Механогенез клиноподібності та торсії при структуральному сколіозі: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / Хатум Халед Карім, Укр. НДІ травматології та орт

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??

OAOOI OAEAAe EA??I

OAeE 616.711-007.55-092/531.768/

IAOAIIAAIAC EEEIIIIAe?AIINO? OA OI?N??

I?E NO?OEOO?AEUeIIIO

NEIE?IC?

14.01.21 – “O?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y”

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

O?uaiei A?oae?e sseiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo

o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??,

ea??aiee Oe?a?inueeiai nieiaeueiiai
(iae?io??o?a?/iiai)

oeaio?o c ee?i?eith o??o?a?? o?aaoa.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieueieoeueeee Ieaa Aieiaeeie?iae/ – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, eao?aao
Aea?aeaaii? i?ai?? Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aeeoy/i? o??o?a?? oa
i?oiiaae?? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey;

Aa?oeai Aaiiaae?e ?aaiiae/ – aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? Ee?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai??
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i. I.E.Ooieea.

Iia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 10 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.606.01 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? ca aae?anith:
252601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? ca aae?anith:
252601, i. Ee?a, aoe. Ai?ianueeiai, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “9” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe
Oeauaiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?iaeaia aea/aiiy neie?ioe/ii?
oai?iae a?aeiineoueny aei iaea?eueo neeaaeieo ieoaiue a no/ani?e
i?oiiaae?? oa aa?oaa?aeuei?e o??o?a??. Aaeeea /anoioa aee?eaeaiue
o?aaoa, ?aii? i?iyae aeaoi?iaoe??, noeeuei?noue aei i?ia?anoaaiiy,
?icaeoie oyaeeeo aeaoi?iaoe?e o?aaoa oa a?oaeii? ee?oeie aei cae?i/aiiy
?inoo i?aai?cio, o?aaeaiiy aioo??oi?o i?aai?a c? cia/ieie
ooieoe?iiaeueieie ii?ooaiiyie i?eaa?oathoue ieeueio oaaao aaaaoueio
a/aieo-i?oiiaae?a oa i?aeoe/ieo e?ea??a aei aea/aiiy oe??? i?iaeaie.
I?i aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy ieoaiue ao?ieia??, iaoiaaiaca,
eeaneo?eaoe??, aeeiai?ee iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, i?iaiicoaaiiy,
eiina?aaoeaiiai ? o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy na?ae/aoue iaaiai?aiiy ia
??cieo neiiic?oiao, eiioa?aioe?yo, c’?caeao, i?aeia?iaeieo eiia?anao
ni?iaeueieo o??o?a?a. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ca inoaii? ?iee ia an?o
oi??/ieo eiia?anao SICOT a ii?yaeeo aeaiiiio caaaeaee noiyoue ieoaiiy
neie?ioe/ii? oai?iae. Ia aeeaey/enue ia oea, aeooaeueieie caeeoathoueny
ieoaiiy aea/aiiy no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o?aaoa ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo
neie?ico, aca?iia?aeiioaiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ae niaith:
eeeiiiiae?aiino?, oi?n??, aiaoii?/ieo ci?i aeoaeie, noaeiaiaeo,
iiia?a/ieo oa inoenoeo a?ae?inoe?a.

Neie?ioe/ia aeaoi?iaoe?y o?aaoea i?iyaey?oueny ? i?ia?ano? a aeeoy/iio
a?oe? ia oe? ?inoo i?aai?cio ? aei cae?i/aiiy eiai aeinyaa? aaeeeeo
nooiai?a aee?eaeaiiy o aaaaoueio oai?eo (J.Ponseti, M.Fridman, 1950;
J.Scott, T.Morgan, 1955; A.?.Eacuei?i, 1963; A.ss.O?uaiei, 1966 oa
?io?). Oyaee? aeaoi?iaoe?? o?aaoa o aei?ineeo oaeiae ? aaeeeith
i?iaeaiith (A.ss.O?uaiei, 1973; A.A.Aa?ae??a, 1990). Na?aae on?o
aee?eaeaiue, ye? noeeuei? aei i?ia?anoaaiiy, aeae?eythoueny a?iaeaeai?,
aeeoy/? oa ?ioaioeeuei? neie?ice. Ca noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie caniiaiee?a
a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? i?oiiaae?? (I.O.Aaaiai, 1880;
?.?.Aaiianueeee, 1906; ?.?.A?aaeai, 1927; N.E.O?aaoaia, 1938;
C.A.Aaceeaanueea ? ni?aaao., 1951; A.A.?niaeeia ? ni?aaao., 1963;
A.Hoffa, 1894; F.Lange, 1921; A.Schanz, 1933; G.Jentschura, 1956 oa
?io?) aieiaa aee?eaeaiiy o ae?oae a?aei?/aee a?ae 2 aei 40 %, oaeee
aaeeeee ae?aiacii eieeaaiue /anoioe iiynithaaany ??ciei iaoiaeieia?/iei
i?aeoiaeii aei ioe?iee aeaoi?iaoe?e o?aaoa ? na?ae/ea i?i o?oaeiiu?
ae?aaiinoeee ii/aoeiaeo oi?i neie?ica oa aeaoaeo?a inaiee. I?ia?aeia
?ieue o aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?e ae?aaiinoeoe? ?noeiieo no?oeoo?aeueieo
neie?ic?a ? ooieoe?iiaeueieo aeaoaeo?a inaiee iaeaaeeoue oi?n?? o?aaoe?a
– i?aaeiaoo iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ua ?ac na?ae/eoue i?i
aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii? iaie oaie. I?e ocaaaeueiaii? aeaieo ianiaeo
iaeyae?a ae?oae, ye? aoee cae?eniai? aeina?ae/aieie ni?a?ia?oieeaie
Oeao?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, I.I.I??i?ia (1958)
aeacoaaa, ui ?noeiiee no?oeoo?aeueiee neie?ic cono??/aany o 6,4 %
ianoaaeaieo ethaeae.

sseui a?oa? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie i?e oyaeeeo oi?iao neie?ico e?aua iienai? a
aiaoii?/ieo ?iaioao C.Nicoladoni (1882); A.Hoffa (1894); W.Schulthess
(1905-1907); I.A.Iiaoiae/a (1954), oi ?o i?eaeeoo?aee ?icaeoie a
aeeiai?oe?, yeee eiio?ieth?oueny ?aioaaiieia?/ieie iaoiaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaiee o e?oa?aoo?? a iaio?e i??? /a?ac iaiaaeai?
iiaeeeaino? iaoiaeeee, ui aeicaiey? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe e?eaecio o?aaoa
o?eueee a ia?aaeiuei-caaei?e oa aieia?e i?iaeoe?yo.

