Мікромеханізми руйнування та тріщиностійкість матеріалів при крихко-пластичному переході: Автореф. дис… д-ра фіз.-мат. наук / О.Д. Васильєв, НАН Укр

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO I?IAEAI IAOA??AEICIAANOAA

?i. ?.I. O?AIOeAAE*A

AANEEUe?A IEAENAIAe? AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 539.4:[539.38:620.178]:669.01:539.216

I?E?IIAOAI?CIE ?OEIOAAIIss OA O??UEIINO?EE?NOUe

IAOA??AE?A

I?E E?EOEI-IEANOE*IIIO IA?AOIAe?

niaoe?aeuei?noue: 01.04.07. — o?ceea oaa?aeiai o?ea

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I.
O?aioeaae/a

Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

i?ioani? O??noia Na?a?e Ieaen?eiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a c
iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Eio?a/ei Na?a?e Ieaen?eiae/,

?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

i?ioani? E?anianueeee A?iieueae ssiiae/,

?inoeooo i?iaeai i?oeiino? IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe

/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie
i?ioani? ?iiai?a Ieaa
Ieeieaeiae/,

O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. Ea?iaiei,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Aeiiaoeueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. Aaee?ia,
a?aeae?e o?ceee aenieiai oeneo oa iiaeo oaoiieia?e,

IAI Oe?a?ie, Aeiiaoeuee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 24 » eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.207.01 a ?inoeooo? i?iaeai
iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: aoe.
E?aeeaeaiianueeiai, 3, Ee?a-142, 252180, Oe?a?ia.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?II IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 14 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

Ae26.207.01 e.o.i. Iaaea?ii TH.A.

CAAAEUeHA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

ANOOI. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy oa
o??ueii-no?eeino? iaoaeaaeo ? ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a i?e ia?aoiae? ?o ?c
e?eoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee i?ae ae??th oaiia?aoo?e. A i?e
i?iaiae?ciaaii iaoai?/io iiaaae?ieo iaoa??ae?a c ??ciei no?oeoo?iei
noaiii a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? /a?ac ni?eueiee ?icaeyae aeaieo
neaioth/i? aeaeo?iiii? o?aeoia?ao?? oa aei?iaoaaiue c?ace?a ia
o??ueiino?ee?noue ? i?oei?noue.

AEOOAEUeH?NOUe OAIE. Ii/eiath/e c piaioe A. Apeoo?na «ssaeua picpeao
oa oaeo/ino? o oaapaeeo o?eao», iioae?eiaaii? a aeaaaeoeyoiio pioe?
iaoiai noie?ooy, eiee, aacoth/enue ia oai??? E. ?iae?na i?i i?eiiiaeaiiy
iai?oaeaiue aeaoaeoaie, aoea caii/aoeiaaia aiapaaoe/ia eiioeaioe?y
poeioaaiiy, noaaeaiiy aei op?ueiino?eeino? ci?ithaaeinue iaiaeiipaciai
a?ae oe?eeiaeoiai ioioiaeithaaiiy ?? c ooiaeaiaioaeueiith
oapaeoapenoeeith iaoap?aeo aei ipaeoe/iiai ?aiipoaaiiy ??, iniaeeai o
ca`yceo c oei, ui aiapa?y poeioaaiiy caeaaeeoue ye a?ae oiia
iaaaioaaeaiiy iaoap?aeo, oae ? a?ae aoaeiae eiai naiiai. Oea
nipe/eieeinue aei oiai, ui ia iiiaio caii/aoeoaaiiy aeaii? piaioe
iaipee?ioe? naieaeanyoeo pie?a iaeaea aeey eiaeiiai eeano iaoap?ae?a
?nioaaee nai? i?aeoiaee aei ioe?iee op?ueiino?eeino?, oae? ye
eiao?oe??io ?ioaineaiino? iaipoaeaiue,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, picepeooy op?ueie,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, piaioa, yea iia`ycaia c
poeioaaiiyi,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 ? J-?ioaapae oa iiaapoiaaa aiapa?y, ?noeiia,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, aai aoaeoeaia,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.

.

Oea picia?ooy i?aeoiae?a aei ioe?iee iaei??? ? o??? ae oapaeoapenoeee
naia ? a?aeiapaaea? oie noai iaaecia/aiino?, yeee aei neo i?? ua ?nio?
noiniaii naii? aeanoeaino? op?ueiino?eeino? iaoap?aeo. Ia iao iiaeyae
a?i ? iane?aeeii oiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai oaeoo, ui a?eueo?noue
iaoa??ae?a ca iciaeaie iaoai?/ii? iiaaae?iee a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? iiaea aooe a?aeianaia aei eeano iaoa??ae?a c oae caaiei
e?eoei-ieanoe/iei ia?aoiaeii, yeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae aoaeiae oa
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia? ??ciee nooi?iue i?iyaeaiiy, caaaeyee /iio oe?
iaoa??aee ? iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ca ii?iaeueieo oaiia?aoo?
iaaaioaaeaiiy aai ye e?eoe?, aai ye ieanoe/i?.

Noiniaii naiiai e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo, oi ne?ae aeacaoe, ui
iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui Eiooa oa I?iaai a??ii iia`ycaee eiai ?nioaaiiy c
??ceith oaiia?aoo?iith caeaaei?noth e?eoe/iiai iai?oaeaiiy cnoao,
nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia i?e?iiaoai?ci
?oeioaaiiy oa naio o??ueiino?ee?noue i?aeoe/ii i?iaaaeaii ia aoei. Ia
aoei ?aeiino? o aecia/aii? oaeeo iiiyoue, ui oaea e?eoea oa a`ycea, aai
ieanoe/ia ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae o aecia/aii? iaae ia?aoiaeo. Iiaeia
iaaanoe ? oe?iei a?aeii? ?iaioe Aoa? ii eeaneo?eaoe?? i?e?iiaoai?ci?a
?oeioaaiiy oa iiaoaeia? oae caaieo «iai iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy», a yeeo
?oeioaaiiy i?ae /an e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo iaa?oue ia
caaaeo?oueny. Oiio iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy ipi aea/aiiy aieeao oaiiapaoope
oa aeayeeo iapaiaop?a aoaeiae iaoap?ae?a ia ?o op?ueiino?ee?noue, aoea ?
nai?/aniith ? aeooaeueiith.

?acii c oei, o 70-o ?ieao aaea iioe?thaaeinue ?icoi?iiy oiai, ui
«?ioa?i?aoaoe?y nooiino? a`yceino? ?oeioaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aeayeeo
iaoai?/ieo iiaeaeae… ia? aacoaaoeny ia ?acoeueoaoao
aeaeo?iiii-o?aeoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co i?ioean?a ?oeioaaiiy.., yeee noa?
aaaeeeaei ?ino?oiaioii aea/aiiy iaoai?cio iioe?aiiy o??ueie (?iiai?a)».

Oaeei /eiii, ia ii/aoie aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a na?o? aeieeea
iaaaeueia iio?aaa a aeaoaeueiiio nenoaiaoe/iiio aea/aii? caeiiii??iinoae
ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy i?e ia?aoiae? iaoa??ae?a ?c e?eoeiai
noaio o ieanoe/iee; aea/aii? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia o??ueiino?ee?noue
iaoa??ae?a ? ia ?o ia?ao?ae a?ae e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy aei ieanoe/iiai;
aecia/aii? iaae naiiai e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo; aea/aii? aieeao
aoaeiae iaoa??aeo ia iniaeeaino? e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo oa
i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy.

Oei naiei, aeieeea iaaaeueia iio?aaa o caii/aoeoaaii? iiaiai iaoeiaiai
iai?yieo, a naia: o?ce/i? iniiae ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy i?e
ia?aoiae? iaoa??ae?a ?c e?eoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee.

CA?ssCIE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aaciina?aaeiuei iia?ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o,
ye? aeeiioaaeenue ?II IAI Oe?a?ie, o oiio /ene?: 1.3.2/1 «Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaoai?ci?a aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy e?eoeeo ? iaeiieanoe/ieo
iaoa??ae?a», 1981-85 ?., Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? AI O?N? ?604 a?ae
25.12.1980 ?.; 1.3.2.1-I?ei?eoaoia «?ic?iaeaiiy o?ce/ieo iniia ea?oaaiiy
eiiieaenii iaoai?/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iie?e?enoaeaaeo
iaoa??ae?a», 1986-90 ?., Iinoaiiaa I?aceae?? AI O?N? ?474 a?ae
27.12.1985 ?.; 1.6.2.50 «Aea/aiiy o?ce/ieo iniia ooai?aiiy a?aie/ieo
no?oeoo?ieo noai?a, iaoai?ci?a ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ?oeioaaiiy
iie?e?enoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a», 1990-94 ?., Iinoaiiaa Ath?i AOOII I?aceae??
AI O?N? a?ae 11.01.1991 ?., i?ioieie ?2; 1.6.2.12-95 «?iaeaia??y iaae
iiae?eo ye iniiaa ?icoe?aiiy oaiia?aoo?iiai ?ioa?aaeo aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeo c iaiaaeaiith ieanoe/i?noth», 1995-97 ?., Iinoaiiaa A/aii?
?aaee ?II IAIO a?ae 25.01.1995, i?ioieie ?2.

