Культурні процеси в Україні 90-х років ХХ століття (на прикладі державних закладів культури): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / Н.А. Кулик, Київ. нац.

15

EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO EOEUeOO?E ? IENOAOeOA

OAeE 008(477)091)

EOEEE Iaoae?y Aiae???aia

EOEUeOO?I? I?IOeANE A OE?A?I? 90-o ?IE?A OO NOIE?OOss

(ia i?eeeaae? aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 17.00.01 –oai??y oa ?noi??y eoeueoo?e

AAOI?AOA?AO

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEAIAI NOOIAIss

EAIAeEAeAOA ?NOI?E*IEO IAOE

EE?A -1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa, I?i?noa?noai eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

Ea?iiaa Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?aoa? Oa?n?y ?aai?aia,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e a?ae?ioaeiciaanoaa

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Eioaiiaa Ienaia Eaii?ae?aia,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e ?noi??? eoeueoo?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 16 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.807.02 o Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

(252133, Ee?a-133, aoe. Ui?na, 36, aoae. 209)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai

iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa

(252133, Ee?a-133, aoe. Ui?na, 36)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aoeaoiaa A.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy.

3 i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie cia/ii aeoea?coaaeeny i?ioeane
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Aei nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy iiaa?oa?oueny oe?ieee ieano eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae,
ui aieeaathoue ia ia?aa?a aeeaeiieo ci?i o an?o noa?ao
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Aeooiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeo iaiiaeeeaa aac c?inoaiiy ?ie? caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e o oi?ioaaii? ?icaeiaii? iniaenoino?, aaeaea no/ania
iiaeaeue ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa nie?a?oueny ianaiia?aae ia oai?/?
iiaeeeaino? ethaeeie, ? aieiaiith oi?iith eai?oaeo noa? ethaenueeee
?ioaeaeo, aeooiaiee, oai?/ee iioaioe?ae noni?euenoaa.

A iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy aea?aeaai? caeeaaee
eoeueoo?e iaiaaathoueny iineeeoe aieea ia iioei?caoe?th eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a, ia oa?aeoa? ? aeeiai?eo eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Oaiie
oeueiai ?icaeoeo caeaaeaoue a?ae ona?aeiieaiiy noni?euenoaii
iiaeo ?aeae, oyaeaiue, oe?iiinoae, a?ae ooai?aiiy iaeaaeieo
?io?ano?oeoo?e, caeiiiaeaa/i? aace, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai oa
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy aaeoc?, a?ae ci?i eiioaeo?a ianaeaiiy c
eaiaeaie eoeueoo?e, ui aeyaeythoue ?aaeuei? iaae? ??
nioe?aeueiiai aieeao ia noni?euei? i?ioeane.

I?ioa, ?noi?e/iee aniaeo ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e eoeueoo?ii? noa?e, ??
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? canaaee, ui caaacia/othoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e, o?iainiaa oa eaae?iaa iie?oeea ia??iaeo oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ia aoee i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie 90-o
?ie?a OO noie?ooy.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae a?ae 1991 ?.
aei 1998 ?., eiee a?aeaoeenue nooo?a? ci?ie a nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?iiio
aeeoo? Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oaeiae oi?ioaaiiyi iiaeo
na?oiaeyaeieo ia?aeiiaiue ia?iaeo, aoae?aieoeoaii iiai? eoeueoo?ii?
iie?oeee a iacaeaaei?e naiino?ei?e aea?aeaa?, aecia/aiiyi ?? ?ie? oa
i?noey a caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo i?ioeanao a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy
eoeueoo?ieo iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aeaea?aeueiith aacith aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee ia?aaaaeii iaoa??aee
iioi/ieo a?o?a?a I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie,
Oe?a?inueeiai oeaio?o eoeueoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aaaeeeao a?oio aeaea?ae noaiiaeee caeiie Oe?a?ie a aaeoc?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, oeace I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie,
iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Eieaa?? I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ?
ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie c aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Aoei ii?aoeueiaaii oe?iea eiei ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, oaeeo ye:
“Eoeueoo?a aeeooy”, “A?eueia aeeooy”, “O?yaeiaee eo?’??”, “THaeiay
i?aaaea”, “*a?eanueeee e?ae”, “Neia?aenueeee e?ae”, “Oe?a?inueea
eoeueoo?a”, “Iina?o”, “Oe?a?inueeee oaao?”, “Aa?aaeiy”, “No/ani?noue” oa
?i.

Caaaeueiiio ?icoi?iith i?iaeaie aeiiiiiaee ie?ai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy
i?aoeue a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a, ?noi?ee?a, eoeueoo?ieia?a: I.
Aioiiiae/a, I. A?ooaanueeiai, A. ?aaiiaa, ?. E?ei’yeaae/a, ?. Ia??iea,
A. Ia?aoiinueeiai oa no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?ii?
aeoiee ?. Aecthae, I. Eaceie?iaa, A.?aaeceeaae/a, ?. Naaaoianueeiai, N.
*a?iaoeueeiai oa ?i.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a ?one? aea?aeaaii? eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie
I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie «Eiioeaiooaeuei? iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee uiaei ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e»,
i?eeiyoith iinoaiiaith Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 26.02.97 ?. ?
657, aiia ? /anoeiith iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa
(EIOE?I).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii a iniiao
?ic?iaeaiiai aaoi?ii iaa/aeueiiai eo?no «Aea?aeaaia eoeueoo?ia iie?oeea»
o EIOE?I. Aiie iiaeooue aooe oaeiae aeei?enoai? o eo?nao «Oai??y
eoeueoo?e», «?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e” nenoaie aeui? aoiai?oa?ii?
ina?oe.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy

– nenoaiaoecoaaoe, ocaaaeueieoe iniaeeaino? oa aeyaeoe iniiai?
oaiaeaioe?? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?
ia??iaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue 90-o ?ie?a XX noie?ooy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

– ?ice?eoe iniiai? i?iyae eoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino? a Oe?a?i?;

– aeine?aeeoe ?noi??th oi?ioaaiiy iiai? caeiiiaeaa/i? ? ii?iaoea-
ii? aace a Oe?a?i? a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e;

– i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia eoeueoo?-
i? i?ioeane;

_ aea/eoe eaae?iao iie?oeeo uiaei aea?aeaaieo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o
caeeaae?a;

– aeyaeoe i?ioe??//y o ia?aa?ao eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?;
– aecia/eoe oeyoe iioei?caoe?? ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeue-
oo?e Oe?a?ie.

Nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie.

Ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae a?aeaoeeny iaai? ye?ni? c?ooaiiy a
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii? noa?e a Oe?a?i?, ui iicia/eeeny ia ??ai?
oe?a?inueei? oai?aoe/ii? aeoiee uiaei iiaiai noaio oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e. Ocaaaeueithth/i? i?aoe?, i?enay/aii?
aiae?co eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a Oe?a?ie o 1991-1998 ??. ua ia noai?aii.