Inoaii?i /anii o aa?oaa?ieia?? oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia? iaoiae
iaai?oii-?aciiainii? oiiia?ao?? (I?O), yeee aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe
ci?ie o?aaoa (eeeiiiiae?ai?noue, oi?n?th oa aeaoi?iaoe?th caaei?o
aeaiaio?a o?aaoe?a) o o?iioaeuei?e, naa?oaeuei?e oa ai?eciioaeuei?e
ieiueiao, ui ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy o aea/aii? iaoaiiaaiaco neie?ioe/ieo
ci?i o o?aao?, ye /anoeie iaoiaaiaco oeueiai caoai?thaaiiy.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui i?e oi?ioaaii? aeoae neie?ico, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie
??ciiai nooiaiy ?icaeaathoueny ia aa?oei? aee?eaeaiiy, aa?oiuei? oa
ieaeiuei? iai?aaeoa iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaecie, a c ?ioiai
aieo, i?e ii/aoeiaeo oi?iao, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie ?icaeaathoueny ia ii/aoeo
?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?? ? ? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith ?noeiiiai neie?ico.

Aei oaia??oiueiai /ano o aa?oaa?ieia?? iaia? i?aaeeueii? iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy nooiaiy oi?n??. Ca iaoiaeeeith J.Cobb (1958), i?e aecia/aii?
ci?uaiiy o?i? ei?aiy aeoaeee oa inoenoiai a?ae?inoea ia o?iioaeuei?e
?aioaaiia?ai? ia?ii aeineoue iaaeeaeaia oyaeaiiy i?i oi?n?th o?aaoe?a ?
ui aecia/a?oueny o aeaeyae? /ioe?ueio o?ano?a. Oea aeicaiey? oi/ii
ni?anoaaeoe nooi?iue eeeiiiiae?aiino? (aieiai? aeaoi?iaoe??), yea
aecia/a?oueny a a?aaeonao, c? nooiaiai oi?n??, ui aecia/a?oueny
o?anoaie.

A oie aea, /an iaoiaeeea I.Ae.*a?oana ? ni?aaao. (1965) aeicaiey?
aei??yoe oi?n?th o?eueee i?e ii/aoeiaeo oi?iao neie?ico, a iaoiaeeea
A.I.Otheuee?ia (1965) a?eueoa a?aeiineoueny aei ?ioaoe?? ii?iaeueieo
o?aaoe?a, a ia oi?n?? i?e neie?ic?.

Iaai?oii-?aciiainia oiiia?ao?y o?aaoe?a o ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? aea?
ia’?eoeaia oyaeaiiy i?i ?noeiio oi?n?th. Iaeiae aei oaia??oiueiai /ano
iaia? iaoaiaoe/ii? iaoiaeeee eooiaiai ae?aaeaiiy oi?n??.

Ca’ycie ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie:

?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??, iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0195U003853.

Iaoa ?iaioe: aea/eoe cia/aiiy eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? o?aaoe?a o
iaoaiiaaiac? no?oeoo?aeueiiai neie?ico.

Aeey aeeiiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe iio??aii aoei ae??oeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aei??o aaee/eie oi?n?? o?aaoe?a ii ai?eciioaeueieo
c??cao ia I?O o oa?eo neie?icii;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aei??o aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? o?aaoe?a;

aecia/eoe nooi?iue oi?n?? ? eeeiiiiae?aiino? ia aa?oeiieo ? i?ii?aeieo
o?aaoeyo iniiaii? e?eaecie;

ni?anoaaeoe nooi?iue oi?n?? ? eeeiiiiae?aiino? o?aaoe?a on?o oei?a ?
nooiai?a neie?ico.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a

I?e aea/aii? iaoaiiaaiaco no?oeoo?aeueii? neie?ioe/ii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ye
/anoeie iaoiaaiaco, cae?eniaii ni?anoaaeaiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a
aee?eaeaiiy: eeeiiiiae?aiino? ii ?aioaaiia?aiao o o?iioaeuei?e ieiuei?
oa oi?n?? ii ai?eciioaeueieo c??cao ia I?O aa?oeiieo ? i?ii?aeieo
o?aaoe?a i?e ??cieo oeiao ? oyaeeino? neie?ico.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy:

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aei??o oi?n?? oa eeeiiiiae?aiino?, yea aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe ?o ?ieue o i?iaiicoaaii? aeeiai?ee iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano.

Iniaenoee aianie

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aei??o oi?n?? o?aaoe?a i?e neie?ic?, iiaeaia cayaea
ia aeiao?ae ? io?eiaia i??i?eoaoia ni?aaea, iiaeeo?eiaaia iaoiaeeea
aei??o eeeiiiiae?aiino?, cai?iiiiiaaia A.ss.O?uaieii, naiino?eii
aei??yia oi?n?y oa eeeiiiiae?ai?noue ii I?O ? o?iioaeueieo
?aioaaiia?aiao, cae?eniaiee aiae?c no?oeoo?ieo ci?i aa?oeiieo oa
i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a o 97 oai?eo neie?icii (ia 423 o?aaoeyo). Neeaaeai?
caaaeai? oaaeeoe? oa a?ao?ee a on?o a?oiao ianoaaeaieo oai?eo, aeaia
o?aeoiaea oeeo ci?i. Iioae?eiaai? 4 naiino?ei? iaoeia? ?iaioe oa 1 – o
ni?aaaoi?noa?.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?iaioe

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue ia can?aeaii?
A/aii? ?aaee Oe?IAe?OI, iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? aeeoy/eo i?oiiaae?a o o
?aiaoi???, eiioa?aioe?? ii iiaeo iaoiaeao ae?aaiinoeee oa e?eoaaiiy
i?oiiaaei-o?aaiaoieia?/ieo oai?eo o i. N?ioa?iiie?, ia nai?ia?? e?ea??a
o oeie?-?ioa?iao? aeey ae?oae, oai?eo ia neie?ic, iioae?eiaai? a 5-oe
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao – iaoa??aeao eiioa?aioe?e ? iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao.

Aeaeaiee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee eeno ii iaoiaeeoe? aei??o oi?n??, io?eiaia
i??i?eoaoia ni?aaea ? 99042395 ii cayaoe? ia aeiao?ae, ai?iaaaeaeai? a
ee?i?oe? o??o?a?? o?aaoa oa niaoe?ae?ciaaieo oeieao-?ioa?iaoao aeey
ae?oae, oai?eo neie?icii. Iaoa??aee ?iaioe aa?eoee aei eiii’thoa?ii?
i?ia?aie Aia?eeainueei? Anioe?aoe?? ni?iaeueieo o??o?a?a
(Ein-Aiaeaeaean).

