/iinoue e oe?eia ?ane?uoey o?auei
noaeaoea?iaaoiiiuo ecaeaaaiuo yeaiaioia, a?ie?iaaiiuo oea?ie iaeuo
?acia?ia. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.23.01 — No?ieoaeueiua eiino?oeoeee caeaiey e
nii?oaeaiey. — Aeiiaanneay ainoaea?noaaiiay aeaaeaiey no?ieoaeuenoaa e
a?oeoaeoo?u, Iaeaaaea, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth iai?yaeaiii — aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai
ninoiyiey noaeaoea?iaaoiiiuo ecaeaaaiuo yeaiaioia ia ?aciuo yoaiao
iaa?oaeaiey e ?ac?aaioea iaoiaeeee ?an/aoiiai ii?aaeaeaiey oneeey
o?aueiiia?aciaaiey, oe?eiu ?ane?uoey o?auei e i?i/iinoe oaeeo yeaiaioia.
Onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea ?acee/iuo oeiia oea?u e eo niane ia nii?ioeaeaiea
noaeaoea?iaaoiia ?anoyaeaieth i?e ecaeaa e i?aaeeiaeaiu niioaaonoaothuea
ooieoeee aeeyiey oea?iaiai a?ie?iaaiey. Onoaiiaeaiu oneiaey,
niaethaeaiea eioi?uo iaania/eaaao yooaeoeaiinoue a?ie?iaaiey
noaeaoea?iaaoiia oea?ie iaeuo ?acia?ia. ?acaeoa iiaeaeue aeaoi?ie?iaaiey
noaeaoea?iaaoiiiiai yeaiaioa n o?aueiie, a?ie?iaaiey oea?ie iaeuo
?acia?ia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: noaeaoea?iaaoiiiua ecaeaaaiua yeaiaiou,
iai?yae?iii-aeaoi?ie?iaaiiia ninoiyiea, iiaeaee?iaaiea, noaeueiay oea?a
iaeuo ?acia?ia, nii?ioeaeaiea noaeaoea?iaaoiia ?anoyaeaieth, ia?aciaaiea
e ?ane?uoea o?auei, i?i/iinoue.

SUMMARY

Sekutenyana Michael Mungala Strength and crack-mouth opening of
steelfibrereinforcedconcrete (SFRC) members in bending , reinforced by
small-sized fibres.-Manuscript.

Thesis for the attainment of a Ph.D. (doctors) degree in the field of
technical sciences-Specialty No 05.23.01 Building designs
(constructions) ,buildings and structures.-Donbass State Academy of
Civil Engineering and Architecture, Makeyevka, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the research of the stress-strain state of SFRC
members in bending during the different stages of loading and the
working out of methods of calculating the forces of
crack-formation,crack-mouth opening and the strength of such members in
bending. The thesis determines the effect of different types of fibre
and their mix (composition) on the tensile strength of SFRC members in
bending and proposes the corresponding functions of influence arising as
a result of small-sized steelfibre reinforcement. Furthermore, it
determines the conditions which should be maintained in order to achieve
the best effect of small-sized steelfibre reinforcement of SFRC members
in bending. The thesis develops a model characterising the deformation
of cracked SFRC members in bending , reinforced by small-sized steel
fibres

Keyword: SFRC members in bending, stress-strain state ,modeling,
small-sized steel fibres , tensile strength of SFRC, formation and
opening of cracks, strength.

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