I?ioa, ie?ai? ia??iaee oa iai?yie eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny
a Oe?a?i?, ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy a aeine?aeaeaiiyo, i?iaaaeaieo
iaoeiaoeyie ?inoeoooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie ?. Aeno?eoeueeei, A.
Eiceianueeei, A. Iaeaoiaei, N. I?iea?aei, i?ae ea??aieoeoaii A.?aaiiaa.
Ia iaaio oaaao caneoaiaothoue oaeiae i?aoe? no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a I.A?eoeaiea, A.Iiaeeiia?aa, A.Nieiaeiaieea, I.No??oe, ,
A.ss?ai/aiei, ye? i?iaiae?coaaee ie?ai? i?ioeane no/aniiai
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie. Aa?oi a?aecia/eoe ?iaioe TH.Caai?oeea,
A.Ia?aoiinueeiai, TH.Iieoi??aa, ye? aena?oeththoue no?aoaa?/i?
i???ioe?e ae?yeueiino? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o onoaiia o iaaeao ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

Caeaa?eueoiai a oeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aena?oeththoueny ooieoe??
aea?aeaaieo oa noni?eueieo no?oeoo? ye ia’?eo?a eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee.

A iniiao iaoiaeieia?? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieeaaeaii
i?eioeei ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co o eiioaeno? iiaiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie, ui aeii?ioaaee a oie /e ?ioee
?noi?e/iee a?ae??cie /ano. Canoinoaaiiy ye caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo iaoiae?a
(?noi?e/iiai, eia?/iiai, eeaneo?eaoe?eiiai), oae ? niaoe?aeueii
?noi?e/ieo (o?iiieia?/ii-?ao?iniaeoeaiiai oa ia?niaeoeaiiai) aoaeoaaeiny
ia iaoiaeieia?/iiio ieth?ae?ci?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa o
aeena?oaoe??:

– iaa?oioiaaii iai?yie eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a Oe?a?ie a ia??iae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e a 1991-1998 ??.;

– i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?,
aeyaeaii i?ioe??//y ?o ia?aa?ao ? aecia/aii oeyoe ?icaeoeo;

– aeyaeaii aieea aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue ia eoeueoo?i?i?ioeane a
Oe?a?i?;

– aeine?aeaeaii eaae?iao iie?oeeo uiaei aea?aeaaieo
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a.

– aaaaeaii aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iia? iaoa??aee ? a?o?ai? aeaea?aea,
ui ni?eythoue aecia/aiith eiioeaiooaeueieo iniia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

Eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoai? o noai?aii? iiai?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie, a
oaeiae aoee iieeaaeai? a iniiao ?ic?iaee Eiioeaioe?? eoeueoo?ii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie oa Aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai: “Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eii?
ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie ia 1992-2010 ??.”, “Eoeueoo?a.
I?ina?oieoeoai. Aeica?eey” (1995 ?.), “?iaeono??y aeica?eey” (1995 ?.),
“Oe?a?inueea ae?anii?a” (1996 ?.), “Ae?oe Oe?a?ie” (1997 ?.), “Iiaa?ioo?
?iaia” (1998 ?.), “?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ia 1999-2005 ??.”
(1998 ?.), eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai “?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oee?eiaiai
ienoaoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia 1996-2000 ??.” (1996 ?.), “?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e aei 2000 ?ieo” (1997 ?.), “Iocaeia aaciaea” (1998 ?.).

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? o i?aeaioiaoe? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ni?eyoeiooue oaeineiiaeaiith i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aiee?a aaeoc?
eoeueoo?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. C?iaeaii ni?iao ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?noi???
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? a ia??iae ?? iia?oiueiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy (1991-1998 ??.). Iaa?oioiaaii aca?iicaeaaei?noue
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue oa aeeiai?caoe?th eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a o aea?aeaaieo caeeaaeao eoeueoo?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiai? aeniiaee aeeeaaeaii o aeiiia?aeyo ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Eoeueoo?a ? iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue: i?iaeaie
oai??? oa caaaeaiiy i?aeoeee” (i. Ee?a, 1991 ?.); “Eoeueoo?ia iie?oeea
Oe?a?ie” (i. Ee?a, 1995 ?.); “I?iaeaie ae?yeueiino?
eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e “o?aoueiai naeoi?a” a Oe?a?i?”
(i. Ee?a, 1998 ?.); a oaeiae aeei?enoai? ia can?aeaiiyo: Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, eieaa?yo I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa
Oe?a?ie, ia?aaeao i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?e oa ea??aiee?a oi?aae?inueeeo
no?oeoo? nenoaie I?i?noa?noaa eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa Oe?a?ie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e EIOE?Ia. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?, ai?iaaoe?? oa ai?iaaaeaeaii? a iaa/aeueio
i?aeoeeoaaoi?nueeiai eo?no «Aea?aeaaia eoeueoo?ia iie?oeea» o EIOE?I.

Ioae?eaoe??: Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o 4 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
iaoith ? iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiyi aaoi?a
i?iaiae?coaaoe eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? ye ?noi?e/ia yaeua.
Aeena?oaoe?y (ia 145 noi??ieao) neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (176) ? iyoe
aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii eiai
i?aaeiao, ie?aneaii o?iiieia?/i? iaae? oa ?ice?eoi aeaea?aeueio aaco;
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiiaeaii nooi?iue
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie oa ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe,
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ie?aieo ?acoeueoao?a, caycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c
iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie; aecia/aii iniaenoee aianie
caeiaoaa/a, a oaeiae iiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «Iiaa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ia ?aaeuei?noue ia ceai?
aeaio nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo aiio» – ia iniia? aiae?co iaoeiai? aeoiee
aecia/ai? ?aaeeeaeuei? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ci?ie a noni?euenoa? oa
?oi?e aieea ia eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “?aaeeeaeuei? ci?ie a noni?euenoa? ? iia? oiiae
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e” ?ice?eaathoueny i?iaeaie uiaei aeieeiaiiy iiaeo
oiia ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e, aeine?aeaeothoueny
iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, ui niiioeaee aei ooai?aiiy ?aeeii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? nenoaie caaeey caa?aaeaiiy aeooiaieo
caeiaooe?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, eiai o?aaeeoe?eieo oe?iiinoae, aei
iaeii/anii? iiaea?i?caoe?? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa.
Aea?aeaai? caeeaaee eoeue-oo?e aoiaeyoue o oeth nenoaio, ?c nai?th
oai?/ith caoe?eaaeai?noth i?iaeaiaie a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy,
a?iiaaeyinueeith iiceoe??th i?e aena?oeaii? iaeaaaeeea?oeo iiae?e
a?o/eciyii? ?noi???. Aiie i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai /ano aeeiioaaee
aaaeeea? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? ooieoe??, c aeooae?caoe??th ia ye?niee
?icaeoie iniaenoino?, ia oi?ioaaiiy no?eeeo aoiai?noe/ieo oa
ii?aeueii-anoaoe/ieo oe?iiinoae, ni?eyee i?aeaeuaiith caaaeueiiai
ina?oiueiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy noni?euenoaa. Ae?yeuei?noue naia
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e na?ae/eoue i?i ni?iiiaei?noue aea?aeaae
ye eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?inoeoooo aa?aiooaaoe caaacia/aiiy caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa eoeueoo?ii? noa?e, ?aaoethaaoe ye?noue ia?aa?ao eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a.

Oiio, ?icaeyaeath/e iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i? 90-o
?ie?a XX noie?ooy, aaoi? nie?a?oueny ia ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a
aea?aeaaii? nenoaie eoeueoo?e oa cae?enith? aiae?c i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny.

