Методи функціонального підходу у системі маркетингу на промисловому підприємстві (на прикладі АТ ‘НКМЗ’): Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / М.В. Корж

IAOeEIIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AEIIII?EE I?IIENEIAINO?

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 339.138:658

Ei?ae Ia?eia Aieiaeeie??aia

IAOIAeE OOIEOe?IIAEUeIIAI I?AeOIAeO O NENOAI?

IA?EAOEIAO IA I?IIENEIAIIO I?AeI?E?INOA?

(IA I?EEEAAe? AO «IEIC»)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa

? i?aai?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaoeiiaoae?ai?e aeaaeai??
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. E?aiaoi?nuee)

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie

Aiioa Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Aeiiaoeuee), aee?aeoi?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaeiaii TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Iinoeooo aeiiiiiee i?iieneiainoi IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?iaiaeiee iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee aiaeaeieo aeiiiii/ieo i?iaeai
iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano a i?iieneiainoi

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Iaiio?a Ieueaa ?aai?aia,

Aeiiaoeueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y oi?aae?iiy I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?iainiaiai iaiaaeaeiaioo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i. Oa?e?a), eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee ? ia?eaoeiao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeeii ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.151.01 ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340048, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aeiiii?ee
i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340048, i. Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 27 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee Iieeiinueeee O.TH.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O noi?iiaai?e a aeaiee /an ia Oe?a?i? neooaoe?? a
oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia? i?noea aino?a eiieo?aioia
ai?ioueaa i?ae ae?iaieeaie, ui ciooai? oaeaaaoeny aei ??cieo
ia?eaoeiaiaeo ae?e, i???ioiaaieo ia ?ioaineo?eaoe?th caooo i?iaeoeoe??,
ui aeionea?oueny. Iaeiae, aeaiee i?ioean iaiiaeeeaee aac i?iaaaeaiiy
ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? cai?iiiiiaaii? ?eieo
oiaa?ii? iaeeieoe?.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae iieaciee?a, ui ciaeoee nai? canoinoaaiiy i?e
eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeai?e nenoai? aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee cai?iiiiiaaiiai
niiaeeaa/o i?iaeoeoo, eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue iieno? ia o?eueee
oaoi?/io noi?iio ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoo, aea e aeicaiey? aeyaeoe nooi?iue
eiai a?aeiia?aeiino? aeo?aoai, iaiao?aeiei aeey i?eaeaaiiy ?
niiaeeaaiiy. Aeaiee iieaciee aeicaiey? i?iaeooeaioo ia o?eueee aecia/eoe
nooi?iue caaeiaieaiiy ?nioth/i? iio?aae c?iaeaiei iei oiaa?ii, aea e
?ic?aooaaoe /anoeo ?eieo, ui iioaioe?eii iaeaaeeoue eiio. Oiio ui i?ae
?oi?ie cia/aiiyie ? ?ici??ii iaea?aeoaaiiai i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoaii
?nio? i?yii i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue (ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oyaia ca niaith ??no /anoee ?eieo, ui
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaenei?caoe?? /enoiai i?eaooeo), oi iinoa? aeniiaie, ui
oeae iieaciee oa?aeoa?eco? aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? ae?iaieea. Oaeei
/eiii, inoaii?e iiaeiiee cina?aaeeoe an? coneeey ia iaenei?caoe?? ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. Uia oieeiooe iioeaie ? iiieeie o i?ioean?
cae?eniaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?oiuei?
aoaeoeaiino? iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo ??aiy
i?eaaaeaiiai iieacieea.

A aeaiee /an a iaeano? aiae?co niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ?niothoue iaiao?aei?
iaoiaeeee. Iaeiae, o noa?? ?ic?iaee, aeioneo ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy aeaia caaea/a oneeaaeith?oueny oei, ui aeey
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai eeano i?iaeoeo?a i?aoe? iaaeinoaoiuei caaacia/eoe
iaeneiecaoeeth ??aiy yeino? i?e iaeii/ani?e i?i?i?caoe?? aeo?ao. Oaea
neooaoe?y neeaaea?oueny a ?acoeueoao? oiai, ui i?iieneia? oiaa?e
eoiothoueny iieoioeai ?c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae
?oiueiai aeei?enoaiiy (niiaeeaaiiy).

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ei?enooaa/aie aenoaathoueny aenie? aeiiae aei
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aenieoaoaoe?? onoaoeoaaiiy, ui eoio?oueny.
Oaeei /eiii, iac??ea aino?a iaiao?aei?noue cina?aaeaeaiiy coneeue ia
?icaeoeo ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a no/aniiio ia?eaoeiao.

A aeaiee /an ?niothoue iaoiaeeee, i?ecia/ai? aeey aiae?co
ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, aea, ia aeaeue,
?ic?iaeai? eiioeaioe?? aeioneathoue aieea eiieo?aioe??, /a?ac ui ia’?eo,
ui i?aeaea?oueny aeine?aeaeaiith, ?icaeyaea?oueny aano?aeoii, a?ae??aaii
a?ae ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. I?e oeueiio oionea?oueny aaaeeeaa ?ena,
aeanoeaa ?eieo niiaeeaa/a, — iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? ae?iaiee?a,
ui aeioneathoue ?aeaioe/iee oiaa? ? aaaeooue iai?oaeaio eiieo?aioio
ai?ioueao ca eiaeiiai ie?aiiai ee??ioa.

Oaeei /eiii, niinoa??aa?oueny aino?a iaiao?aei?noue a ooi/iaii?
?nioth/eo ? ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo iaoiae?a aiae?co ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iaoeiiaoae?aii? i?iaeoeoe??, ?oiueiio canoinoaaii? a ?ic?aooieo ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy oeueiai iieacieea
ia i?enoiniaai? aeey aiae?co i?iaeoeo?a, ae?iaeaieo i?ae
?iaeea?aeoaeueia caiiaeaiiy. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?ac oa, ui i?e
?oiueiio canoinoaaii? aeieeathoue o?oaeiino?, o /enei yeeo aoiaeeoue ia
o?eueee oi?ioaaiiy ia?ae?eo ia?aiao??a, aea ? aecia/aiiy cia/eiino?
eiaeiiai a caaaeuei?e noeoiiino?. Oea ieoaiiy a noa?? ia?eaoeiao
niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ae??oo?oueny oeyoii i?eoyaiaiiy aenia?o?a. Iaeiae, o
aeaiiio aeiaaeeo oea iiaea aooe aai iaaeinooiii, aai i?aeaeuo?
iia??oi?noue ?ic?aooie?a.

A aeaiee /an iio??aia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo, ui aeicaiey? aeineiiaeueii ?
?aoaeueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe ??aaiue ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiaeii? eiie?aoii?
i?iieneiai? oiaa?ii? iaeeieoe? a caaeaieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.

E??i oiai, iaiao?aeii oaeineiiaethaaoe iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a iai?yieo oyaeaiiy ?? o aeae? eiiieaeniiai
iieacieea, eiaeia iaeeie/ia neeaaeiaa yeiai aoaea oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe
aecia/aio ooieoe?th aenieoaoaoe??, a ia ia?aiao?. Ne?ae cacia/eoe oaeiae
iayai?noue o?oaeiiu?a o i?ioean? aeaiiai aiae?co i?e aeyaeaii? ia
o?eueee “aocueeiai i?noey”, aea e a?aeiia?aea/a ca iueiai, a ?ac?
iecueeiai ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. Ia?a?aoiaaia aeua iaa?oioiao? ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? iaiao?aei?noue ? aeooaeuei?noue aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie ? oaiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia a
Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaoeiiaoae?ai?e aeaaeai?? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie (i.E?aiaoi?nuee) a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o ii oaiao A-09-96 «Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
ea?oaaiiy (NO) ia i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoae?aiiai
eiiieaeno (ia i?eeeaae? AO «IEIC») ? A-03-98 «No?aoaa?y aioee?eciaiai
ea?oaaiiy i?iieneiaei i?aei?e?inoaii a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? oaeineiiaeaiiy
?nioth/eo ? ?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoiae?a o noa?? aiae?co ? ?ic?aooieo ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ye iaeiiai c iniiaieo iieaciee?a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue no/ania i?aei?e?inoai ? i?iaeoeoe?th, ui aeionea?oueny
iei, ia aac? aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy ia i?noeyo
?oiuei? aenieoaoaoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeuacacia/aii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iinoaaeai?
oae? caaea/?:

aeyaeaiiy nooiaiy iaiao?aeiino? ia?eaoeiao a caaaeuei?e aeiiii?/i?e
nenoai? no/aniiai i?aei?e?inoaa a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei; aecia/aiiy ?ie? ? iaoe i?iieneiaiai ia?eaoeiao i?e ??oaii?
i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny;

aea/aiiy noaio ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo ? i?noey
ooieoe?iiaeueii-aa?o?niiai aiae?co a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao;

aiae?c a?o/eciyieo ? caei?aeiiieo aeinyaiaiue o aeai?e aaeoc?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iaoiae?a ? i?eeii?a;

aecia/aiiy ?ie? eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a noeoiiino? aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa, aea/aiiy ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ?? ?ic?aooieo e aiae?co,
aeyaeaiiy ?oi?o ia?aaaa ? iaaeie?eia;

ooi/iaiiy ?nioth/i? noaie aeine?aeaeaiiy eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?;

oaeineiiaeaiiy caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo iaoiaeee aea/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?iaeoeoo ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy ia i?noeyo aenieoaoaoe??;