I?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe ianoaaeoaaeenue oai?? neie?icii o ee?i?oe? o??o?a??
o?aaoa (ea??aiee – i?io. A.ss.O?uaiei) Oe?a?inueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae?? (aee?aeoi? –
i?io. A.A.Aaeei) ? naiaoi?ii? oeiee-?ioa?iaoo aeey oai?eo neie?icii
(aieiaiee e?ea? – A.A.Aeio?ioeaa). Iaai?oii-?aciiainii-oiiia?ao?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? a ae?aaiinoe/iiio Oeaio?? I?inueeiai ?aeiio i.
Ee?aa (ea??aiee – i?io. ss.N.Aaa?e).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 125 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno oa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, 3-o ?icae?e?a, caeeth/aiiy oa aeniiae?a. ?ethno?iaaia 46
iaethieaie, 6 a?ao?eaie, 20 oaaeeoeyie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae neeaaea? 160 iaca, ?c ieo 109 ee?eeeoeath, 51 – eaoeiith.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??ae oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?e aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue cae?eniaii aea/aiiy eeeiiiiae?aiino?
ia o?iioaeueieo ?aioaaiia?aiao ca iiaeeo?eiaaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith
A.ss.O?uaiea oa oi?n?? ii ai?eciioaeueieo c??cao ia iaai?oii-?aciiainieo
oiiia?aiao (I?O) ca cai?iiiiiaaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith aa?oeiieo ?
i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci o 97 oai?eo
aeenieanoe/iei neie?icii I — IV nooiaiy i?e a?oaeiiio,
a?oaei-iiia?aeiaiio, iiia?aeiaiio oa eiia?iiaaiiio oeio aee?eaeaiiy.

O caaaeueiiio eeeiiiiae?ai?noue ? oi?n?y aea/ai? ia 423 o?aaoeyo.
Aecia/aiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? ii ?aioaaiia?aiao
cae?eniaii ?aioaaiiiao?e/iei niiniaii o a?aaeonao.

?c aiaiiaco ooi/ithaaee /an iiyae oa ?icaeoie aee?eaeaiiy, aeeiai?eo
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano. O aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao iieooaaiiy aeicaieyei
anoaiiaeoe ao?ieia?th aee?eaeaiiy, aaiaoe/iee ca’ycie caoai?thaaiiy
o?aaoa a a?oi? “n?iaeieo neie?ic?a”.

I?ae /an iaeyaeo aeaoi?iaoe?y ooeoaa i?e neie?ic? aaaaoi a /iio
caeaaeaea a?ae aaee/eie aeaoi?iaoe?? oa eieae?caoe?? aa?oeie iniiaii? oa
eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaecie.

I?e neie?ic? aee?eaeaiiy o?aaoa aeeeeea? aeaoi?iaoe?th a?oaeii? ee?oeie
? iaoiiaeaia oea ne?o/oaaiiyi (oi?n??th) o?aaoa, ui ? i?aaeiaoii iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ae?aaeai?noue ?aaa?iiai ai?aa na?ae/eoue i?i aaee/eio
oi?n??. Oa ae naia iiaeia neacaoe i?i “i’yciaee aaeee” o iiia?aeiaiio
a?aeae?e? o?aaoa (neiioii A.Ae.*aee?ia). Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ?a?no?aoe??
ee?i?/ieo i?iya?a, aneiao??? o?ea i?e neie?ic? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee
oioia?ao?? a iieiaeaii?: ccaaeo, nia?aaeo, ce?aa, ni?aaa oa iaoeeo
ooeoaa.

I?e ?aioaaiieia?/iiio ianoaaeaii? o?aaoa a ia?aaeiuei-caaei?e ? aieia?e
i?iaeoe?yo aecia/aee aaee/eio aieiaiai oa e?oioe/iiai eiiiiiaioo
aeaoi?iaoe?? ia iniiai?e ? eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeciao, oei aee?eaeaiiy,
aiiiae?? o?aaoe?a, ao?ieia?th neie?ico, ae?aaeai?noue eeeiiiiae?aiino?,
oi?n?? oa ?ioeo ci?i o o?aao?. Aeey aea/aiiy ?ooeeaino? o?aaoa
aeeiioaaee ?aioaaiia?aie a iieiaeaii? neaey/e aai noiy/e oa aecia/aee
?iaeaen noaa?eueiino? ca A.?.Eacuei?iei (1963).

1800 — eoo eaaea/e

?iaeaen noaa?eueiino? = ————————

1800 — eoo noiy/e

Aei??thaaiiy aaee/eie caaaeueiiai eooa aeaoi?iaoe?? iniiaii? oa
eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaecie cae?enithaaee ca iaoiaeeeith J.Cobb (1960).

Aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? aeaoi?iaoe?? o?aaoey oa
i?aeo?aaoeaaiai aeeneo aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiaeeeo A.A.Aaaeueianiai?
(1965) ? A.ss.O?uaiea (1973). Aeey oi/iiai aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
eeeiiiiae?aiino? o?aaoey ie iiaeeo?eoaaee iaoiaeeeo, yea caeeth/a?oueny
o aei??thaaii? eooa aeaoi?iaoe?? i?ae e?i?yie, i?iaaaeaieie ii aa?oi?e
ieanoeioe? oa ia?aeaeuei?e ieaei?e ieanoeioe? o?ea o?aaoey.

I?e aecia/aii? nooiaiy neie?ico ie ei?enooaaeenue eeaneo?eaoe??th
A.Ae.*aee?ia (1958). I?e oeueiio:

I nooi?iue — 10 – 100

II nooi?iue — 110 — 250

III nooi?iue — 260 – 800

IV nooi?iue — 810 ? a?eueoa.

Aeey i?aaeeueiiai ?icoi?iiy iaoiaaiaco neie?ioe/ii? oai?iae aaaeeeaei ?
aecia/aiiy iniiaii? (aieiaii?) e?eaecie aeaoi?iaoe??, oeyoe ??
oi?ioaaiiy, a?aei?ii?noue ?? a?ae ?icaeoeo eiiiainaoi?ieo
i?ioeaee?eaeaiue.

I?e oyaeeeo oi?iao neie?ico ia aa?oei? iniiaii? e?eaecie ?icoaoiaai? 1 –
2 aa?oeiieo eeeiiiiae?aieo o?aaoe? oa eeeiiiiae?aiee i?aeo?aaoeaaee
aeene.

O?ei aa?oeiiiai o?aaoey aiane?aeie oi?n?? ci?uaia a a?e aeioeeino?,
aneiao?e/ii ?icoaoiaai? ei?ai? aeoaeie, aeaoi?iiaai? oa ??cii? aaee/eie
noaeiaia? a?ae?inoee, ci?uaiee o aeioeeee a?e inoenoee a?ae?inoie.
Iiia?a/i? a?ae?inoee aiane?aeie oi?n?? ia aa?aiooiio aioe? a?eueoa
a?aeaaaeai?, ci?uai? oa iaaeeaeai? iaeei aei iaeiiai. Ia aa?aiooiio
aioe? o?i? ?o oei?i/ai? ? /anoi ia aenooiathoue ca o?iue o?ea o?aaoey.
Iiae?ai? ci?ie niinoa??aathoueny ? a iiia?aeiaiio a?aeae?e?.

