Малоінвазивні методи лікування оклюзуючих захворювань артерій кінцівок: Автореф. дис… д-ра мед. наук / В.М. Криса, Ін-т серц.-судин. хірургії АМН Ук

27

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo na?oeaai-noaeeiii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 616.13-004.6-089.844-08-039-73+615.032.13

E?ENA Aaneeue Ieoaeeiae/

Iaei?iaaceai? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy

ieethcoth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie

14.01.04 — na?oeaai-noaeeiia o??o?a?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai??,
I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaiee Noaiai Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o??o?a?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Nooa??a ?aai ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii o??o?a?? noaeei ?inoeoooo ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aaaeye Aeieo?i ?aaaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oieoaeueii? o??o?a?? Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? IIC Oe?a?ie, ea??aiee Euea?anueeiai oeaio?o na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
o??o?a??

Aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe Aeeeooa Na?a?e Iiaeyiiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo na?oeaai-noaeeiii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
oieoaeueii? o??o?a??

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo i 13 aiae ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.555.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie (252110, Ee?a-110, oca?c
I?ioan?a ss?, 11).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
na?oeaai-noaeeiii? o??o?a?? AII Oe?a?ie (252110, Ee?a-110, oca?c
I?ioan?a ss?, 11).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “12” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe A.A.?oaeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie.

Iae?oa?oth/? caoai?thaaiiy a?oa??e oaco ? e?ioe?aie caeiathoue na?aae
niiaoe/ii? iaoieia?? cia/iee a?aenioie, yeee ia ia? oaiaeaioe?? aei
cieaeaiiy. Ianooaae iioe?aiiy iae?oa?oth/eo oai?ia, a oiio /ene? noaeei
ieaei?o e?ioe?aie, a iao /an oae?, ui iiaeia aiai?eoe i?i ?o ai?aeai?th
(A.A.Oaeeiia e I.O.Ae?the, 1987; E.E.Nooa?aa, 1995). *ano?oa oai??thoue
/ieia?ee (83%). Na?aaei?e a?e oai?eo neeaaea? 45-54 ?iee, oiaoi
iaea?eueo i?aoeacaeaoiee. Oea a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a? nioe?aeueia
cia/aiiy i?iaeaie (TH.Y.Aineaiyi e nio?., 1995; A.A.Nie?eaeiiia e niaao.
1996; ?.?.Eiaca, 1997).

E?eoaaiiy iae?oa?oth/eo ooeiaeaeaiue iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e oaco ?
ieaei?o e?ioe?aie ? iino?eii aeooaeueiith i?iaeaiith ee?i?/ii?
aia?ieia??. ?acii c oei, o 6-8% iia?iaaieo niinoa??aathoueny
iacaaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy ? aeniea eaoaeuei?noue, o 20-40%
iaoe??io?a o a?aeaeaeai? oa?i?ie a?aei?/athoueny oneeaaeiaiiy, ye? a
10-20% noathoue i?e/eiith iiaoi?ieo iia?aoe?e, a oiio /ene? o 3-6% —
aiiooaoe?e e?ioe?aie ia ??cieo ??aiyo (A.A.Iie?ianeee e niaao., 1996;
A.ss.Oaaaiia ? ni?aaao., 1989).

A aeaiee /an ?ioaineaii ?icaeaa?oueny iiaee ?icae?e ee?i?/ii? iaaeeoeeie
— iaei?iaaceaia o??o?a?y, yea ? neioacii iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a
iaaeeoeei?. Ca ee?i?/ieie ?acoeueoaoaie aiia i?e??aith?oueny aei
?aeiino?oeoeaii?, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a noa? ?aeeiei iaoiaeii aeiiiiiae
oai?ei. Oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy ? i?eioeeie e?eoaaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi
iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiaeee ia??aeei iaei iiae?ai? aei o?aaeeoe?eieo
(A.N.Naaaeueaa, 1989; D.Ruhland et al., 1992; D.C.Mitchell u. a., 1992).

I?e iae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiiyo a?oa??e ia ci?io o?aaeeoe?eiei iaoiaeai
e?eoaaiiy, oaeei ye ooiooth/? iia?aoe??, a?aee?eoa oa iai?aa?aee?eoa
aoa?o?iia?io?iaeoii?y, iia?aoeaia neiiaoaeoii?y, ?iooc?eia
aioo??oiueiaaiia oa?ai?y oa ?io?, oaeiae i?eoiaeyoue aeueoa?iaoeai?
iaei?iaaceai?, iaeio?aaiaoe/i? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy — i?i?o??o?a?y oa
aiaeiaaneoey?i? ao?o/aiiy (Aoaea A.A. e niaao., 1992; R.Fischer, 1991),
?aa?iia?ia aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia ?iooc?eia oa?iaeioa?ai?y ?
o?iiaie?cen (C.A.?iaeeiiia e niaao., 1990; E.Kandarpa, 1995), iaoiaee
iai?yii? ?aaaneoey?ecaoe?? ?oai?ciaaieo e?ioe?aie — o?i?/iee ?aa?iia?iee
neiiaoeeie?cen, ?iieaioaoe?y naeueieea ? i’ycaaiai eineooa,
?aaaneoey?ecoth/a inoaio?aiaiaoe?y ? eiiiaeoioii?y (O.I.Coniaiiae/,
1996; I.O.Ae?the ? ni?aaao., 1998).

Oe? iaoiaee aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?thaaoe iieace aei iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiue o iaoe??io?a iioeeiai a?eo oa aaaeeioai?eo, ni?iuoaaoe oaoi?eo
iia?aoe?e, aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ino? iaoiaee ciaaieaiiy aai i?noeaao
aianoac?th, ciaiooaaoe ?ecee e?eoaaiiy, o?aaiaoe/i?noue ? e?euee?noue
oneeaaeiaiue, iie?auoaaoe e?ioeaa? ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaiiy, a oaeiae
nei?i/oaaoe o?iainia? cao?aoe ia e?eoaaiiy ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?th
(A.A.O?aeaa?, 1996).

Aiae?c aeaieo e?oa?aoo?e aea? iniiao aaaaeaoe, ui iiooe oeyo?a ?ic?iaee
? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaei?iaaceaieo ao?o/aiue c aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo
iiaeeeainoae iaoee ? oaoi?ee i?e e?eoaaii? oai?eo c iae?oa?oth/eie
caoai?thaaiiyie a?oa??e e?ioe?aie ia cae?i/aiee ? eiai iaiao?aeii
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe. Aa?oi oaeiae i?aee?aneeoe, ui aeai? iaoiaeeee e?eoaaiiy
c iiceoe?e ee?i?oeenoa ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue caeeoathoueny
iaeia?aeiieie ? iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaieie a ii??aiyii? c
o?aaeeoe?eieie. Ia ae??oai? i?eioeeiia? ieoaiiy ?o aeei?enoaiiy a
i?aeoe/i?e iaaeeoeei?, iieace ? i?ioeiieace, oaoi?ea i?iaaaeaiiy,
ia?aaaae, iaaeie?ee, oneeaaeiaiiy, ia ?ic?iaeaiee o??o?a?/iee
?ino?oiaioa??e aeey aeeiiaiiy ao?o/aiue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiiaia ca?aeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?ia?o ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??: “?ic?iaea
e?eoaaeueii? eiioeaioe?? i?e ieethc?eieo o?aaeaiiyo noaeei e?ioe?aie”
(oeo? ?iaioe 17.04;0.69.03).

Iaoa ?iaioe.

Aaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaei?iaaceaieo aioo??oiuei-noaeeiieo ?
iicanoaeeiieo oaoiieia?e ?aaaneoey?ecoth/eo iia?aoe?e oa o?eaaei?
?aa?iia?ii? aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? ?iooc?eii? oa?ai?? a e?eoaaii?
iae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1.?ic?iaeoe oa oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee, ?ino?oiaioe ? i?eno?i? aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ii ea?iaaii? /a?acoe??ii? ioieoe?eii?
o?i?/ii? ?aa?iia?ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? e?ioe?aie ia ??cieo ??aiyo
ia?aaa?oaa?aeueiiai eaioethaeea neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a. ?ic?iaeoe
iaoiaeeeo eiio?ieth ca iioe?aiiyi neiiaoeeie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie a cii?
eieae?caoe?? neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a oa aeine?aeeoe oeyoe iioe?aiiy ?? a
ia?aaa?oaa?aeueiiio i?inoi??.

2.?ic?iaeoe iaa?? ?ino?oiaio?a aeey aeeiiaiiy iaeio?aaiaoe/ii?
aiaeiaaneoey?ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? ieethciaaieo a?oa??e.

3.I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?aa?iia?ii?
?aa?iia?ii? aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? ?iooc?eii? oa?ai?? a eiiieaeniiio
e?eoaaii? oai?eo c ?oai?/iei o?aaeaiiyi e?ioe?aie.

4.Aeine?aeeoe aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeeee ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i?
inoaio?aiaiaoe?? oa oaiano?aoe?? a e?eoaaii? o?ii?/ii? “e?eoe/ii?”
?oai?? e?ioe?aie.

5.I?iaanoe ii??aiyeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ee?i?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a
o?aaeeoe?eieo ? iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy iae?oa?oth/eo
caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iane?aee?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

1.O ?iaio? aia?oa ia Oe?a?i? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo i?iaaaeaiiy
EO-ea?iaaii? ioieoe?eii? /a?acoe??ii? ?aa?iia?ii? o?i?/ii?
aeaneiiaoecaoe?? i?e e?eoaaii? ieethcoth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e
e?ioe?aie oa oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiio?ieth ca iioe?aiiyi
neiiaoeeie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie a cii? eieae?caoe?? neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a
oeyoii aaaaeaiiy noi?o? neiiaoie?oe/ii? ? ?aioaaieiio?anoii? iaeiiii?
?a/iaeie.