IAOA ? CAAeA*? AeINE?AeAEAIIss. IaoIith TH ?IAIOE ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii?piinoae aieeao oaiiapaoope iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?e?iiaoai?cie
poeioaaiiy oa op?ueiino?ee?noue aaaeeeaeo o p?cieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee
ooaiieaaeeo ioee-iaoae?a oa eapai?ee, a oaeiae aieeao aeayeeo aeaiaio?a
aoaeiae iaoap?aeo, a naia — noaio iaae ca?ai oa iipoaaoino? ia
oipioaaiiy p?ai?a i?oeiino? oa op?ueiino?eeino?. Iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie
noaee:

1. Iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee:

?icpiaeaiiy aiapaaoe/ii? eiioeaioe?? ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy
ipe iapaoiae? iaoap?ae?a ?c epeoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee i?ae ae??th
oaiiapaoope;

2. ?icpiaeaiiy noaie ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy oa aiae?oe/iiio
iienaii? aieeao oaiiapaoope ia op?ueiino?ee?noue iaoap?ae?a;

3. Opaeoiapao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy iaoap?ae?a c
p?ciei nopoeoopiei noaiii;

4. Aiae?c aieeao noaio iaae ca?ai oa iipoaaoino? ia op?ueiino?ee?noue
iaoap?ae?a.

CA?ssCIE C IAOEIAEIE I?IA?AIAIE, IEAIAIE, OAIAIE. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa
aaciina?aaeiuei iia?ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi ieai?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o,
ye? aeeiioaaeenue ?II IAI Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo aeeiiaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, o oiio /ene?

HAOEIAA HIAECHA IAeA?AEAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A.

Aiapoa noipioeueiaai? eiioeaioe?? ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy
iaoap?ae?a ipe iapaoiae? ?o ?c epeoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee oa
naii?aaoeyoe?? i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy i?e ci?i? eiai c ieanoe/iiai oeio ia
e?eoeee.

Aia?oa iiaoaeiaaia noaia ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy iaoap?ae?a
i?ae aieeaii oaiiapaoope ipe iiiioiiiiio iaaaioaaeaii?.

Aiapoa ipiaiae?ciaaii aieea oaiiapaoope ia op?ueiino?ee?noue iaoap?ae?a
ca eiaeiei i?e?iiaoai?ciii poeioaaiiy iepaii. Aeiaeaeaii oaiiiaiieia?/i?
aiae?oe/i? aepace caeaaeiino? op?ueiino?eeino? a?ae oaiiapaoope aeey
iepaieo i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy.

Ooi/iai? oyaeaiiy ipi iapao?ae iaoap?ae?a a?ae epeoeiai poeioaaiiy aei
ieanoe/iiai. Ooi/iai? aecia/aiiy iaae epeoei-ieanoe/iiai iapaoiaeo,
iaoiiaeaiiai oaiia?aoo?ith. Noi?ioeueiaaia ??cieoey i?ae a?aeeieii i?e
e?eoeiio ?oeioaaii? oa e?eoei-ieanoe/iiio ia?aoiae?. Aeaia a?aeiia?aeue
ia ieoaiiy ipi iaa?aeiia?aei?noue aiapa??, yea aeopa/a?oueny ia
poeioaaiiy, oa iiaapoiaai? aiapa??, yea aeo?a/a?oueny ia ooai?aiiy naia
iiaa?oi? a?aeeieo.

Ha iniia? nenoaiaoe/ieo opaeoiapao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aia?oa
noipioeueiaai? i?e?iiaoai?cie:

— a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th;

— ieanoe/iiai poeioaaiiy oeyoii ceeooy iip iaoap?ae?a, ye? ia ai?uothoue
o nia? /anoie aepoaeo oac;

— ooaipaiiy i?iiiiae?aiiai ceaio i?e aenieioaiiapaoopiiio poeioaaii?
i?opeaeepaii??ai? eapai?ee;

— aeiepeoe/iiai pinoo op?uei a eapai?eao.

Aia?oa iieacaii oaeiae, ui i?e?iiaoai?ci poeioaaiiy ?noioii aieeaa? ia
aeaeyae caeaaeiino? op?ueiino?eeino? iaoap?ae?a a?ae ii?oaaoino?.

I?AEOE*IA CIA*AIIss IAeA?AEAIEO ?ACOEUeOAO?A. Aeiaeaeai? caeiiii?piino?
poeioaaiiy oa caeaaeiino? op?ueiino?eeino? oepieiai eeano iaoap?ae?a c
epeoei-ieanoe/iei iapaoiaeii i?ae aieeaii oaiiapaoope ? iniiaith aeey
iiaeaeueoiai picaeoeo ye oaipaoe/ieo, oae ? aeniapeiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? o?ceee i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? epeoeeo oa
iaeiieanoe/ieo iaoap?ae?a, oaeeo ye ioee-iaoaee oa eapai?ee.

Iopeiai? a piaio? pacoeueoaoe iathoue ? aaciinapaaeith ipaeoe/io
oe?ii?noue, ine?eueee iiaeooue aooe aeeipenoai? aeey ?aiaeoaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a ca neeiaei e?eoa???i ?oeioaaiiy, yeee iiaea aooe ?ic?aoiaaiee
c aeei?enoaiiyi iae?ineii?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoa??aeo, oa aeaipo iaoeiai
iaapoioiaaieo o?i?/ieo neeaae?a iaoap?ae?a oa ?o oapi?/ii? ?
oapiiiaoai?/ii? iapiaee. Aeiaeaeai? iaoiaee opaeoiapao?/ii? ioe?iee
op?ueiino?eeino? iaoap?ae?a ipe poeioaaii? ?o a ?ioapaae? oaiiapaoop
epeoei-ieanoe/iiai iapaoiaeo oeyoii aei?pthaaiiy aeiaaeei aeiepeoe/ieo
op?uei, ye? iapaaeothoue a?aeeieia?, oa op?uei a?aeeieo aei iiiaioo ?o
a?eeoaaiiy, a oaeiae iaoiaeo iiaeiaaei?o a?aeeie?a aeey aea/aiiy
ia?aoai?aiue, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a iaoa??ae? ia?aae eiai ?oeioaaiiyi.

Nenoaiaoeciaai? a piaio? aeai? ipi ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy
oepieiai niaeopo iaoap?ae?a — iiiiepenoae?a, iaeiioacieo oa
aeeniapniici?oeiaieo iie?epenoaeaaeo, aaoapioacieo iaoaeaaeo, eapai?/ieo
oa ?ioapiaoae?aeieo, a oaeiae aiipoieo iaoaeaaeo oa cae/aeieo neeyieo –
?, ii noo? nai?e, aoeanii opaeoiapai o/aiai-aeia?aeieeiaiai oapaeoapo
ipi poeioaaiiy iaoap?ae?a ipe iaeiia?nueiiio picoyc? oa caei?, yeee aaea
capac aeeipenoiao?oueny aaoipii o iaa/aeueiiio eopn?
«Aeaeopiiii-ciiaeia? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy oaa?aeiai o?ea» aeey
nooaeaio?a o?ce/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aapneoaoo ?i. O.A. Oaa/aiea.

INIAENOEE AHANIE AAOI?A.

Aaoipia? aaciinapaaeiuei iaeaaeeoue oipioethaaiiy iaoe, caaaeaiue,
iniiaieo aeniiae?a oa iinoaiiaea aeine?aeaeaiue. ?i iniaenoi aoee
iiaoaeiaai? noaie ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy ipe iapaoiae?
iaoap?ae?a ?c epeoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee, aeiaeaeai? aiae?oe/i? aepace
caeaaeiino? op?ueiino?eeino? iaoap?ae?a a?ae oaiiapaoope aeey eiaeiiai
?c iniiaieo i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy iepaii, noipioeueiaai?
aiapaaoe/ia eiioeaioe?y ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy, eiioeaioe?y
naiiipaai?caoe?? ipioeano poeioaaiiy iaoap?aeo oa neeiaee e?eoa??e
?oeioaaiiy ca oiia epeoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo, noipioeueiaai?
i?e?iiaoai?cie a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th, ieanoe/iiai
poeioaaiiy iaeiioacieo iaoap?ae?a oeyoii ceeooy iip, capiaeaeaiiy
i?aecapaiieo op?uei a ipioean? ieanoe/ii? aeaoipiaoe?? aea?eieeoaaiiyi,
ooaipaiiy i?iiiiae?aiiai ceaio a i?opeaeepaii??a?e eapai?oe?,
niaoeeo?/iiai ipiyao picaaeoaeaiiy op?uei a?aeeieo a iaoap?aeao ia
iniia? opiio, iaoai?cio aeiepeoe/iiai pinoo a epeoeeo iaoap?aeao oa
iaoai?cio ooaipaiiy oae caaiiai aeeeeiiiae?aiiai a?capoieo a aiipoieo
iaoaeao.

A?eueoa, i?ae 75% opaeoiapao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aoee iniiaiei
caniaii caeiaoooy ?ioipiaoe?? ipi iaoai?cie poeioaaiiy, aaoipii aeeiiai?
iniaenoi. ?io? aeai? aoee iopeiai? o ni?apia?oieoeoa? c eiai o/iyie A.A.
Naiaetheii, A.A. Eiaeey?aei, I.TH. Eiaaeai, I.A. Nioieeii oa I.?.
Aieiaeiaith. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae iaoap?ae?a aoee
aeeiiai? ni?apia?oieeaie ?II HAH A.O. Ii?na?aei, I.?. Aaiueeianueeei,
A.I. Ia/eianueeei, A.I. Ienapaieii, I.I. Apiaeieeianueeei oa I.A.
Aaeoiii, a oaeiae OI? HAH I.H. Oea/ai oa A.I. Nei?iueeiae/ai, ca ui
aaoip uepi ?i aaey/iee.

AAOI? CAOEUA? picpiaeai? ia i?aenoaa? o?ceee oaapaeiai o?ea,
iaoap?aeiciaanoaa oa o?ceee poeioaaiiy

· eiioeaioe?? ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy iaoap?ae?a ipe iapaoiae?
?o a?ae epeoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee oa naiipaaoeyoe?? ipioeano
poeioaaiiy ipe ci?i? eiai c ieanoe/iiai oeio ia epeoeee;

· aiae?oe/i? aepace oaiiiaiieia?/iiai iieno aieeao oaiiapaoope
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia op?ueiino?ee?noue;

· neeiaee e?eoa??e ?oeioaaiiy ca oiia e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo;

· oipioethaaiiy iaoai?ci?a: a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th,
ieanoe/iiai poeioaaiiy iaeiioacieo iaoap?ae?a oeyoii ceeooy iip,
oipioaaiiy i?iiiiae?aiiai ceaio a i?opeaeepaii??a?e eapai?oe?,

aeiepeoe/iiai pinoo op?uei a e?eoeeo iaoa??aeao;

· aeniiaie ipi aecia/aeueio pieue i?e?iiaoai?cio poeioaaiiy o oi?ioaaii?
caeaaeiino? op?ueiino?eeino? iipoaaoiai o?ea a?ae e?eueeino? iip.