Ia iaae? iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci ?icoaoiaaiee iaeo?aeueiee
o?aaaoeue, yeee ia? o?ei i?aaeeueii? /ioe?eeooii? oi?ie, neiao?e/ii
?icoaoiaai? inoenoee, iiia?a/iee oa noaeiaia? ia?inoee, ei?ai? aeoaeie.
Cae/aeii iaeo?aeueiee o?aaaoeue ?icoaoiaaiee eini ii a?aeiioaiith aei
e?i??, yea i?iaaaeaia i?ae a?aaiyie caeooaeiii? e?noee. Iaeo?aeuei?
o?aaoe? ?icoaoiaai? aeua oa ieae/a aa?oeie iniiaii? e?eaecie. I?ae
aa?oeiieie oa iaeo?aeueieie o?aaoeyie iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci
?icoaoiaothoueny i?ii?aei? o?aaoe?, c eeeiiiiae?ai?noth oa oi?n??th
??ciiai nooiaiy. O iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ie aei??thaaee aaee/eio
eeeiiiiae?aiino? aeaoi?iaoe?? aa?oeiiiai oa aeeaei?o (aeua ? ieae/a)
i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaecie.

A iniia? ?iciiae?eo iaoeo oai?eo ia a?oie eaaeaea ae?aaiinoeea ca oeiii
neie?ico, aeey aecia/aiiy yeiai aaaeeeaei ? anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaii? oa
eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci. I?e ae?aaeaieo no?oeoo?aeueieo oi?iao
aee?eaeaiiy aecia/aiiy iniiaii? e?eaecie ia? iaai? o?oaeiiu?, ui iiaea
i?eaanoe aei iai?aaeeueii? ae?aaiinoeee oa caaeuaiiy e?eueeino? oai?eo o
a?oi? eiia?iiaaiiai (S-iiae?aiiai) neie?ico.

Iniiaia e?eaecia iaie aecia/aeanue ca oaeeie iciaeaie:

eoo aee?eaeaiiy iniiaii? e?eaecie caaaeaee a?eueoa eooa eiiiainaoi?iiai
i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy;

?iaeaen noaa?eueiino? iniiaii? e?eaecie i?e cia/ieo neie?icao caaaeaee
aeua eiiiainaoi?ii?;

aeua oa ieae/a iniiaii? e?eaecie /ano?oa anueiai ?icoaoiaothoueny
eiiiainaoi?i? i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy ca aeiyoeii iiia?aeiaiai aee?eaeaiiy;

i?e eiia?iiaaieo (S-iiae?aieo) neie?icao caaaeaee ? aea? iniiai? (?c
iaeiaeiaith aaee/eiith aieiaiai aee?eaeaiiy. ??cieoey aaee/eie iiaeiia
aooe ia a?eueoa 5 – 70) oa aeaa eiiiainaoi?ieo i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy.
Aeaeiiiainaoe?y o?aaoa ia niinoa??aa?oueny;

a?aeoeeaiiy o?aaoa (aeaeiiiainaoe?y) i?e oyaeeeo oi?iao caaaeaee a a?e
iniiaii? e?eaecie.

Ca?aeii c eeaneo?eaoe??th J.James (1954) ca oeiaie neie?ico oai??
?iciiae?eyeenue:

Aa?oiueia?oaeiee neie?ic – aa?oeia iniiaii? e?eaecie ?icoaoiaoaaeanue ia
??ai? Oh5-6 o?aaoe?a. Aiie cono??/athoueny o 11-12% aeiaaee?a. Ia
aeaeue, oaeeo oai?eo o iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ia aoei.

A?oaei? neie?ice c aa?oeiith iniiaii? e?eaecie ia ??ai? Oh7-10 o?aaoe?a
cono??/athoueny o 55 – 56 % oai?eo. Eiiiainaoi?ia e?eaecia ?icaeaa?oueny
a iiia?aeiaiio a?aeae?e?, o /anoeie c ieo niinoa??aathoueny iaoee
iiia?aeiaiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa ii a?aeiioaiith aei oaco.

A?oaei-iiia?aeia? neie?ice c aa?oeiith aee?eaeaiiy ia ??ai? Oh11-12
o?aaoe?a cono??/athoueny o 12 – 15 % oai?eo. O oaeeo oai?eo
?icaeaa?oueny eiiiainaoi?iee iaoee o?aaoa a iiia?aeiaiio a?aeae?e?.

Iiia?aeia? neie?ice c aa?oeiith aee?eaeaiiy ia ??ai? L1-2 o?aaoe?a
cono??/athoueny o 12 – 15 % oai?eo.

Eiia?iiaai? aai S-iiae?ai? neie?ice c aeaiia iniiaieie aeoaaie
aee?eaeaiiy, ye? ?icoaoiaothoueny ia ??ai? Th8-9 ? L2-3 o?aaoe?a,
cono??/athoueny o 7-10 % oai?eo.

Aeey aei??o aeaoi?iaoe?? a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? iaie ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?? ca ai?eciioaeueieie c??caie ii
iaai?oii-?aciiainieo oiiia?aiao (I?O). Iaoiaeeea caeeth/a?oueny a oiio,
ui ?acii ?c i?oiiaaeii, niaoe?ae?no ii I?O aecia/a? oi/i? i???ioe?e aeey
aeeiiaiiy ai?ciioaeueieo c??c?a aa?oeii? oa i?ii?aei? o?aaoe? iniiaii?
e?eaecie oa i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy. Aeey aecia/aiiy eooa oi?n?? ia
ai?eciioaeueieo oiiia?aiao i?iaiaeyoue aea? e?i??: ia?oa – /a?ac oi/ee
aa?o?aee oa iniiae inoenoiai a?ae?inoea ianoaaeoaaiiai o?aaoey, a ?ioa –
/a?ac oi/eo iniiae inoenoiai a?ae?inoea oa na?aaeeio o?ea o?aaoey. Eoo,
ui ooai?aiee ia ia?aoeio oeeo e?i?e ? ? eooii oi?n?? oa iiaea aooe
aei??yiee o a?aaeonao.

I?e aiae?c? ee?i?ei-?aioaaiieia?/ieo iciae o 97 oai?eo neie?icii ? – ?V
nooiaiy aoei: aeenieanoe/iee neie?ic o ae?a/aoie – 64 (65,9 %), o
oeii/ee?a — 33 (39,1 %); a?eii: aei 10 ?ie?a – 19 oai?eo; aei12 ?ie?a –
28 oai?eo; aei 14 ?ie?a – 28 oai?eo; aei 16 ?ie?a – 18 oai?eo, i?ney 16
?ie?a – 4 oai?eo.

Aei aeenieanoe/iiai neie?ico a?aeianai? oai?? c ??cieie aiiiae?yie
iiia?aeiai-e?eaeiaiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa, a oaeiae oai?? c aeenieanoe/ieie
iciaeaie ? aac e?noeiaeo aiiiae?e.