Iaaiei nioe?ieia?/iei, yeui ia aea?aaeaioii, oi ?ai?acaioii no/anii?
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino? ? eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane, ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy eio?eo ni?yiiaai? coneeey a/aieo (TH.Aaa?a, ?. Aaca?i,
N. Aiaeaie/, ss.Aeaoeaae/, ss. I?aei?eai?uoe, I. No??oa oa ?i.) c iaoith
noai?aiiy iiaeae? no/anii? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie, ia?niaeoeaiiai
eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai ia?aco a?o/ecie ye i???ioe?a eoeueoo?ioai?/eo
ni?yioaaiue.

Aiae?coth/e oe? iiaeae?, aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy caoaaaeo?, ui a iniia? ?o
iaa?oiooaaiiy eaaeaoue iaai? nioe?aeuei? /eiieee: ?oeioaaiiy noa?i?
iie?oe/ii? nenoaie oa ia?ao?ae aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai, ?eieiaiai
noni?euenoaa. ?icii/aaoenue a oiiaao aeeaiei? iie?oe/ii? oa
aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, aiie i?ecaaee aei ci?i a eoeueoo?i?e noa??,
ine?eueee eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane, i?e an?e ?o niaoeeo?/iino?, ? iane?aeeii
caaaeueieo ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a oe?a?inueeiio
a?iiaaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa?.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeiaaaeaii, ui Oe?a?ia, iaiaaath/enue cae?enithaaoe
?eieia? ?aoi?ie, cia/iith i??ith aeoaeth? aeina?ae e?a?i No?aeii?
?a?iie oa NIAe, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia no?eueee iiaeaaaeaiiyi aaeoc?
eoeueoo?e, ne?eueee iaaiei “ia?ae?/ai” ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e acaaae?. A
Oe?a?i? niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeeaeaia e?eca eoeueoo?e, ui
aeyaey?oueny o iaae?ii? ??aiy aeooiaiino?, c?inoaii? aii?aeueiino? a
noni?euenoa?, cieaeaii? i?anoeaeo ina?oe oiui. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, oea
cia/iith i??ith iiynith?oueny ae?oai?yaei?noth eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee a
oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, a?aeii /?oeeo oyaeaiue uiaei oeyo?a
o?ainoi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?e. Oeae aeniiaie a aeena?oaoe?? a?oioo?oueny ia
?acoeueoaoao nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, cae?eniaieo ?inoeoooii
iieiae? Oe?a?ie.

A iiaeo nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oiiaao iiaeaeueoa a?aeaoaeiaa
aeaiie?aoe/ii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, aeiiii?/i? oa nioe?aeuei?
ia?aoai?aiiy noathoue iaeaea iaiiaeeeaeie aac iaeaaeiiai ??aiy
eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, oaiie caiaiaaeo yei? iiaeooue i?eaanoe aei
aeoea?caoe?? aeano?oeoeaieo nee noni?euenoaa, aaeueioaaiiy
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a, noaoe ia ia?aoeiae? eiai i?ia?aneaiiai
?icaeoeo oa oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Na?oiaa nioe?aeueia i?aeoeea, ye na?ae/eoue aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aeiaiaeeoue, ui eoeueoo?? oeea?e?ciaaiiai noni?euenoaa i?eoaiaii?
oe?iiino? aeaiie?ao??, ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, i?aaiai? aea?aeaaiino?, a
eoeueoo?iee i?ia?an noni?euenoaa aecia/a?oueny ?aaeueiei ona?aeiieaiiyi
naiaiaee ethaeeie, iioe?aiiy ?? iiaeeeainoae aei oai?/ino?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?aaiaa iniiaa o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a” o o?iiieia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino? aeine?aeaeaii oi?ioaaiiy
i?aaiaeo iniia o?ainoi?iaoe?? eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui no?aoaa?y aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e,
ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aecia/a?oueny oaeeie oaeoi?aie, ye:

– ?icaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae;

– iayai?noue iaiao?aeieo aeey ?? ?nioaaiiy ?inoeoooe?e;

– noai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa c ?icaeiaiith

?eieiaith aeiiii?eith;

– aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aei “ni?eueiiai ?a?iiaenueeiai aeiio”, aei
?aeeiiai iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai,
eoeueoo?ii- ai i?inoi?o ?a?iie;

– caa?aaeaiiy noni?eueii? noaa?eueiino?, iaaeiiouaiiy nioe?aeueieo
aeaoo?a, iaoe?iiaeueieo /e ciai?oi?o eiioe?eo?a.

Ooai?ai? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? iniiae oi?aae?inueeeo oa aeeiiaa/eo
no?oeoo? ii/eiaeeny a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? c ei?aeoe?? ?aaeyinueeeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo aeieoiaio?a, ui aecia/aee ia?aaeon?i caaaeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? eoeueoo?ieo ?aoi?i, ni?eyee i?aeaeuaiith oai?/i?
?i?oe?aoeae, i?eoieo a eoeueoo?o iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a, caa?aaeaiith
iai’yoie ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e oiui.

Aeena?oaio oa?aeoa?eco? i?e/eie, /a?ac ye? ia aoei noai?aii oe?e?nii?
i?aaiai? aace eoeueoo?e, iiynithth/e oea oei, ui oe?a?inuee?
caeiiiaeaaoe?, iie?oeee e a?iiaaenueea aeoiea a ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiino?
ua ia iaee a?aeiia?aeieo eaae??a aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee, yea a ni?eyea aoae?aieoeoao a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa oa ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Aieiaieie oaiaeaioe?yie eoeueoo?ieo
i?ioean?a o oeae /an caeeoaeenue: ca?eueoaiiy athaeaeaoiiai
o?iainoaaiiy oa i?aaiaiiy aei iiaiiai ca?eueiaiiy caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e
a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

Aaoi? aiae?co? ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, ui aecia/athoue ?icaeoie
eoeueoo?e (Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, Iniiae caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i
eoeueoo?o, Eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie, Iinoaiiaa
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie «I?i noai ? caoiaee uiaei oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e» oa ?io? aeieoiaioe), eio?? aoee ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaeoie
i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a. A oie aea /an,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e ua ia ni?iiiaeia caaacia/eoe
iaeaaeiee ?icaeoie aaeoc?, a oiio iio?aao? a?oioiaiiai aeiii?aoethaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Aaiethoe?y o?iainiai? iie?oeee a eoeueoo?i?e noa??»
a ?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? cae?eniaii aiae?c iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace
?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Oaiaeaioe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii?
noa?e” aeyaeai? ? iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e, c aeoeaiooae?caoe??th ia noaiiaeua
eoeueoo?ii? noa?e ye e?eciaiai. Noaoenoeea, iaaaaeaia aeena?oaioii,
na?ae/eoue i?i iaaei?aaaeaia ciaioaiiy ia?aae? eeoa?a, e?iioaao??a,
a?ae?ioae, i?i nei?i/aiiy eieaiaeaeaiiy oa e?iiae?iaieoeoaa,
?oeioaaiiy eieaeoea?a ooaeiaeiuei? ia?iaeii? oai?/ino? oa
eoeueoo?ii-eiioea?oieo i?aai?caoe?e, oaao??a, e?iiia?aae?, a oaeiae
iaiaaeaiiy eiioea?oii-aeeiiaanueei? noa?e ae?yeueiino? ieooe?a e iai?io
i?aeaea?aeaaieo eoeueoo?ieo cayce?a. sse cana?ae/eei aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
athaeaeao? Oe?a?ie aeaeaoee ia nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? iio?aae cieceeenue
a?ae 17,5 a?aenioe?a a 1991 ?. – aei 7,2 a?aenioe?a o 1994 ?., c /iai
o?iainoaaiiy noa?e eoeueoo?e neeaaeaei a 1,8 a?aenioe?a, yeae aaeocue
?o oaeoe/ii io?eiaea. Iaeiae ?aaeuei? athaeaeaoi? aeo?aoe noaiiaeee aei
1 a?aenioea a?ae caoaa?aeaeaiiai athaeaeaoo, ui i?ioe??/eei «Iniiaai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i eoeueoo?o», aea ia?aaeaa/aeinue o?iainoaaiiy
a ?ici??? 8 a?aenioe?a.