2.?ic?iaeaii noa?aioaene/iee i?eno??e aeey i?iaaaeaiiy EO- ea?iaaii?
ioieoe?eii? o?i?/ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? (cayaea ia aeiao?ae ? 96041477
a?ae 12.04.1996 ?ieo) c iaoith ni?iuaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy ao?o/aiiy.

3.?ic?iaeaii noaeeiio eth?aoeo aeey aiaeiaaneoey?ii? ?io?aiia?aoe?eii?
?aeaiae?caoe?? a?oa??e (cayaea ia aeiao?ae ? 95083609 a?ae 01.08.1995
?ieo) oa ii?oaoeaiee o??o?a?/iee aia?ao c aaoiiiiiei aeeaeaiiyi aeey
a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? noaeei (iaoaio ia aeiao?ae ? 219 a?ae
31.08.1998 ?ieo) c iaoith ciaioaiiy o?aaiaoecaoe?? noaeei.

4.?ic?iaeaii i?eno??e aeey ?ioaoe?eii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? noaeei c
a?coaeueiei aiaeineii?/iei eiio?ieai (iaoaio ia aeiao?ae ? 14799 A a?ae
18.02.97 ?ieo), yeee aeicaiey? oe?eani?yiiaaii aeaeaeyoe o?iiaioe/i?
iane i?ae a?coaeueiei eiio?ieai.

5.Aeine?aeaeaii aoaeoeai?noue iaoiaeeee o?eaaei?
aioo??o-iueia?oa??aeueii? ?iooc?eii? oa?ai?? ia ??cieo aoaiao e?eoaaiiy
oai?eo c noaeeiiith iaoieia??th e?ioe?aie.

6.Ee?i?/ii aeine?aeaeaii aoaeoeai?noue ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i?
inoaio?aiaiaoe?? a e?eoaaii? “e?eoe/ii?” ?oai?? ieaei?o e?ioe?aie.

7.?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii i?eno??e (eeaoae?eiiao?) aeey
aeeiaiiiao?e/iiai aecia/aiiy aaee/eie aeeiiaii? ?iaioe i’ycaie aii?eee
aei ii/aoeo aeieeiaiiy neiioii?a ?o aoiieaiino? i?e noaii?iaiaeo
iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

Iaoeiaa oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

1.Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy iaeio?aaiaoe/ieo,
iaei?iaaceaieo “aeueoa?iaoeaieo” iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy iae?oa?oth/eo
caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie.

2.Oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ii
ea?iaaii? /a?acoe??ii? ioieoe?eii? o?i?/ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? e?ioe?aie c
aeei?enoaiiyi i?ea?iaeueiiai noa?aioaene/iiai i?eno?ith oa iaoiaeeee
eiio?ieth ca iioe?aiiyi neiiaoie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie. Oea caaacia/o? aenieo
oi/i?noue iiiaaeaiiy aieee aei ciie eieae?caoe?? neiiaoe/iiai aaiae?th ?
iie?auo? ee?i?/i? ?acoeueoaoe ao?o/aiiy.

3.A?aeaiaiaeineii?/ia aa?oiueia?oaeia neiiaoaeoii?y iiaea aooe
aeueoa?iaoeaith EO-ea?iaaii? o?i?/ii? ioieoe?eii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? i?e
e?eoaaii? iae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie.

4.?ic?iaeai? ?ino?oiaioe aeey aiaeiaaneoey?ieo iia?aoe?e (noaeeiia
eth?aoea, aia?ao aeey a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? oa i?eno??e aeey
aia?i?aeaiae?caoe??) ?icoe?ththoue ae?aiacii iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a
iuaaeeeaiio ?aaeei? aeey no?iee noaeeie ? iniaeeai aiaeioae?th.

5.Aeei?enoaiiy o?eaaei? aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? ?iooc?eii?
oa?iaeioa?ai?? oa o?iiaie?ceno ? aenieiaoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy ye
naiino?eii, oae ? a eiiieaen? c iia?aoeaiei e?eoaaiiyi iae?oa?oth/eo
caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie.

6.Aeiaaaeaii iiceoeaiee aoaeo iaoiaeeee aeei?enoaiiy ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i?
inoaio?aiaiaoe?? a e?eoaaii? e?eoe/ii? ?oai?? a yeino? aeueoa?iaoeae
aiiooaoe?? e?ioe?aie.

7.Aeei?enoaiee eiiieaen ianoaaeaiiy noaeeiieo oai?eo ?acii c
canoinoaaiiyi eeaoae?eiiao?a aeanii? iiaeae? aeicaiey? io?eiaoe a?eueo
aaeaeaaoio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ooieoe?iiaeueiiai noaio e?ioe?aie oa
eiio?iethaaoe aoaeoeai?noue e?eoaaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, aeianai? ia caoeno.

1.Iaeio?aaiaoe/i? aiaeiaaneoey?i? iaoiaee a?aeiiaeaiiy i?io?aeiino?
ieethciaaieo a?oa??e caaacia/othoue aaeaeaaoio ?aaaneoey?ecaoe?th
?oai?ciaaieo e?ioe?aie.

2.*a?acoe??iee ioieoe?eiee EO-ea?iaaiee o?i?/iee neiiaoeeie?cen
(aeaneiiaoecaoe?y) oa aiaeineii?/ia aa?oiueia?oaeia neiiaoaeoii?y ?
aeueoa?iaoeaith iia?aoeaii? neiiaoaeoii?? a e?eoaaii? iae?oa?oth/eo
caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie.

3.Aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia ?aa?iia?ia ?iooc?eia oa?iaeioa?ai?y oa
o?iiaie?cen aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe e?eoaaiiy ?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy
e?ioe?aie.

4.?aaaneoey?ecoth/a inoaio?aiaiaoe?y ? oaiano?aoe?y e?noee ?
aeueoa?iaoeaith aiiooaoe?? e?ioe?aee i?e “e?eoe/i?e” ?oai??.

??aaiue ?aae?caoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iaioe a i?aeoeeo.

Iaoa??aee aeieoi?nueei? aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean
nooaeaio?a ? e?ea??a-?ioa?i?a ia o??o?a?/ieo eaoaae?ao oa eaoaae??
i?iiaiaai? ae?aaiinoeee ? i?iiaiaai? oa?ai?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??, a i?aeoe/io ?iaioo ?aaii-O?aie?anueei?
iaeanii? ? i?nueeeo ee?i?/ieo e?ea?aiue, o??o?a?/ieo a?aeae?eaiue
oa?eoi??aeueieo iaaee/ieo ia’?aeiaiue ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?,
a?aeae?eo noaeeiii? o??o?a?? Euea?anueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?,
ie?oaeiiai aini?oaeth I?eea?iaonueeiai a?enueeiaiai ie?oao.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ? iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
XXV iaeani?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo iaaeee?a
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 14-15 aeiaoiy 1990); 2-io ?a?iiaenueeiio
?ioaineaiiio Eo?n? ii noaeeii?e o??o?a?? (Euea?a, 7-10 aeiaoiy 1991);
1-io ?a?iiaenueeiio Eiia?an? Oe?a?inueeeo E?ea?nueeeo Oiaa?enoa [?EOEO]
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 11-13 /a?aiy 1991); 33-io can?aeaii? Aano??enueeiai
oiaa?enoaa o??o?a?a (A?caiooaaeo, 18-20 /a?aiy 1992); 25-io can?aeaii?
Aano??enueeiai oiaa?enoaa noaeeiieo o??o?a?a (A?aeaiue, 16-18 aa?aniy
1993); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi
o?c?ieia?/ieo aniaeo?a a?aa?oaoe?eii? o??o?a??, aeaoieneeaoe?? ?
ia?eoiiaaeueiiai ae?ae?co a ee?i?/i?e i?aeoeoe? (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 25-26
o?aaiy 1994); 2-io I?aeia?iaeiiio Eiia?an? ii ?ioa?aaioe?ei?e
?aae?ieia?? (I?aaa, 15-17 /a?aiy 1995); iaoeiaiio neiiic?oi?,
i?enay/aiiio 30-oe ??//th ooai?aiiy noaeeiii? o??o?a?? a Aa?e?i?
(Aa?e?i, 1-2 aa?aniy 1995); I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? ii ?iaaceai?e
aia?ieia?? ? ea?ae?ieia?? (Iineaa, 12-13 aeiaoiy 1995); eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/ai?e 25-oe ??//th ee?i?ee noaeeiii? o??o?a?? o Eueaia? (Euea?a,
25-26 ea?oiy 1996); ia ui??/ieo cai?ao na?oeaai-noaeeiieo ?
?ioa?aaioe?eieo ?aae?ieia?a-iaoeiaoe?a ?a?iie (Iaaeae?a, Ii?ooaae?y,
8-25 aa?aniy 1996); III Ana?in?enueeiio c’?cae? na?oeaai-noaeeiieo
o??o?a?a (Iineaa, 17-20 a?oaeiy 1996); ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy no/anii? o??o?a??” (Oaeai?iae, 18-20
aa?aniy 1997); ia ui??/i?e nan?? Iaoeiaiai Oeaio?o na?oeaai-noaeeiii?
o??o?a?? ?i. A.I.Aaeoe?aa ?AII (Iineaa, 17-19 o?aaiy 1998); iaeanieo
ia?a?eaenoeo eo?nao o??o?a?a ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano?
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998); can?aeaiiyo
i?aoe?aiee?a eaoaae?e caaaeueii? o??o?a?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? oa ni?a?ia?oiee?a a?aeae?eo noaeeiii? o??o?a??.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoeanue 15 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo ia ?icoe?aiiio
can?aeaii? ?aeoi?aoo, iaoeiai? eii?n?? oa o??o?a?/ieo eaoaae?
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? c o/anoth noaeeiieo
o??o?a?a. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a iaei?e
iiiia?ao??, 33-o noaooyo iaoeiaeo aeaeaiue, 5-oe cayaeao ia aeiaoiaee ?
iaoaioe, 14-oe oacao aeiiia?aeae, 2-o ?ioi?iaoe?eieo eenoao, 12-oe
?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeeo i?iiiceoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y iiaoaeiaaia ca caaaeueiii?eeiyoei ieaiii, aeeeaaeaia
oe?a?inueeith iiaith ia 334 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, c yeeo
aeania oaeno caeia? 304 noi??iee ? neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo
e?oa?aoo?e, oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoa??aeo ? iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a, i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e.
Oaeoe/i? aeai? ?ici?uai? ia 27 oaaeeoeyo ? ?ethno?iaai? 88 iaethieaie.
Nienie e?oa?aoo?e i?noeoue 444 aeaea?ae, c ieo 233 ee?eeeoeath ? 211
eaoeiith.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?ic?iaeo iieiaeaiue ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? iniaenoith iaoeiaith i?aoeath caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi? ia?aa
iai?yiie ?iaioe, aea?aa ianya ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioaaa iaoo
oa caaaeaiy ?iaioe. Aeena?oaio iniaenoi i?iaiaeea ianoaaeaiiy oa a?aea??
oai?eo aeey ??cieo aeae?a e?eoaaiiy, aeae?aa iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy,
i?iaiaeea iia?aoeai? ao?o/aiiy.Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o
?ic?iaoe? an?o iiceoe?e iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy ieethcoth/eo
caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie, aeeeaaeaieo a ?iaio?, ?ic?iaoe? ?
aeaioiaeaii? o??o?a?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?aae?caoe??
?iaioe. Aaoi? i?aeaiooaaa aaco aeaieo oai?eo, i?iiia?iaaieo a ee?i?oe?,
noaoenoe/ii ii?aoethaaa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiaiy, ocaaaeueiea
iane?aeee ?iaioe, ioi?iea aeena?oaoe?th. Aaoi? naiino?eii i?aeaiooaaa 1
iiiia?ao?th, 14 ioae?eaoe?e a iaoeiai-iaaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, 3 iaoaioe ia
aeiaoiaee, 7 ?aoe?iiae?caoi?nueeeo i?iiiceoe?e, a o 42 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao,
ye? aeeiiai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?, o/anoue eiai aoea i?ia?aeiith.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE.