Oe? neie?ice ?aeaioe/i? ca aeeiai?eith iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano (/an
iiyae, i?ia?anoaaiiy oa noaa?e?caoe??), oeio aee?eaeaiiy, oi?ie iniiaieo
? eiiiainaoi?ieo aeoa, aoi?eiieo ii?ooaiue aioo??oi?o i?aai?a.

Iciaee aeenieanoe/iiai i?iyao neie?ico aoee oae?: iaca?iuaiiy aeoaeie L5
o 18 oai?eo; iaca?iuaiiy aeoaeie S1 – o 15 oai?eo; iaca?iuaiiy aeoaeie
L5 ? S1 – o 13 oai?eo; ethiaae?caoe?y S1 – o 3 oai?eo; nae?ae?caoe?y L5
– o 2 oai?eo; aneiao??y noaeiaiaeo a?ae?inoe?a — o 10 oai?eo; aac
e?noeiaeo aiiiae?e – o 34 oai?eo. O 2 oai?eo c a?iaeaeaiei neie?icii
niinoa??aaee: eeeiiiiae?aiee iai?ao?aaaoeue ? n?iinoic ?aaa? – o 1
oai?iai; iiiaeeii? eeeiiiiae?ai? o?aaoe? – o 1 oai?iai.

Ca oeiii aee?eaeaiiy iao? oai?? ?iciiae?eyeenue oaeei /eiii: a?oaeiee
neie?ic a?aei?/aiee aoa o 44 (45,5 %) oai?eo, a?oaei-iiia?aeiaee — o 20
(20,5 %) oai?eo; iiia?aeiaee – o 11 (11,3 %) oai?eo; eiia?iiaaiee
(S–iiae?aiee) o 22 (22,7 %) oai?eo.

O iiaeaeueoiio oai?? c ??cieie oeiaie neie?ico neeaee 4 a?oie ca
nooiaiai aeaoi?iaoe?? aeey aiae?co ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa
oi?n?? ia iniiai?e ? eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeciao aee?eaeaiiy.

Ca nooiaiai aee?eaeaiiy iao? oai?? ?iciiae?eai? aoee oaeei /eiii: ?
nooi?iue neie?ico – o 10 (10,3 %) oai?eo; ?? nooi?iue neie?ico – o 41
(43,3 %) oai?eo; ??? nooi?iue neie?ico – o 35 (36,2 %) oai?eo; ?V
nooi?iue neie?ico o 11 (11,2 %) oai?eo.

O eiaei?e a?oi? oai?eo, ye? aiae?coaaeenue, 4 nooiai? neie?ico neeaaeaee
i?aea?oie.

Aeaeiiiainaoe?y o?aaoa ca ee?i?/ieie oa ?aioaaiieia?/ieie iciaeaie
aeyaeaia o 42 oai?eo, a inoaiii?ic o?aaoe?a ? ?aaa? ia aa?oei?
aee?eaeaiiy a?aei?/aiee o 12 oai?eo.

O a?oi? a?oaeieo neie?ic?a (44 oai?eo) aea/aiiy caaaeueiiai eooa
aee?eaeaiiy iieacaei eiai eieeaaiiy: i?e ? nooiai? – 3 – 100; i?e ??
nooiai? – 13 – 250; i?e ??? nooiai? – 40 – 750; i?e ?V nooiai? – 90 –
1050.

I?e aiae?c? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n??
aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai ? aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a ia iniiai?e
e?eaeci? aee?eaeaiiy, a?aei?/aia a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? ia 2 – 30 i?e
ii/aoeiaeo neie?icao ? ia 8 – 220 i?e ae?aaeaieo ? oyaeeeo neie?icao,
ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i ia?aeii?noue aieiaiai aee?eaeaiiy oa aoi?eii?noue
ne?o/oaaiiy o?aaoa.

I?e aea/aii? ?aioaaiia?ai o oai?eo c a?oaeiei oeiii aee?eaeaiiy ie
iii?oeee, ui eiiiainaoi?ia aeoaa i?e neie?ic? ? — ?? nooiai?a ia aoea
ae?aaeaia, a iiia?aeiaa e?eaecia i?e neie?ic? ??? – ?V nooiai?a
a?aei?/aia o 7 oai?eo, iaoee iiia?aeiaiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa o a?aeiioaii?
aei oaco — ua o 5 oai?eo. I?e oeueiio caaaeueiee eoo aee?eaeaiiy o 5
oai?eo ??? nooiaiy eieeaaany a iaaeao 45 – 550, a o 7 – ?V nooiaiy – 50
– 600.

I?e aea/aii? aaee/eie no?oeoo?ieo ii?ooaiue ia eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeci?
ia ??ai? aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a i?e
neie?ic? ??? – ?V nooiai?a eieeaaeanue o iaaeao 17 – 220, a oi?n?y – 12
– 200, i?e/iio a on?o o?aaoeyo oi?n?y aoea iaioith a?ae eeeiiiiae?aiino?
ia 2 – 30. I?e ii??aiyii? oi?n?eiiai eiiiiiaioo aeaoi?iaoe?? ia
eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeci? ie a?aei?oeee, ui i?e iiia?aeiaiio iaoee? oi?n?y
aoea ia 300 iaioith, i?ae i?e iiia?aeia?e e?eaeci?.

Oaea ??cieoey no?oeoo?ieo ci?i eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? a o?aaoeyo
iniiaii? e?eaecie o ii??aiyii? c eiiiainaoi?iei i?ioeaee?eaeaiiyi i?e
a?oaeiiio oeiia? neie?ico na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aeii?noue iaoieia?/iiai
i?ioeano a a?oaeiiio a?aeae?e? o?aaoa oa aoi?eiiino? eiiiainaoi?iiai
i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy. Oey caeiiii??i?noue oaeiae i?inoaaeo?oueny ia
a?ao?/ieo cia?aaeaiiyo.

O a?oi? eiia?iiaaieo neie?ic?a (22 oai?eo) c ??aiioe?iieie aeaiia
aee?eaeaiiyie a a?oaeiiio ? iiia?aeiaiio a?aeae?eao o?aaoa aea/aiiy
caaaeueiiai eooa aee?eaeaiiy iieacaei eiai eieeaaiiy: i?e ? nooiai? – 8
– 100; i?e ?? nooiai? – 13 – 250; i?e ??? nooiai? – 40 – 750; i?e ?V
nooiai? – 100 – 1050.

I?e aiae?c? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n??
aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a ia a?oaei?e
e?eaeci? i?e eiia?iiaaiiio oeio aee?eaeaiiy iieacaei ??aiii??ia
a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? ia 2 – 30, ui iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i a?eueo
“aeia?iye?niee” ia?aa?a aeaoi?iaoe??.

Aea/aiiy caaaeueiiai eooa iiia?aeiai? e?eaecie i?e eiia?iiaaiiio
neie?ic? iieacaei eieeaaiiy aaee/eie aee?eaeaiiy: i?e ? nooiai? – 2 –
40; i?e ?? nooiai? – 15 – 240; i?e ??? nooiai? – 40 – 700; i?e ?V
nooiai? – 99 – 1040.

I?e aiae?c? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n??
aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a iiia?aeiai?
e?eaecie eiia?iiaaiiai neie?ico a?aei?/aii ??aiii??ia a?aenoaaaiiy
oi?n?? ia 2 – 30 o ii??aiyii? c eeeiiiiae?ai?noth i?e an?o nooiaiyo
aeaoi?iaoe??.

I?e ii??aiyii? a?oaeii? oa iiia?aeiai? e?eaeci eiia?iiaaiiai neie?ico ii
?icaeoeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? iiaeia
i?ine?aeeoaaoe iaeiioeii?noue oeeo ci?i, ui na?ae/eoue i?i ia?aeii?noue
iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ia aeaio ??aiyo.

I?e ni?anoaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy eiia?iiaaiiai oa a?oaeiiai oei?a
neie?ico /?oei i?ine?aeaeo?oueny ??cieoey ?icaeoeo eiiiainaoi?ii?
e?eaecie i?e a?oaeiiio neie?ic? a?ae ia?aeiii? iiia?aeiai? e?eaecie i?e
eiia?iiaaiiio neie?ic?.

O a?oi? a?oaei-iiia?aeiaeo neie?ic?a (20 oai?eo) aea/aiiy caaaeueiiai
eooa aee?eaeaiiy iieacaei eiai eieeaaiiy: i?e ? nooiai? – 100; i?e ??
nooiai? – 15 – 250; i?e ??? nooiai? – 45 – 800; i?e ?V nooiai? – 950.

I?e aiae?c? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n??
aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a iniiaii?
e?eaecie aee?eaeaiiy i?e a?oaei-iiia?eiaiio neie?ic? iieacaei
a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? ia 2 – 30 o ii??aiyii? c eeeiiiiae?ai?noth ye ? a
iiia?aaei?o a?oiao niinoa?aaeaiiy. Iaeiae aeaye? (? oa IV nooiai?a)
iaaaeee? i?aea?oie ia aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe iaai? aeniiaee.

Aea/aiiy ?aioaaiia?ai o oai?eo a?oaei-iiia?aeiaei neie?icii iieacaei, ui
o ieo ia ?icaeaa?oueny eiiiainaoi?ia e?eaecia, a ieaeiy iai?aaeoaa
aee?eaeaiiy neeaaea? iaoee iiia?aeiaiai a?aeae?eo o?aaoa o a?aeiioaii?
aei oaca. *a?ac ui a oe?e a?oi? oai?eo aoei iaiiaeeeaei aeine?aeaeoaaoe
o?aaoe? eiiiainaoi?iiai i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy.

O a?oi? iiia?aeiaeo neie?ic?a (11 oai?eo) aea/aiiy caaaeueiiai eooa
aee?eaeaiiy iieacaei eiai eieeaaiiy: i?e ? nooiai? – 8 – 100; i?e ??
nooiai? – 17 – 250; i?e ??? nooiai? o 1 oai?iai 500; i?e ?V nooiai? o 1
oai?iai 800.

I?e aiae?c? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? aa?oeiiiai
ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo o?aaoe?a ia iniiai?e e?eaeci? i?e
iiia?aeiaiio neie?ic? a?aei?/aii ??aiii??ia a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? ia 2 –
30 ye ? a iiia?aaei?o a?oiao.

Aea/aiiy ?aioaaiia?ai o oai?eo iiia?aeiaei neie?icii iieacaei, ui o ieo
niinoa??aa?oueny iacia/iee ?icaeoie a?oaeiiai i?ioeaee?eaeaiiy, i?e
yeiio iaiiaeeeai aeine?aeaeoaaoe eeeiiiiae?ai?noue ? oi?n?th.

Oaeei /eiii i?e aea/aii? iniiaieo aeaiaio?a no?oeoo?aeueiiai neie?ico
i?ia?aeiei o iaoaiiaaiac? aeaoi?iaoe?? ? eeeiiiiae?ai?noue. Aiia
ia?aaeo? ?ioei eiiiiiaioai ? iiaea aooe iaoiiaeaia ii?ooaiiyi
neiao?e/iiai ?inoo o?aaoe?a. Oi?n?y a?aenoa? a?ae aieiai? aeaoi?iaoe??
oa, iaiaaii, ? aoi?eiiei aeaiaioii aeaoi?iaoe??.

AENIIAEE

No?oeoo?aeueiee neie?ic oi?io?oueny ca ?aooiie ia?inoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe??
o?aaoe?a o o?iioaeuei?e ? naa?oaeuei?e ieiueiao (eeeiiiiae?aiino?) ?
ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? (oi?n??) ia iniiai?e ? eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeciao.

?ic?iaeaia iaie iaoiaeeea aei??o oi?n?? o?aaoe?a i?e neie?ic? ca
ai?eciioaeueieie c??caie ia iaai?oii-?aciiainieo oiiia?aiao (I?O)
aeicaiey? c iaoaiaoe/iith oi/i?noth aecia/eoe nooi?iue oi?n?? o?aaoe?a.

Aecia/aiiy aaee/eie oi?n?? a a?aaeonao eiaeiiai o?aaoey ia iniiai?e ?
eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeciao ? ni?anoaaeaiiy aaee/eie eeeiiiiae?aiino? ca
iaoiaeeeith A.ss.O?uaiea oaeiae a a?aaeonao aeicaiey? aeyaeoe
caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?aeueiiai neie?ico.

Ia iniiai?e e?eaeci? ?icaeoie eeeiiiiae?aiino? aa?oeiiiai oa i?ii?aeieo
o?aaoe?a, aa?oiuei? oa ieaeiuei? iai?aaeoa i?ioiaeeoue c
aeia?aaeaeoaaiiyi ia 2 – 50 o ii??aiyii? c ?icaeoeii oi?n?? i?e na?o
oeiao neie?ico on?o i?aea?oi ? – ?V nooiai?a neie?ico.

Ia eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeci? i?e a?oaeieo, a?oaei-iiia?aeiaeo aee?eaeaiiyo
eeeiiiiae?ai?noue ? oi?n?y ?icaeaathoueny iia?euei?oa ii??aiyii c
iniiaiith e?eaeciith, iaeiae oaiaeaioe?y a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? a?ae
eeeiiiiae?aiino? caeeoa?oueny iiia?aaeiueith.

I?e eiia?iiaaiiio (S-iiae?aiiio) neie?ic? ca iaoai?ciii ?icaeoeo
eeeiiiiae?ai?noue oa oi?n?y ia a?oaei?e ? iiia?aeia?e e?eaeci?
i?ioiaeyoue ??aiii??ii ia iaio aeoaao aee?eaeaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
ia?aeii?noue iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ia aeaio ??aiyo.

Nienie ?ia?o, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

Oeuaiei A.ss., Oaooi Oaeaae. ?ieue oi?nee a oi?ie?iaaiee neieeioe/aneie
aeaoi?iaoeee //Anaoe?. iao/.-i?aeo.eiio.: Iaoa?eaeu.- Aaiaoi?ey, 1998.-
N.96-98.