Oniaaeeiaaia a?ae ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a ?io?ano?oeoo?a eoeueoo?e a
Oe?a?i? oi/ ? aaaaeaeany ?icaeiaiith, aea aoea oaoi?/ii oa ii?aeueii
canoa??eith. Eoeueoo?ia iie?oeea i???iooaaeany ia oeaio?ae?ciaaia
oi?aae?iiy oa i?yia athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy, niinoa??aaany aeao?oeeo
aeanii? ?i?oe?aoeae caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e uiaei iiooe?a aeaea?ae
iicaathaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy, aeyaeeanue ?oiy iai?aeaioiaeai?noue
aei ?nioaaiiy a oiiaao ainiiaea?/iai ieth?ae?cio oa a?eueiiai
?eieo, ui cia/iith i??ith aaeueioaaei aeaiie?aoe/i? i?ioeane.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeei iaaia ?icoa?oaaiiy eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeiai
na?aaeiaeua: ia a?aeiinio iaio?noue, ui coi?ea i?enoinoaaoeny aei oiia
“iaeaea ?eieiai?” aeiiii?ee, aai ae ciaeoea niiaeeaa/a nai??
i?iaeoeoe?? ca ei?aeiiii, oa ia a?eueo?noue, ui aei iiaeo oiia i?aoe? ia
aoea i?aeaioiaeaia, ? niiae?aaeanue ia iiaa?iaiiy athaeaeaoieo
aeioaoe?e.

sse na?ae/eoue aeina?ae No?aeii? ?a?iie, ?aaeueiith aeueoa?iaoeaith
aea?aeaai?e i?aeo?eioe? eoeueoo?ii? noa?e a iaeaeeae/iio /an? ia
aoaeooue ye i?eaaoia i?aeo?eiea, oae ? naiio?iainoaaiiy. AEiaeia c
aeaea?ae (aea?aeathaeaeao, i?noeaa? athaeaeaoe, ooiaeaoe??, i?eaaoi?
niiini?e) ia iiaea e ia iiaeiia iiai?noth iie?eaaoe aeaeaoee ia
eoeueoo?o. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui no/aniee noai o?iainoaaiiy eoeueoo?e
iio?aao? noai?aiiy iiai? nenoaie aea?aeaaii-i?eaaoiiai ia?oia?noaa
ii?yae ?c aaaaeaiiyi ?iiiaaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e c i???ioaoe??th ia niaoeeo?eo ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei. A oe?eiio ae, aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
canoi?i ? iaa?oue neiioiiaie ?iceaaeo o?aaeeoe?eii oeaio?ae?ciaaii?,
iaea?aeaaeaii? aaeoc? eoeueoo?e, ni?e/eiaieie aeeaieith aeiiii?/iith
e?ecith, eiee aea?aeaaa aaea iani?iiiaeia iaa?oue oo?eioaaoe
?io?ano?oeoo?o eoeueoo?e, oa iii?oiei caaeaeoae?iiyi iinoeiioi?noe/ieo
i?aaey/eo ae?o aei eoeueoo?e ye iie?oe/iiai /eiieea, ye caniao
?aeaieia?/ii? ia?iaee ianaeaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeyaeaii, ui i?ioe??//y i?ae iiaeeeainoyie ?aaeyinueeiai
aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e oa iio?aaaie ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee o oe?e noa??, aeaiie?aoecaoe?y aeiiii?ee, oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei iaoiiaeee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ci?i a oiiae ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
o?iainoaaiiy, aaaaeaiiy ?io?ano?oeoo?e ?eieo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
oa?aeoa?ieie oaiaeaioe?yie eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a aoei:

– caoaeaiiy eiea aa?aio?a aea?aeaaiiai o?iainoaaiiy;

_ e?aa?ae?caoe?y o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ii caaacia/aiith
ae?yeueiino? eoeueoo?ii? noa?e;

_ aeiione iaaea?aeaaieo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy a aea?aeaai? caeeaaee
ii?yae c ?icaeoeii i?eaaoiiai oa eieaeoeaiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a iie?ioaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
noaiiaeua aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiaeaioe??
aea?aeaaiiai ? iaaea?aeaaiiai o?iainoaaiiy eoeueoina?oi?o caeeaae?a a
Oe?a?i?. O ae??oaii? oeeo i?iaeai ia??aeieie aoee oai?aoe/i? ?aea? oa
iieiaeaiiy a?aeiieo ?a?iiaenueeeo a/aieo ye O.Ia?eoca, A.O?iiia,
I.Oiaiaea?a oa ?ioeo, a oaeiae aeina?ae e?a?i c ?icaeiooith ?eieiaith
aeiiii?eith.

A ?acoeueoao? ci?i ooai?ththoueny oiiae aeey iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo ?aae?e
uiaei nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? noa?e. Aeena?oaio ?iaeoue ni?iao
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ??ci? iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? oa
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? i?aeoiaee uiaei ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e
cacia/ath/e, ui ianooaae nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ?iaeyoue
i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeaith eiia?iiaaio iie?oeeo, ui aoea a iaea?eueo
i?eaeaoiith o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “O?iainoaaiiy caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e: noai,
aeaea?aea, oeyoe iie?ioaiiy” aiae?co?oueny noai oa aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e, aecia/athoueny oeyoe eiai
iie?ioaiiy.

Noaoenoe/i? aeai? o?iainoaaiiy caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e cana?ae/eee, ui
a?eueoa aeaio o?aoei eioo?a ni?yiiaoaaeinue ia oo?eiaiiy aea?aeaaieo
caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e, ? iaioa o?aoeie – aaciina?aaeiuei ia eoeueoo?i?
caoiaee. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iica ciai?oi?ie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie
oaeoi?aie – niaae ae?iaieoeoaa, athaeaeaoiee aeao?oeeo – aeyaeaii
aioo??oi? i?e/eie no/aniiai caiaiaaeo aea?aeaaii-eiioiaeueii?
?io?ano?oeoo?e eoeueoo?e, ui iaoiiaeaii ae?th/ei iaoai?ciii o?iainoaaiiy
eoeueoo?e, ni?yiiaaiei ia eiina?aaoeaio nenoaio oo?eiaiiy ?nioth/eo
caeeaae?a, ia a?aoiaoth/e aeueoa?iaoeai?noue ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeoiae?a
aei o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo i?iaeo?a, caoiae?a,
yaeu.