AI?IAAOe?ss ?IAIOE. Iniiai? pacoeueoaoe piaioe aeiiia?aeai? aaoipii ia
a?eueoa i?ae 30 iaoeiaeo caipao, o oiio /ene?: III, V oa VI Ananithci?
eiioapaioe?? c o?ceee epeoeiai poeioaaiiy/ Ee?a,1976 oa 1989; *api?aoe?,
1985; O oa O? Ananithci? ? II ?anioae?eainueea eiioapaioe?? c
aeaeopiiii? i?epineii??/Oaoeaio,1976; Iineaa,1979; Oape?a,1979;
Ananithcia eiioapaioe?y «Opii 84″/Ee?a,1984; ? Ananithcia eiioapaioe?y c
iaoai?ee poeioaaiiy iaoap?ae?a/Euea?a,1987; VI Ananithcia eiioapaioe?y
«O?ceea i?oeiino? oa ieanoe/iino? iaoae?a ? nieaa?a»/ Eoeaeoaa,1989; 12
oa 13 Ananithci? nai?iape «Aeooaeuei? ipiaeaie
i?oeiino?»/Hiaaipiae,1986,1988; III Ananithciee neiiic?oi «Iaoai?ea
poeioaaiiy»/ Ee?a,1990; ? Ananithcia oeiea nai?iap «Nopoeoopia oa
o?i?/ia iaiaeiip?aei?noue o iaoap?aeao»/Ee?a,1990; nai?iap «Iaoai?ea oa
o?ceea poeioaaiiy epeoeeo oa iaeiieanoe/ieo iaoap?ae?a»/?eaa,1989 oa
1991; a oaeiae i?aeiapiaei? eiioapaioe??: «O?i?y oa iaoaeopa?y
caapthaaiiy»/Eiiaeii,1979; oeie? i?aeiapiaeiiai oeaiopo c aeaeopiiii?
i?epineii??/Aaee?,1984; «Neaioth/a aeaeopiiia i?epineii?y
1986″/*?eaai,1986; ? oa II ?apiiaenuee? ?no-Aano neiiic?oie ii
iaoap?aeao oa ipioeanao «IaoOae»/Aaeuen?iee,1990 oa 1991; VIII
?apiiaenueea eiioapaioe?y c poeioaaiiy/ Oopei,1990; neiiic?oi
«Aeaeopiiia i?epineii?y a aeine?aeaeaiiyo ieanoe/iino? oa poeioaaiiy
iaoap?ae?a/Oieueoeao,1989; neiiic?oi «Capiaeaeaiiy oa p?no op?uei a
iaoaeao ? eapai?oe?»/ Aapia,1991; II ?apiiaenueea eiioapaioe?y ii iiaeo
iaoap?aeao oa ipioeanao «?apiiao 91″/Eaiapeaeae,1991; «Iapiaea oa
canoinoaaiiy iaoaeaaeo oa eapai?/ieo iaoap?ae?a ??N92″/A?pi?iaai, 1992;
Apeoainuee?e eiioapaioe?? c aeaeopiiii? i?epineii??
AIAA91/Ap?noieue,1991; I?iaoeueei-Oepa?inueeee nai?iap «I?oei?noue oa
aapaio?? yeino? eiiiiiaio?a c oaoi?/ii? eapai?ee»/Opaeaopa,1992, II
eiioapaioe?y c i?epineii?? ieeneaiiy/Eaiapeaeae,1993; oa VIII na?oiaa
eiioapaioe?y c poeioaaiiy IE?8 /Ee?a,1993, nai?ia? «No?oeoo?ia
?iaeaia??y ? i?oei?noue iaoa??ae?a»/Ee?a, 1995, 1996, 1997, I?aeia?iaeia
eiioa?aioe?y «Iia?oi? i?ioeane ? iaoa??aee a ii?ioeia?e iaoaeo?a??
II-97″/Ee?a, 1997; IAOI nai?ia? «Aaaaoioa?ia? oa ci?oeiai? ieoeaie
eiiiiceoe: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae»/Ee?a, 1997; Iia?oi? aeinyaiaiiy a
?oeioaaii?: neiiic?oie, i?enay/ai? A.?. ??a?io oa O.A. Iae
Ee?ioieo/I?eaiaei, 1997; Iaoai?ea ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ? i?oei?noue
eiino?oeoe?e/Euea?a, 1999.

IOAE?EAOe??. Ca iaoap?aeaie aeenapoaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 786 noaoae a
aeopiaeao oa ca?peao ? iaeia iiiiapao?y, yea aoea aeaeaia aeaiia
aeaeaiiyie.

IAOIAeE OA IAOA??AEE AeINE?AeAEAHUe. Iniiaia oaaaa ooo cinapaaeaeaia ia
nenoaiaoe/iiio aea/aii? iniaeeainoae aoaeiae ceai?a ca aeiiiiiaith
neaioth/i? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? (NAI) ?, oei naiei, ooieoe?iioaaiiy
oiai /e ?ioiai i?e?iiaoai?cio poeioaaiiy ii i?p? ci?ie oaiiapaoope;
a?aeoaipaii? ci?i aoaeiae iaoap?aeo, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a iaoap?ae?
i?ae /an eiai iaaaioaaeaiiy; ciaoiaeaeaiith eipaeyoe?e i?ae aeaiaioaie
aoaeiae ceaio oa iaoai?/ieie aeanoeainoyie eiaeiiai iepaii acyoiai
cpacea; iiooeo oeo ci?i o aoaeia? ceaio, ye? ae?enii a?aeiia?aeathoue
aieeaia? oaiiapaoope, yea ? nipe/eiy? iapao?ae iaoap?ae?a c iaeiiai
noaio a ?ioee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaia ia iaoap?aeao c ynepaai aepaaeaiei
epeoei-ieanoe/iei iapaoiaeii, yeee ? ia`?aeio? oae? aeineoue p?ci?
iaoap?aee, ye iiii- oa iie?epenoaeaa? iie?aaeai oa opii, ye? o cia/i?e
i?p? ? iiaeaeueieie aeey aea/aiiy naiiai yaeua epeoei-ieanoe/iiai
iapaoiaeo; iiiiepenoaee eai`yii? nie? oa oeepeii??; ooaiieaae?
ioee-iaoaee oa eapai?ea ia iniia? ea?a?aeo oee?eii?th oa i?opeaeo
epaii?th.

NO?OEOO?A OA IANssA AeENA?OAOe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
i`yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai nieneo. Aiia ai?uo? 322
noi??iee, 6 oaaeeoeue oa 95 ?enoie?a. A i?e i?ioeeoiaaii 210 ?ia?o.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O ANOOI? iiaeaia ei?ioea oa?aeoa?enoeea i?iaeaie aoe?eiio,
aecia/a?oueny i?noea ?iaioe a o?ceoe? i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a,
oi?ioeththoueny oa iaa?oioiaothoueny aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia ?
oe?ii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iaoeiaee iai?yiie, yeee aaoi?
caii/aoeiao?. Ei?ioei aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa noi?ioeueiaai?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAe?E? ?icaeyaea?oueny noai i?iaeaie ia iiiaio iinoaiiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue, oi?ioeththoueny caaaeaiiy oa iaa?oioiao?oueny aea??
iaoa??ae?a oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui ia ii/aoie aeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue o 1974-75 ?ieao a
na?oia?e e?oa?aoo?? aaea aoee noi?ioeueiaai? iaai? oyaeaiiy i?i
i?e?iiaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy. Ii?o/ c ?icia?ooyi oyaieo iaoai?ci?a, aoei
c?icoi?eei, ui iniiai? i?e?iiaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy iathoue aooe iia`ycai?
c iniiaieie noaiaie ?ic?eao aoiiieo ca`yce?a: a?ae?eaii oa cnoaii, oa
i?noeai iioe?aiiy o??uei, /a?ac o?ei aeaiaio?a aoaeiae aai ae ii ?o
iaaeao. Oei naiei, iniiaieie iaoai?ciaie ?oeioaaiiy i?e iiiioiiiiio
iaaaioaaeaii? aaaaeaeeny a?aeeie, ceeooy ii? oa i?aeca?aii? iaoai?cie
?oeioaaiiy.

?acii c oei, ia oie /an o na?o? aaea oiae? aeieeea ? iaaaeueia iio?aaa
a aeaoaeueiiio ? nenoaiaoe/iiio aea/aii? caeiiii??iinoae ci?ie
i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy i?e ia?aoiae? iaoa??ae?a ?c e?eoeiai noaio o
ieanoe/iee; aea/aii? aieeao oaiia?aoo?e ia o??ueiino?ee?noue iaoa??ae?a;
aea/aii? aieeao aoaeiae iaoa??aeo ia iniaeeaino? e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo oa iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy; aecia/aii? iaae naiiai
e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo.

Iniiaieie iaoiaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aecia/ai? neaioth/a aeaeo?iiia
o?aeoia?ao?y oa iaoai?/i? ?nieoe i?e iiiioiiiiio iaaaioaaeaii? a
oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?, yeee ioiiethaaa an? o?e noaie iaoa??ae?a:
e?eoeee, ieanoe/iee oa i?ii?aeiee i?ae ieie noai e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo.