Oaooi Oaeaae. Eco/aiea oi?nee iicaiii/ieea i?e neieeica //I?iaeaiu,
aeinoeaeaiey e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaoe e
i?aeoe/aneiai cae?aaiio?aiaiey: O?.E?uine.ain.iaae.oi-o
ei.N.I.Aai?-aeaaneiai. — Neioa?iiieue, 1999.- O. 135, *. 2.- N.210-212.

Oaooi Oaeaae. Oi?ney e eeeiiaeaeiinoue iicaiieia i?e no?oeoo?aeueiii
a?oaeiii neieeica //I?iaeaiu, aeinoeaeaiey e ia?niaeoeau ?acaeoey
iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaoe e i?aeoe/aneiai cae?aaiio?aiaiey: O?. E?uine.
ain. iaae. oi-o ei. N.I.Aai?aeaaneiai. — Neioa?iiieue, 1998.- O.134, *.
2.- N.74-77.

Oaooi Oaeaae. Eco/aiea oi?nee e eeeiiaeaeiinoe iicaiieia i?e
eiiaeie?iaaiiii neieeica //I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e i?ioace?iaaiea.-
1999.- ? 3.- N.104-107.

Oaooi Oaeaae. Iaoiaeeea ecia?aiey oi?nee iicaiieia i?e no?oeoo?aeueiii
neieeica //I?oiiaaeey, o?aaiaoieiaey e i?ioace?iaaiea.- 1999.- ? 2.-
N.101-102.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oaooi Oaeaae Ea??i. IAOAIIAAIAC EEEIIIIAe?AIINO? OA OI?N?? I?E
NO?OEOO?AEUeIIIO NEIE?IC?.- ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.01.21. –
o?aaiaoieia?y oa i?oiiaae?y.

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo o?aaiaoieia?? oa i?oiiaae??
IIC Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? a oi?ioaaii? no?oeoo?aeueiiai aeenieanoe/iiai
neie?ico ? – ? V nooiai?a o 97 oai?eo ia aa?oei? iniiaii? ?
eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci. Aeey aea/aiiy oi?ioaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?? a
ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei? iaie ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aei??o oi?n?? ii
iaai?oii-?aciiainieo oiiia?aiao. Iaoiaeeea caeeth/a?oueny o aei??? eooa
oi?n??, ooai?aiiai aeaiia e?i?yie, i?iaaaeaieie: iaeia – /a?ac aa?o?aeo
oa iniiao inoenoiai a?ae?inoea, ae?oaa – /a?ac iniiao inoenoiai
a?ae?inoea ? na?aaeeio eiea o?ea o?aaoey. Aeey aecia/aiiy aaee/eie
eeeiiiiae?aiino? o?aaoe?a aei??yee eoo, ui ooai?eany i?ae caieeath/eie
ieanoeieaie o?e o?aaoe?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n??
cae?enithaaee ia ??ai? aa?oeiiiai, ieaeiueiai oa aa?oiueiai i?ii?aeieo
o?aaoe?a iniiaii? oa eiiiainaoi?ii? e?eaeci i?e a?oaeiiio,
a?oaei-iiia?aeiaiio, iiia?aeiaiio ? eiia?iiaaiiio oeiao neie?ico a
i?aea?oiao ? – ? V nooiai?a aeenieanoe/iiai neie?ico (aea/aii 423
o?aaoey). I?e an?o oeiao neie?ico ia iniiai?e e?eaeci? a?aei?/aii
a?aenoaaaiiy oi?n?? o?aaoe?a ia 4 – 50 a?ae eeeiiiiae?aiino?. Oaea ae
oaiaeaioe?y aeyaeaia ? ia eiiiainaoi?i?e e?eaeci? c o??th o?eueee
??cieoeath, ui inoaiiy ?icaeaa?oueny iia?euei?oa ? i?e ? – ?? nooiaiyo
ia ae?aaeaia. O oie aea /an i?e eiia?iiaaiiio neie?ic? oi?ioaaiiy
a?oaeii? oa iiia?aeiai? e?eaeci eaea ??aiii??ii ia iaio e?eaeciao. Oaeee
aea ?icaeoie eeeiiiiae?aiino? oa oi?n?? ia aa?oeiiiio, ieaeiueiio ?
aa?oiueiio i?ii?aeieo o?aaoeyo a?aei?/aiee ia aeaio ia?aeiieo aeoaao
aee?eaeaiiy i?e eiia?iiaaiiio neie?ic?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: no?oeoo?aeueiee aeenieanoe/iee neie?ic,
eeeiiiiae?ai?noue, oi?n?y.

Oaooi Oaeaae Ea?ei. IAOAIIAAIAC EEEIIAEAeIINOE E OI?NEE I?E
NO?OEOO?AEUeIII NEIEEICA. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea
o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
14.01.21. — o?aaiaoieiaey e i?oiiaaeey.