A oiiaao eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ainiiaea?thaaiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaii
ieaioaaany ?icaeoie ia?aae? eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo caeeaae?a, ?oi?
eaae?iaa, o?iainiaa, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy. “Ii?iaoeaiee
i?eioeei” o?iainoaaiiy, cai?iaaaeaeaiee a eieeoiueiio N?N? c 1988 ?.,
iieyaaa o oiio, ui onoaiiaai iaae?iaie/i? noa?e oeaio?ae?ciaaii
aeiaiaeeeeny ii?iaoeae athaeaeaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy: oiiae iieaoe i?aoe?,
e?i?oe eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue oa iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a. ? oi/ a no/anieo
oiiaao oeae iaoai?ci o?iainoaaiiy ? oe?eeii canoa??eei ? iaae??caeaoiei,
i?ioa iaa?oue a “Iniiaao caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i eoeueoo?o”
caa?aaeaii oeae ii?iaoeaiee i?eioeei. Caaeaeea?iaai? “Iniiaaie
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i eoeueoo?o” 8 a?aenioe?a a?ae aaeiaiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeioiaeo aoee ?ethci?ieie, ine?eueee oaeiai ??aiy aeo?ao
ia eoeueoo?o ia aeinyaee iaa?oue aea?aeaae ?c ?icaeiaiith aeiiii?eith.

Ae?ae iaiaaeaia athaeaeaoia o?iainoaaiiy a oiiaao e?ece niiioea? aei
iiooe?a ??cieo aeaea?ae iaoa??aeueii? i?aeo?eiee caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e.
Cie?aia, iinoaiiaa “I?i iaaeaiiy ieaoieo iineoa caeeaaeaie eoeueoo?e”,
i?eeiyoa a 1998 ?ioe? ni?eyea caeo/aiith iicaathaeaeaoieo eioo?a o noa?o
eoeueoo?e, iaeiae oeae aeae ae?yeueiino? iio?aao? iaoeiaiai aea/aiiy oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy, ine?eueee ?niothoue ??ci? iiaeyaee iaoeiaoe?a ? i?aeoee?a
ia ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie. A aeine?aeaeaii? aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui
iio?aao? iaeaaeii? i?aaiai? aace iaoai?ci iaaeaiiy, ?aaoethaaiiy oa
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a niiini??a, iaoeaiao?a, aeia?i/eiieo oiiae?a ?
ooiaeaoe?e aeey ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?.

Noai?aiiy iiaeo iaoai?ci?a o?iainoaaiiy ia? ?icaycaoe oae? i?iaeaie:

– caaacia/aiiy o?iainiai? i?aeo?eiee a oe?ie?e noa??
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ae?yeueiino? c aeoeaiooae?caoe??th ia ?ic?iaeo
iiaeo i?iaeo?a, i?ia?ai, cae?eniaiiy eoeueoo?ieo aeoe?e, ?icaeoie ??cieo
oei?a caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e, aaaaoi??aiaao nenoaio i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a;

– noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo ainiiaea?nueeeo oiia aeey onoaiia eoeueoo?ii?
noa?e an?o oi?i aeaniino?, aeey aoaeoeaiiai ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy a
?eieiaeo oiiaao;

– ?ic?iaea ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace c iaoith caeo/aiiy iaaea?aeaaieo
eioo?a ia ?icaeoie eoeueoo?e /a?ac iiaeaoeiao i?aeo?eieo
aeaaiae?eieoeoaa, niiini?noaa;

– aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i, caniiaaieo ia i?eaaoecaoe??,
c iaoith iicaoooy iaaiiai ia?oaiai aaeanoo a eoeueoo?i?e ?io?ano?oeoo??
oa aeei?enoaiiy io?eiaieo a?ae oeueiai eioo?a ia ?icaeoie aeoeaii?
/anoeie ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Aiae?c aeiiii?/ieo canaae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e aeicaiey? aeena?oaioo c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i oa, ui
o?iainoaaiiy oeeo onoaiia iani?iiiaeia cae?enithaaoenue ca noa?eie
ii?iaoeaaie, a iio?aao? ?ic?iaee iiaeo aeieoiaio?a c o?aooaaiiyi
no/anieo oiia ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ia aea?aeaaiiio,
aea?aeaaii-eiia?oe?eiiio oa i?eaaoiiio ??aiyo.

O oeueiio cayceo aaaeeeaei noa? ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace “eoeueoo?iiai” ?eieo, ine?eueee i?iaeoeoe?y iiaeiia
iaoe iiieo, a niiaeeaa/ ia? io?eioaaoe iiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo iineoa. Oiio i?iaaaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo
eiieo?n?a, oanoeaae?a, aenoaaie, iaeyae?a ni?ey? ia o?eueee oi?ioaaiith
caaaeueii? eoeueoo?e niiaeeaa/?a, ?o i???ioaoe?? a eoeueoo?iiio
i?inoi??, a e i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy yeino? naii? eoeueoo?ii? i?iaeoeoe??,
ui ooieoe?iio? a iaaieo eoeueoo?ii-?eieiaeo oiiaao. I?e oeueiio
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo eoeueoo?ieo i?ia?ai
iathoue ia?oi/a?aiaa cia/aiiy aeey ?nioaaiiy caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Eaae?iaa iie?oeea uiaei ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a
Oe?a?i?» eaeaoueny i?i oi?ie ? iaoiaee i?aeaioiaee eaae??a o nenoai?
nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a eoeueoo?ieia?/iiai i?io?eth.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aiae?c noaio eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy”
i?iaiae?ciaaii noai caaacia/aiiy eaae?o?eiaaieie eaae?aie aea?aeaaieo
caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e. Eeoa ca 1991-1994 ??. /enaeuei?noue i?aoe?aiee?a o
noa?? eoeueoo?e nei?ioeeany ia iaeio oinoo /anoeio eiai caaaeo, aac
o?aooaaiiy ?nioth/i? i?iaeaie i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy, iniaeeai na?aae
iieiae?aeii? eaoaai??? oao?aoe?a. Ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie a cacia/aieo
iai?yieao oneeaaeith?oueny aeeaieith e?ecith, o ye?e ia?aaoaathoue
nueiaiaei? aeiiii?ea, nioe?aeuei? no?oeoo?e oa eoeueoo?ia aeeooy
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aecia/aeueiee /eiiee –
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iee oa o?iainiaee noai ia?aae? – iaaaoeaii
aieeioa ia e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? iieacieee caaacia/aiiy eaae?aie
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e. Aea iaoiaeieia?y iiaoaeiae eaae?iai?
iie?oeee ia an?o ?? ??aiyo ia iiaea caiaeeoeny aei aeciaiiy aeiiii?/ieo,
i?aai?caoe?eii-ainiiaea?nueeeo /eiiee?a ye aaniethoii ae??oaeueieo ?
oiio, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe cai?ioiee aieea eoeueoo?e ia iie?oeeo,
aeiiii?eo, ae?iaieoeoai ?, aieiaia – ia oiiae naii?aae?caoe??
iniaenoino? a noa?? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Ia?aaoaeia/ee i?ioean, ui ?icii/aany a 90-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy a ieiuei?
eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo eoeueoo?e icia/aa ia eeoa cai?io “noa?eo eaae??a
ia iia?”, a ia?aaeon?i ?o “iiaea?i?caoe?th” ca ?aooiie aioo??oiuei?
naiiia?aaoaeiae, naiiia?aoai?aiiy, ui ia? nai? iaai? aoaie e
iniaeeaino?.

sse cana?ae/eei aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?o? iaaaeae? e?iee a ?aoi?ioaaii?
noni?euenoaa, ui iiaeeaeee e?eco nenoaie, i?ecaaee a?eueo?noue oao?aoe?a
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e aei ?icaoaeaiino?, ciaa??’y, ianeaiiai
i/?eoaaiiy. Oeae aoai naiiia?aaoaeiae iieacaa, ui cia/ia e?euee?noue
oao?aoe?a i?iyaeea iaeiiiaoaioi?noue, aaeaeoae?noue i?aoe?aiee?a
eoeueoina?oi?o caeeaae?a uiaei nai?? i?ioan??.