Ia`?eoaie aeine?aeaeaiue aoee aea?ai? iaoa??aee c ae?aciei
e?eoei-ieanoe/iei ia?aoiaeii ? a ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo noaiao
(iiiie?enoaee, iaeiioaci? oa aeenia?niici?oeiai? iie?e?enoaee, ii?oaao?
o?ea) ia iniia? iie?aaeaio, o?iio, aaiaae?th, i?ia?th, cae?ca, ieneae?a
oa ea?a?ae?a oee?eii?th, i?o?eaeo e?aii?th oa eai`yii? nie?.

O Ae?OAIIO ?ICAe?E? picaeyaeathoueny i?e?iiaoai?cie poeioaaiiy, ye? ?
oeiiaeie aeey iiiiepenoaeaaiai noaio. Ha iiaeaeueieo iiiiepenoaeao
iaoae?a oa eapai?e aiae?co?oueny ?o iapao?ae ?c epeoeiai noaio a
ieanoe/iee, iiaea?oueny noaia ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy ipe ci?i?
oaiiapaoope iaaaioaaeaiiy, oipioeth?oueny oaca ipi o?enoaae?ei?noue
ipioeano poeioaaiiy a ?ioapaae? oaiiapaoop epeoei-ieanoe/iiai iapaoiaeo,
iaaiaipththoueny oae? i?e?iiaoai?cie poeioaaiiy, ye a?aeeie, a?aeeie c
ieanoe/iith iap?iaee/iith paeaenaoe??th oa capiaeaeaiiy, p?no ?
ia`?aeiaiiy iip a iaoap?ae?, yeee ia ia? o nia? /anoie ?ioeo oac.
Aiae?co?oueny oaiiapaoopia caeaaei?noue op?ueiino?eeino? iiiiepenoae?a
ca aeiiiiiaith opaeoiapao?/ii? ?? ioe?iee oeyoii aei?pthaaiiy aeiaaeei
aeiepeoe/ieo op?uei, ye? iapaaeothoue a?aeeieia?, oa a?aeeieueieo op?uei
aei iiiaioo ?o picaaeoaeaiiy. Aecia/athoueny aeaeapaea poeioaaiiy —
i?noey eiai ii/aoeo oa piaeoueny aeniiaie, ui epeoea poeioaaiiy
?i?oe?th?oueny aeeeth/ii iayaieie iiaapoiaaeie aeaoaeoaie cpace?a,
oiaoi, oe?eeiaeoi ca Apeoo?nii.

a a

?en.1. NAI aeaeyae iiaa?oi? o??ueie a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th a
iiiie?enoae? Ii [100] i?e ?oeioaaii? eiai ?icoyaii i?e 20iN c
ia??iaee/ieie ai?icaieaie a i?e (a). a – caaaeueiee aeaeyae ceaio
c?acea.

1 – caii/aoeiaoth/ee ?oeioaaiiy aeaoaeo; 2 – aeie?eoe/ia o??ueia; 3 –
ae?eyiea aeieiio c?acea a?aeeieii.

Ca iaoai?/iith iiaaae?ieith iiiiepenoae?a (i?e?iiaoai?ciii ?o
poeioaaiiy, iniaeeainoyie aoaeiae iiaapoi? poeioaaiiy, oiaoi,
iniaeeainoyie paae?caoe?? i?e?iiaoai?ci?a poeioaaiiy o aeaiiio
iaoap?ae?, p?aii, ye ? ieanoe/ii? aeaoipiaoe??, yea iapaaeo?
poeioaaiith, aiapa?? poeioaaiiy, i?oeiino? oa iaae? oaeo/ino?)
aeine?aeaeaiee ?ioa?aae oaiia?aoo? ae?eeoueny ia ope oaiiapaoopieo
?ioapaaee: epeoeiai ? ieanoe/iiai poeioaaiiy oa epeoei-ieanoe/iiai
iapaoiaeo, yeee o naith /apao ca iniaeeainoyie caii/aoeoaaiiy oa
iioe?aiiy o??uei oaeiae iiaeooue aooe iiae?eai? ia aeaa aai a?eueoa
?ioapaae?a.

E?eoea ?oeioaaiiy iiiie?enoae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeeieii, yeee
caii/aoeiao?oueny ia aeaoaeoao iiaapoi? cpace?a o ieiueiao c
i?i?iaeueiith iiaa?oiaaith aia?a??th, ianaiia?aae, ?iaeeie 100.

?oeioaaiiy i?e e?eoei-ieanoe/iiio ia?aoiae? oaeiae ii/eia?oueny ia
aeaoaeoao c?ace?a, aea iaeii/anii c ieanoe/iith aeaoi?iaoe??th ? a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaa aai ope, ye aeaeii c
?en.1,a, aoaie, yeeie ?:

1. ieanoe/ia ci?iaiiy oipie aeaoaeo?a cpacea o a?e ciaioaiiy ?o
eiioeaiopoth/i? iaipoaeaiiy ae??, oiaoi nepoaeaiiy ainopeo eoo?a;

2. caii/aoeoaaiiy ia ?nioth/eo aeaoaeoao oa p?no aei epeoe/iiai,
caeaaeiiai a?ae oiia iaaaioaaeaiiy, pici?po op?uei, ye? pinoooue ca
iaoai?ciaie a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith

paeaenaoe??th aai ceeooy iip oa iapaaeothoue cae/aeiiio a?aeeieia?;

3. eaoanopio?/iiai a?aeeieo, caii/aoeiaaiiai ia ci?iaieo ia iapoiio
aoai? aeaoaeoao aai ia aeiepeoe/ieo op?ueiao ae?oaiai aoaio.

Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae aecia/aieie aoaiaie ?icaeoeo ?oeioaaiiy caeaaeeoue
a?ae ?aeaenaoe?eii? caeaoiino? e?enoae?a, oiaoi, a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa
oaeaeeino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua.

Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, yea ye ia?aaeo? ?oeioaaiith, oae ?
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?aeaeueii c iei o /an?, aecia/a? iaoai?ci aeie?eoe/iiai
?inoo o??uei. I?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo i?eaeecii aei 50% (ca iiaeiaaeaiiyi) a
iaoaeao oa eai`yi?e nie? aeie?eoe/i? o??ueie ?inoooue ca iaoai?ciii
a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th. I?e iiaeaeueo?e aeaoi?iaoe??
a?aeeieo iiaeooue aaea ia?aaeoaaoe o??ueie, ye? ?inoooue ca iaoai?ciii
ceeooy ii?. Ii?e caii/aoeiaothoueny ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie,
ye? ii noo? ia?aoai?ththoue iiiie?enoae a iie?e?enoae c
iaei?ici???ioiaaieie ae??aieie ca?iaie. A ?iaio? c canoinoaaiiyi
?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?ii iaoiaeo iiaeiaaei?o a?aeeie?a iaaaaeai? i?yi?
aeieace iiaeiaaeiueiai ?ic-o??neoaaiiy aeaoi?iiaaiiai iiiie?enoa-eo ca
iaoai?ciii ?icoa?oaaiiy, yea a iiaeaeueoiio e i?eaiaeeoue aei
ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ca iaoai?ciii ceeooy ii?.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith, yea a?ae??ciy? a?aeeie c ?aeaenaoe??th a?ae
a?aeeieo cae/aeiiai ? ai?icaiee aai ii?e, ?icoaoiaai? iaeaea
ia??iaee/ii.

Na?aae i?e/ei, ye? iiaeooue i?eai-aeeoe aei ia??iaee/ieo coieiie
o??ueie i?e aacia?a?aiiio iiiioiiiiio ca?eueoaii? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
c?acie, ii?yae c aeeooc??th aeaiaio?a c ioi/oth/iai na?aaeiaeua
(iaoai?ci O??noiaa-Ei?ithoeia-ssaiaeceinueeiai) iaeia?oith a??ia?aeii ?
ieanoe/ia caooieaiiy aa?oeie o??ueie ca /enoi aeeneieaoe?eiith noaiith,
neioaciaaiith aaoi?ii o iiaeaeue Noaiaiiaa-O??aeaey-I?eiaa (?en.2).
O??ueia iiaea coieiyoeny caaaeyee ??cieoe? o oaeaeeinoyo ca?eueoaiiy
iaaaioaaeoth/ei i?eno?i?i iai?oaeaiue o aa?oei? o??ueie oa ?o
?aeaenaoe?? oeyoii ai?n?? aeeneieaoe?e, eiee i?eno??e ? iacaeaoiei
nai?/anii eiiiainoaaoe ao?aoo c?aceii nai?? i?oaeii? aia?a?? i?e
/anoeiaiio ca?eueoaii? a iueiio ieiueie o??ueie.

a a

?en.2. Noaia a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th, iaoiiaeaiith ai?ooaaiiyi
aeeneieaoe?e c aa?oeie o??ueie ca noaiith Noaiaiiaa-O??aeaey-I?eiaa. a)
aeaeyae ia?a??co c?acea c o??ueiith, a) aeaeyae iiaa?oi? o??ueie caa?oo.

Iaoai?ciii ?oeioaaiiy oa?o iaoa??aeo i?ae coieieaie o??ueie ca aeaieie
o?aeoia?ao?? ? a?aeeie.