Oe?aeineee iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneee einoeooo o?aaiaoieiaee e
i?oiiaaeee IIC Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A iniiao ?aaiou iieiaeai aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey
eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee a oi?ie?iaaiee no?oeoo?aeueiiai neieeica o 97
aieueiuo aeenieanoe/aneei neieeicii ? — ?V noaiaie ia aa?oeia iniiaiie e
eiiiainaoi?iie e?eaeciu. Aeey eco/aiey oi?ie?iaaiey aeaoi?iaoeee a
ai?eciioaeueiie ieineinoe iaie, niaianoii n A.ss.Oeuaiei, ?ac?aaioaia
iaoiaeeea ecia?aiey oi?nee ii iaaieoii-?aciiainiuo oiiia?aiiai (iiaeaia
cayaea ia ecia?aoaiea e iieo/aia i?ei?eoaoiay ni?aaea). Iaoiaeeea
caeeth/aaony a ecia?aiee oaea oi?nee, ia?aciaaiiiai aeaoiy eeieyie,
iaeia ec ieo i?iaaaeaia /a?ac aa?oooeo e iniiaaiea inoenoiai io?inoea,
aoi?ay — /a?ac iniiaaiea inoenoiai io?inoea e n?aaeeio ie?oaeiinoe oaea
iicaiiea. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aaee/eiu eeeiiaeaeiinoe iicaiieia ecia?yee
oaie, ia?aciaaiiue iaaeaeo caiueaoaeueiuie ieanoeieaie oaea iicaiiea.
Enneaaeiaaiea eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee i?iaiaeeee ia o?iaia aa?oeiiiai,
ieaeiaai e aa?oiaai i?iiaaeooi/iuo iicaiieia iniiaiie e eiiiainaoi?iie
e?eaeciu i?e a?oaeiii, a?oaei-iiynie/iii, iiynie/iii e eiiaeie?iaaiiii
oeiao neieeica a iiaea?oiiao ? – ?? — ??? — ?V noaiaie
aeenieanoe/aneiai neieeica (a iauae neiaeiinoe eco/aii 423 iicaiiea).
I?e anao oeiao ene?eaeaiey ioia/aii iinoaiaiiia ia?anoaiea aeaoi?iaoeee
iicaiii/ieea – eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee aa?oeiiuo, ieaeieo, aa?oieo
i?iiaaeooi/iuo iicaiieia iniiaiie e eiiiainaoi?iie e?eaeciu ia?aeeaeueii
ia?anoaieth iauaai oaea ene?eaeaiey. Niiinoaaeaiea eo i?e a?oaeiii oeia
ene?eaeaiey o 44 aieueiuo iieacaei ia iniiaiie e?eaecia ionoaaaiea
oi?nee io eeeiiaeaeiinoe ia 4 — 50. Eiiiainaoi?iay e?eaecia o aieueiuo
ioia/aia n oie oieueei ?aciinoueth, /oi iineaaeiyy ?acaeaaeanue
iaaeeaiiaa, e i?e ? – ?? noaiaie ia auea au?aaeaia, a i?e ??? – ?V —
auea cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa iniiaiie, iaeiaei ionoaaaiea oi?nee io
eeeiiaeaeiinoe auei i?aaeiei, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i ia?ae/iinoe
iniiaiie aeoae ene?eaeaiey e aoi?e/iinoe aeaoi?iaoeee ia eiiiainaoi?iie
e?eaecia. Niiinoaaeaiea iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia aeaoi?iaoeee ai
o?iioaeueiie e ai?eciioaeueiie ieineinoyo (aieiaiai ene?eaeaiey e
ne?o/eaaiey iicaiii/ieea) o 22 aieueiuo eiiaeie?iaaiiui neieeicii ia
a?oaeiie e iiynie/iie e?eaecia iieacaei iaeeiaeiaia ionoaaaiea oi?nee io
eeeiiaeaeiinoe ia 4 – 50 i?e anao noaiaiyo ene?eaeaiey, /oi
naeoaeuenoaiaaei i ia?ae/iii ene?eaeaiee ia aeaoo o?iaiyo e ioee/aeinue
io oi?ie?iaaiey a?oaeiie e iiynie/iie e?eaeciu i?e enoeiiii a?oaeiii
neieeica. Niiinoaaeaiea eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee o 20 aieueiuo ia?ae/iui
a?oaei-iiynie/iui neieeicii eiiiainaoi?iay e?eaecia au?aaeaia ia auea,
iieiaea iieoaeoae nicaeaaaee iaeeii iiynie/iiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea e
niaaeiua iicaiiee n aa?oeiiui ioeaieaaeenue eae i?iiaaeooi/iua. Aa?oiyy
iieoaeoaa oaeaea ia nicaeaaaea eiiiainaoi?iie. Aa?oeiiiue iicaiiie
?aniieaaaeny ia o?iaia Oh11-12 . Enneaaeiaaiea eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee
aa?oeiiuo iicaiieia i?e a?oaei-iiynie/iii neieeica iieacaei ionoaaaiea
iineaaeiae ia 4 — 50. O 11 aieueiuo ia?ae/iui iiynie/iui neieeicii
eiiiainaoi?iay e?eaecia a a?oaeiii ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea oaeaea ia auea
au?aaeaia, aa?oeia ?aniieaaaeanue ia o?iaia L1, ieaeiyy iieoaeoaa
nicaeaaaea iaeeii iiynie/iiai ioaeaea iicaiii/ieea, a aa?oiyy — ieaaii
ia?aoiaeeea a a?oaeiie ioaeae. Enneaaeiaaiea oi?nee iieacaei aa
ionoaaaiea ia 4 – 50 io eeeiiaeaeiinoe. Noiie?oy aeaiiua i?iaaaeaiiuo
enneaaeiaaiee, eioi?ua iieacaee, /oi i?e anao oeiao ene?eaeaiey
iaaethaeathony iaeiioeiiua eciaiaiey aeaoo eiiiiiaioia no?oeoo?aeueiiai
neieeica – ionoaaaiea aaee/eiu oi?nee ia 4 – 50 io eeeiiaeaeiinoe
aa?oeiiuo iicaiieia, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i aoi?e/iinoe ne?o/eaaiey
iicaiiea i?e neieeioe/aneie aeaoi?iaoeee.

Eco/aiea ?acaeoey iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia no?oeoo?aeueiiai neieeica
eeeiiaeaeiinoe e oi?nee ia aa?oeia ene?eaeaiey ?ane?uaaao iaoaieciu
iaoiaaiaca neieeioe/aneie aieacie e iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii a
eco/aiee ?acaeoey aeaoi?iaoeee ae?oaie yoeieiaee (a?iaeaeaiiie,
iae?iaaiiie, i?e nenoaiiuo caaieaaaieyo). Eco/aiea oi?nee e
eeeiiaeaeiinoe a aeeiaieea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey i?iaiice?iaaiey
iaoieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a ?acee/iuo yoeieiae/aneeo a?oiiao aieueiuo,
/oi eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aeaoneeo
i?oiiaaeia e aa?oaa?ieiaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: no?oeoo?aeueiue aeenieanoe/aneee neieeic,
eeeiiaeaeiinoue, oi?ney.

Hatoum, Khaled Karim. Mechanogenesis of Clinoidness and Torsion
in Structural Scoliosis. — Manuscript. Thesis for Candidate of
Medical Scienses degree, specialization 14.01.21 «traumatology and
orthopedics». Ukrainian Research Institute of Traumatology and
Orthopedics, Ministry of Public Health of Ukraine, Kiev, 1999

The work is based on the analysis of the clinoidness and torsion
study results in 97 patients with I-IV stages structural displastic
scoliosis on the top of basic and compensatory curvature. To
study deformation development in the horizontal plane we have
worked out technique for torsion evaluation using magnetic resonance
tomography. The technique consisted in the measurement of torsion
angle between two lines when the first was drawn across the apex and
base of the spinous process and the second — across the base of
the spinous process and the middle of vertebral body countour. To
determine a degree of vertebrae clinoidness we measured an angle
between top and lower plates of vertebral bodies. Examination of
clinoidness and torsion were performed at level of upper, lower and
top intermediate vertebrae of basic and compensatory curvature in
thoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbar and combined scoliosis in
subgroups of I-IV stages of dysplastic scoliosis (423 vertebrae were
examined). In all types of scoliosis in case of basic curvature we
found vertebrae torsion delay of 4-5 from clinoidness. The same tend
was revealed in case of compensatory curvature with the only difference
that the latter developed slower and at I-II stages was not expressed.
In the same time in combined scoliosis the development of thoracic and
lumbar curvature proceeded evenly on both curvatures. The
same development of curvature and torsion on top, lower and upper
intermediate vertebrae is noted on the two primary arches of
curvature in combined scoliosis.

Key words: strustural displastic scoliosis, cliniodness, torsion

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