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaii aeina?ae e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c
ieethc?eii-noaiicoth/eie o?aaeaiiyie a?oa??aeueii? nenoaie e?ioe?aie o
niaoe?ae?ciaaiiio iaeaniiio noaeeiiiio a?aeae?e? ee?i?/ii? aace eaoaae?e
caaaeueii? o??o?a?? ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? aeaaeai??
ca ia??iae c 1988 ii 1998 ??e.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ ? cae?eniaiiy aea?aiiai iai?yieo
?iaioe aeae?eai? /ioe?e a?oie iaoe??io?a, yeei aoee i?iaaaeai? ??ci?
oeie iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiaeee ?aaaneoey?ecoth/eo ao?o/aiue, a ii??aiyii?
aei yeeo i?iaaaeaii aiae?c ??cieo oei?a eeane/ieo ?aeiino?oeoeaieo
iia?aoe?e.

A ia?oo a?oio niinoa?aaeaiue aeeth/aii 36 oai?eo, yeei aeeiiai?
aioo??oiueinoaeeii? ao?o/aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaieo aaoi?ii
?ino?oiaio?a oa i?enoinoaaiue aeey aiaeiaaneoey?ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? ?
ooiae?caoe?? (iaa?? ?ino?oiaio?a oa i?i?aoth?iee i?ea?aeiee i?eno??e
aeey a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe??; noaeeiia eth?aoea aeey
iaeio?aaiaoe/ii? aiaeiaaneoey?ii? ?io?aiia?aoe?eii?
aoa?o?iia?io?iaeoii??; i?eno??e aeey ?ioaoe?eii? ?aeaiae?caoe??
ieethciaaieo noaeei i?ae a?coaeueiei aiaeineii?/iei eiio?ieai) oa
?io?aiia?aoe?eia aaeiiia aeeeyoaoe?y.

A ae?oao a?oio aeeth/aii 123 oai?eo, yeei aia?oa ia Oe?a?i? i?iaaaeaii
iaei?iaaceai? ao?o/aiiy ia neiiaoe/i?e ia?aia?e nenoai? — /a?acoe??io
ioieoe?eio eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ii ea?iaaio o?i?/io ?aa?iia?io
ia?aaa?oaa?aeueio aeaneiiaoecaoe?th ia ??ai? iiia?aeiaeo oa a?oaeieo
neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a.

A o?ao?e a?oi? (53 oai?eo), aeey e?eoaaiiy oneeaaeiaieo oi?i
iae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiue aoei aeei?enoaii ?aa?iia?io
aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueio oa?iaeioa?ai?th ? o?iiaie?cen ye naiino?eii, oae
? a eiia?iaoe?? c iia?aoeaiei ao?o/aiiyi.

A /aoaa?o?e a?oi? (21 oai?ee), ia oii? e?eoe/ii? o?ii?/ii? ?oai??
i?iaaaeaii ye aeueoa?iaoeao aiiooaoe?? e?ioe?aee ?aaaneoey?ecoth/o
inoaio?aiaiaoe?th ? aeeno?aeoe?eio eiiiaeoioii?th aaeeeiaii?eeiai?
e?noee.

Eiio?ieueio a?oio neeaee 545 oai?eo, yeei aoee aeeiiai? ?aeiino?oeoeai?
iia?aoe?? (aooiaaiicia ooiooaaiiy, aeeiooiooaaiiy,
o?iiaaiaie?io?iaeoii?y, iia?aoeaia neiiaoaeoii?y).

I?e aei?iaiaoaaii? iiaeo iaoiaeee e?eoaaiiy iae?oa?oth/eo i?ioean?a
a?oa??e oa ?ino?oiaio?a aeey ?o ?aae?caoe?? (noaeeiii? eth?aoee aeey
i?acae?eoi? aoa?o?iia?io?iaeoii??, ii?oaoeaiiai o??o?a?/iiai aia?aoo
aeey a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe??, i?eno?ith aeey aia?i?aeaiae?caoe??
c a?coaeueiei eiio?ieai) aoee i?iaaaeai? o?e na??? aeiee?i?/ieo
aeine?ae?a ia ieethciaaieo e?iaiiinieo noaeeiao aiiooiaaieo e?ioe?aie (
51 aeine?ae).

Aeey an?o a?oi oai?eo ni?eueieie iciaeaie aoee a?aenooi?noue ooo/iiai
a?aeai?o, noaiaea?oeciaai? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaaaeaiiy ianoaaeaiiy,
i?aeaioiaee aei iia?aoe?? ? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai aaaeaiiy. Iiia?aaei?
aeeiiaiiy ?ioeo aeae?a e?eoaaiiy ia aoei i?ioeiieacii aei iaei?iaaceaieo
iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy.

Na?aae iia?iaaieo aoei 719 /ieia?e?a ? 59 ae?iie. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue
oai?eo — (76%) iinooieee ia e?eoaaiiy o i?aoeacaeaoiiio a?oe? (aei 60
?ie?a). O aeaa’yoe iaoe??io?a e?eoaaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii c iaoith
caa?aaeaiiy ?aeeii? ieaeiuei? e?ioe?aee.

O ?yaeo iaoe??io?a aoee aeyaeai? noiooi? caoai?thaaiiy. Cie?aia o 52%
a?aei?/aii ei?iia?iea?ae?ineea?ic, o 17% — a?ia?oii?/io oai?iao, o 5% —
oeoe?iaee ae?aaao. ?yae oai?eo (36%) ii/aoie caoai?thaaiiy iia’ycoaaee c
ia?aioieiaeaeaiiyi oa iaii?iaeaiiyi e?ioe?aie, a 48% iaoe??io?a i?ioyaii
20-oe ? a?eueoa ?ie?a iaeeee ii aeaaaeoeyoue ? a?eueoa oeeaa?ie a
aeaiue.

Iniiaio iano neeaee iaoe??ioe c caeoii?eith a?oa??e ia ??ai?
caeooaeiii-noaaiiaiai (68,4%) oa i?aeeie?iii-aii?eeiaiai (24,8%)
naaiaio?a. *anoioa ooeiaeaeaiue a?oa??e aa?oi?o e?ioe?aie ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ieaei?o neeaea 4,75%.

Aino?a ii?ooaiiy e?iaiia?ao a?aei?/aii o 24,5% oai?eo, o?ii?/ia — o
75,5% oai?eo. Aeioe?eueii i?aee?aneeoe oaeee oe?eaaee oaeo, ui o?aaeaiiy
i?aai? e?ioe?aee a?aei?/aii o 31,9% iaoe??io?a, e?ai? — o 45,1%
iaoe??io?a, a iaio — o 23% iaoe??io?a.

I?e ioe?ioe? noaae?? ?oai?/ieo ci?i o e?ioe?aeao aeei?enoiaoaaee
eeaneo?eaoe?th ?oai?/iiai neiae?iio ca ee?i?/ieie neiioiiaie i?io?eaiiy
caoai?thaaiiy, cai?iiiiiaaio R. Fontaine a 1954 ?ioe?.

Ee?i?/ia ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo neeaaeaeinue c aeaio /anoei:

— noa’?eoeaii? — aeyniaiiy nea?a ? aiaiiaco oai?iae, oa?aeoa?
i?iaaaeaiiai ?ai?oa e?eoaaiiy, eiai aoaeoeai?noue oa o?eaae?noue aoaeoo,
oaeaee?noue i?ia?anoaaiiy oai?iae, iayai?noue oe?aeeeaeo cae/ie ?
ao?ieia?/ii ni?eyth/eo oaeoi??a, ye? iiaee noaoe ioneiaei iaoai?ciii
aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiue e?ioe?aie;

— ia’?eoeaii? — aecia/aiiy eieaeueiiai noaoono, iaeueiaoe?th ?
aeiiea?iaoneoeueoaoe?th noaeei, ii??aiyeueio oa?iiiao??th oe??e
aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a e?ioe?aie, aei??thaaiiy aeiiea?-oeneo ia
noaaiiaiio oa aii?eeiaiio naaiaioao oa aii?eeiai-iea/iaiai
aeiiea?-?iaeaeno, aeyaeaiiy ii?ooaiiy oaeoeeueii? ? aieueiai? /ooeeaino?
e?ioe?aie, aecia/aiiy ia’?io ? neee aeoeaieo ?oo?a.

?ioi?iaoe?th i?i noai ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao e?ioe?aie io?eioaaee c
aeiiiiiaith ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?aiaacia?ao?y. Ca aeaieie ?aiaacia?aie aecia/aee ia’?ii? ci?ie noaeei
i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? ioeueniai? oaee?, e?iaiiaiiaiaiiy a ianoaaeoaai?e
ae?eyioe? a?oa???, oa?aeoa? ? eieae?caoe?th o?aaeaiiy, oaeaee?noue
e?iaioieo, oiion oa aeanoe/i?noue noaeeiii? no?iee.

?a?no?aoe?th ?aiaacia?ai i?iaiaeeee ia ?aia?ao?/i?e i?enoaaoe? «?A-4-01»
?c caienii ia ainueieeaiaeueiiio iie?ea?ae?ia?ao? «I?iaia?ao-81».
?a?no?oaaee iiacaeiaaei? ?aiaacia?aie ia aii?eeao ? ia?aaeie?//yo. I?e
i?iaaaeaii? ioe?iee ?aia?ao?/ii? e?eai? aea/aee oaeiae ?? ci?ie i?ae
aieeaii i?o?iae?oea?eiiai? i?iae.

Oeueo?acaoeiaa aeiiea?ia?ao?y. Ianoaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeee ia aia?ao?
“Multigon-model 500M” (USA) c aeei?enoaiiyi aeao/ee?a c ?aciiainiith
/anoioith eieeaaiue 4 ? 8 KHz oa ia?iaeith aeaieo ia eiii’thoa??
«486DX/100PCI» c ?a?no?aoe??th ia no?oei?e eieuei?ia?e ae?oea?oe? «HP
Desk Jet 660». Ia aeiiea?ia?ai? aecia/aee iaeneiaeueio oa na?aaeith
oaeaee?noue e?iaioieo oa eiai oa?aeoa? (iaa?no?aeueiee, eieaoa?aeueiee),
ioeuenaoi?iee ?iaeaen oa ?iaeaen ?aa?iia?iiai nenoie?/iiai oeneo.

Eiioaeoia oa?iiiao??y. I?e aecia/aii? oaiia?aoo?e oe??e aeei?enoiaoaaee
eiioaeoiee aeaeo?ioa?iiiao? iiaeae? «OIAI-1» i?ney aaeaioaoe?? iiaa?oi?
o?ea aei oaiia?aoo?e iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y i?ioyaii 5 oaeeei. Aaee/eio
oaiia?aoo?e c/eooaaee ia oaaei i?eeaaeo c oi/i?noth aei 0,1C.
Aei??thaaiiy i?iaiaeeee a i?aeiaeueoeaaeo i?ii?aeeao 1-2 iaeueoe?a ia
iaio noiiao oa i?ae 2-3 iaeueoeyie ia eenoyo.

Eiii’thoa?ia oa?iia?ao?y. Aeey ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo aoa aeei?enoaiee
oa?iia?ao?/iee eiiieaen, aei neeaaeo yeiai aoiaeeoue iioe/iee
oa?iia?ao?/iee aia?ao «?oa?i-OI» oa eiii’thoa? iiaeae? «386 SX-20 PCI».

I?ia?aiiao??y (eeaoae?eiiao??y). I?e aecia/aii? a?aeaeae? aacaieueiai?
oiaeueae aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ic?iaeaiee eeaoae?eiiao?, yeee aeicaiey? oi/ii
aecia/eoe aaee/eio aeeiiaii? ?iaioe aei ii/aoeo iiyae ?oai?/iiai aieth a
i’ycao aii?eee aac noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
naoeaai-noaeeiio nenoaio i?e aeeiiaii? i?iae (?aoei?iiiceoe?y ? 27/2316
a?ae 12.06.97).

Eai?ey?ineii?th noaeei neeaaeee i?aoueiaiai eiaea aeeiioaaee ye
aeaiaioeiiieaeniiai ianoaaeaiiy oai?iai a aeeiai?oe? e?eoaaiiy. Aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaee eai?ey?ineii «I-70A» c aeieii iino?eii?
i?aena?oee i?e 54-e?aoiiio ca?eueoaii?.

Ae?aaiinoe/io aeieaaeo e?ioe?aie aeeiioaaee aeey aeyniaiiy noaio
aaciiioi?ieo ooieoe?e neiiaoe/ii? ?iia?aaoe?? e?ioe?aie ? i?iaiicoaaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? o?i?/ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe??. Aeey aeieaae aeei?enoiaoaaee
0,25-0,5% ?ic/ei iiaiea?io aai 1-2% ?ic/ei e?aeiea?io. Aeieaaeo
iiia?aeiaeo aoce?a i?iaiaeeee ca iaoiaeeeith Leriche, aeieaaeo a?oaeieo
neiiaoe/ieo aoce?a — ca Landis.

O /anoeie oai?eo i?e aeeiiaii? aeieaaee aeei?enoiaoaaee oeueo?acaoeiaee
eiio?ieue iieiaeaiiy aieee c aeiiiiiaith aia?aoo OCAe «Sonoace 4800», ia
ae?ai? yeiai aecia/aee oiiia?ao?th ciie aeieaaee, aacia/i? eii?aeeiaoe
aaaaeaiiy aieee.

Eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/iee eiio?ieue i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy e?ioey
?i’?eoe?eii? aieee i?e i?iaaaeaii? o?i?/ii? aeano?oeoe?? neiiaoe/ieo
aaiae??a ni?iuo? i?iaaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy, cieaeo? i?aeoe/ii aei ioey ?ene
ioieoe?? ai?oe /e ii?iaeienoi? aaie, iioeiaeaeaiiy na/iaiae?a, aaaaeaiiy
neiiaoeeie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie a nieiiiiiceiaee eaiae aai o a?aeaeaeaio
ciio. Ao?o/aiiy aeeiioaaee i?ae eiio?ieai eiii’thoa?iiai oiiia?aoo
iiaeae? “Somatom DR” o??ie “Siemens”.

Aia?ia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e aeeiiaii? a?oa??ia?ao?? i?iaiaeeee
oa?iaeiaia?ia?ao?th aeey io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaiiai cia?aaeaiiy
aeenoaeueiiai noaeeiiiai ?onea (4-6 ie 1% ?ic/eio i?eioeiiai? eeneioe a
20 ie 0,25% ?ic/eio iiaiea?io). *a?ac 5 oaeeei i?ney aeiaeaoeiaiai
aaaaeaiiy 2 ie ii-oie aeeiioaaee aia?ia?ao?th. Aaiaeeee 20-40 ie
eiio?anoii? ?a/iaeie ?c oaeaee?noth 8-10 ie/nae.

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea. Oeeo?iaee iaoa??ae ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeaie
iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co oa aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee. A eiaei?e na???
aeine?ae?a aecia/aee na?aaeith a?eoiaoe/io aaee/eio «I», na?aaei?
eaaae?aoe/ia a?aeoeeaiiy , iiieeeo na?aaeiuei? a?eoiaoe/ii? «i»,
aeinoia??i?noue ?ica?aeiinoae iane?aee?a aeine?ae-aeaiue ia i?aenoaa?
t-e?eoa??th No’thaeaioa. Aeinoia??ieie aaaaeaee ?ica?aeiino?, ii/eiath/e
?c cia/aiiy ?0,05 (E.A.Ieaei, 1960). A a?oi? niinoa?aaeaiue ii aea/aiith
?acoeueoao?a ?aiaacia?ao?/iiai ? aeiiea?ia?ao?/iiai ianoaaeaiiy
aecia/aee eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? «».

Aeey noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeei?enoaia aaca aeaieo i?ia?aie “Microsoft
Fox Pro 2.6” oa “Exel-7 for Windows-95”. Oaenoiaa /anoeia ?oeiieno
i?aeaioiaeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi i?ia?aie “Word-7.0 for Windows-95”,
a?ao?/ia — a i?ia?ai? “Photoschop 3.0x”, aeaiiino?aoe?eia — «Microsoft
Power Point for Windpws 95» ia eiii’thoa?? iiaeae? “Pentium-120”.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss.

A. Aioo??oiueinoaeeii? iia?aoe??.

A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaen ?ino?oiaio?a oa
i?eno?i?a aeey iaei?iaaceaieo aiaeiaaneoey?ieo ao?o/aiue, ye?
aeicaieythoue aeeiioaaoe aeaciae?oa?aoe?th ieethciaaieo ? aeeeyoaoe?th
noaiiciaaieo a?oa??e, cie?aia:

— noaeeiio eth?aoeo aeey iai?acae?eoi? ?io?aiia?aoe?eii?
aoa?o?iiaaeoii?? (cayaea ia iaoaio ? 95083603 a?ae 01.08.95);

— ii?oaoeaiee o??o?a?/iee aia?ao c iaai?ii ?ino?oiaio?a aeey
a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? noaeei (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ii
cayaoe? ? 96041512/e a?ae 17.04.96);

— i?eno??e aeey ?ioaoe?eii? a?ia?i?aeaiae?caoe?? c aiaeineii?/iei
eiio?ieai (iaoaio Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae ? 14779 a?ae 18.02.97).

Cai?iiiiiaai? ?ino?oiaioe aeicaieythoue ia no/aniiio ??ai? aeeiioaaoe
iaei?iaaceai? aiaeiaaneoey?i? iia?aoe??. Aiie ianeeaaei? o aeaioiaeaii?,
i?ino? i?e aeei?enoaii? ? aea?aeii a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae a?aeiieo
aiaeia?/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a ? i?enoinoaaiue, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a
aia?io??o?a??.

Oae, noaeeiia eth?aoea aeicaiey? eaaei i?ioiaeeoe ieethciaai? a?ae??cee
a?oa??e ? aeaeaeyoe nooe?eueiei eiiaeiia?aoii i?aai?ciaai? o?iiae,
aiaiee ? iaeaeueoeeiiaai? aoa?iiaoici? iane. Eth?aoea i?inoa o
aeaioiaeaii?, c?o/ia a ?iaio?, noa?ee?co?oueny caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie aeey
iaoaeaaeo ?ino?oiaio?a iaoiaeaie, ia aeeeeea? ?ic?eao ? ia?a?icoyaiaiiy
a?oa???, ui ? oa?aeoa?ia aeey ?? i?ioioeio — eth?aoee St.von Sommoggy.

Ii?oaoeaiee o??o?a?/iee aia?ao aeey a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe??
a?oa??e aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aeeeyoaoe?th noaiiciaaieo iaa?no?aeueieo
a?oa??e oa aoa??io?iaeoii?th u?eueieo, eaeueoeeiiaaieo aoa?iiaoicieo
aeyoie ia noaeeiao ??ciiai ae?aiao?o. Iecueei/anoioi? iaoai?/i?
eieeaaiiy ?iai/iai iaeiia/ieea, ye? aaia?o? i?ea?aeiee iaoai?ci aia?aoo,
iieaaoothoue i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?iai/i? aieiaee /a?ac ieethciaai? ae?eyiee
a?oa??e, ui iiia?aaeaeo? o?aaiaoecaoe?th no?iee, ni?iuo? i?ioeaaeo?o
aeaciae?oa?aoe??, nei?i/o? /an ao?o/aiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii /an iiaii?
?oai?? e?ioe?aee.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiiiai niiniao aeaciae?oa?aoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi
oeueo?acaoeiaeo eieeaaiue, aaia?iaaieo aia?aoii “O?NE-7I-18”,
cai?iiiiiaaiee aia?ao aeey a?a?iiaoai?/ii? ?aeaiae?caoe?? ia aeeeeea?
eaa?oaoe?eiiai ?oeioaaiiy oeaiei, ia?aa??aaiiy, aenoooaaiiy ? iae?ico
ee?oei a i?noe? eiioaeoo ?iai/i? /anoeie ?ino?oiaioo c no?ieith noaeeie.

I?eno??e aeey ?ioaoe?eii? aia?i?aeaiae?caoe?? ? ia?oei ?aeaiae?caoi?ii
noaeei ?ioaoe?eiiai oeio c aaciina?aaei?i a?coaeueiei eiio?ieai ciie
aeaciae?oa?aoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaiee aia?ao ia aeiaaa? ?aioaaiieia?/iiai
eiio?ieth ca i?iaaaeaiiyi aiaeiaaneoey?iiai ao?o/aiiy ? a?aeiia?aeii
?aioaaiii?ii?iaiiy iaoe??ioa ? ia?niiaeo, ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino?
o iiaeaeueo?e ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e ?aaaneoey?ecaoe?? c aaciina?aaei?i
a?coaeueiei aai a?aeaiaiaeineii?/iei eiio?ieai ciie ?aeaiae?caoe??.
Aia?i?aeaiae?caoi? i?aeaeuo? ye?noue iia?aoe??, ni?iuo? i?ioeaaeo?o
?aeaiae?caoe??.

Aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo aia?ao?a o ii?aeiaii? c aaeiiiith
?io?aiia?aoe?eiith aeeeyoaoe??th aeicaiey? aaeaeaaoii a?aeiiaethaaoe
a?oa??aeueiee e?iaiia?a o oai?eo c “aaaaoiiiaa?oiaeie” o?aaeaiiyie
iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e oa aaaeeith ?oai??th e?ioe?aie. Iaoiae
?io?aiia?aoe?eii? aeeeyoaoe?? aeicaieea o ?yaeo oai?eo a?aeiiaeyoenue
a?ae aeei?enoaiiy neeaaeieo, o?aaiaoe/ieo ? aeiaaio?eaaeeo iia?aoe?e
aaoi- ? aeeiooiooaaiiy, ui ciaioeei e?euee?noue iiaeeeaeo
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue ? iacaaeia?eueieo ?acoeueoao?a o oai?eo c
aoa?ineea?ioe/ieie ooeiaeaeaiiyie iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e.

?io?aiia?aoe?eia aeeeyoaoe?y aoa?ineea?ioe/ieo ooeiaeaeaiue
iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e e?ioe?aie a oiae? ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e i?e
“aaaaoiiiaa?oiaeo” ieethc?yo ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy. Aiia
aeicaiey? caa?aaoe e?ioe?aeo ? a?aeiiaeoe ?? ooieoe?eio iiaiioe?ii?noue
o aaciina?aaeiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? o 79% niinoa?aaeaiue. O
a?aeaeaeaiiio ia??iae? aeia?? ?acoeueoaoe ?io?aiia?aoe?eii? aeeeyoaoe??
caa??aaeenue o 47% oai?eo, caaeia?euei? — o 26% oai?eo *a?ac o?e ?iee
caaeia?eueiee noai iia?iaaieo e?ioe?aie caa??aaany o 72% iia?iaaieo.

Iao aeina?ae ?io?aiia?aoe?eii? i?acae?eoi? aeeeyoaoe?? ? ?aeaiae?caoe??
c aeei?enoaiiyi cai?iiiiiaaieo ?ino?oiaio?a iieaco?, ui aeaiee iaoiae
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey aeeeyoaoe??, o?iiaaeoii?? aai
o?iia?io?iaeoii?? o aeiaaeeo o?iiaico ia oii? noaiico ei?ioeiai naaiaioo
i?yieo ae?eyiie a?oa??e. A neooaoe?yo, eiee oiiae aeey ?aeiino?oeoeaii?
iia?aoe?? a?aenooi?, aeaiee iaoiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoaiee ? i?e
“aaaaoiiiaa?oiaeo” ieethc?yo a?oa??e ia cia/iiio i?ioyc? aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aiaeiaaneoey?ii? aeaciae?oa?aoe?? iaeiiai a?oa??aeueiiai
naaiaioo ? ?icoe?aiiy ae?oaiai.

A. ?aa?iia?ia aeaneiiaoecaoe?y.

Ae?oaei iai?yieii ?ic?iaee iaei?iaaceieo iaoiaeee ao?o/aiiy noaei
aeine?aeaeaiiy iicanoaeeiieo iae?io??o?a?/ieo niinia?a e?eoaaiiy
ieethcoth/eo caoai?thaaiue (?aa?iia?i? aeaneiiaoecaoe??), ye? /anoi
noathoue iaoiaeii aeai?o a e?eoaaii? oai?eo c aaia?ae?ciaaiith aai
ia?eoa??eiith oi?iaie ieethc?e a?oa??aeueiiai ?onea.

Aeeeth/aiiy aieeao iaoieia?/ii ci?iaieo neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a aeeeeea?
??ciinoi?iiith ?aaeoe?th aeaneiiaoeciaaieo oeaiei. Aeaneiiaoecaoe?y
ni?ey? iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiio ?icoe?aiith ae??aieo noaeei, iie?auaiith
a?oa??ieieai?ey?iiai e?iaiia?ao, e?ea?aeaoe?? niaciiaaiieo ?aaeoe?e a
iaa?no?aeuei?e ? eieaoa?aeuei?e a?oa??aeuei?e n?ooe?. Oea caaacia/o?
?aa?iia?ia ca?eueoaiiy e?iaioieo a ?oai?ciaaieo ae?eyieao ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy e?iaiia?ao a ?ioeo oeaieiao ? i?aaiao, ui aeinyaa?oueny
iaeneiaeueiei ?icoe?aiiyi iayaieo noaeei ? noeioeyoe??th ?icaeoeo
eieaoa?aeueiiai e?iaiia?ao (A.A.Aiaeia?/oe, 1969).

Aei aeaiiai /ano ia Oe?a?i?, aeei?enoiao?oueny i?e e?eoaaii?
ieethcoth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie eeo iia?aoeaia
neiiaoaeoii?y. Iaoiae eiii’thoa?ii-oiiia?ao?/ii ea?iaaii? (EO-ea?iaaii?)
/a?acoe??ii? ioieoe?eii? o?i?/ii? aeano?oeoe?? ia?aaa?oaa?aeueieo
neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a aoa cai?iaaaeaeaiee ? aaeineiiaeaiee a ii??aiyii? c
ca?oa?aeieie oaoiieia?yie aia?oa a iao?e ee?i?oe? a 1994 ?ioe?.

C iaoith ni?iuaiiy ? i?enei?aiiy i?ioeaaeo?e EO-ea?iaaii? o?i?/ii?
aeano?oeoe?? ia?aaa?oaa?aeueieo neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a aoa ?ic?iaeaiee
“Noa?aioaene/iee i?eno??e” (cayaea ia aeiao?ae ? 96041477 a?ae
12.04.96), yeee caaacia/o? oi/ia iiiaaeaiiy ?i’?eoe?eii? aieee ii
caaeaieo eiii’thoa?iei oiiia?aoii eii?aeeiaoao o o?eniaai? oi/ee o?ea
oai?iai.

Iniiaiith ee?i?/iith ?aeiiaiaeaoe??th aei aeeiiaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e noaei
ii?ooaiiy ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao e?ioe?aie, iia’ycaia c
aaia?ae?ciaaiith aai “aaaaoiiiaa?oiaith” oi?iith iae?oa?oth/iai
aoa?ineea?ico iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e, aai ia?eoa??ei? oi?ie ii?ooaiiy
a?oa??aeueiiai e?iaioieo (iae?oa?oth/ee aiaea?oa???o, oai?iaa ? neiae?ii
?aeii, oai?iaa ?aeey) ia ??cieo noaae?yo eiiiainaoe?? e?iaioieo, eiee
a?oa??aeueia nenoaia oai?i? e?ioe?aee ua caa?aaea caeaoi?noue aei
?icoe?aiiy.

Iniiaiei ee?i?/iei e?eoa???i i/?eoaaii? aoaeoeaiino? ?aa?iia?ii?
aeaneiiaoecaoe?? aoea iiaiea?iiaa aeieaaea ia?aaa?oaa?aeueieo
neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a. A?aeiiniei i?ioeiieacii aei ao?o/aiiy aoa iecueeee
(iaioee 60 ii Hg) aeiiea?-oene ia aii?eeiaeo a?oa??yo oa aeiiea?-?iaeaen
a iaaeao 0.45-0,50, ui iia’ycaii c ianooiiei iiaeeeaei iaae?iiyi
ia?ooc?eiiai oeneo a ?oai?ciaai?e e?ioe?aoe? ieae/a e?eoe/iiai ??aiy
(A.I.Eioai e niaao., 1997).

Aaniethoiei i?ioeiieacii aei i?iaaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy aoea iayai?noue
aieiai? aaia?aie e?ioe?aee.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a (R.M.Seibel u. a., 1989), aeey
ia?aaa?oaa?aeueii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? ie aeei?enoiaoaaee a 5-7 ?ac?a iaio?
e?eueeino? neiiaoeeie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie (ia a?eueoa 2,5-3,5 ie) ca
?aooiie aeniei? oi/iino? iiiaaeaiiy e?ioey ?i’?eoe?eii? aieee aei ciie
eieae?caoe?? neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a. ?acii c oei, aeey o?i?/ii?
aeaneiiaoecaoe?? ie ia aeei?enoiaoaaee ?ic/ei?a oaiieo, ye
aenieioiene/ii? ?a/iaeie, yeee aaeeaa? ?yae aaoi??a (R.Dondelinger et
al., 1984; O.B.Adler u. a., 1994), a aeei?enoiaoaaee aoeeiaee nie?o a
eiioeaio?aoe?? 80-96%, yeee ii/aee a inoaii? ?iee aeei?enoiaoaaoeaeey
?aa?iia?ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? ? aeaye? ca?oa?aei? aaoi?e (M.Gawenda u.a.,
1997).

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee iia?aoeaii? neiiaoaeoii?? ?
ioieoe?eii? o?i?/ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? iiaeia aeae?eeoe ?yae ia?aaaa
inoaiiuei? iaae iia?aoe??th. Ioieoe?eia aeano?oeoe?y a cia/i?e i???
aacia/ia ? iaeio?aaiaoe/ia. Aiia aeeeth/a? iiaeeea?noue ?icaeoeo
??ciiiai?oieo oneeaaeiaiue iia?aoe?? ? ia?eico. Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui
o?i?/io aeaneiiaoecaoe?th iiaeia aeeiiaoe iiaoi?ii i?e iaaeinoaoi?e
aoaeoeaiino? ?? a ia?oee ?ac, aai i?iaanoe i?ney iia?aoeaii?
neiiaoaeoii??, eiee ianooieee neiioiie neiiaoe/ii? ?a?iia?aaoe?? (ia
aeaiee /an i?iaaaeaii o?e o?i?/i? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? c iiceoeaiei aoaeoii,
aeeiiai? /a?ac 4, 7 ? 12 ?ie?a i?ney iia?aoeaii? neiiaoaeoii??).

Aeey i?aeoe/iiai i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy ia?aaaae aeei?enoaiiy EO-ea?iaaii?
o?i?/ii? aeaneiiaoecaoe?? aeioe?eueii i?iaeaiiino?oaaoe ianooii? aeai?.
I?e i?aeaioiaoe? noaoenoe/ii? aace aeaieo eiio?ieueii? a?oie oai?eo aoei
aeyaeaii, ui i?e aeeiiaii? iia?aoeaii? neiiaoaeoii?? a iao?e ee?i?oe? o
8 aeiaaeeao c 203 iia?aoe?e, ui neeaaea? 3,94%, aoei aeaeaeaii ia
neiiaoe/i? aaiae??, a aee?iao, o?a?icio aai e?ioi?aeio oeaieio.
Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe i?eaiaeyoue ? ?io? aaoi?e. Ca aeaieie
A.A.Aiaeia?/oea (1969), na?aae 504 iia?aoe?e o 51 oai?iai (10,12%) ia
aoei i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeaeaeaiiy neiiaoe/ieo aoce?a, a Pratt o 17 oai?eo
?c 300 (5,67%) cai?noue neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a aeaeaeea e?ioi?aeio oeaieio
(ca O.A.Eioeoeiaie e niaao., 1970).

O?i?/ia aeaneiiaoecaoe?y ia aeiaaa? caaaeueiiai ciaaieaiiy. I?iaaaeaiiy
ao?o/aiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi i?noeaai? aianoac?? aeicaiey? eiio?iethaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue neiiaoeeie?ceno i?ae /an naii? iai?ioeyoe??. I?ioeaaeo?a
eaaei ia?aiineoueny oai?ei, ui aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe ?? o ineaaeaieo
iaoe??io?a oa ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo. Oa?i?i aini?oae?caoe?? oai?eo aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 2-3 aei?. E??i oiai, aeaia iaoiaeeea
a aeae?eueea ?ac?a caeaoaaeth? aa?o?noue e?eoaaiiy.

E?auee ee?i?/iee aoaeo a?aei?/aii o oeo oai?eo, o yeeo aei ao?o/aiiy
niinoa??aaany ae?aaeaiee a?ia?a?ae?ic e?ioe?aie (27 oai?eo — 21,95%),
yeee nai ii nia? aeeeeeaa aeeneiioi?o ? iae/ano?oa cono??/aany i?e
iae?oa?oth/iio aiaea?oa???o? oa neiae?ii? ?aeii. I?aeoe/ii iaaaeia
aeneoaiiy oe??e e?ioe?aie i?ney aeaneiiaoecaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e oe??e o oe??? a?oie iaoe??io?a aoei iaeneiaeueiei ?
aeinyaaei 6-8°N o ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeieie aeaieie, ui ei?aeth? c aeaieie
O.B.Adler et al. (1994).

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ii??aiyeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ??cieo oei?a ao?o/aiiy a
iiia?aeiaiio a?aeae?e? — iaeiinoi?iiiuei? «iaeiiiiaa?oiai?» (19 oai?eo —
15,44%) ? «aeaiiiaa?oiai?» (16 oai?eo — 13%) aeaneiiaoecaoe??, io?eiaee
i?aeoe/ii ?aeaioe/i? aaciina?aaei? ? a?aeaeaeai? ee?i?/i? ?acoeueoaoe.
Aiaeia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? J.Giron et al. (1988). Aeai?
niinoa?aaeaiiy aiai?youe ia ei?enoue iaeiiiiaa?oiaiai ao?o/aiiy, yea ?
ei?iooei a /an? i?iaaaeaiiy ? iaio iai?e?iiei aeey iaoe??ioa.

Ee?i?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe ooieoe?iiaeueieo ianoaaeaiue
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue a?aei?oeoe, ui i?e iaeiia?/ieo aeaneiiaoecaoe?yo,
aeeiiaieo i?e caoai?thaaiiyo ia?eoa?e/ieo a?oa??e iaio e?ioe?aie,
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy niacio noaeei ? iie?auaiiy noaio e?ioe?aee ia
o?eueee ia noi?ii? ao?o/aiiy, aea ? ia eiio?eaoa?aeuei?e noi?ii?.

Ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aa?oiueia?oaeii? ? iiia?aeiai? aeaneiiaoecaoe?e
a iaoeo niinoa?aaeaiiyo aeaei ianooii? aeai?. A?aenioie iiceoeaiiai
aoaeoo aoa cia/ii aeuee o iaoe??io?a i?ney iiia?aeiaiai neiiaoeeie?ceno
(91%), /ei i?ney aa?oiueia?oaeiiai (78%). Oey i?iii?oe?y oo?eioaaeanue ?
o a?aeaeaeaiiio ia??iae? — /a?ac 6 i?nyoe?a neeaaeaea a?aeiia?aeii 84% ?
50%, a /a?ac ??e — 82% ? 33%.

Cia/ii a??o? ?acoeueoaoe EO-ea?iaaii? oi?aeaeueii? o?i?/ii?
aeaneiiaoecaoe?? iiaeia iiynieoe, ia iaoo aeoieo, cia/iith
aa??aaaeuei?noth ?ici?uaiiy a?oaeieo aaiae??a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
iao? niinoa?aaeaiiy i?e i?iaaaeaii? aa?oiueia?oaeii? aiaeineii?/ii?
aeaneiiaoecaoe?? i?ney iaaaeaeiai EO-ea?iaaiiai ioieoe?eiiai
neiiaoeeie?ceno. Aeaiee iaaeie?e iiaeia e?ea?aeoaaoe aaaaeaiiyi cia/ii?
e?eueeino? neiiaoeeie?coth/i? ?a/iaeie (15-20 ie), ye ?iaeyoue
ca?oa?aei? aaoi?e. I?ioa oaeiai aa??aioo iia?aoe?? ia aa?oi
i?aeoeeoaaoe, a?aoiaoth/e oe?ieo ciio iae?ico ia???oaeueii? ieaa?e ?
iiaeeeaa iioe?aiiy nie?oo /a?ac i?noey aeoiaeo i?ae?aaa?ieo ia?a?a aei
nieiiiai iiceo.

I?e a?aenooiino? aoaeoo EO-ea?iaaii? aeaneiiaoecaoe??, yea iiynith?oueny
iaoeiiaith eieae?caoe??th neiiaoe/ieo aaiae??a (ci?uaieie a
eaoa?aeueiiio iai?yieo a?ae aieiaie ?aaa?), iia?aoe??th aeai?o iiaea
noaoe aiaeineii?/ia aa?oiueia?oaeia aeaneiiaoecaoe?y c aeei?enoaiiyi
??cieo aa??aio?a aeeeth/aiiy aaiae??a (o?i?/iiai, iaoai?/iiai,
eiaaoeyoe?eiiai).

Aeioe?eueii i?aee?aneeoe, ui ia?aaa?oaa?aeueia aeaneiiaoecaoe?y,
cieaeoth/e oiion a?oa??ie ? iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e, ciaioo? ia?eoa?e/iee
ii?? noaeei. I?e oeueiio a?aae??io oeneo aeua ? ieae/a caeoii?aiiai
a?ae??ceo c?inoa?, ni?eyth/e ?icaeoeia? eieaoa?aeueiiai e?iaiia?ao, yeee
ua a?eueoa cieaeo? ia?eoa??eiee ii?? (iaeneiaeueia eiai ciaioaiiy
ianooia? /a?ac 3-6 oeaei?a i?ney ao?o/aiiy). A oeae ia??iae ?
aeioe?eueiei aeeiiaiiy ?aeiino?oeoeaieo iia?aoe?e ia iaa?no?aeueieo
a?oa??yo aai i?e i?ia?anoaaii? ?oai?? — i?iaaaeaiiy aiiooaoe?e
e?ioe?aie, ai iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy eieaoa?aeueiiai e?iaioieo
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iaae?iiyi ?aa?iia?iiai oeneo, ui iiaea i?eaanoe aei
iia??oaiiy aaiiaeeiai?ee a e?ioe?aoe?. Ee?i?/ii oea i?iyaey?oueny oei,
ui i?ney ei?ioeio?eaaeiai ia??iaeo iie?auaiiy ianooia? ca?eueoaiiy
aieueiaiai neiae?iio, a a?aioeyoe??, ye? iiyaeeenue a ae?eyioe?
o?io?/ieo ii?ooaiue, noathoue “a’yeeie” ? iie?eaathoueny
ai?eii-iae?ioe/iei iaeaoii, oaiia?aoo?a aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a
e?ioe?aee ia?anoa? c?inoaoe.

A oe?eiio, ao?o/aiiy ia neiiaoe/i?e ia?aia?e nenoai? aeeeeea?
aaaaoia?aiiee aieea ia oeaieie, i?ioa eiai iaiao?aeii o?aeooaaoe o?eueee
ye aaaeeeao /anoeio e?eoaaiiy oai?iai c iae?oa?oth/ei caoai?thaaiiyi
a?oa??e e?ioe?aie. Ao?o/aiiy iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe ia oii? ??ciia?/iiai
oa?aiaaoe/iiai e?eoaaiiy, i?e/iio i?ney aeaneiiaoecaoe?? iaoe??io
iiaeiai iiaa?oaoenue aei eiina?aaoeaii? oa?ai??. I.A.Aiaeia?/oe (1969)
i?aee?aneth?, ui aeaneiiaoecaoe?y ?oai?ciaaii? e?ioe?aee aiane?aeie
nai?? ??ciiiai?oii? ae?? ia e?iaiia?a ? o?io?eo noai?th? iaea?eueo
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey aeei?enoaiiy eiiieaeno e?eoaaeueieo ?
i?io?eaeoe/ieo cania?a ? iie?auaiiy e?ioeaaeo ?acoeueoao?a e?eoaaiiy.

A. Aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia oa?iaeioa?ai?y.

O?ao?i iai?yieii ?iaioe noaea o?eaaea aioo??oiuei-a?oa??aeueia
?aa?iia?ia o?iiaie?oe/ia ? noaeeii?icoe?thth/a ?iooc?eia oa?ai?y, ye
naiino?eiee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy, oae ? a ii?aeiaii? c iia?aoeaiei
ao?o/aiiyi. Oai?aoe/ii — oea iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy no/anieo
iiaeeeainoae e?eoaaiiy ieethcoth/eo i?ioean?a a?oa??e. Oaea eiiieaenia
e?eoaaiiy aea? aenieee a?aenioie iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oea iia’ycaia
c oei, ui iaoai?/ia aeaeaeaiiy o?iia?a aeiiiaith?oueny e?cenii
iaaeaeaeaieo o?iiaioe/ieo ian, ye? caeeoeeenue ia ia??aiinoyo no?iee
noaeeie, ooai?aieo aoa?iiaoicieie aeyoeaie. E??i oiai, eieaeueia
aaaaeaiiy noaeeii?icoe?thth/eo oa aeacaa?aaaioieo i?aia?ao?a iie?auo?
oiiae e?iaioieo a iia?iaai?e noaeei?. Ii?aeiaiiy aeaieo iaoiae?a iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaia a ??cieo aa??aioao — ia?aae iia?aoe??th, a ?aiiueiio
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae?, o a?aeaeaeai? oa?i?ie i?ney iia?aoe??, a
oaeiae ye naiino?eiee iaoiae e?eoaaiiy.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? oa?ai?? a neeaae ?ioocaoo
aeeth/aee noaeeii?icoe?thth/?, aeacaa?aaaioe, aioeeiaaoeyioe ? i?e
iaiao?aeiino? aioeaaeoa??aeuei? i?aia?aoe, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae
?iooc??th ?ic/eiyee a 200-400 ie 0,9% ?ic/eio oei?eaeo iao??th aai
0,25-0,5% ?ic/eio iiaiea?io. Noi?o aaiaeeee a ia?o? 2-3 aeiae
aacia?a?aii, a a ianooiiee ia??iae o?aeoe?eii, aeei?enoiaoth/e
ia?enoaeueoe/iee aeicaoi? e?ea?nueeeo ?a/iaei «AeEA-1». Iioeiaeueiee
oa?i?i i?iaaaeaiiy ?iooc?eii? oa?ai?? 7-12 ae?a. Iieacii aei ??
i?eieiaiiy aoee iie?auaiiy noaio e?ioe?aee ? ?aa?an ?oai?? aai
aeieeiaiiy oneeaaeiaiue, iia’ycaieo c eaoaoa?iith oa?ai??th. Neeaae
?ioocaoo i?aeae?aee c a?aooaaiiyi oi?ie ? noaae?? caoai?thaaiiy,
iniaeeainoae ee?i?/iiai i?io?eaiiy ?oai?/iiai o?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aie,
caaaeueiiai noaio ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? /ooeeaino? oai?iai, niaeo?o
e?eoaaeueii? ae?? i?aia?ao?a ? ?o neia?a?ci.

I?ioyaii anueiai /ano aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? oa?iaeioa?ai?? noai
e?iaiia?ao e?ioe?aie aoa o aeia?iio noai?, ui i?iyaeyeinue o oaeaeeiio
?icaeoeia? eiiiainaoe?? e?iaiia?ao, cieeiaii? ?oai?/ieo ci?i ? ciaioaii?
caiaeueieo i?ioean?a aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a iia?iaaieo e?ioe?aie.
Aeiaeaoeiaa aaaaeaiiy a ?iooc?eio noi?o aiaeaaoee?a ci?iaei aieueiaee
neiae?ii ? ni?eyei aeoeaiiio aaaeaiith i?neyiia?aoe?eiiai ia??iaeo.
Aeioe?eueii i?aee?aneeoe, ui i? a iaeiiai iaoe??ioa aeaii? a?oie a
?aiiueiio i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? ia ?icaeioany ?ao?iiaic iia?iaaii?
a?oa???, a oaeiae oneeaaeiaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoiaeii e?eoaaiiy.

Aeaia iaoiaeeea e?eoaaiiy ia oneeaaeith? i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae.
?acii c oei, aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia ?iooc?eia oa?ai?y ni?iuo? aaaeaiiy
oai?eo, ai aeicaiey? aeeth/aoe a ?iooc?eio noi?o ciaaiethth/?,
i?ioecaiaeuei? oa aioeaaeoa??aeuei? i?aia?aoe aai i?iyoe ?o i?e
iaiao?aeiino?. Ciaioo?oueny aeiaiaa aeica i?aia?ao?a ? a?aeiia?aeii
iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeicoaaiiy oa iia?/ia ? oiene/ia ae?y, i?aeaeuo?oueny
eieaeueia aoaeoeai?noue (I.E.Aieiaeinue, 1987).

O?eaaea aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia oa?ai?y iieacaia oaeiae oai?ei ?c
oa?i?iaeueiith noaae??th ae?aaaoe/ii? i?e?iaia?iiao?? ia oe?
caa?aaeaiiai iaa?no?aeueiiai e?iaioieo. Aeaiee aeae ?aa?iia?ii? oa?ai??
? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii noai?aiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia aeey e?ea?aeaoe??
ai?eii-iae?ioe/iiai i?ioeano ? a ii?aeiaii? c iia?aoeaiei ao?o/aiiyi
caaacia/o? caai?iiy ai?eii? ?aie a oiiaao ?aa?iia?ii? ii?iiae?eai?? ia
oii? ae?aaaoe/ii? aia?iiao??.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?aa?iia?ii? aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueii? oa?ai?? i?e
«e?eoe/i?e» ?oai?? e?ioe?aie ye naiino?eiiai iaoiaeo e?eoaaiiy aea?
iiaeeea?noue ni?eyoe ii?iae?caoe?? a?oa??aeueii? nenoaie ?ioociaaii?
e?ioe?aee ? a oe?eiio anueiai i?aai?cio, aeeeeeaoe niaciie?oe/iee ?
aioeeiaaoeyioiee aoaeo, iie?aueoe iai?ii? i?ioeane ?oai?ciaaii? oeaieie
aiane?aeie i?enei?aiiy ? ca?eueoaiiy e?i?eii? ? ia’?iii? oaeaeeinoae
?aa?iia?iiai e?iaioieo, aeeeeeaoe i?ioecaiaeueio ae?th. I?e iacai?ioi?o
?oai?/ieo ci?iao aioo??oiueia?oa??aeueia oa?iaeioa?ai?y iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia a aei- ? i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? c iaoith cieaeaiiy
??aiy aiiooaoe??. Oea aeicaiey? ni?eyoe caai?iith i?neyiia?aoe?eii? ?aie
aiiooaoe?eii? eoene ia?aeiiei iaoyaii ? noai?th? oiiae aeey ?aiiueiai
i?ioacoaaiiy.

A. ?aaaneoey?ecoth/a inoaio?aiaiaoe?y.

A iniia? iiceoeaiiai aieeao ia e?iaiia?a e?ioe?aee ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i?
inoaio?aiaiaoe?? eaaeeoue iaaia a?ieia?/ia caeiiii??i?noue: o?eaaea
noaii?iaiaa iiae?aciaiiy e?noee ? ie?noy noeioeth? ?aa?iia?iee e?iaiia?a
o a?aeiia?aeiiio naaiaio? e?ioe?aee. Oea caaacia/o? iiae?aciaiiy
inoai?aoeaioi??a ? a?aeiia?aeii eieaeueio aaciaeeeyoaoe?th
(O.I.Coniaiiae/, 1994).

A caeaaeiino? a?ae aaaeeino? o?ii?/ii? ?oai?? ? noaae?? eiiiainaoi?ieo
iiaeeeainoae nenoaie e?iaiia?ao ?oai?ciaaieo e?ioe?aie aoaeo
?aaaneoey?ecoth/i? inoaio?aiaiaoe?? aeyaeyany /a?ac 2-3 aai 5-7 ae?a
i?ney iia?aoe??.

?aii?e i?neyiia?aoe?eiee ia??iae o aeaii? eaoaai??? oai?eo /anoi
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iie?auaiiyi ia?eoa??eiiai e?iaiia?ao, i?i ui na?ae/eei
iioaie?iiy ? ii?iae?caoe?y eieuei?o oe??e ae?aeueieo a?aeae?e?a
iia?iaaieo e?ioe?aie, ca?eueoaiiy a?aeaeae? aacaieueiai? oiaeueae.
Iie?auaiiy e?iaiia?ao i?iyaeyeinue oaeiae o ciaioaii?, a /anoi ?
cieeiaii? aieueiaiai neiae?iio a niiei?, eieae?caoe?? iae?ioe/ieo ci?i
aeenoaeueieo a?aeae?e?a noiie oa iiya? a?aioeyoe?e a ?oai?/ieo ae?aceao.
Aei iiiaioo aeienee (a na?aaeiueiio 15 aei?a), a?aeaeaeue aacaieueiai?
oiaeueae ca?eueooaaeanue a 1,2-1,5 ?ace, ?aia?ao?/iee ?iaeaen ia ??ai?
aii?eeiaeo naaiaio?a — ia 0,05-0,1, oaeaee?noue e?iaioieo (ca aeaieie
oeueo?acaoeiai? aeiiea?ia?ao??) c?inoaea ia 20-50%, neea i’yc?a aii?eie
(ca aeaieie eeaoae?eiiao???) — ia 16-22%.

I?e aeeaie?e a?iien?? oeaiei ee?i?/ia iie?auaiiy ii/eiaeinue eeo ia 5-6
aeiao ? aoei ae?aaeaii cia/ii iaioa aai ee?i?/ii ia i?iyaeyeinue.
Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oai?eie oe??? a?oie iieacaei, ui o ieo ia oii?
ieethc?? aeenoaeueieo naaiaio?a a?oa??e oaeaeei i?ia?anoaaea caeoii?ea
i?ieneiaeueieo naaiaio?a ? a ei?ioeiio /an? ?i aoea i?iaaaeaia
aiiooaoe?y e?ioe?aee. I?iaaaeaiiy ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i? inoaiia?oi?aoe?? ia
oii? oeoeiaiai ae?aaaoo ia aeaei iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo.

Iiceoeaiee aoaeo ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i? inoaio?aiaiaoe?? aoa a?eueo
ae?aaeaiee i?e aeenoaeueieo oi?iao iae?oa?aoe?? — i?e ieethc??
aii?eeiaeo ? aii?eeiai-i?aeeie?iieo naaiaio?a. Aeaiee iiiaio aa?oi
i?aee?aneeoe, oiio ui ye?ac i?e oaeeo oi?iao iae?oa?oth/iai o?aaeaiiy
a?oa??e o?aaeeoe?ei? ?aaaneoey?ecoth/? iia?aoe?? ? iaeiaoaeoeai? ? /anoi
oneeaaeiththoueny ?aieethc?yie. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aaaneoey?ecoth/i?
inoaio?aiaiaoe?? o oai?eo c o?ii?/iith a?oa??aeueiith iaaeinoaoi?noth
e?iaiia?ao /anoi caaacia/o? o?eaaeo ?ai?n?th caoai?thaaiiy, a i?e
e?eoe/i?e ? oa?i?iaeuei?e ?oai?? ni?ey? cieaeaiith ??aiy aiiooaoe??. O
oai?eo c o?iiaicii ooio?a ? iaiiaeeea?noth iiaoi?ii? ?aeiino?oeoeaii?
iia?aoe?? ?aaaneoey?ecoth/a inoaio?aiaiaoe?y — ?aaeueiee oeyo aei
caa?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aee oa aeueoa?iaoeaa aiiooaoe?? e?ioe?aee.

O oai?eo, ye? aoee a?aeianai? aei a?oie ?ieo?aaaeueieo, a oaeiae o
iaoe??io?a c ioeueoeoieaeueiith ieethc??th ia?eoa??eieo a?ae??ce?a
a?oa??aeueiiai ?onea ?aaaneoey?ecoth/a inoaio?aiaiaoe?y aoea aeeiiaia ye
“inoaii?e oain” nian?iiy ?oai?ciaaii? e?ioe?aee a?ae iaieio/i?
aiiooaoe?? ? aeicaieeee caa?aaoe e?ioe?aee o 71% iaoe??io?a a iaaeao
iaeiiai ?ieo i?ney ao?o/aiiy.

Iao? niinoa?aaeaiiy ia i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeaieo ?ioeo aaoi??a, cie?aia
O.I.Coniaiiae/ (1994, 1996), i?i aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaiiai aoaeoo o 90,3%
oai?eo, a iaaeeaeathoue aei ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo I.O.Ae?the ?
ni?aaao. (1998) oa A.?.?onei ? ni?aaao. (1997), yeei aaeaeinue caa?aaoe
e?ioe?aee a?ae aiiooaoe?? a ia??iae aei 1,5 ?ie?a o 56% oai?eo. O oai?eo
c aeenoaeueieie oi?iaie ooeiaeaeaiiy noaeei aai o?iiaicii ooioa i?e
iaiiaeeeaino? iiaoi?ii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?aaaneoey?ecoth/a
inoaio?aiaiaoe?y oa ?? ??ciiaeaeiino?, ye iaei?iaaceaiee aa??aio
ao?o/aiiy — ?aaeueiee oeyo aei caa?aaeaiiy e?ioe?aee i?e e?eoe/i?e
?oai?? aai cieaeaiiy ??aiy aiiooaoe??. Aeey oai?eo c noa- ?
aeaeiiiainiaaiith ?oai??th e?ioe?aie — oea iia?aoe?y aeai?o.
Iiaeeea?noue iiaoi?iiai i?iaaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy, iaea o?aaiaoe/i?noue eiai
? o?eaaeee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy eieaoa?aeueiiai ?onea, iniaeeai o
ii?aeiaii? c ?ioeie iaoiaeaie e?eoaaiiy (iai?eeeaae, ?aa?iia?iith
aeaneiiaoecaoe??th) aeicaieythoue aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeaiee iaoiae iai?yii?
?aaaneoey?ecaoe?? a i?aeoeoe? noaeeiii? o??o?a?? ye aeueoa?iaoeao
aiiooaoe??.

Ae. Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aoaeoeaiino? ??cieo aeae?a e?eoaaiiy.

Caneoaiaothoue oaaae aeeiiai? ei?aeyoe?ei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ee?i?/ieo
?acoeueoao?a iaei?iaaceaieo ? o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy
o?iiaiiae?oa?oth/eo caoai?thaaiue a?oa??e e?ioe?aie iia?iaaieo o
a?aeae?e? noaeeiii? o??o?a?? oai?eo ca ia??iae c 01.01.90 ii 01.01.98
?ieo. Cie?aia, ii??aiyiiy e?eueeino? iia?aoeaieo ao?o/aiue a ia?a?aooieo
ia iaeiiai oai?iai i?e aeei?enoaii? ??cieo iaoiaeee e?eoaaiiy iieaco?,
ui a oe?eiio o an?o a?oiao oai?eo i?iaaaeaii ii 1,7 iia?aoeaieo
ao?o/aiiy a ia?a?aooieo ia iaeiiai oai?iai, na?aae ieo i?e aeei?enoaii?
o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a iia?aoe?e — 2,1 ao?o/aiiy ia iaeiiai oai?iai, a
i?e aeei?enoaii? iaei?iaaceaieo iaoiae?a — 1,4 ao?o/aiiy (Iae. 1).

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