?ic?iaea ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aeey ?ic?aooieo
eiieo?aioini?iiiae-iino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? c iae?eii ??
niaoeeo?ee;

?aae?caoe?y ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a ia?eaoeiaia?e nenoai? a
?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia a?o/eciyiiio i?aei?e?inoa?;

oi?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaie o i?aeoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa aaeoc? aaaeeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oai?aoe/i?, iaoiaee/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiao o
ooieoe?iiaeueiiio ?ic??c?, a oaeiae iaoiaee ioe?iee
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aei?e?inoaa
aaaeeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ? i?iaeoeoe?y, ui aeionea?oueny ieie, a oaeiae
i?noey ?? aenieoaoaoe??.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/ia ? iaoiaeieia?/ia
aaca aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?oioo?oueny ia aeinyaiaiiyo a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, eeane/ieo ? no/anieo iaoeiaeo iinooeaoao
aeiiii?/ii? oai???, caeiiao noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
A?aoiaoaaeeny aeina?ae i?ioea?oath/eo ca?oa?aeieo ei?ii?aoe?e,
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeiiii?/i? ? ia?eaoeiaia? iniiae, aeiaie, aeaaaeai?
o/aiuie-ia?eaoieiaaie. sse aeo?aei? aeai? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo
?ic?aooie?a aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ae?iaie/iai ? caooiaiai iioaioe?aeo aieiaieo a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
iaoeiiaoae?aieo ia’?aeiaiue ei?ii?aoeaiiai oeio. E??i oiai, ye aeo?aeia
aeieoiaioaoe?y a oiae? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeieo ?ia?o aoea aeei?enoaia
ii?iaoeaia, ?ino?oeoeaia aeieoiaioaoe?y ii caaacia/aiith ? eiio?ieth
i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, yeino? ui aeionea?oueny, ?
aecia/aiith ?? oaoi?/iiai ??aiy, a oaeiae noaiaea?oe, aea?aeaai?
noaiaea?oe oa ?ioa aeiiii?/ia aeieoiaioaoe?y.

O i?ioean? i?aeaiooaaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee
noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
aea??eiaiai niinoa?aaeaiiy, aenia?oieo ioe?iie, i?iaiicoaaiiy oa ?io?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiee iaoeiaee
?acoeueoao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, cai?iiiiiaaiee aei caoenoo, i?noeoue
oae? aeaiaioe iaoeiai? iiaecie:

?ic?iaeaii noaio ???a?o?? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ??oaiiy i?i
iieoieo c?iaeaiiai aeey i?iaeaaeo i?iaeoeoo, ui a?aeaeaa? nooi?iue
cia/eiino? eiaeiiai c ieo ia oi?ioaaiiy aeoiee niiaeeaa/a i?i oiaa? o
i?ioean? eiai aeai?o aeey i?eaeaaiiy ? niiaeeaaiiy;

oaeineiiaeaii noaio ???a?o?? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia aoaeoeai?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?iaeaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy (oiaa?o i?iieneiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy), o caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeeaino? ?o aeey niiaeeaa/a a
i?ioean? eiai aeei?enoaiiy ;

aeaaaeaii no?oeoo?o ? aecia/aia i?noea ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ia?eaoeiao a
caaaeuei?e nenoai? no/anii? ae?iaie/i-caooiai? ae?yeueiino? i?iieneiaiai
i?aei?e?inoaa;

oaeineiiaeaii caaaeueiee iaoiae ioe?iee ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
oeyoii oyaeaiiy ?? o aeae? aeai?eoio, ui a?aoiao? noi?iiaaio ianoaiiaeo
? niaoeeo?eo i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeicaiey? ei?enooaa/o i?eeiyoe a??ia
??oaiiy;

aeaaaeaii eiiieaeniee iieaciee eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ii oaoi?/iiio
??aith i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c iiaeyaeo
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a ia?eaoeiao, ui aeeth/a? a naaa ?iaeaene
ii?iaoeaiiai noaio i?iaeoeoo, niiaeea/iai ? oaoi?/iiai noaio, ui
aeicaiey? a?aoiaoaaoe ??aaiue yeino? ? iaae?eiino? iaoeie, a oaeiae
oiiae e ?ioaineai?noue aenieoaoaoe?? i?e ?? aeei?enoaii?. E??i oiai,
c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue o i?ioean? aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
eiie?aoiiai aeaeo onoaoeoaaiiy aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao ei?enooaa/a ia
iniiaieo ooieoe?yo, ye? aeeiiothoueny iaoeiith, a oaeiae
?iaeea?aeoaeueii ioe?ithaaoe aei?noe? ? i’ye? oaoi?/i? ia?aiao?e. Aeaiee
niin?a aecia/aiiy cacia/aiiai iieacieea i?eionea? aiae?oe/iee i?aeo?ae
?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo, i?aeaeuoth/e i?e oeueiio
oi/i?noue ?ic?aooieo, caaacia/o? aeyaeaiiy aeioaaooey aeieeiaiiy a?aeiia
i?e ooieoe?iioaaii? onoaoeoaaiiy. Aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei i?eeiyooy
a??iiai ??oaiiy i?e iaiao?aeiino? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? c oaoi?/ii? oi/ee ci?o;

aeaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee eiiieaeniiai iieacieea eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?
ii aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao?ao, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo
oi/iiai aiae?co ca ?aooiie iae?eo a iueiio aieeao ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae aiae?ciaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ia ??aaiue aenieoaoaoe?eieo
aeo?ao. Aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy aeaiiai iieacieea;

ia i?aenoaa? iiia?aaei?o aeaio aeaaaeaii can?a ?ic?aooieo ? aiae?co
?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??
? cai?iiiiiaaii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy eiai ??aiy;

?ic?iaeaii noaio aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe??
i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui a?aoiao? niaoeeo?eo ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo a ia?eaoeiao ? ia?aaeaa/athoue aeyaeaiiy iiiaioo /ano, yeee
iio?aaii aeey iaaaeiiai i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aiae?ciaaiiai i?iaeoeoo aai ciyooy eiai c
ae?iaieoeoaa;

aeaaaeaii iniiaia ??aiyiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaioaaeii?aeeiiiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy, cie?aia, aoae?aaeueieo aaioaaeii?aeeiiieo e?ai?a ia
aaoiiia?eueiiio oiaeo;

aeaaaeaii ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue i?ae i?iaeaaeiith oe?iith, ianith
? iieacieeaie i?ecia/aiiy aaioaaeii?aeeiiieo e?ai?a ia
ioeueoeie?eaoeai?e iniia?;

aeaaaeaii inoaoi/io oi?ioeo ?ic?aooieo eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? e?aiiaiai
onoaoeoaaiiy, ui a?aoiao? niaoeeo?eo aeaiiai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe?? ?
aeicaiey? ei?enooaa/o i?eeiaoe iaaaeii ??oaiiy uiaei oaeoeee
iiaiaeaeaiiy ia ?eieo ? ieoo?ai aeyaeyoe aocueea i?noea o
ooieoe?iioaaii? aaioaaeii?aeeiiiiai e?aia a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe??, a e??i oiai ? a?aeiia?aea/a ca iueiai.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoeiaee aianie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe a aeiiii?/io iaoeo iieyaa?a ?icaeoeo ia?eaoeiaiai? eiioeaioe?? ia
no/aniiio i?aei?e?inoa? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei, i?aeaeuaii? cia/eiino? ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo i?e
aeine?aeaeaii? e aiae?co i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy c iaoith
aeinyaiaiiy oni?oo o??ie, yea eiai ae?iaey?, ia ?eieo (i?aeaeuaiiy
/anoee ?eieo), a ioaea, ? ca?eueoaiiy ?? i?eaooeo a?ae ?aae?caoe??
oeyoii oaeineiiaethaaiiy iaoiaeeee aiae?co eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?
i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy c iae?eii ?? niaoeeo?ee.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a oaeiio:

c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue iiaoaiiiai aiae?co /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia
??oaiiy i?i iieoieo, o caeaaeiino? a?ae nooiaiy ?oiuei? cia/eiino? aeey
niiaeeaa/a;

aeaaaeaia iaoiaeeea aiae?co eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae
aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? ?? ?ic?aooieo oeyoii aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaieo iaoeiith ooieoe?e ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai aaoiiaoe/iiai
aeiai?o oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a. O aeaiee iieaciee aeeth/athoueny o?eueee
o? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeie, /enaeueia cia/aiiy yeeo iathoue aaciina?aaei?e
a?aeaeoie ia ?ici??? ia?aaeaa/oaaiiai ae?ia?oeo onoaoeoaaiiy ?
a?aeiia?aeii i?eaooeo ei?enooaa/a;

c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiae a?ae iineoa aenia?o?a i?e ioe?ioe?
cia/eiino? aiae?ciaaieo aei?noeeo oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui cia/ii
ni?iuo? ? i?enei?th? i?ioean, e??i i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino?.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ciaoiaeyoue nai? canoinoaaiiy ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao, o oiio /ene? ia iaoeiiaoae?aieo, a e??i oiai
o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean Aeiiaanuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaoeiiaoae?ai?e aeaaeai??
aeey nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo, o oiio /ene?:
“Aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea: ?noi??y, no/ani?noue, ia?niaeoeae” (Aeiiaoeuee,
1996 ?.), “Iia? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiioaiiy ? eaae?iaa caaacia/aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa” (E?aiaoi?nuee, 1996 ?.).

Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a ciaeoee nai? canoinoaaiiy ? aoee
ai?iaaaeaeai? ia AO “Iiaie?aiaoi?neee iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” ?c ??/iei
aeiiii?/iei aoaeoii181000 a?i., a oaeiae ia AO “E?aiaoi?neee
iaoaeo?a?eiee caaiae ?i. Eoeaeoaaa”, AO “Aia?aiiaoniaoenoaeue”, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeoaie oi?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a 8 ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao caaaeueiei ianyaii
4.9 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, caaaeueiee ianya 175 noi?eiie
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 21 oaaeeoeue, 10 ?enoie?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ?c 137 iaeiaioaaiue ? 12 aeiaeaoe?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? caoeuathoueny iia? iaoiaee/i? ? i?aeoe/i?
iieiaeaiiy c oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie ia no/aniiio
i?iieneiaiio i?aei?e?inoa? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei.

?icae?e 1. I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?eaoeiaiai?
ae?yeueiino?. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ii?yae c
?ioeie iciaeaie, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noaiii, iaoiiaeaiei o no/ani?e
a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e e?oa?aoo?? ye oi?ioaaiiy “?eieo niiaeeaa/a”,
aea ia?aae iieoioeai a?aee?eaathoueny iiaeeeaino? iaiaiaaeaiiai aeai?o
oiaa?o.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, uia aeaeeoe a aeaiee /an, no/ania i?aei?e?inoai,
iacaeaaeii a?ae eiai ?ici???a ? oi?ie aeaniino?, i???ioo? naith
ae?yeuei?noue ia caieoe niiaeeaa/?a, aeey /iai aaeeea oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny ?aoaeueiiio aea/aiith aeiia iieoioe?a. Noi?iiaai? o
na?oia?e aeiiii?oe? oiiae aeaee neeueiee iiooiao aei iiyae oe?eeii
iiaiai aeaiaioa nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeei
iiiyooyi ye ia?eaoeia.

O i?ioean? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?nio? aace?/
aecia/aiue aeaii? eaoaai???, caaaeueiith ?enith yeeo ? ni?yiiaai?noue
eiai ia iiooe ? oaeineiiaethaaiiy ??cieo ae?e ae?iaiee?a oiaa?o a noa??
eiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aae?caoe?? c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy nooiaiy
caaeiaieaiiy ?nioth/eo ? iioaioe?eieo iio?aa niiaeeaa/a. No/aniee
ia?eaoeia ia? ?yae i?aeaeae?a o caeaaeiino? a?ae noa?e ae?yeueiino?:
ia?eaoeia iineoa; ia?eaoeia oiaa??a (o oiio /ene? ia?eaoeia i?iieneiaeo
oiaa??a ? ia?eaoeia niiaeea/eo oiaa??a); ia?eaoeia i?noeue; ia?eaoeia
i?aai?caoe?e ? o.ae.

Iaeiae, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c aeaea?ae, iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an aeeeeea?
ia?eaoeia i?iieneiaeo oiaa??a, oiio ui a?i aaaaea?oueny iaea?eueo
neeaaeiei. Ia aeaia iieiaeaiiy aaee/aciee a?aeaeoie iaeeaaea? aaeeea
noa?a ae?yeueiino?, a oaeiae iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iiieoo (aeaiee aeae
oiaa??a niiaeeaa?oueny c iaoith iiaeaeueoiai iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooeo a?ae
eiai aenieoaoaoe??, oiio ui niiaeeaa/ eiai ?, o naith /a?ao, oaae
i?iaeooeaioii). Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, niiaeeaa/aie oaeiai ?iaeo
i?iaeoeoe?? aenooiathoue aeina?ae/ai? ae?iaieee, ui eoiothoue iaiao?aeia
?i onoaoeoaaiiy, yeiio oa?aeoa?i? ii?aeiaiiy aeniei? yeino?, iaae?eiino?
? ii??aiyii iecueei? oe?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea aeyaeaia aino?a
iaiao?aei?noue o ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee, ui aeicaiey? c iaeneiaeueiith
oi/i?noth aeine?aeaeoaaoe ? ni?iaiicoaaoe iio?aae iieoioe?a ? aecia/eoe
nooi?iue a?aeiia?aeiino? ?i ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??, iniaeeai ca ye?nieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, oiio ui aiie caaacia/othoue ia o?eueee aaciaeo i?aoe?
ei?enooaa/a, aea aeaaiiieo//y e?ioeaaiai niiaeeaa/a. Iaeiae, ye aoei
aeyniaii, o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee aeey
ia?eaoeiao oiaa??a niiaeea/iai i?ecia/aiiy, ia i?eaeaoi? a aaeoc?
ia?eaoeiao cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa.

sse na?ae/eoue noaoenoeea, 80% iieoioe?a a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao eoioaaoe
aenieiye?nio, a ia iecueei aa?o?nio i?iaeoeoe?th. Oiaoi, ye?noue ?
ia?oi?yaeiei iieacieeii o ii??aiyii? c oe?iith. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai,
c’yaeeany iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeiae noaie, ui i?aaenoaaey? niaith ???a?o?th
oi?ioaaiiy niiaeea/i? aeoiee i?i oiaa? ? ??oaiiy i?i eiai i?eaeaaiiy
(aeea. ?en.1).

Oaeei /eiii, ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?ioeano c on???
noeoiiino? i?iiiceoe?e ia ?eieo i?iaeoeo?a aeae?athoue o?eueee o?, ui
a?aeiia?aeathoue aeiiaai ca ye?nieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, aeae?, o ?ac?
ca?ao iiia?aaei?o, aeia?? ?iaeoueny ca aa?o?nieie ia?aiao?aie. Ia
oeueiio aoai? ye iniiaia iaoa ia?ane?aeo?oueny iaee?auee a?aeaeoie
oe?iith ??aiy niiaeea/eo oa?aeoa?enoee. ?, ia?aoo?, c ?aeaioe/ieo
oiaa??a , ui caeeoeeeny , i?aaaaa a?aeaea?oueny oei, ui iathoue
iaee?auee iaa?? iineoa i?neyi?iaeaaeiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy.

A aeaiee /an ?nio? aeineoue iaoiaeee ? noai aea/aiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??,
iaeiae iaaeie?e iiaeia a?aecia/eoe, ui on? aiie i???ioiaai? o?eueee ia
ae?iaieea iaoeie ? ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny o/anoue niiaeeaa/a a ?iaio? c
?oiueiai iie?auaiiy. E??i oiai, a oiiaao iaaieiiiai ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaieio/a cia/iith i??ith oneeaaeiaiiy
onoaoeoaaiiy ? oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiai o?eueee i?eeiyoeie oaoi?/ieie
ia?aiao?aie uiiaeiaioa iaaeinoaoiuei. Oaea neooaoe?y neeaaea?oueny a
?acoeueoao? oiai, ui no/aniee ??aaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee aeiaaa? a?ae
ae?iaieea, e??i caaacia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeiino? i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aeionea?oueny iei, i?eeiyoei ii?iai ? aea?aeaaiiai noaiaea?oo, ua ?
i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? onoaoeoaaiiy, ye iaeiiai c iniiaieo iieaciee?a
yeino?, oaoi?/iiai ??aiy e aoaeoeaiino?. Aaaeaiee ?acoeueoao iiaea aooe
aeinyaiooee o aeiaaeeo aeineiiaeueiiai aea/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoeie
ia i?noe? ?? aenieoaoaoe??.

I?ioa, ?ino?oiaioe niiaeea/iai ia?eaoeiao aeey i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??
iai?eaeaoi?. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo iaea?eueo i?aeoiaeyuei ?
ooieoe?iiaeueiee ia?eaoeia, ui iieyaa? a iniiaiiio a: aea/aii? ooieoe?e
iaoeiiaoae?aiiai i?iaeoeoo, a a??i?oa iio?aae a iueiio; aecia/aii?
oaoiieia?/ieo caaea/ ? oiia ?o ??oaiiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy; aecia/aii?
nooiaiy caaeiaieaiino? ?nioth/i? iio?aae o??iaie-eiieo?aioaie; aeyaeaiiy
?eieiai? i?o? aeey iiaiai i?iaeoeoo; aecia/aiiy aeiia aei eiino?oeoe??,
yeino? aeaioiaeaiiy ? o.ae., oiaoi oi?ioaaii? oiaa?ii? ?aea?.

Oaeei /eiii, ooieoe?iiaeueiee ia?eaoeia yaey? niaith
?iaeaia?ii-i?iieneiao /anoeio caaaeueiiai ia?eaoeiao iaoeiiaoae?aieo
ae?ia?a. A?i ia?aaeaa/a? cina?aaeaeaiiy iniaeeai? oaaae ia iniiai?e
/anoei? aeine?aeaeaiue o oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/iiio ioi/aii? ? ia noa??
aenieoaoaoe?? onoaoeoaaiiy. I?ney aea/aiiy oaoiieia?/ii? nenoaie ?
aecia/aiiy iio?aae a iaoeiiaoae?ai?e i?iaeoeoe?? iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe
iiieo c o?aooaaiiyi /enoi ?eieiaeo ia?aiao??a ? /eiiee?a. A aeaia
neooaoe?y oe?eeii a?aeiia?aea? iiaeae?, iiaoaeiaaii? O.Eioea?ii (ioaeaea
— iio?aaa — caieo).

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeiae nenoaie
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai ia?eaoeiao ? aecia/aiiy eiai i?noey a caaaeueiiio
ia?eaoeiao (aeea.?en.2). Oi?ioaaiiy aeaii? noaie iie?aeiny ia oie oaeo,
ui ii/aoeiaith caaea/ath aeaiiai ia?eaoeiao ? iinoaiiaea oe?eae
o??ie-niiaeeaa/a, iio?i aecia/aiiy oaoiieia?/iiai ea?eana eiai iio?aae,
aeae? oi?ioaaiiy ia ?oi?e iniia? ?eieo caooo ? aeae?eaiiy a iueiio
aecia/aiiai naaiaioa ?, ia?aoo?, aeyaeaiiy ?eieiai? oaoiieia?/ii? i?o?.
O?eueee i?ney i?ioiaeaeaiiy an?o ia?a?aoiaaieo aeua aoai?a aeioe?eueii
i?iaiaeeoe i?iaeooaaiiy ?iai/i? iiaeae? eiie?aoiiai aeaeo i?iieneiaiai
oiaa?o.

Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a oaeiai ?iaeo ia?eaoeiao ? ooieoe?iiaeueii-aa?o?niee
aiae?c, iaeiae, eiai iniiaiei iaaeie?eii caeeoa?oueny eiioeaio?aoe?y
oaaae ia ae?iaieeo ? i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae iayaiee a?aeaeoie
eaioethaeea “?ic?iaethaa/ — ae?iaiee — niiaeeaa/”, ui cia/iith i??ith
oneeaaeith? ?iciiae?e ooieoe?e a iioei?caoe?? aeo?ao ? oaeineiiaethaaii?
oiaa?o. Ca inoaii? 10-15 ?ie?a aeieeee iia? iaoeia? iai?yiee, iieeeeai?
aea/aoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoei ? cae?enithaaoe iiooe oeyo?a , ui
caaacia/othoue a?eueo aenieo i?iaeoeoeai?noue onoaoeoaaiiy a
aenieoaoaoe??. I?e ooieoe?iiaeueiiio i?aeoiae? iaiaaathoueny c’ynoaaoe
ianaiia?aae, ui iio??aii niiaeeaa/o, yeo ooieoe?th i?e oeueiio
iaiao?aeii aeeiiaoe ? ye? ?niothoue aa??aioe ?aae?caoe?? oe??? ooieoe??.
O aeai?e iaeano? i?aoeth? aaeeea e?euee?noue o/aieo, o oiio /ene?
E.Ae.Iaeen, E.A.TH?/aiei,A.Ae.Ieaoo?i, A.I.A?eiueiaa ? o.ae. Aiie
anoaiiaeee iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aenieoaoaoe?? iaoei.

Iaeiae, ?ic?iaeai? ieie noaie aeyaeyeeny aai ia aeineoue ?icai?iooeie,
ui oneeaaeith? i?ioean aeine?aeaeaiiy, a o aeiaaeeo aaa??? aai iieiiee —
iiooe aeioaaooey, aai caiaaeoi ?icaaeoaeaieie, a?eueo?noue /eiiee?a
eio?eo iaiiaeeeai iaeiicia/ii a?aeianoe aei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iaeiiai
c o?ueio o/aniee?a: ?ic?iaethaa/a, aeaioiaethaa/a, niiaeeaa/a, ui oaeiae
aeeeeea? o?oaeiino?.

Ia iniia? aiae?co ?nioth/eo noai aoea aeaaaeaia caaaeueia noaia aiae?co
ooieoe?iioaaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy (aeea.?en.3).

O ?aieao ?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie iaoiae?a aiae?co iaiao?aeii aecia/eoeny c
iieacieeaie, ui iioeiaeueii oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue niiaeea/i? yeino?
onoaoeoaaiiy, ca yeee ianooue iiaio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue “?ic?iaethaa/”
? “aeaioiaethaa/”, a oaeiae ?c iieacieeaie, ui aecia/athoue ye?noue
aenieoaoaoe??, ui e??i onueiai ?ioiai cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaoue a?ae
niiaeeaa/a. E??i oiai, ?nio? iaiao?aei?noue o ?ic?iaoe? eiiieaeniiai
iieacieea aai nenoaie iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooi?iue
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aae eiie?aoiith iaoeiith c iaeii/aniei ii??aiyiiyi ?c
oiaa?ii-eiieo?aioii. Iai?/ai? caoiaee iiaeia cae?enieoe o?eueee ca oiiae
?ic?iaee iaeaaiaeaeaii? nenoaie, ui aeicaiey? aeyaeyoe iniiai? ooieoe??
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iaoeiiaoae?aiiai i?iaeoeoo ia i?aenoaa? /eiiee?a ui ?o
aecia/athoue, a oaeiae aeyaeaieo i?e/ei, ui no?eiothoue aoaeoeaia
aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo ooieoe?e.

?icae?e 2. Eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue i?iaeoeoe?? a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao ?
iaoiaee ?? aecia/aiiy. O ?acoeueoao? oiai, ui no/ania eiieo?aioe?y ?
iaa?ae’?iiei ao?eaooii ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo i?ioean?a, oi noa’?eoe
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiioaiue ciooai? i?iaiaeeoe aeineiiaeueia aea/aiiy ?eieo
ii an?o ia?aiao?ao.

Ui noino?oueny i?iaeooeaio?a, oi aiie iiaeii? ia i?inoi i?aaiooe aei
iaenei?caoe?? oaoi?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?iaeaiiai oiaa?o, a aeyaeoe
a?aeiioaiiy niiaeeaa/a aei iueiai ? aecia/eoe aaaeaiee ?ici?? oaoi?/ieo
iieaciee?a. Oiio ae?iaiee iiaeiai i?eae?eeoe iniaeeao oaaao aiae?co
niiaeea/i? aa?oino?.

Iaeiei c iniiaieo iieaciee?a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? o??ie ia ?eieo, ? eiieo?aioiicaeaoi?noue, a e??i oiai oea
oie iieaciee, ui, ye aoei c’yniaaii o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy e aiae?co
aeaea?ae, ? yaey? niaith ??aaiue a?aeaeoea oe?iiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie
ye?nieo. Ca na?ae/aiiyi aaaaoueio aaoi??a a?ae ?ici??o
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? caeaaeeoue i?yii i?iii?oe?eii ?ici?? /anoee
i?aei?e?inoaa ia ?eieo.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo aeaiiai iieacieea
i?eae?eaia aaeeea e?euee?noue ?ia?o. A aeaiee /an ?nio? ?yae noai
aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe??. Iaeiae, eiaeia c ieo ia? o?
aai ?io? iaaeie?ee: iaei? c ieo ia aeathoue iioaaiaiai aeai?eoio
i?ioeano, ui noai?th? aeaye? o?oaeiino?, ?io? — ia ia?aaeaa/athoue
iiaeeeaino? i?iaeooaaoe ?icaeoie neooaoe??. sseui niieo/eoe oe? noaie e
onoiooe ?oi? aeyaeai? iaaeie?ee, oi caaaeueia iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaiiai iieacieea aoaea iaoe aeae, iiaeaiee ia ?en.4.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii, ui a no/ani?e e?oa?aoo??
?niothoue ai?iaiaai? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ?ioaa?aeueiiai iieacieea
eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?, iaeiae, on? aiie iiaeooue ciaeoe nai?
canoinoaaiiy o?eueee aeey niiaeea/i? i?iaeoeoe?? ? /anoeiai aeey aeayeeo
aeae?a oiaa??a ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy, iniaeeai ianiaiai aeioneo. I?ae
/an aiae?co i?iaeoeo?a, ae?iaeaieo i?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueia caiiaeaiiy, ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee aeieeathoue o?oaeiino?, o /enei yeeo
aoiaeeoue oi?ioaaiiy ia?ae?eo ia?aiao??a, aecia/aiiy ?oiuei? cia/eiino?
a caaaeuei?e noeoiiino?, ui aeiaaa? caeo/aiiy aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo
aenia?o?a (ui a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iiaea aooe iaaeinooiii), a oaeiae
aenieee ?ici?? iia??oiino?.

E??i oiai, i?e i?iaaaeaii? oaeei /eiii ioe?iee eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino?
cieaeo?oueny oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ??aiy yeino? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
i?iaeoeoo. A aeaiee /an ia ?nio? /?oei ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo aeey aiae?co
nooiaiy caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa i?iieneiaeie i?iaeoeoaie, ui aeicaiey?
a?aooaaoe niaoeeo?eo aeaii? aaeoc? ? aeineiiaeueii aeine?aeaeoaaoe
ooieoe?iioaaiiy eiie?aoiiai onoaoeoaaiiy o aecia/aieo oiiaao
aeei?enoaiiy, a oaeiae iia?aoeaii aeyaeoe «aocueea i?noea» o ?iaio?
iaoeie, iacaeaaeii a?ae aoaio aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo, ia yeiio aiia
ciaoiaeeoueny, ?, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai, a?aeiia?aea/a ca iueiai, eio?iai
iaiao?aeii caeo/eoe aei eiai onoiaiiy, ?, ia?aoo?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
aecia/aoe ??aaiue niiaeea/i? aa?oino? onoaoeoaaiiy, ui aeionea?oueny.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, iaiao?aeii oaeineiiaethaaoe iaoiaeeeo a iai?yieo
iiaeaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? o aeaeyae? eiiieaeniiai iieacieea, ui
neeaaea?oueny c iaai?o iaeeie/ieo, eiaeiee ?c yeeo iiaeiiee
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aeeiioaaio ooieoe?th ae?iao, oiio ui a aeai?e aaeoc?
aeine?aeaeaiiy (ae?iaieoeoaa i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??) ooieoe?iiaeueiee
i?aeo?ae iaea?eueoa aei?a/iee o ?acoeueoao? oiai, ui a ?icaeyiooiio
aeiaaeeo iniiaiee i???ioe? ?iaeoueny ia ieo, a ia ia ia?aiao?e, oiio ui
inoaii? oi?ioeththoueny ? aoaeothoueny c iaoith aeeiiaiiy ia?oeo. E??i
oiai, aeaiee iieaciee iiaeiiee iaaeaoe iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe “aocueea
i?noea” o caaaeuei?e nenoai? ooieoe?iioaaiiy onoaoeoaaiiy. ?, ia?aoo?,
aeaia iaoiaeeea iiaeiia aooe i?enoiniaaia aei canoinoaaiiy aeey eiaeii?
eiie?aoii? iaoeie o aecia/aieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??.

?icae?e 3. Aecia/aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe?? no/aniiai
i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa ?ino?oiaioaie ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a
ia?eaoeiao. I?ae /an aiae?co ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??, ye
iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy e aiae?c aeaea?ae, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe oae?
/eiieee:

1)eiyooy ia??iaeo aenieoaoaoe?? iaoeie ye aacia?a?aiiai oeeeeo, ui
neeaaea?oueny c iine?aeiaieo a?ae??ce?a /ano;

2)ye iniiaio ooieoe?iiaeueio iciaeo aeae?eeoe ia’?i ae?iaeaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaiei onoaoeoaaiiyi;

3)aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee inoaiiueiai iieacieea e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aenieoaoaoe?eio i?iaeoeoeai?noue (Qyen.), yeo i?iiiiothoue oe?eeii
ni?aaaaeeeai aeaye? aeine?aeieee ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ca oaeith oi?ioeith:

, (1)

Ei?. Io.?. I?. y.

aea Ai, Ai, Di — eeaneo?eaoe?ei? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee iaoeie; Eo
— eiao?oe??io oaoi?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy; Eo.e. — eiao?oe??io
oaoiieia?/iiai aeei?enoaiiy; Ei? — eiao?oe??io i?aai?caoe?eiiai
aeei?enoaiiy; Ei? — ?iaeaen i?ecia/aiiy iaoeie; Io.?. — iieaciee
oaoi?/iiai ??aiy iaoeie; I?. y. — iieaciee ??aiy aenieoaoaoe??
onoaoeoaaiiy.

sse iieaco? na?oiaa i?aeoeea, aeey iaea?eueo oi/iiai aecia/aiiy ?
aeeaieiai aiae?co niiaeea/i? aa?oino? i?iaeoeoo, ui aeionea?oueny,
iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaiiy oaeiai iieacieea, ye a?aie/ia oe?ia. O no/anieo
oiiaao i?ae iath ?icoi?thoue ??aaiue oe?ie ?icaeyiooiai onoaoeoaaiiy
(Oeei?aae.), i?e i?ecia/aii? yeiai iieoiaoeue, ui eoio? aeine?aeaeoaaio
iaoeio, ia iaea?aeo? aaniethoii i?yeeo ia?aaaa o ii??aiyii? c
i?eaeaaiiyi iaoeie-aiaeiaa. Aeaiee iieaciee i?eeiyoi aecia/aoe ii
oi?ioe?:

, (2)

aea OeA — i?iaeaaeia oe?ia iaoeie-aiaeiaa; Eci — eiao?oe??io
i?iii?oe?eiino?, ui aecia/a? aieea ?ici??o iane ia oe?io onoaoeoaaiiy;
Ei — eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino?, ui aecia/a? aieea yeino? aeeiiaiiy
i?iaeoo ia iano onoaoeoaaiiy; Ae,… , De — eeaneo?eaoe?ei? ?
ooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee i?ecia/aiiy (e?i?ei?, neeia?, oai?aoe/i?,
i?iaeoeoeai? ? o.ae.) aeine?aeaeoaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy; AA,… , DA —
eeaneo?eaoe?ei? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei? iieacieee i?ecia/aiiy (e?i?ei?,
neeia?, oai?aoe/iiai, i?iaeoeoeai? ? o.ae.) iaoeie-aiaeiaa; Z1,… ,Zn
— iieacieee nooiaiy, ye? ?iaeoa iaceaathoueny eiao?oe??ioaie ?aa?an??,
ui aecia/athoue aaaii?noue aieeao a?aeiia?aeieo iieaciee?a i?ecia/aiiy
ia iano aeine?aeaeoaaiiai aeaeo onoaoeoaaiiy; o — iieaciee nooiaiy
(eiao?oe??io ?aa?an??), ui aecia/a? aaaii?noue aieeao iane onoaoeoaaiiy
ia eiai oe?io; Qyen. e. — aenieoaoaoe?eia i?iaeoeoeai?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaoeie; Qyen. A.. i?ea — aenieoaoaoe?eia
i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaoeie-aiaeiaa, i?eaaaeaia aei iieaciee?a i?ecia/aiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaii?.

Oaeei /eiii, ?c aeuaneacaiiai iiaeia i?eeoe aei aeniiaeo, ui
c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue iiaiai ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
aecia/aiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oeyoii a?aeiioaiiy a?aie/ii?
oe?ie aei i?iaeaaeii? oe?ie onoaoeoaaiiy. Aiae?oe/ii aeuaneacaia iiaeia
caienaoe oaeei niiniaii:

,(3)

Io.I. Ia. I.

aea Oei?iae. E. — ??aaiue i?iaeaaeii? oe?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
onoaoeoaaiiy; IO.I — a?oiiaee ?iaeaen eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ii
oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao?ao; Ia.i — a?oiiaee ?iaeaen eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ii
aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao?ao.

Iaeiae, o ae?ac? (3), o a?oiiaiio ?iaeaen? ii oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao?ao ia
a?aoiao?oueny aieea ia ??aaiue eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? “i’yeeo”
ia?aiao??a. Oi/a anoaoe/i? aeanoeaino? i?iaeoeoe??, iaa?oue i?iieneiaiai
i?ecia/aiiy, a?athoue iaiaeiaaaeio ?ieue i?e ooaaeaii? ??oaiiy i?i
iieoieo oiai aai ?ioiai i?iaeoeoo i?aoe?, iniaeeai o aeiaaeeo ca?ao a
cai?iiiiiaaieo oaac? niiaeeaa/a c?ace?a “aei?noeeo” ia?aiao??a. Aeey
?oiuei? ioe?iee a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoiaeeeo,
cai?iiiiiaaio I.A.Aeieeinueeith. O?eueee i?e ioe?ioe? aeuaaeacaieo
ia?aiao??a iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe oie oaeo, ui aiie ia iathoue /enaeueieo
cia/aiue, oiio aeey ?oiueiai aiae?co iaiao?aeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeanyoeaaeueio oeaeo, cia/aiiy ii ye?e eiaeiiio ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio
ia?aiao?o i?eaeaniththoueny ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai ia?eaoeiaiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo e iieooaaiiy iioaioe?eieo niiaeeaa/?a.

Ae?ac, oeeaaeaiee a ae?oa? eaaae?aoi? aeoaeee ??aiyiiy (3), iieno?
aeiiii?/io noi?iio oiaa?o. Aea ca oaa?aeaeaiiyi aaaaoueio a/aieo ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiith oeueiai ia i?aeoeoe?, iienoth/e aeiiii?/io noi?iio
ae?iao o?eueee i?iaeaaeiith oe?iith, aeiionea?oueny aaeeea iiieeea,
?ici?? yei? aei??aith? aenieoaoaoe?eiei aeo?aoai ca aanue oa?i?i
aeei?enoaiiy oiaa?o, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey iaoeiiaoae?aii?
i?iaeoeoe??, oiio ui aiia eoio?oueny c iaoith aeiaaino?ieiai?
aenieoaoaoe??.

A aeaiee /an i?eeiyoi, uia oieeiooe aeuaiienaii? iiieeee, cai?iyoe i?e
?ic?aooieo iieacieea eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? ii aeiiii?/ieo ia?aiao?ao
i?iaeaaeio oe?io ia oe?io niiaeeaaiiy, ui aeeth/a?, e??i ia?oi?
neeaaeiai?, ua e aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ca aanue oa?i?i aenieoaoaoe??.
Iaeiae, o oaeiio aeiaaeeo aeieeathoue o?oaeiino? o aecia/aii? inoaiiuei?
neeaaeiaiai iieacieea oe?ie niiaeeaaiiy o ?acoeueoao? oiai, ui aiae?co
i?aeeyaa? aeiaaino?ieiaee ia??iae aenieoaoaoe?? iaoeie. C oe??th iaoith
e?aua aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaeee iieaciee, ye nia?aa?o?noue ae?ia?oeo
oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? oeiath iaoeiith, cia/aiiy yei? ? ia eiaeiiio
i?aei?e?inoa?-aeaioiaethaa/? inoaiiuei?. sse ianooii?e iaaeie?e iiaeia
a?aecia/eoe a?aenooi?noue iae?eo aieeao ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae
aiae?ciaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ia cieaeaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao. sseui
a?aooaaoe on? aeuaaeacai? iaaeie?ee, oi eiiieaeniee iieaciee
eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? iiaeia aecia/eoe ii oi?ioe?:

, (4)

aea NA ? NE — nia?aa?o?noue ae?ia?oeo oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??
aenieoaoiaaiith iaoeiith a?aeiia?aeii aiaeiao ? aeine?aeaeoaai?e;
Oneoaeae A, Oneoaeae E — oa?i?i neoaeae iaoeie-aiaeiaa ?
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy; V — caaaeueiee ianya i?iaeoeoe??,
ae?iaeaiee aiae?ciaaieie iaoeiaie i?ioyaii ?ieo.

I?ae /an aiae?co ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?, ?ic?aoiaaiiai ii oi?ioe?
(4), iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aeiiii?/iee ci?no aeaiiai iieacieea
iieyaa? o aecia/aii? ?icoiaeaeaiiy i?ae niiaeea/eie aa?oinoyie
ii??aithaaieo oiaa??a i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ia iniia? i?eaaaeaii? iaoiaeeee aoea aeaaaeaia noaia aecia/aiiy e
aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy
(aeea.?en.5).

?icae?e 4. ?aae?caoe?y ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao
i?iieneiaiai i?aei?e?inoaa. Aeey ai?iaaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
cai?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee oeueiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aua?aii aeoe?iia?ia
oiaa?enoai “Iiaie?aiaoi?nueeee iaoeiiaoae?aiee caaiae” (iaaeae?
?iaiiaaiee ye AO “IEIC”) — o??ia c? na?oiaith iiioey?i?noth, ui
i?aaenoaaey? niaith yne?aaee i?eeeaae aaeeei? a?o/eciyii? ei?ii?aoe??, a
e?ii oiai, AO “Yia?aiiaoniaoenoaeue”, AO “EIC ii. Eoeaeoaaa”. A aeaiee
oei i?aei?e?inoa, ye a?aeiii, ? iniiaiith oi?iith i?aai?caoe??
i?iieneiaiai eai?oaeo a no/ani?e na?oia?e aeiiii?oe?. Oaeei /eiii, aeey
iaea?eueoi? iai/iino? ye aeine?aeaeoaaia i?iaeoeoe?y aoa ia?aiee
i?iaeoeo i?iaaaeaii? eiiaa?n?? — e?aiiaa onoaoeoaaiiy, ui ? iaea?eueoa
yne?aaei i?eeeaaeii iaoeiiaoae?aii? i?iaeoeoe??, ui ia? aaeeeee iaa??
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? eeaneo?eaoe?eieo ia?aiao??a. E??i oiai, o aeaiee /an
?nio? aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoei aeaiiai eeano, ui iiaeooue i?aeeyaaoe
ii??aiyiith.

Aeey aeaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iieacieea eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aeey
aeaiiai eeano iaoei iaiao?aeii ianaiia?aae ciaeoe ooieoe?iiaeuei?
caeaaeiino? i?ae oe?iith, ianith ? ooieoe?iiaeueieie iieacieeaie
i?ecia/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith aoa aeei?enoaiee noaoenoe/iee iaoiae cai?o
?ioi?iaoe??.

E?eao caeaaeiino? oe?ie a?ae iane aeey e?ai?a iaei? aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino?
aeioe?eueii iienaoe iaeiei ?c ??aiyiue, iiaoaeiaaieo ia
ioeueoeie?eaoeai?e iniia?:

Oe = E * I1. 8. — aeey e?ai?a aaioaaeii?aeeiii?no?th aei 30 o,

Oe = E * I1. 1, — aeey e?ai?a aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noth iiiaae 30 o, (5)

aea Oe — oe?ia e?aia, oen.a?i.. ; E — eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino?; I —
iana e?aia, ea.

Ianoi?ni?noue e?eauo aeey e?ai?a iaei? ? aaeeei? aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noi
iiynith?oueny oei, ui ia?o? aacothoueny ia aaoiiia?eueiiio oan?, a
ae?oa? — ia niaoe?aeueiiio oan?.

Ui noino?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino? iane aaioaaeii?aeeiiiiai
e?aia a?ae ooieoe?iiaeueieo ? eeaneo?eaoe?eieo iieaciee?a i?ecia/aiiy,
oi aeey oe?eae oe??? ?iaioe iaea?eueoa c?o/iith ? naia ioeueoeie?eaoeaia
oi?ia ae?ac?a, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny a?eueo noai?ith. Aiane?aeie oiai, ui,
ye a?aeiii, niiaeeaa/a oe?eaaeyoue iiaeeeaino?, eio?? eiio aeathoue
?ano?ne, ?aae?ciaai? o i?eaeaaiiio onoaoeoaaii?, ? noeoii?noue oaeeo
iiaeeeainoae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iieacieeaie i?ecia/aiiy onoaoeoaaiiy, a o
e?aiiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy oaeeie iieacieeaie ? iaeneiaeueia aenioa i?aeeiio
aaioaaeo ? aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noue:

I = Ei · G0. 4 · H0. 3, (6)

aea I — iaeneiaeueia aenioa i?aeeiio aaioaaeo (aai iaeneiaeueia
aeiaaeeia no??ee e?aia), i; G — iaeneiaeueia aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noue
e?aia, o.

Ia aeaiiio aoai? c’yaeeany iiaeeea?noue inoaoi/iiai aeaaaeaiiy ??aiyiiy,
ui oa?aeoa?eco? ??aaiue eiieo?aioiicaeaoiino? e?aiiaiai onoaoeoaaiiy:

. (7)

Aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aoea ai?iaiaaia o i?ioean?
aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aaioaaeii?aeeiiiiai e?aia EEN-55, ui
aeionea?oueny AO “IEIC”.

Aeniiaee

1.O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii, ui ?nioth/? aei
oeueiai /ano iaoiaee ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino? aeiaaathoue
oaeineiiaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei oaii?a ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a
Oe?a?i?, iniaeeai a iaeano? ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?aae?caoe?? i?iaeoeoe??
i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy. Iniiai? coneeey iaiao?aeii cina?aaeeoe a
iaeano? i?iaaaeaiiy e o?aooaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ??aiy caaeiaieaiiy
?nioth/eo ? iioaioe?eieo iio?aa eiie?aoii? iaoeiiaoae?aii? i?iaeoeoe?? o
aecia/aieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??, a oaeiae o noa?? ?ic?iaee ia aeineoue
aenieiio ??ai? iaoiaeeee i?iaaaeaiiy iaiao?aeieo iia?aoe?e aeey
iioeiaeueiiai caaeiaieaiiy aeiia niiaeeaa/?a ?c iaeiaioeie aeo?aoaie.

2.Aecia/aii, ui ia?eaoeiaia? iaoiaee a no/ani?e iaooe? ?ic?iaeaii a
aaeoc? ae?iaieoeoaa niiaeea/eo oiaa??a ? ia canoiniaothoueny aeey
i?iaeoeoe?? i?iieneiaiai i?ecia/aiiy.

3.Aeyniaii a i?ioean? e?eoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ?nioth/? eiioeaioe??
a iaeano? iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ia i?enoiniaai? aei ?eieiaeo oiia, o
?acoeueoao? /iai ?nioth/? iaoiaeeee aeiaaathoue aei?iaee e
oaeineiiaeaiiy a iai?yieo i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ??aiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy c iaeii/aniei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?c
?ici??ii iaiao?aeieo aeey oeueiai aeo?ao ? ii??aiyiiyi ?c iiaeeeainoyie
iaoei eiieo?aio?a.

4. ?ic?iaeaii ???a?o?/io noaio, ui aeicaiey? aiae?coaaoe iine?aeiai?noue
aieeao /eiiee?a ia ??oaiiy i?i i?eaeaaiiy oiaa?o.

5. Oaeineiiaeaii noaie aiae?co eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? c iaoith ni?iuaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy oeeo i?ioean?a,
a oaeiae iieaaoaiiy iiooeo aeioaaooey aeieeiaiiy cai?a o ?iaio? iaoeie.

6. ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia? ?nioth/eo iieiaeaiue ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae o
noa?? aecia/aiiy ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iaeoeoe?? ae?iaie/iai
i?ecia/aiiy, ui a?ae??ciy?oueny oi/i?noth ?ic?aooieo ? i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy ca ?aooiie a?eueo iiaiiai ? ?aoaeueiiai aiae?co ??aiy
yeino? ? iaae?eiino? onoaoeoaaiiy. Oaeee iaoiae aeicaieea a?aeiiaeoeny
a?ae caeo/aiiy aenia?o?a aeey ioe?iee “aei?noeeo” oaoi?/ieo ia?aiao??a,
a oaeiae aacia?aoeiaeii aecia/aoe ia o?eueee “aocueea i?noea” o
ooieoe?iioaaii? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeoeoe??, aea ? aeioaaooey eiai
aeieeiaiiy. E??i oiai, c’yaeeany iiaeeea?noue o?aooaaiiy aieeao
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae aiae?ciaaiiai onoaoeoaaiiy ia
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe.

7. Aeaaaeaii inoaoi/io oi?ioeo ?ic?aooieo ??aiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?
aaioaaeii?aeeiiiiai onoaoeoaaiiy.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii ?ia?o ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1.Ei?ae I.A. Iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
a?ociiiaeuaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia aaoiiiaeeueiii oiaeo // Iaaeaaeiinoue
?aaeouaai eino?oiaioa e iioeiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo nenoai. —
E?aiaoi?ne: AeAIA. — 1997. — .o.2. — N.188-191.

2.Ei?ae I.A. Iaoiaeu ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoei e
iai-?oaeiaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey // Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e
ia?niaeoeau noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. — Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI
Oe?aeiu. — 1997. — N.89-95.

3.Ei?ae I.A. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue iaoiae ii?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy
eiieo?aioiniiniaii-noe i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey. —
Aeiiaoee:: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. — 32n.

4.Ei?ae I.A. Ii?aaeaeaiea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
i?iaeoe-oeee n eniieueciaaieai ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea //
I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. 1998. — ?109 (176). — N.79-81.

5. Ei?ae I.A. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa //
Yeiiiie/aneea i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiieee Oe?aeiu. —
Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — N.200-204.

6. Ei?ae I.A. I?eaea/aiea nenoaiu ia?eaoeiaa e i?iaeaia iiauoaiey
ea/anoaa auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee // Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou
i?iiuoeaiiie iieeoeee. — Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu. — 1998. — N.129-135.

7.Ei?ae I.A. Aca?iica’ycie aenieoaoaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?
eiieo?aioicaeao-iino? iaoeiiaoae?aii? i?iaeoeoe?? //I?iaeoeoeai?noue. —
1999. — ?1. — N.21-23.

8. Ei?ae I.A. Ooieoeeiiaeueiue iiaeoiae a i?iiuoeaiiii ia?eaoeiaa. —
Aeiiaoee: EYI IAI Oe?aeiu, 1999. — 28n.

Aiioaoe?y

Ei?ae I.A. Iaoiaeu ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao ia
i?iieneiaiio i?aei?e?inoa? (ia i?eeeaae? AO “IEIC”). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 08.06.01 — aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa i i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa. — ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? IAI Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c noaio ia?eaoeiaiai? nenoaie
ia no/aniiio i?iieneiaiio i?aei?e?inoa? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo Oe?a?ie aei
?eieiaeo oiia, aecia/aii i?noea ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a nenoai?
ia?eaoeiao. Oaeineiiaeaii nenoaio aea/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iaeoeoe??
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy e aiae?co ??aiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia iniia?
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a ia?eaoeiao. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ai?iaaaeaeaii ia i?aei?e?inoaao iaoeiiaoae?aii?
i?iieneiaino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ia?eaoeia, ia?eaoeiaiaa nenoaia, ooieoe?iiaeueiee
i?aeo?ae, eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue, ooieoe?iioaaiiy, i?iaeoeoe?y
ae?iaie/iai i?ecia/aiiy, i?aei?e?inoaa iaoeiiaoae?aii? i?iieneiaino?.

Summary

Korg M.V. The methods of the functional approach in a system of
marketing at the industrial enterprise (on an example of joint-stock
company “ NKMZ ”). — Manuscript.

Thesis for the Candidate of economical science degree under the
specialty 08.06.01 — Economics of enterprise and industrial engineering.
— Institute of Industrial Economics, NAS of Ukraine, Donetsk, 1999.

In the thesis presents analysis of a condition of a marketing system at
the modern industrial enterprise in conditions of transition of Ukraine
to market conditions is conducted, the place of the functional approach
in a system of marketing is certain (determined). The system of study of
operation of production of industrial purpose is advanced. The technique
of definition (determination) and analysis of a level of competitiveness
of industrial production because of functional approach in marketing is
developed. The main outcomes of dissertation are introduced at the
enterprises of a machine-building industry.

Key word: marketing, functional approach, competitiveness, level of
operation, need of the consumers, quality, level of operation,
operational productivity, demand.

Aiiioaoeey

Ei?ae I.A. Iaoiaeu ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iiaeoiaea a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa ia
i?iiuoeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee (ia i?eia?a AI “IEIC”). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01 — yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. — Einoeooo yeiiiieee i?iiuoeaiiinoe IAI Oe?aeiu,
Aeiiaoee, 1999.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec ninoiyiey ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu ia nia?aiaiiii
i?aaei?eyoee a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea Oe?aeiu e ?uii/iui oneiaey
oicyenoaiaaiey, auyaeaiu iniaaiiinoe aa iino?iaiey a iaeanoe oyaeaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a oaeaea eiathuea a iae ianoi o?oaeiinoe e iaaeinoaoee a
ooieoeeiie?iaaiee.

Iieo/aiiua a i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiee e ?ac?aaioie oai?aoe/aneea e
i?aeoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou iaoiaeyo naia i?eiaiaiea a iiauoaiee
yooaeoeaiinoe ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu ia iaoeiino?ieoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo.

A aeenna?oaoeee iieo/eei ?acaeoea ooieoeeiiaeueiia iai?aaeaiea a
ia?eaoeiaa. Yoio iiaeoiae i?aaeiieaaaao ia aaca i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee iioaioeeaeueiuo iio?aaeoaeae, eiieo?aioia e ?uieia nauoa
oi?ie?iaaiea ia?aca oiaa?a, i?aaenoaaeythuaai niaie niaieoiiinoue
ooieoeee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey oaeiaeaoai?aiey nouanoaothuae iio?aaiinoe,
i?e yoii eiatho ianoi yeaiaiou ooieoeeiiaeueii-noieiinoiiai aiaeeca.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioaia noaia, ii?aaeaeythuay ianoi e
no?oeoo?o ooieoeeiiaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey a ia?eaoeiaa. Enoiaey ec yoiai,
ooieoeeiiaeueiue ia?eaoeia ?anniao?eaaaony a ea/anoaa
eiaeaia?ii-i?iiuoeaiiie /anoe iauaai i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?eaoeiaa,
ioaaouaathuaai neaaeothuea aii?inu:

ii?aaeaeaiea caaea/ ia?eaoeiaiaie nenoaiu e oneiaee eo ?aoaiey a
i?aaeaeao oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa;

niiinoaaeaiea e niaiauaiea oaoieei-oaoiieiae/aneiai e iieoiaoaeueneiai
i?ino?ainoa;

aiaeec ooieoeee, auiieiyaiuo iaoeiino?ieoaeueiui i?iaeoeoii, n oeaeueth
ii?aaeaeaiey eiioo?ia iio?aaiinoe a iai;

ii?aaeaeaiea o?aaiaaiee e eiino?oeoeee, ea/anoao ecaioiaeaiey
?ac?aaaouaaaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

aiaeec iieoiaoaeueneiai i?ino?ainoaa ?uiea iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia,
ianeoaeeaaaiuo i?aaei?eyoeai, eioi?ia yaeyaony iio?aaeoaeai
aiaeece?oaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

enneaaeiaaiea oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee i?iecaaaeaiiiai oiaa?a i?iiuoeaiiiai
iacia/aiey;

ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie oaeiaeaoai?aiey nouanoaothuae iio?aaiinoe oe?iaie
eiieo?aioaie;

ii?aaeaeaiea ?uii/iie ieoe aeey iiaiai oiaa?a;

iiceoeeiie?iaaiea oiaa?a ia iioaioeeaeueiii ?uiea nauoa e o.ae..

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaiaoiaeeii aieueoa aieiaiey oaeaeyoue eco/aieth
nenoaiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iaeoeoeee i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey, a e?iia
oiai auyaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey ea?a?oee oaeoi?ia,
ieacuaathueo aeeyiea ia yooaeoeaiinoue aa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, a nayce n
/ai auea i?iaaaeaia ?aaioa ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth ?ac?aaioaiiuo ?aiaa
oaeiai ?iaea noai, iicaieythueo onoaiiaeoue eiio?ieue ca aiaeece?oaiui
i?ioeannii.

Iiaeaa?aioou enneaaeiaaieth nouanoaothuea iiaeoiaeu e ioeaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe auioneaaiie i?aaei?eyoeai i?iaeoeoeee e
?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey e aiaeeca o?iaiy aeaiiiai iieacaoaey
aeey oiaa?ia i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey n o/aoii eo iniaaiiinoae a iaeanoe
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey.

I?aaeeiaeaiiue iaoiae aace?oaony ia ooieoeeiiaeueiii iiaeoiaea a
ia?eaoeiaa e i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue iieacaoaeae,
oa?aeoa?ecothueo oaoie/aneee, yeiiiie/aneee e ii?iaoeaiue o?iaaiue
ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoa, eae yoi e i?aaeiieaaaao naia yeiiiie/aneay
i?e?iaea eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe.

Iaeiaei, oaoie/aneay ninoaaeythuay eiiieaeniiai iieacaoaey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aeeth/aao a naay oieueei oa oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?iaeoeoa, eioi?ua ieacuaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ia
yooaeoeaiinoue aai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee
eiie?aoiui iio?aaeoaeai, a oaeaea o/eouaaao noaiaiue aaaeiinoe eaaeaeiai
ec ieo aeey iio?aaeoaey iooai iino?iaiey ooieoeeiiaeueiuo caaeneiinoae
ia ioeueoeieeeaoeaiie iniiaa.

A naith i/a?aaeue, yeiiiie/aneay ninoaaeythuay aeaiiiai iieacaoaey
io?aaeaao aeeyiea ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae oiaa?a ia o?iaaiue
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo ?anoiaeia, a neaaeiaaoaeueii e ia ?acia? oeaiu
iio?aaeaiey.

?ac?aaioaia noaia aiaeeca e ?an/aoa eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee
i?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey.

A ?aaioa auea i?iaaaeaia ai?iaaoeey i?aaeeiaeaiiie iaoiaeeee ii ioeaiea
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe eino?oiaioaie ooieoeeiiaeueiiai ia?eaoeiaa ia
e?aiiaii iai?oaeiaaiee. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou
aiaae?aiu ia i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaeeo eae
AI “EIC ei.Eoeauoaaa”, AI “Yia?aiiaoniaoenoaeue”, AI “IEIC”, a oaeaea a
o/aaiue i?ioeann AeAIA i?e iiaeaioiaea niaoeeaeenoia yeiiiie/aneeo e
oaoie/aneeo niaoeeaeueiinoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ia?eaoeia, ia?eaoeiaiaay nenoaia, ooieoeeiiaeueiue
iiaeoiae, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue, ooieoeeiie?iaaiea, i?iaeoeoeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, i?aaei?eyoey iaoeiino?ieoaeueiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 12.08.99. Oi?iao 60×90/16. Iai?? ae?oe ?3.

Iae.-aeae a?e 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?157

340048, i Aeiiaoeuee, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 77.

?ioai?eio ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie.

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