A?aeiii, ui ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi, ca oiia caii/aoeoaaiiy eiai aino?ei
iaae??cii, o aa?oei? oeueiai eiioeaio?aoi?a oi?io?oueny ciia ieanoe/ii?
?aeaenaoe??. Aaoi? i?eionea?, ui ca nai?th aoaeiaith aiia ?
aeeneieaoe?eiith c aeoyaiooeie acaeiaae iai?yieo iioe?aiiy o??ueie
eii??eaie, iiae?aieie aei oeo, ye? oi?iothoueny i?ae /an aeaoi?iaoe??
i?ieaoeith. Ia aeaye?e noaae?? (50-75% aeaoi?iaoe??) iaae? eii??ie
iineaaeththoueny iano?eueee, ui aaea a ieo naieo iiaeooue
ca?iaeaeoaaoeny ? ii iei aea iiaeooue iioe?thaaoeny o??ueie ca e?eoeei
i?aeeii??/aiei iaoai?ciii, iiae?aiei aei i?aeca?aiiiai, noaia yeiai
iiaeaia ia ?en.3. Aeieacii oe??? iiaeae? iiaea neoaeeoe aeaeyae iiaa?oi?
o??uei a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th, yeee iai?i/oae ni?aiaaea? c aeaeyaeii
iiaa?oiiue i?aeeii??/aiiai ?icoa?oaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei aeaoi?iiaaiiai
iaoaeo. Aeiaeaoeiaei aeieacii i?eaeaoiino? oe??? iiaeae? ? ? oie oaeo,
ui i?e iiaeaeueoiio ca?eueoaii? oaiia?aoo?e iaaaioaaeaiiy, a ieiueiao
iiaa?oiiue a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th c`yaeythoueny ii?e, aeoyaioo?
acaeiaae iai?yieo iioe?aiiy o??ueie.

a a a a

?en.3. Noaia caii/aoeoaaiiy oa iioe?aiiy o??ueie a?aeeieo c
?aeaenaoe??th ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie. a) aeo?aeiee noai
c?acea c aoiiiiaino?ith o??ueiith a iaae??c?; a) caooieaiiy aa?oeie
iaae??co ai?n??th aeeneieaoe?e; a) oi?ioaaiiy aeeneieaoe?eii? eii??/aii?
no?oeoo?e a cii? ?aeaenaoe??; a) iioe?aiiy o??ueie ii iaaeao eii??ie

Aeoaea aaaeeeaei iane?aeeii iiaeeeaino? a?ae??ciyoe aeie?eoe/i? o??ueie
a?ae iiaeaeueoiai a?aeeieo ? aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey ioe?iee no?eeino?
i?ioe ?oeioaaiiy iaoa??ae?a ca iaoai?ciii a?aeeieo. Ane?ae ca Oaeii ?c
ni?aaaoi?aie, ye? aia?oa aeei?enoaee oea yaeua aeey ioe?iee aia?a??
?oeioaaiiy, aoee iiaoaeiaai? caeaaeiino? o??ueiino?eeino? iiiie?enoae?a
iie?aaeaio, o?iio ? aieueo?aio i???ioaoe?? [100] a?ae oaiia?aoo?e
(?en.4).

Oa?aeoa?iith iciaeith ?oeioaaiiy aeayeeo iaoa??ae?a a ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo ? yaeua a?eeoaaiiy o??uei
a?aeeieo. Aiii niinoa??aaeinue aaoi?ii ia iiiie?enoaeao o?iio ?
oee?eii?? ? i?iyaey?oueny o ?oeioaaii? c?ace?a ia ia aea?, ye o
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a, a ia o?e /anoeie. I?e oeueiio, o??ueia,
caii/aoeoaaaoenue o ieiuei?, iiia?a/i?e iai?oaeaiiyi ?icoyao, ? i?ia?aoe
aeayeo e?eoe/io aeiaaeeio, ?icaaeoaeo?oueny ia aea? o??ueie, ye?
i?iaeiaaeothoue ?oeioaaoe c?acie, aea aaea ?iciianthaeaeoth/enue eiaeia
i?ae eooii i?eaeecii a 37i aei iiia?aaeiueiai iai?yieo. Aaaaeathoue, ca
?eecaaaoith Eiooa, ui aeaia yaeua iaoiiaeaia aca?iiae??th o??ueie c
oaeeyie iai?oaeaiue, ye? aeieeathoue o c?aceo a iiiaio ?? noa?oo. C
iaoa??aeiciaa/i? oi/ee ci?o ooo ? aaaaoi ua /iai iac?icoi?eiai. *iio ia
an? iaoa??aee caeaoi? aei i?iyao oeueiai yaeua? Iaie aoei o?eueee
ciaeaeaii, ui aiii ii/eia? c?yaeyoeny a iacaaieo iaoa??aeao o?eueee
i?ney aeayei? ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo, aeacoth/e oei naiei ia aeaye? a?aei?iiino?
a iniaeeainoyo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ioee-iaoaeao oa
?iiieo e?enoaeao i?ae /an ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ? aei neo i??
iaiii?/aieie ? oiio iaaea/aieie.

Aaaeeeaith iciaeith ceaio c?acea, c?oeiiaaiiai a?aeeieii c
?icaaeoaeaiiyi o??ueie, ? oa, ui i?noea ?icaaeoaeaiiy iiaea aooe /?oei
aecia/aiei ? aeiaaeeia o??ueie aei iiiaioo ?icaaeoaeaiiy /?oei
aei??yiith. Eia?/ii aaaaea?oueny ca A?i?eii, ui aeey oiai, uia cai?noue
iaei??? o??ueie noi?ioaaeiny aea?, caian i?oaeii? aia?a?? o c?aceo ia?
caaacia/eoe ?o ooai?aiiy, oiaoi a?i ia? aooe ia iaioei a?ae iiaea?eii?
?noeiii? iiaa?oiaai? aia?a??, 2?o. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aaeaino, aoee
ioe?iai? aia?a?? ?oeioaaiiy a?aeeieii iiiie?enoae?a o?iio oa oee?eii??.
Ciaeaeaii, ui aiie aei??aiththoue o Cr [100] — 19 Aeae/i2 i?e -62oC oa a
ZrO2 (Y-PSZ) [100] — 500 Aeae/i2 i?e 1600oC.

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy yaeua a?eeoaaiiy o??ueie a?aeeieo aea?
iiaeeea?noue ioe?ithaaoe ?noeiio iiaa?oiaao aia?a?th e?enoaeo, a
aeie?eoe/iiai ?? ?inoo — aoaeoeaio iiaa?oiaao aia?a?th.

?en.4. Caeaaei?noue o??ueiino?eeino? iiiie?en-oae?a [100] iie?aaeaio,
o?iio, aieueo?aio oa e?aiienoiai cae?ca a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

I?e ca?eueoaii? oaiia?aoo?e, eiee ieanoe/i?noue iaoa??ae?a aei ?o
?oeioaaiiy nooo?ai ca?eueoo?oueny ? ? nyaa? /anoi 100%, ?oeioaaiith
a?aeeieii ia?aaeo? ?oeioaaiiy oeyoii ceeooy ii?, yea, ca aeayeeo
ianoaaei, iiaea ?icaeaaoeny ia?aeaeueii o /an? ?c a?aeeieii c
?aeaenaoe??th.

Ieanoe/ia ?oeioaaiiy iiiie?enoae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny ca iaoai?ciii
ca?iaeaeaiiy ii?, ?o ?inoo oa ia`?aeiaiiy. ?ieiee aiii a?aeaoaa?oueny ca
?aooiie o?eueee aeaio, aaea ?nioth/eo, ciai?oi?o, ii?, ye? ?inoooue ?
ia`?aeiothoueny oeyoii noiioaiiy c?acea, yeee, ?oeioth/enue, ooai?th?
oae caaiee eaciiiae?aiee ceai.

E?eoe/iei iiiaioii ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy oeyoii ceeooy ii? ? ?o
ca?iaeaeaiiy. A oe?iei a?aeiieo oaoi?/ieo iaoa??aeao oeae iaoai?ci
ni?aaaaeeeai iia`yco?oueny c iayai?noth /anoie ae?oaeo oac. A oeeo
iaoa??aeao ii?e ia iaaeao ?iciiae?eo /anoea-iao?eoey i?aeoe/ii caaaeaee
? aaea aioiaeie. ?i caeeoa?oueny o?eueee ?inoe o ieanoe/iee niin?a.

?en.5. Noaia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?inoo ii? a iaeiioaciiio iaoa??ae?.

Aeey iaoa??ae?a aac /anoie, a yeeo iaia? aioiaeo iaae ?iciiae?eo,
iai?iieeieo aeey aeeneieaoe?e, aaoi? aia?oa noi?ioethaaa iaoai?ci
ca?iaeaeaiiy ii?, noaia yeiai iieacaia ia ?en. 5. Ii?e a iaoa??ae? aac
/anoie oace ca?iaeaeothoueny ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie, ye?
ooai?ththoueny a iiiie?enoaeao (aai e?oiieo ca?iao iie?e?enoae?a) o
i?ioean? cia/ii? (a?eueoa 50%) ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Ieanoe/ia
aeaoi?iaoe?y i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeueo 0,2 a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ieaaeaiiy,
ia?aoai?th? aeineoue aocueeo nioao iiiie?enoaeo a iaaeao oeeee c?acea
i?aeoe/ii a ae??aiica?ienoee iie?e?enoae. Aenieee ??aaiue iai?oaeaiue ia
eii??/aieo iaaeao ?acii ?c ciai?oi?i ia`?iiei iai?oaeaiiyi a i?noe?
oeeee c aenieith neeaaeiaith iiia?a/ieo ?aae?aeueieo iai?oaeaiue
a?ae?eaa? aeeneieaoe?ei? eii??ee-ca?ia iaeia a?ae iaeiiai. Ia?a?iciiae?e
iai?oaeaiue oa aeii?oeiaeo o?i?/ieo aeaiaio?a iineeth? oeae i?ioean.
Ii?e ?inoooue, ceeaathoueny ? a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo c?acie
?icae?ey?oueny ia /anoeie o ieanoe/iee niin?a. A aeayeeo iaoa??aeao, ye
aoei anoaiiaeaii, iai?eeeaae, ia o?ii?, aecia/aeueio ?ieue o
caii/aoeoaaii? ii? iathoue oaeiae ? aeioe/i? iai?oaeaiiy a oeeoe?
c?acea. Aeai? i?i iiyao o??uei ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie aoee
io?eiai? ye ca aeiiiiiaith o?aini?n?eii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??, oae ?
ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?ii iaoiaeo iiaeiaaei?o a?aeeie?a.