A aeine?aeaeaii? a?aoiaioo?oueny, ui ae?oaee aoai oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
aeoeaiith aaeaioaoe??th i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?ieo caeeaae?a aei e?eciaiai
noaio, ae?iaeaiiyi oi?i ? cania?a caaaeueiiai i?enoinoaaiiy aei iiaeo
?eieiaeo oiia. Aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo iieacaa, ui 12 a?aenioe?a
eaae?iaiai neeaaeo i?eieieee naith ?iaioo a aea?aeaaieo caeeaaeao
eoeueoo?e (aeaoee c ia?aae?), 35 a?aenioe?a – ianeaii i?enoinoaaeany aei
ianoaaei, ? eeoa 63 a?aenioee aeoeaii caeo/eeanue aei iiaeo oi?i ?
iaoiae?a eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?. Aea/aiiy
aeieoiaioaoe?? uiaei eaae?iaiai noaio i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?e n?euenueei?
i?noeaaino? ??cieo ?aa?ii?a Oe?a?ie iieacaei i?ieea?noue ?oiuei?
i?ioan?eii? onoaiiaee ia iiaeaeueoo ?iaioo a nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i?e
noa??. Ca iane?aeeaie iieooaaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a n?euenueeeo aea?aeaaieo
caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e – aeecueei 20 a?aenioe?a aoee aeoeaii caaeiaieaieie
eoeueoina?oiueith ?iaioith, ia caaaeath/e ia e?eciaee noai, aei 55
a?aenioe?a – ianeaii i?enoinoaaeeny aei oiia, a 14 a?aenioe?a –
inoaoi/ii ia aecia/eeeny uiaei ianeaii? ?iaioe a caeeaaeao eoeueoo?e ?
aeecueei 11 a?aenioe?a – i?eieieee ae?yeuei?noue.

Ona?aeiieaia ni?eeiyooy i?aoe?aieeaie caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e ?eieiaeo
a?aeiinei o nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? oa?aeoa?eco? o?ao?e aoai.
Niinoa??aaeany noi?iiaai?noue iiai? no?oeoo?e iioea?a i?ioan?eiiai
aeai?o a eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, a?aeaoeanue ci?ia a
oe?ii?nieo i???ioaoe?yo i?aoe?aiee?a, cao?eniaaii ia?ao?ae a?ae
aaeaioiaaii? iiaaae?iee i?aoe?aiee?a eoeueoo?e aei oai?/i-iiooeiai? e
iniaeeai, i?aei?e?iieoeueei?. Oae, 22 a?aenioee iieoaieo oao?aoe?a
i???iooaaeeny ia ?eieia? canaaee o ooieoe?iioaaii? aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e. Aiie aaaaeaee, ui ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iiceoeaii
aieeioa ia ae??oaiiy eaae?iaeo ieoaiue o caeeaaeao eoeueoo?e c
aeii?iaioiith ia ye?niee ??aaiue oaoiai? i?aeaioiaeaiino? oa
iia?euei?noue o noa?? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Iiceoeaiee aieea ?eieiaeo canaae ia eaae?iaee noai oe? oao?aoe?
ia?aaeon?i aaa/athoue o: oai?/iio i?aeoiae? aei ni?aae, a iiiiaeaii?
eaae??a, i?aeaeuaii? ??aiy eaae?o?eaoe??, o??ciiiai?oiaii? ci?noo oa
oi?i ?iaioe, iiaeeeaino? io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo eioo?a, a?aee?eoo?
niaoe?aooieo a aaieao oiui. Aiie iaaieioothoue ia neanoaaii? iaaaoeaieo
ath?ie?aoe/ieo aeaeea?aoe?e, nei?i/aii? caeai? aeieoiaioaoe??, a oaeiae
ia aeioe?eueiino? ia?aaeyaeo e?euee?niiai neeaaeo ooao?a, aaaaeaii?
no/anieo iaoai?ci?a a iniiao eaae?iai? iie?oeee nenoaie eoeueoo?e,
iiaoaeiaaieo ia canaaeao aoaeoeaii? ?eieiai? eiieo?aioe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeiaaaeaii, ui 59 a?aenioe?a i?aoe?aiee?a caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e oyae?thoue aei o?aaeeoe?eieo, aea?aeaaii-athaeaeaoieo,
oeaio?ae?ciaaieo canaae ae?yeueiino? ? iani?iiiaei? cae?enithaaoe
i?iaeoeoeaio ?iaioo a iiaeo ?eieiaeo oiiaao. Oao?aoe? oe??? “ianeaii?”
eaoaai??? iineeththoue iaaaoeaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy eaae??a o
aea?aeaaieo caeeaaeao eoeueoo?e. Oea i?iyaey?oueny o aeaoaaii? c ia?aae?
aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo eaae??a, ?oiueiio ia?aoiae? aei eiia?oe?eieo
no?oeoo?, i?aoeaaeaoooaaii? aeioneiee?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e ia ca i?ecia/aiiyi, nei?i/aii? ooao?a ? naii? ia?aae?,
ciaioaii? ianyao ?iaioe, iaae?ii? i?anoeaeo eoeueoi?aoe?aiee?a ?
iniaeeai o iia??oaii? ?oiueiai iaoa??aeueiiai noaio, ao?ao? naeii
aoaeue-yeeo eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo eaae??a ? ye, iane?aeie –
ina?aaee?a eoeueoo?e.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e “Neeaaeia? iiai? eaae?iai? iie?oeee uiaei caeeaae?a
eoeueoo?e” aecia/a? neeaaeia? iiai? eaae?iai? iie?oeee uiaei
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a.

?aoi?ioaaiiy on?o aaeocae aeiiii?ee ? nioe?aeueii? noa?e
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiooeii iiaeo iai?yie?a eaae?iai? iie?oeee, ye? a
caaeiaieueiyee no/ani? oiiae ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

Ni?anoaaeaiiyi an?o iiceoe?e ia iniia? cae?eniaiiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
nioe?ieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaaeaii, ui iaeni?eeiyoeea?oith aeey
a?eueoino? oao?aoe?a ia?aae? aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e ? oaea
eaae?iaa iie?oeea, yea a ni?eyea caaacia/aiith iaaiith i??ith
?aae?caoe?? ?oi?o cae?aiinoae, iaaea?iaaiino?, i?ioan?iiae?cio, a oaeiae
– aa?aiooaaea a eiaeiiio noaoe?iia?io ?iaioo aai i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy.