Ca oaeei aea i?aeoe/ii iaoai?ciii a?aeaoaa?oueny ? ?oeioaaiiy ?iiieo
e?enoae?a. O?eueee ooo iiyaa ii? a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e cia/ii a?eueo?e
oaiia?aoo?? (aeua 0,6 Oie), a nai a?aeeie caa??aa?oueny aei oaiia?aoo?e
0,85 Oie. A iiiie?enoaeao oee?eii?? oeae iaoai?ci ii/eia? i?aoethaaoe
oaeiae a ?aeii? ieaeiuei? iaae? e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo, a?ey
1500-1600iN, c ?icoa?oaaiiy ii iaaeao i?oaeieo aeiiai?a.

O O?AOUeIIO ?ICAe?E? aiae?cothoueny i?e?iiaoai?cie ?oeioaaiiy, ye? ?
oeiiaeie aeey iie?e?enoaeaaiai noaio iaoaeaaeo, iaeiioacieo oa
aeenia?niici?oeiaieo, ? ea?ai?/ieo iaoa??ae?a. Na?aae iaoaeaaeo — oaaaa
cina?aaeaeaia ia nieaaao iie?aaeaio, o?iio, cae?ca, aaiaae?th oa
i?ia?th, na?aae ea?ai?/ieo — ia iaoa??aeao ia iniia? i?o?eaeo e?aii?th ?
ea?a?aeo oee?eii?th. ?icaeyiooa noaia ci?ie i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy
i?e ia?aoiae? iie?e?enoae?a ?c e?eoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee i?ae aieeaii
oaiia?aoo?e. Aiae?co?oueny aieea aoaeiae iaoa??aeo ia iniaeeaino?
e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo iie?e?enoae?a oa ?o o??ueiino?ee?noue.
Aieea noaio iaae ca?ai ia e?eoei-ieanoe/iee ia?ao?ae a ea?ai?eao
i?iaiae?ciaaiee ia ea?a?ae? oee?eii?th. ?icaeyioo? iniaeeaino?
aeie?eoe/iiai ?inoo o??uei oa ?o ?icaaeoaeaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?o aeey
o?aeoia?ao?/ii? ioe?iee o??ueiino?eeino?. Oi?ioeththoueny i?e?iiaoai?cie
ooai?aiiy i?iiiiae?aiiai ceaio a i?o?eaee?aii??a?e ea?ai?oe?.

Ni?eueiee ?icaeyae ci?i i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy oa iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae naia iaiaae??caieo c?ace?a iaaeaa iiaeeea?noue anoaiiaeoe,
ui:

E?eoea ?oeioaaiiy iie?e?enoae?a a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeeieii o aeiaaeeo
i?oeieo iaae ca?ai, aai, o i?ioeaiiio ?ac?, o e?eoeee i?aeca?aiiee
niin?a i?e iai?oaeaiiyo, ieae/eo a?ae iaae? oaeo/ino?. Aeaea?aeaie
?oeioaaiiy ? aeeeth/ii aeaoaeoe c?acea. A?aei?ii?noth a?aeeieo o
aeenia?niici?oeiaieo iaoa??aeao ? eiai o?aaiaioiaai?noue /anoeaie
ci?oeithth/i? oace. ?ici?? o?aaiaio?a (a?aenoaiue i?ae i?e?io??ueiaie
a?aeeieo) a?aeiia?aea? ye ?ici??ia? naieo /anoie, oae ? a?aenoai? i?ae
ieie.

?oeioaaiith a?aeeieii a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai
ia?aoiaeo ia?aaeo? aeie?eoe/iee ??no o??ueie. A caeaaeiino? a?ae
iaoa??aeo oa eiai noaio oeae ?ioa?aae iiaea aooe iiae?eaiee acaaae? ia
o?e aeiaeaoeiaeo ?ioa?aaee, oe?eia yeeo iiai?noth aecia/a?oueny
aoaeiaith iaoa??aeo.

A ia?oiio ia?ao?aeiiio ?ioa?aae? a?aeeieia? ia?aaeo? ieanoe/ia ci?iaiiy
oi?ie ?i?oe?thth/iai eiai aeaoaeoo aai niaoe?aeueii iaianaiiai iaae??co
o a?e iineaaeaiiy ?o eiioeaio?oth/i? iai?oaeaiiy ae??.

O ae?oaiio ia?ao?aeiiio ?ioa?aae? ?oeioaaiith a?aeeieii iiaea
ia?aaeoaaoe i?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy, yea ?i?oe?th?oueny ia?oeie aeoaie
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? eiacaiiyi ca noaiith C?ia?a aai aea?eieeoaaiiy
ca noaiith aaoi?a, i?e/iio a caeaaeiino? a?ae noaio iaae ca?ai
i?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy iiaea aooe aeecueeei aei e?eoeiai aai ieanoe/iei,
oeyoii ceeooy ii?. Aeueoa?iaoeaith i?aeca?aiiiio ?oeioaaiith ? a?aeeie c
ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th.

A o?aoueiio ia?ao?aeiiio ?ioa?aae? a?aeeieo ia?aaeo? ceeooy ii?. Ie??i
oeueiai, i?e iiaeaaeaii? caaaeueii? oaeo/ino? c?acea, iai?eeeaae,
iaae??cii, o oeueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? iiaeia niinoa??aaoe on? o?e
iacaai? iaoai?cie aeie?eoe/iiai ?inoo iaeii/anii, ye eiieo?oth/?. A
i?o?eaee?aii??a?e ea?ai?oe? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeueo 1000iN, iaoai?ciaie
aeie?eoe/iiai ?inoo ? i?e?i?ico??neoaaiiy oa ?oeioaaiiy c oi?ioaaiiyi
i?iiiiae?aiiai ceaio, yeee ? ?acoeueoaoii ?iciaaeo i?o?eaeo e?aii?th.

Ieanoe/ia ?oeioaaiiy iaoaeaaeo oa ea?ai?/ieo iie?e?enoae?a nooo?ai
a?ae??ciy?oueny iaeia a?ae iaeiiai, oi/ aeaye? ni?euei? ?ene oaae
iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai?. Iaoaee ?oeiothoueny ca iaoai?ciii ceeooy ii?,
ye? a aeenia?niici?oeiaieo iaoa??aeao ca?iaeaeothoueny ia iaaeao /anoie
oa i?e ?o ?oeioaaii?. ??aaiue iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa i?iyae
/anoie oace o ceai? iia?ycai? i?ae niaith. Eiee aeaoi?iaoe?y aei
?oeioaaiiy iaaaeeea, ia a?eueoa 5-7%, /anoee oace a yieao ceaio
niinoa??aathoueny. I?e a?eueo?e aeaoi?iaoe??, yea ?ieiee iiaea nyaaoe ?
100%, /anoee ci?oeithth/i? oace a ceai? i?aeoe/ii ia niinoa??aathoueny.

Ca?iaeaeaiiy ii? a iaeiioacieo iie?e?enoaeao, e??i i?aeeii??/aieo iaae,
a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeiae ? ii iaaeao ca?ai. I?aeca?aii? ii?e
a?ae??ciythoueny nai?th aeiaaeeiith (oea nioi? iei oa iaeeieoe? ii), c
yeeo iio?i, i?e e?ioeaaiio ?oeioaaii?, ooai?ththoueny ai?iieiiiae?ai?
yiee. I?e aeinoaoiuei iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao i?aeca?aii? o??ueie iathoue
oa?aeoa? ?icoa?oaaiue, e?euee?noue yeeo ca?eueoo?oueny c ?inoii
oaiia?aoo?e, ? ye? iio?i aeiiiaiththoueny i?aeeii??/aiei ?icoa?oaaiiyi.
I?aeca?aii? iecueeioaiia?aoo?i? ii?e iathoue e?enoaeia?ao?/io ia?aieo,
ui aeaco? ia ?o aeeneieaoe?eia cnoaia iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aea/ai? ea?ai?/i? iaoa??aee ia ?oeiothoueny o iienaiee aeua niin?a, oi/
iiaeeea?noue ca?iaeaeaiiy ii? ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e a ieo,
ye aaea a?aei?/aeinue, ?. Aeoea?caoe?? ia?aaoaeiae no?oeoo?e ca?ai
ea?a?ae?a, iai?eeeaae, caaaaeathoue ye iaeee ?o ?ici?? (iaioa 10 iei),
oae ? iayai?noue ia ?o iaaeao naa?aaaoe?e aeii?oe?a oa eaaeiieaaeeo
neeiiiae?aieo oac, ye? ieanoeo?eothoueny i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 1000iN.
Ieanoe/ia (ca ??aiai ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??) ?oeioaaiiy ea?ai?/ieo
iaoa??ae?a i?ioiaeeoue oeyoii i?aeca?aiiiai i?ineiacoaaiiy, eiee
i?aeca?aii? o??ueie-ii?e ca?iaeaeothoueny caaaeyee iii`yeoaiith
i?aeca?aiieo neeiiiae?aieo oac aai ?ioaineai?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ca?ai ca
iaoai?ciii C?ia?a-?ea?ia. Neaae?noue iaae ca?ai naia ? ia aeicaiey?
i?iaanoe aeaoi?iaoe?th ?o o?e ia iiaio neeo ?c ca?iaeaeaiiyi aioo??oi?o
ii? ii iaaeao aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie ca i?eeeaaeii iiiie?enoae?a.

?icaeyiaii ?oeioaaiiy aeayeeo iie?e?enoae?a i?e ia?aoiae? ?o ?c
e?eoeiai noaio o ieanoe/iee.

Iie?aaeai. Oaiia?aoo?ia caeaaei?noue o??ueiino?eeino? iie?e?enoaeaaiai
iie?aaeaio OeI-10, aei??yia ia noaiaea?oieo c?aceao, ye aeaeii ?c ?en.6,
ia? yaii iaiiiioiiiee aeaeyae. O?aeoia?ao?/iee aiae?c iieaco?, ui
iaiiiioiiia iiaaae?iea o??ueiino?eeino? iie?e?enoaeaaiai iie?aaeaio c
oaiia?aoo?ith iiaea aooe iia`ycaia ?c ci?iith ye iaoai?cio ?aeaenaoe??
iai?oaeaiue o aa?oei? ?i?oe?thth/iai aeaoaeoo, oae ? i?e?iiaoai?cio
?oeioaaiiy. Ia?oee i?aeeii o??ueiino?eeino? iaoiiaeaiee caooieaiiyi
?i?oe?thth/i? aeaeo?i?ne?iai? o??ueie. Iaae?iiy o??ueiino?eeino?
iaoiiaeaia oi?ioaaiiyi aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e o aa?oei?
?i?oe?thth/iai iaae??co, yea ni?ey? caii/aoeoaaiith o??uei a?aeeieo c
ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th, ? yea, ye iieacothoue noa?aineii?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia? iaaaaaoi a?eueoo aino?ioo, i?ae caooieaia
aeaeo?i?ne?iaa o??ueia. Ae?oaee i?aeeii o??ueiino?eeino? iaoiiaeaiee
cia/iei ca?eueoaiiyi ieanoe/iino? iie?aaeaio, ci?iith iaoai?cio ?inoo
aeie?eoe/ieo o??uei ?c a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th ia ceeooy ii?,
caeaoi?noth iaoa??aeo oo?eioaaoe o nia? aeiao? o??ueie. Caeaaei?noue
o??ueiino?eeino? iie?e?enoaeaaiai iie?aaeaio a?ae oaiia?aoo?e, ye
aa/eii, iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia aeaiia aeniiiaioaie. Ia?oa c ieo
a?aeiia?aea? ca caooieaiiy aeaeo?i?ne?iai? o??ueie, a ae?oaa — ca
ca?eueoaiiy aeiaaeeie aino??oi? o??ueie a?aeeieo c ?aeaenaoe??th.
Ia?ao?ae c ia?oi? ia ae?oao ? oi?io? caeaaei?noue, yea ? aei??th?oueny
ca noaiaea?oiei iaoiaeii.

Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe oaeiae, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? Oii (?en.6) ia e?eaeo
iaaaioaaeaiiy-aeaoi?iaoe?y a?aei?/athoueny a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae e?i?eii?
iiaaae?iee iaoa??aeo c iai?oaeaiiyi, aea oiiae e?i?eii? iaoai?ee
?oeioaaiiy i?e oeueiio ua aeeiiothoueny (ca noaiaea?oii ieanoe/i?noue
aei ?oeioaaiiy ia iiaea ia?aaeuoaaoe 2%). Ieanoe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y, ye
aeaeii, ooo ia ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith o??ueiino?eeino?, a iaaiaee, ??
ciaioo?.

Ia ?en.5 iaaaaeai? oaeiae aeai? c o??ueiino?eeino? iie?aaeaio IO, ye?
aoee io?eiai? ca o?aeoia?ao?/ieie iciaeaie ia iaiaae??caieo c?aceao.
Ii??aiyiiy oeeo aeaieo c aeaieie aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiie?enoae?a oa nieaao
OeI-10 (?en.4 oa 6) aeaco? ia ?o nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?: o oie /an, ye
iiiie?enoaee oa nieaa IO, ye ? iiiie?enoaee aieueo?aio oa o?iio, iathoue
iaeaea iiiioiiii c?inoath/? ?c oaiia?aoo?ith caeaaeiino?, nieaa ia?ee
OeI-10 o oiio ae naiiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? ia? yne?aai iaiiiioiiio
caeaaei?noue.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a i?e/eie oe??? ??cieoe? iieyaathoue ye o iani?aiaaeaii?
oaiia?aoo?ieo ?ioa?aae?a e?eoei-ieanoe/iiai ia?aoiaeo naieo iaoa??ae?a,
oae ? o iani?aiaaeaii? e?eoei-ieanoe/ieo ia?aoiae?a eiie?aoieo ca
oi?iith c?ace?a, iaoiiaeaieo iayai?noth a ieo ??cieo ca aoaeoeai?noth
eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue. sseui o ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aeie?eoe/i?
o??ueie ca iaoai?ciii a?aeeieo c ieanoe/iith ?aeaenaoe??th c`yaeythoueny
a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? -100 -50iN, eiee ieanoe/i?noue aei ?oeioaaiiy
aei??th?oueny aeieyie aai iaeeieoeyie i?ioeaio?a, oi a iie?aaeai?
OeI-10, iaaeieeaiiio aeiaaei (a?ey 2 ii) aino?ei (iaioa 10 iei)
iaae??cii, ?aeaenaoe?ei? o??ueie c`yaeythoueny eeoa i?e oaiia?aoo??
20iN. A nieaa? ae IO ?aeaenaoe?ei? o??ueie ia oioo??oi?o noa?e/ieo ii?ao
c`yaeythoueny aaea i?e oaiia?aoo?? a?ey — -100iN, a ia a?eueo ooiiio
iaae??c? ?aae?onii 200 iei oa aeiaaeeiith 0,5 ii aiie c`yaeythoueny eeoa
i?e +100iN. Oiaoi, ci?ia iaoai?ci?a ?aeaenaoe?? iai?oaeaiue a iie?aaeai?
OeI-10 a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e aenieiio ??ai? ieanoe/iino? iaoa??aeo,
iae?ineii?/iee i?iya yei? iiaeaaeaiee aenieiaoaeoeaiei iaae??cii. Aea
aieea ?? ia iai?oaeaiiy ?oeioaaiiy oa o??ueiino?ee?noue /a?ac no?oeoo?i?
ci?ie a cii? ieanoe/ii? ?aeaenaoe?? aeyaeany a?eueo iii?oiei.

I?e i?aeca?aiiiio ?oeioaaii? o??ueiino?ee?noue iie?aaeaio IO, ye aeaeii
c ?en. 7, ca?eueoo?oueny iiiioiiii. I?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy ooo
ia?aoiaeeoue o ceeooy ii?.

Aea/aiiy aieeao aeaoi?iaoe?? ia o??ueiino?ee?noue aeaco? ia
noia?a/eeaee aieea aeeneieaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e ia oeth aeanoea?noue
iie?aaeaio o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei ci?i i?e?iiaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy,
?icaeyiooeo aeua. I?e e?eoeiio ?oeioaaii? a?aeeieii i?e oaiia?aoo??
ne?aieaiiai acioo o??ueiino?ee?noue i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny a
?ioa?aae? aeaoi?iaoe?e a?ae 0 aei 50%, ? eeoa i?e iiaeaeueo?e
aeaoi?iaoe?? o??ueiino?ee?noue ca?eueoo?oueny iaeaea o o?e ?ace (?en.8).
I?e e?iiaoi?e oaiia?aoo?? oanooaaiiy ca?eueoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a?ae 50
aei 92% i?eaiaeeoue aei ci?ie iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy a?ae iaeaea iiaiiai
a?aeeieo aei ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy ceeooyi ii? c /anoeith
i?aeeii??/aiiai ?oeioaaiiy. O??ueiino?ee?noue ooo ca?eueoo?oueny a?eueo
nooo?ai. A aeine?aeaeaiiio ?yaeo no?oeoo?ieo noai?a a?eueo
o??ueiino?eeei ? iie?aaeai, aeaoi?iiaaiee ia 92% i?e 600iN. Iacaaaeath/e
ia oa, ui ?oeioaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo a?aeaoaa?oueny a?aeeieii,
o??ueiino?ee?noue aeaoi?iiaaiiai iie?aaeaio aeinoaoiuei aeniea iaa?oue
i?e iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?ao ? nooo?ai ia?aaeuo? no?ee?noue
?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai.

?en.6. Caeaaei?noue o??ueiino?eeino? Iiie?aaeaio IO oa OeI-10 a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e

i?e ?oeioaaii? a?aeeieii ?o a?aeeieii.

?en.7. Caeaaei?noue o??ueiino?eeino? iIie?aaeaio IO a?ae oaiia?aoo?e

i?e i?aeca?aiiiio ?oeioaaii?.

O??ueiino?ee?noue neeueii aeaoi?iiaaiiai i?e oaiia?aoo?ao ieae/a 0,4
Oie iie?aaeaio aecia/a?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi oa?oaaoi? eiiiiceoe?? c
nooo?aei iineaaeaiiyi coe?ieaiiy ii iaaeao aeaiaio?a aoaeiae ? iaa?oue c
aioiaei o??ueiaie ?icoa?oaaiiy. Iiaa?iaiiy no?oeoo?e i?e oaiia?aoo?ao,
aeueo cacia/aii?, i?eai?/o? ?icoa?oaaiiy ?, oei naiei, cieaeo?
o??ueiino?ee?noue. Aeeeth/ia noeeuei?noue aeaoi?iiaaiiai iie?aaeaio aei
?icoa?oaaiiy iaoiiaeaia iaaeeaeaiiyi iaae aeeneieaoe?eieo eii??ie ca
nai?ie aeanoeainoyie aei iaae ca?ai: aaeeei? ?ici???ioaoe??, aenieeo
??ai?a oioo??oi?o iai?oaeaiue oa eiioeaio?aoe?e aeii?oe?a.

Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo iiaeiaaei?o a?aeeie?a aeicaieeei i?aeoaa?aeeoe
aeniiaie i?i ca?iaeaeaiiy ii? ia i?aeeii??/aieo oa i?aeca?aiieo iaaeao,
a oaeiae i?i i?io?eaiiy aeeiai?/ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? a oeeoe? c?ace?a
aaea i?e oaiia?aoo?? iaaaioaaeaiiy 500-600iN, ui aeaco? ia aeiaeaoeiaee
eieaeueiee ?ic?a??a iie?aaeaio i?ae /an eiai iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia 400-500iN.

O?ii. O?aeoia?ao?/iee aiae?c iaiaae??caieo c?ace?a nieaa?a ia iniia?
o?iio iieaco?, ui o ii??aiyii? c iie?aaeaiii oa aieueo?aiii, e??i
i?aeoe/ii iiaii? a?aenooiino? i?aeca?aiiiai oa i?aeeii??/aiiai
?oeioaaiiy, o?iio i?eoaiaiiee aaciina?aaei?e ia?ao?ae a?ae a?aeeieo aei
ieanoe/iiai ?oeioaaiiy oeyoii ceeooy ii? a aeineoue aocueeiio ?ioa?aae?
oaiia?aoo?, ui oaeiae ? aeineoue aeeaiei, ine?eueee a?aeiinii o?iio
iioe?aia aeoiea i?i eiai e?eoe?noue oa iacaeaoi?noue aei cia/ii?
ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe??. Oae, ia?o? aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ii?e c`yaeythoueny a
o?ii? aaea aeanue i?e 150iN, a a?aeeie a ceai? iaiaae??caieo c?ace?a
iaeiai ae?aiao?o uaca? iiai?noth i?e 300iN.

Iiaeaaeaiiy caaaeueii? oaeo/ino? c?ace?a i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aeo ci?i
a iaoai?/i?e iiaaae?ioe? o?iio acaaae?. Oaiia?aoo?a iiaiiai ia?aoiaeo
o?iio ?c e?eoeiai noaio a ieanoe/iee caaa?oo?oueny i?e oaiia?aoo?? ia
400iN, ye a oiieeo iaiaaeieeaieo c?aceao, a i?e iaaaaaoi aeu?e
oaiia?aoo?? — 800iN. ?acii c oei, ia iaae??caieo c?aceao aia?oa aaeaeiny
niinoa??aaoe i?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy o?iio a ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiio noai?,
yea ?i?oe?th?oueny ieanoe/iith oa/??th ca?ai. Iniaeea?noth ?oeioaaiiy
?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai

o?iio ? ? iayai?noue aeie?eoe/iiai ?inoo o??uei, ye? ia?aaeothoue
a?aeeieia?.

Iaoai?ciii ?inoo aeie?eoe/ieo o??uei naia ? ? i?aeca?aiia ?oeioaaiiy
?acii ?c iacia/iith /anoeith ?oeioaaiiy ca iaoai?ciii ceeooy ii?, ye?
ca?iaeaeothoueny a iniiaiiio ii iaaeao ca?ai ? ? nai???aeiei oeiii
i?aeca?aiiiai ?oeioaaiiy. Aeie?eoe/iee ??no o??uei a iaae??caieo c?aceao
aeaoi?iiaaiiai o?iio ia niinoa??aa?oueny. A ?oeioaaiiy ca iaoai?ciii
ceeooy ii? a iueiio aeeiio? nei??oa aeiiii?aeio ?ieue ? ? niiniaii
?oeioaaiiy oeo ae?eyiie c?acea, ye? iathoue ?oeioaaoeny i?ae ae??th
cnoaieo iai?oaeaiue.

?en.8. Noaie caeaaeiinoae o??ueiino?eeino? iie?aaeaio oa o?iio a?ae
nooiaith ieanoe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? i?e ?oeioaaiiy ?o a?aeeieii i?e
oaiia?aoo?? -196(b) oa 20iN(d).

I?e oaiia?aoo?? 800-900iN ceeooy ii? ? aeueoa?iaoeaiei a?aeeieia?.

An? c?acee ? aeaoi?iiaaiiai, ? ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai o?iio ?oeiothoueny c
aoaeoii a?eeoaaiiy o??uei a?aeeieo. Aaaeeeaei ? oie oaeo, ui ?ici??
o??uei a?aeeieo aei iiiaioo ?o a?eeoaaiiy ? i?aeoe/ii iaci?iiei a
onueiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? ? neeaaea?, ye, iai?eeeaae, a
aeaoi?iiaaiiio noai?, 70-80 iei. Oea icia/a?, ui aeanoeaino? ?a/iaeie a
cii? i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia ?ioaineaio ?? ieanoe/io
aeaoi?iaoe?th, yea oai a?aeaoaa?oueny ? ia?aaeo? e?ioeaaiio ?oeioaaiith,
i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo? 20-800iN, a iiaeeea?
ci?ie ia iiaeooue aooe ca?a?no?iaai? iayaieie caniaaie.

?en.9. Caeaaeiino? o??ueiino?eeino? ?ae?enoae?ci-aaiiai oa
aeaoi?iiaaiiai o?iio a?ae oaiia?aoo?e.

Iiae?aia ea?oeia niinoa??aa?oueny ? i?e aea/aii? aieeao aeaoi?iaoe?? ia
o??ueiino?ee?noue o?iio i?e oaiia?aoo?? ne?aieaiiai acioo (?en.8).
Aeaeii, ui i?e e?eoeiio ?oeioaaii? a?aeeieii aieea aeeneieaoe?eii?
no?oeoo?e ia o??ueiino?ee?noue ia ? a?ae/ooiei i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? iaa?oue
ia 95%. ? eeoa ia?ao?ae aei iaaaioaaeaiiy i?e iiceoeaieo oaiia?aoo?ao, ?
ca?eueoaiiy oei naiei iiia?aaeiuei? aeaoi?iaoe??, ?iaeoue aoaeo
aeaoi?iaoe?? iii?oiei. Aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?oeioaaiiy aeaoi?iiaaiiai
o?iio iieaco?, ui i?aeca?aiia oa i?aeeii??/aia ?oeioaaiiy ia ? aeanoeaei
? aeey oeueiai noaio iaoa??aeo.

O??ueiino?ee?noue aeaoi?iiaaiiai ? ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai o?iio iiiioiiii
ca?eueoo-?oueny c ?inoii oaiia?aoo?e (?en.9); o??ueiino?ee?noue
aeaoi?iiaaiiai o?iio ia 20-25%

aeua a?ae ?ae?enoae?ciaaiiai.

Ciaeaeai? a?aei?iiino? o iiaaae?ioe? o?iio oa iie?aaeaio iathoue aooe
ia?o ca ana iia`ycai? c ??cieoeath a ??aiyo nee ca`yceo aeaiaio?a
no?oeoo?e i?ae niaith i?e naa?aaoaaii? ia ?o iaaeao aeii?oeiaeo
aeaiaio?a. Ii??aiyiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aeanoeainoae /enoeo iaoae?a oa ?o
iaea?eueo no?eeeo ieneae?a iieaco?, ui a ?yaeo Cr, Mo, W neea ca`yceo
ca?eueoo?oueny, a a ?yaeo ?o ieneae?a — ciaioo?oueny. Iiaeia
niiae?aaoenue, ui naa?aaaoe?y eenith ia oioo??oi?o iaaeao ?iciiae?eo a
Mo oa W i?eaiaeeoue aei nooo?aiai iineaaeaiiy nee ca`yceo, a a Cr,
iaaiaee, aiia ci?oeith? neeo coe?ieaiiy aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?e. O oeueiio
aeiaaeeo Mo oa W aoaeooue noeeuei?o? aei ?oeioaaiiy oa ?icoa?oaaiiy ii
aioo??oi?o iaaeao ?iciiae?eo, i?ae Cr.

?en.10. Caeaaeiino? iaae i?oeiino? oa oaeo/ino? «/enoiai» oa
«cani?/aiiai» iie?e?enoaeaaiai ea?a?aeo oee?eii?th.

Aea/aiiy aieeao noaio iaae ?iciiae?eo ia iaoai?/io iiaaae?ieo
iaoa??ae?a aoei i?iaeiaaeaia ia ea?a?aeoee?eii?a?e ea?ai?oe?. Aeaa
ea?a?ae oee?eii?eia? iaoa??aee a?ae??ciyeenue i?ae niaith noaiii iaae
ca?ai. Ia?oee c ieo iiaea aooe ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee ye iaoa??ae c /enoeie
iaaeaie ca?ai, ye? ia iathoue ia nia? yeeoinue iii?oieo aeae?eaiue
ae?oaeo oac. Iaae? ca?ai a ae?oaiio iaoa??ae? cani?/ai? ianeaieie
aeae?eaiiyie neeiiiae?aieo oac. Ia ?en.10 noaiaoe/ii iiaeai?
oaiia?aoo?i? caeaaeiino? i?oeiino? aeacaieo ea?a?ae?a.

Ni?anoaaeaiiy aeaieo o?aeoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co oa iaoai?/ieo
aei?iaoaaiue aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui ao?aoa «cani?/aiei»
iaoa??aeii nai?? i?oeiino? i?e oaiia?aoo?? aeua 0,2-0,3Oie, ia? aooe
iia`ycaia naia c i?aeca?aiieie neeiiiae?a-ieie oacaie, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue
aei ia?aoiaeo a?ae a?aeeieo aei i?aeca?aiiiai ?oeioaaiiy naia a
iacaaiiio ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?. «*eno?» ae iaoa??aee ia o?eueee
caa??aathoue aenieo i?oei?noue aei a?eueo aenieeo oaiia?aoo?, aea e
cia/ii ia?aaeuothoue ??, ca I?eueiaiii, a iaeano? 0,5-0,6 Oie.

Aieiaiith i?e/eiith, yea aecia/a?, ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaaae?ieo ea?a?ae?a
oee?eii?th i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, aeueo 0,3 Oie (1000iN), ? noai iaae ca?ai.
Iaoa??aee c eaaeiieaaeeie neeiiiae?aieie oacaie ii iaaeao ca?ai, ye?
iii`yeoothoueny i?e oeeo oaiia?aoo?ao, ciaioothoue naith i?oei?noue
caaaeyee “iecueeioaiia?aoo?iiio” (1000iN) i?aeca?aiiiio i?ineiacoaaiith
ca iaoai?ciii i?ineiacoaaiiy aei?noeeo /anoie a ieanoe/i?e iao?eoe?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ieo, iaoa??aee c /enoeie iaaeaie ca?ai, i?oei?noue
yeeo ca?eueoo?oueny ?c ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e aei i?eaeecii 0,6 O

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