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ?aeaaeueiith iiaeaeeth oao?aoe?a ? oaea iiaeaeue
eiiieaeooaaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? eaae??a, yea a a?aeiia?aeaea ianooiiei
i?eioeeiai eaae?iai? iie?oeee:

– an? niaoe?ae?noe iathoue aooe i?aoeaaeaooiaai?, aea ca cae?aiinoyie e
oaeaioaie;

– ea??aieoeoai /e caiiaieee (aeanieee) caaacia/othoue oiiae aaeaeaaoi?
?aae?caoe?? i?ioan?eii-oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo, a i?aoe?aieee a?aeiia?aeiei
/eiii aeei?enoiaothoue oe? oiiae aeey oni?oii?, ie?aeii? ?iaioe;

– ea??aiee ? caiiaiee /ooeeai ? iia?aoeaii ?aaaothoue ia
?acoeueoaoeai?noue ?iaioe eiaeiiai ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
?aaoeththoue iaoa??aeueii-o?iainia? aeo?aoe, i?aeaeuoth/e ??aaiue aeieao
cae?aiei ? i?aoeueiaeoei ? cieaeoth/e aai caii?iaeoth/e eiai aeey ?ioeo;

– a?ae/oaath/e ia nia? ae?th naia oaeiai ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio,
i?aoe?aieee i?aaiooue aei iaeneiaeueii? naii?aae?caoe?? ?
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy aai caeeoathoue ?iaioo, aeciaaoe naith
iani?iiiaei?noue ? aaeath/enue ia iiooee iiai? ae?yeueiino?, ui a?eueo
a?aeiia?aea? ?o cae?aiinoyi ? iiaeeeainoyi.

I?i?i?caoe?y ooaoiiai ?iceeaaeo caeeaae?a, ui o?iainothoueny ia?aaaaeii
c aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, – ?aeeia na?aae on?o ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo, ui ca
a?eueo?noth aiein?a aoea aecia/aia ?aniiiaeaioaie ye iaaeioe?eueia e
iani?eeiyoeeaa.

Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co no/anii? eaae?iai? iie?oeee aaoi? iiaea?
?aiaee?iaeo eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, aeaoaeueii oa?aeoa?eco? ?oi?
eaae?o?eaoe?ei? iciaee, cacia/ath/e, ui eaae?iaa iie?oeea a aaeoc?
eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? ia no/aniiio ??ai? o?nii iia`ycaia c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi
no?oeoo?e ina?oe a oe?eiio, a cia/eoue iiai?noth caeaaeia a?ae
?acoeueoao?a ?? ia?aoai?aiue ? ci?i.

sseui ?ai?oa aea?aeaaia caiiaeaiiy caaacia/oaaei i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy
aeioneiee?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo oa na?aaei?o niaoe?aeueieo caeeaae?a, oi
oaia? e?euee?noue ?iai/eo i?noeue aecia/a? ?eiie i?aoe?, oiaoi caieo
niiaeeaa/a, iio?aae aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e. Iayai?noue
?iai/iai i?noey caeaaeeoue a?ae eiai iaiao?aeiino?, a ia a?ae
ii?iaoeaii? e?eueeino?, ye ?ai?oa.

Eaae?iaa iie?oeea ye neeaaeiaa eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaaieo
caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e ia? noaoe iniiaith a?aeoai?aiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai,
aeooiaiiai iioaioe?aeo ia?iaeo, aeoiaeo a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e ia
na?oiaee ??aaiue, iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ?icaoaeiae
aea?aeaaiino? oa aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Nioe?aeueia ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?euenoaa iinoaaeei ae?yeuei?noue
eaae??a o oe?eiio ia?aae aeai?ii: aai ethaeeia aeoeaii i?aoeth? a
nioe?oi? ? nai?th oai?/ith aeoeai?noth ? i?ioan?iiae?ciii aeiiaaa?oueny
iaiao?aeieo ?acoeueoao?a, aai, iaaiaee, caeia? iiceoe?th i/?eoaaiiy,
ianeaiino?. C?icoi?e?oei noa?, ui ?acoeueoao ?iaioe eiaeiiai a oeeo
oiiaao ? ?acoeueoaoii i?eioeeiiai ia?aii? iiceoe??. Aca?iiae?y «ss» oa
«noni?euenoai» ia?aoai?th?oueny aai a ie?aeio ni?ai?aoeth aeaio nee,
aai a ?o i?ioenoaaeaiiy ? eiioe?eo.

Eaae?iaa iie?oeea aeiaaa? /?oeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e,
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ? no?oiei? no?oeoo?ii? noaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy a
oe?eiio. Aiia ? iaeiei ?c ae??oaeueieo iai?yie?a i?enei?aiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o eoeueoo??, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
aaeoc? c? noai?aiiyi ye?niiai eoeueoo?iiai na?aaeiaeua.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii i?aenoiie iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Eiai i?eioeeiiaee ci?no iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

– anoia?a/ neeaaeiei aeiiii?/iei, iie?oe/iei, ainiiaea?nueeei
eoeueoo?iei i?ioeanai, aea ?c caa?aaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e
oi?io?oueny iiaee oei aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie c oaeeie eiai ?enaie, ye aaaaoia?aii?noue oai?/eo iiooe?a ?
noee?a, iioyaii aei aenia?eiaioo;

– ?icaeoie eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue
a?ae o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e. Aeey caeo/aiiy aei
oe??? noa?e eioo?a c ??cieo aeaea?ae oa aoaeoeaiiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy
iaeaaeeoue noai?eoe ni?eyoeeaa i?aaiaa iiea oa aaeaioiaaiee aei ?eieiaeo
oiia aeiiii?/iee iaoai?ci;

– i?ioean ?aoi?ioaaiiy eoeueoo?ii? iie?oeee ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy iiai?
caeiiiaeaa/i? aace aeey eoeueoo?e, noi?aeieo noa? noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
ui a?aeiia?aeaea a no/aniei na?oiaei aeiiaai oa iniaeeainoyi ?icaeoeo
eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i?;

– aiae?c no/anieo eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a na?ae/eoue, ui oe?a?inueea
noni?euenoai, yea noa? aeaaeae? a?aee?eo?oei ? aeaiie?aoe/i?oei, aaea ia
caaeiaieueieoueny aea?aeaaiith eoeueoo?ith, a ?eieiai i???ioiaaia
oe?a?inueea aeiiii?ea ia ni?iiiaeia ?? oo?eioaaoe oae, ye oea i?eoaiaiia
oioae?oa?i?e nenoai?;

– eaae?iaa iie?oeea a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e iia`ycaia c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi
no?oeoo?e ina?oe a oe?eiio oa iio?aaaie aaeoc?, a cia/eoue iiai?noth
caeaaeia a?ae ?acoeueoao?a ?? ia?aoai?aiue ? ci?i. Aiia aeiaaa?
a?aeiia?aeiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?aaiaeo aa?aio?e, nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
? no?oiei? no?oeoo?ii? noaie ooieoe?iioaaiiy a oe?eiio;

– a Oe?a?i? ooai?th?oueny iiaee nioe?oi, yeee ? i?aea?oioyi aeey iiai?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ?aaeueiino? e ii?iaeaeo? iia? a?aeiineie i?ae ??
noa`?eoaie ? aea?aeaaieie caeeaaeaie eoeueoo?e, iiaee ci?no, iia?
i??i?eoaoe;

– nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane ii?iaeaeothoue iia?
oiiae ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e, i?eioeeiia? c?ooaiiy a nenoai? oe?iiinoae,
ii?i ? i?eioeei?a eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy ?icaeieoaaiiyi ? o??ciiiai?oiaiiyi
eoeueoo?ieo iio?aa ? cania?a ?o caaeiaieaiiy;

– iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie niiioeathoue aei ooai?aiiy ?aeeii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? nenoaie caaeey caa?aaeaiiy aeooiaieo
caeiaooe?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, eiai o?aaeeoe?eieo oe?iiinoae c
iaeii/aniith iiaea?i?caoe??th eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy noni?euenoaa, a
aea?aeaai? caeeaaee eoeueoo?e ? /anoeiith oe??? nenoaie.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Eoeee I.A. Noai oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueei?
noa?e.– E.: Iaoe. ia?eaiaio. a-ea Oe?a?ie, 1999.– 40 n.

2. Eoeee I.A. Iniiai? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?i? oa oeyoe
?ica`ycaiiy no/anieo i?iaeai // Iaoe. caienee: ?ae?a??ciaanoai.
Eoeueoo?ieia?y. O?einio?y: Aei. 2 / ?aaeeie.: I.? Oe?eue oa ?i.– E.:
Ciaiiy, 1999.– N. 28-34.

3. Eoeee I.A. I?ioe??//y ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a 1991-1998 ??.
// Iina?o. –1999.– ? 1.– N. 36-38.

4. Eoeee I.A.I?aaia? iaoai?cie ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?
1991-1998 ?ieao // A?ae?ioa/ia ieaiaoa. – 1999. – ? 2. – N. 35-39.

Eoeee Iaoae?y Aiae???aia

Eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? 90-o ?ie?a XX noie?ooy (ia i?eeeaae?
aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e). ?ieiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeueiino? 17.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y eoeueoo?e. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoa, Ee?a, 1999 ?.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? 90-o
?ie?a XX noie?ooy ia i?eeeaae? aea?aeaaieo caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e,
aecia/athoueny iniiai? aoaie ?icaeoeo eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy a ia??iae
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue, ?o aieea ia o?iainiao iie?oeeo oa
eaae?iaa caaacia/aiiy caeeaae?a eoeueoo?e.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eoeueoo?a, eoeueoo?i? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?, ?eieia? oiiae,
o?iainoaaiiy eoeueoo?e, eaae?e eoeueoo?e, caeeaaee eoeueoo?e.

Eoeee Iaoaeey Aiae?aaaia

Eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu a Oe?aeia 90-o aiaeia XX aaea (ia i?eia?a
ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u). ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey eoeueoo?u. — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao eoeueoo?u e eneonnoa, Eeaa, 1999 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathony eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu a Oe?aeia 90-o
aiaeia XX no. ia i?eia?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo o/?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u,
ii?aaeaeythony iniiaiua yoaiu ?acaeoey eoeueoo?iie aeecie a ia?eiae
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee, eo aeeyiea ia oeiainiaoth
iieeoeeo e eaae?iaia iaania/aiea o/?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eoeueoo?a, eoeueoo?iua i?ioeannu a Oe?aeia, ?uii/iua
oneiaey, oeiaine?iaaiea eoeueoo?u, eaae?u eoeueoo?u, o/?aaeaeaiey
eoeueoo?u.

Kulok Natal?oa Andriyvna

Cultural Processes In Ukraine in 90-ies of the XX-th century (on the
example of governmental cultural institutions).Manuscript/

Candidate’s thesis in history, speciality 17.00.01 – theory and history
of culture – Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis researches cultural processes in Ukraine in 90-ies of the
XX-th century on the example of governmental cultural institutions,
determines basic stages of cultural life development during the period
of social-economic changes, their influence on finance policy and on the
providing of the cultural institutions with human resources.

With the promoting of an independence of Ukraine the meaning of cultural
heritage as a cultural, scientific and educational development
background has greatly increased.

A lot of cultural values, which influence the process of change in all
spheres of vital activity of Ukrainian people, are coming back to the
social and political life of the country.

Spiritual regeneration is impossible without increasing of the role of
cultural institutions in moulding a well-developed personality. Since
governmental cultural institutions were established, they have been
fulfilling an important function of developing a creative personality,
establishing moral and aesthetic values, supporting cultural and
educational development of a person. It is governmental cultural
establishments’ activities, which prove that a country, as a
Constitutional institution, is able to provide cultural sphere with
everything needed and to control the quality of cultural processes.

For that reason, studying the peculiarities of Ukrainian cultural
development in 90-ies of the XX-th century, the author bases her
research upon the activities of the governmental establishments for
culture and on the analysis of the processes, which take place therein.

The thesis analyzes drastic social-economic changes in the society of
90-ies, which caused the appearance of new conditions of cultural
development in Ukraine.

In the new social-cultural conditions the future development of
democratic Ukrainian country, economic and social changes become
impossible without proper legal base for cultural transformation
processes.

Analyzing regulation documents, the candidate for a degree characterizes
the causes of an nonintegral legislation base, explaining this by lack
of specialists able to form national cultural policy, which would
support the development of civil society and market economy.

There is a definition and a deep analysis of basic tendencies of the
state financial policy considering cultural institutions in the thesis,
emphasizing that economic development of cultural and arts’ spheres can
be described as a crisis one.

The candidate for a degree characterizes the basic tendencies of
cultural processes, which are caused by economic development and
forming of the market relationships, that lead to changes in the
conditions of businesses, funding, etc., and substantially changed the
course of cultural processes.

The research provides an exploration of the conditions and sources of
funding of the governmental cultural establishments, and looks at the
ways of its improvement. Analysis of the economic basis of the
functioning of governmental cultural institutions brings to the
conclusion, that funding of these establishments is impossible in the
content of old legislation documents, in the meantime cultural
establishments have been looking for non-governmental sources of
funding, establishing a new system of it.

Describing the methods of forming human resources at cultural and
educational institutions, the author emphasizes, that it is absolutely
wrong to base personnel policy only on the economic and management
factors, and one should bear in mind the reverse influence of culture on
economic conditions of people’s life.

The author proves that personnel policy in the cultural sphere of
Ukraine at this stage is very much connected to the reforming of the
whole structure of education, and this means that personnel policy
depends entirely on the result of change in the educational structure.

Personnel policy in the content of cultural policy considering national
cultural institutions should become a base of Ukrainian people’s
intellectual and spiritual re-creation and democratization of Ukrainian
society.

In the means of political and economic reforms an indivisible national
cultural system should be established for the protection of the
spiritual gains of Ukrainian people, their traditional values, and for
the modernization of society’s cultural life at the same time. State
cultural institutions should join this system being interested in the
problems of social and political life and having their own opinion about
the most important moments of the modern national history as well as the
ancient one.

Key words: culture, cultural processes in Ukrainian, market conditions,
cultural funding, personnel, cultural institutions, arts, education,
transformation.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 21.09.99.

Oi?iao 60o84/16 Ae?oe ionao.

Iai?? ionao. Oiia. ae?oe. a?e. 1,16.

Iae.-aeae. a?e. 1,25. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei.

Cai. 137.

_______________________________

?ioai?eio IIA Oe?a?ie

Ee?a, 1, Ai?e/?a Oca?c, 13

Oae. 416-23-61

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *