Кримінальна відповідальність за порушення правил, норм та стандартів, що стосуються забезпечення безпеки дорожнього руху: Автореф. дис… канд. юрид.

19

I?I?NOA?NOAI AIOO??OI?O NI?AA OE?A?IE

OI?AA?NEOAO AIOO??OI?O NI?AA

A?C?I*OE Na?a?e Ay/aneaaiae/

OAeE 343.346 (477)

E?EI?IAEUeIA A?AeIIA?AeAEUeI?NOUe CA II?OOAIIss

I?AAEE, II?I OA NOAIAeA?O?A, UI NOINOTHOUeNss

CAAACIA*AIIss AACIAEE AeI?IAEIUeIAI ?OOO

niaoe?aeuei?noue 12.00.08 -e?ei?iaeueia i?aai

? e?ei?iieia?y; e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia??
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AI?I
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?enia A’y/aneaa ?aaiiae/,
Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo aea/aiiy i?iaeai cei/eiiino? Aeaaeai??
i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?.

Io?oe?eie? iiiiaioe:

— caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AI?I
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, Eaiiaaiei ?ai? Iao?iae/,
?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I. Ei?aoeueeiai Iaoe?iiaeueii?
aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

— caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie, eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio,
Eaneithe Aaneeue ?aaiiae/, Iaoe?iiaeueia th?eaee/ia aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie
?i. ss?ineaaa Ioae?iai, aeaeai oaeoeueoaoo 3

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoe?iiaeueia Aeaaeai?y aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.700.03 i?e Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o
ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 310080, i. Oa?e?a, i?.50-??//y N?N?, 27.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 310080, i. Oa?e?a,
i?.50-??//y N?N?, 27.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao th?eaee/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio A. ?. Ee?e/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny aino?ioith i?iaeaie
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee ethaeeie a oiiaao oaoiiaaiiiai noni?euenoaa ?,
iniaeeai, o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Ii/aoie XXI noie?ooy Oe?a?ia
cono??/a? ?c aenieei ??aiai canoinoaaiiy aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, ui
o ii??aiyii? ?c ?ioeie neeaaeiaeie ?aeeii? o?ainii?oii? nenoaie
a?ae?a?a? aieiaio ?ieue o caaeiaieaii? iio?aa noni?euenoaa o ia?aaacaii?
ianaaee??a oa aaioaae?a ia na?aaei? oa iae? a?aenoai?. Eiaeiee aeaiue
i?eueeiie a?iiaaeyi Oe?a?ie ei?enoothoueny iineoaaie aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo, aa?ooue o/anoue o aei?iaeiueiio ?on? a yeino? i?oioiae?a.
Iioe?aia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo o na?aaeiaeua ia?aaoaaiiy
ethaeae, iaa?ae’?ii?noue aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a?ae noni?eueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy oaeiai noaio o
noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ca yeei iiai?noth onoaa?oueny /e nooo?ai
cieaeo?oueny ??aaiue caa?ice caiiae?yiiy oeiaee aeeooth, caei?ia’th
ethaeeie, aeaniino?.

I?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo iaiaeii?aciai
?icaeyaeaeenue a/aieie oaoi?/ieo oa th?eaee/ieo iaoe, caaaeyee ie?aei?e
i?aoe? yeeo noai?aii cia/iee a?naiae oaoi?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo cania?a
a?aeaa?iaiiy caa?ice caiiae?yiiy oeiaee aeeooth, caei?ia’th ethaeeie, a
oaeiae aeaniino?. O ?oiueiio /ene? ne?ae iacaaoe A. O. Aaaeiaa, ?. A.
Aaaio, I. I. A?eieiaeeuenueeiai, A. ?. Ai?eniaa, A. ss. Aoeeaiei, A. I.
Aaneeue?aa, I. ?. Aaeoeiaia, A. ?. A??i/aiei, I. N. A??iaa?aa, A. N.
Aoneaanueeiai, I. A. Ae?ai/eeia, E. TH. Aeaeyo?a, A. I. ??ueii?ia, A. ?.
AEoeaaa, A. I. Caeoao, TH. A. Ciiiaa, ss. A. Eaeoaenueeiai, I. I.
Ea?iaiea, A. ?. Eaneithea, A. A. Eaaoena, A. A. E?neyeiaa, I. I.
Ee??eeiao, C.A. Ei?/?ao, N. E. Eeaeoiaia, I. E. Ei?aeainueeiai, I. ?.
Ei?ia??aa, A. A. Eo?eiiaa, A. I. Eoci?oeiaa, E. ss. Eaaoiiaa, ?. I.
Eaiiaaiei, I.?. Eiaaiiaa, A. A. Eoe’yiiaa, A. A. Ieneeaiai, I. A.
Iai/eiiaa, A. N. I?eiaa, Ae. N. Naiieeiaa, A. I. Oeoiai, ss. A. Oiiyea,
A. ?. *o/a?aa, A. A. Oaooieana oa ?ioeo.

Aiaeii/an ?c oeei o?aaa cacia/eoe, ui oaeoi?e aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
aeine?aeaeai? aeaeaei ia iiai?noth. Aaciaea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
iia’ycoaaeanue iaoeiaoeyie, ianaiia?aae, ?c iiaaae?ieith aiae??a
o?ainii?oieo cania?a, oaoi?/iei noaiii inoaii?o oa iiaaae?ieith
i?oioiae?a /e ianaaee??a. O?eaaeee /an iica oaaaith eeoaeenue neeaaeia?
/anoeie aaciaee, ui iia’ycai? ?c oaoi?/iei noaiii aei??a, aoeeoeue,
cae?cie/ieo ia?a?cae?a oa ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae. O oeae aea /an,
ca?aeii aeaieo Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy AeA? IAN Oe?a?ie iaaaoeaiee noai
aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo ia?a?cae?a oa ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae ?
noiooiueith oiiaith, a a iaaieo aeiaaeeao — i?e/eiith aeecueei o?aoeie
an?o aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae. O /eneiaiio ae?aaeaii? oea
cia/eoue aeecueei 12 oeny/ ia ??e c?oeiaiue o?ainii?oieo cania?a,
ia?cae?a ia i?oioiae?a, i?ae /an yeeo aeiooue iiiaae 1500 aai
io?eiothoue o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy aeecueei 7000 /ieia?e. A?aenooi?noue
anaa?/iiai aiae?co oiia caoenoo iaeaeueo nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae
noni?euenoaa: aeeooy, caei?ia’y ethaeeie, aaciaee, a oaeiae
eiinoeoooe?eiiai i?aaa aeaniino? a?ae caa?ice caiiae?yiiy oeiaee
i?aee?aneth? aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaco? ia iac??eo
nioe?aeueio iio?aao o eiai ?acoeueoaoao.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae nooi?iue aino?ioe i?iaeaie
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo c?inoathoue ia oii? aaca?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iiaaae?iee ie?aieo in?a. Ia aeeaey/enue ia caoiaee, ui ?o aaeeaathoue
I?aceaeaio, Ia?eaiaio ? O?yae Oe?a?ie, i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie oa i?aaie
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, oe? iniae i?iaeiaaeothoue iaaeaaei
noaaeoenue aei nai?o i?yieo iaia’yce?a, iaooothoue ieie, ceiaaeeaath/e
i?e oeueiio aeia??’yi ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a. *eneaii? ii?ooaiiy i?aaee,
ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a i?ecaiaeyoue aei c?inoaiiy ??aiy iaaaciaee o noa??
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, caaeaae? aiae??a, i?oioiae?a, ianaaee??a /e
caiiae?yiiy ?i o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue. Iaea?eueo yne?aaei na?ae/aiiyi
oo?aioe i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee Oe?a?ie i?i caoeno eiinoeoooe?eieo
oe?iiinoae ? oa, ui ?c e?a?i NIAe Oe?a?ia ia?oith i?eeiyea a?aeiia?aeiee
caeii i?i aei?iaei?e ?oo, o yeiio noai aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo aeciaii ca
iaeio ?c iiaeeeaeo i?e/ei nei?iiy aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee oa
caiiae?yiiy nia?o? ethaeeie, ooeiaeaeaiiy caei?ia’y, cieuaiiy iaeia.
Ci?ie o i?aeoiae? aei ioe?iee oaeoi??a iaaaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
coiiaeee iio?aao a e?eoa??yo ia’?eoeaii? th?eaee/ii? ioe?iee ae?yiiy
aeiii? iniae, aeine?aeaeaii? i?aenoaa i?eoyaiaiiy aei ni?aaaaeeeai?
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? in?a, aeiieo o ii?ooaii? i?aaee, ii?i
oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue
iaoiiaeththoueny oaeiae ?ic?iaeith iiaiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie, iaiao?aei?noth a?aeia?aaeaiiy o iiaiio caeii? no/aniiai noaio
oai??? oa i?aeoeee, aeina?aeo i?aaiioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? oa aeina?aeo
canoinoaaiiy ii?i i?aaa. A aiae?ciaai?e ?iaio? iine?aeiaii ?icaeyioo?
th?eaee/ia i?e?iaea cei/eio, eiai noni?eueia iaaaciaea, ia’?eoeai? oa
noa’?eoeai? iciaee neeaaeo cei/eio, a oaeiae noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe??
ii aaeineiiaeaiith e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia oaeiae ?c iaiao?aei?noth
i?aeaeuaiiy i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaii? iiceoe?? o
aeaniee?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a, iioe?aiiy na?aae ieo i?aaiaeo ciaiue i?i
iiaeeea?noue i?eoyaiaiiy in?a, aeiieo o ii?ooaii? i?aaee, ii?i oa
noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo,
aei iaeiiai?, aaei?i?no?aoeaii? oa e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?.
I?eioeeiiai? ci?ie iio?aao? ? th?eaee/ia ieneaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, yea a ia?oo /a?ao iiaeiii aooe ci???ioiaaia ia
caaacia/aiiy a noa?? e?ei?iaeueii? thnoeoe?? i?aa oa caeiiieo ?ioa?an?a
o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ye? o nai?e a?eueoino? ? ieaoieeaie
iiaeaoe?a.

Aeuaaeacaia na?ae/eoue i?i aeooaeuei?noue ? iaiao?aei?noue aeeiiaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/iiai, ii?iaoeaiiai iaoa??aeo,
iaoa??ae?a i?aeoeee i?i i?eoyaiaiiy aei iaeiiai?, e?ei?iaeueii? oa
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa
noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Ca’ycie i?aoe? ?c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie iieyaa? a oiio,
ui oaia caoaa?aeaeaia eaoaae?ith e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa oa e?ei?iieia??
Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie, iio?i A/aiith ?aaeith oeueiai
ae iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo. ?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiii
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ae?yeueiino? eaoaae?e ia 1996-2000 ?iee.

Iaoith ? iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?aaiaa
oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeoi??a nioe?aeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? oa neeaaeo cei/eio,
ye i?aenoaae e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i
oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo:
ia’?eoo oa ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie, noa’?eoo oa noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe ia?aae aeine?aeaeaiiyi noaaeeenue oae?
aieiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea oaeoi??a nioe?aeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? anoaiiaeaiiy oa
iiaeaeueoiai caa?aaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy
i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae ?? iineeaiiy oeyoii anoaiiaeaiiy
aeiaeaoeiai? e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? ioi?iie aeaniino?.

2. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoo cei/eio, ui ia?aaeaa/aiee
no. 2155 EE:

a) aecia/aiiy i?aenoaa ii?aeiaiiy o?ainii?oieo cei/ei?a o naiino?eio
aeaao (?icae?e) E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno;

a) ooi/iaiiy eiea noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae
aaciina?aaeiueith ioi?iiith ii?ie noaoo? 2155 EE, oiaoi ia’?io
aaciina?aaei?o ia’?eo?a: iniiaiiai oa aeiaeaoeiaeo.

3. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio, ui
ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE:

a) aecia/aiiy ci?noo ? oi?i noni?eueii-iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy, a oaeiae
iciae noni?eueii-ei?enii? ae?yeueiino?, o nenoai? yei? neith?oueny
cei/ei;

a) aecia/aiiy ci?noo oa ia’?io noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

a) ?icaeyae oa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo i?ae
ii?ooaiiyi i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ? oeiaee, caaaeaii? noni?euenoao.

4. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea noa’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio,
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca nei?iiy yeiai ia?aaeaa/aia no. 2155 EE:

a) aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie ci?oaii? oi?ie aeie o e?ei?iaeueiiio i?aa?;

a) aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaeo oi?i ii?aeiaiiy ineo?ee oa aie? aeiiiai i?ae /an
nei?iiy cei/eio, a oaeiae iioea?a noni?eueii-iaaacia/ii? iiaaae?iee.

5. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea noa’?eoo cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai
no. 2155 EE:

a) aecia/aiiy caaaeueieo oa niaoe?aeueieo iciae;

a) aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie “niaoe?aeueii?” inoaeiino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa?, ia?o ca ana, o oiio, ui aiia ?
ia?oei c /ano i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i aei?iaei?e ?oo”
iiiia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy ia aaciaeo
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oeyoii ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia oaeiae iaoiiaeaia oei, ui caeiaoaa/ aeine?aeea ci?no
iiiyooy “aei?iaei?e ?oo” ?, aeei?enoiaoth/e oea iiiyooy, aeia?a
iaiao?aei?noue ooi/iaiiy ci?noo aeeniiceoe?? no. 2155 EE. Ie??i oiai, a
aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/ai? iciaee ae?yeueiino? ii noai?aiith oa oo?eiaiith
a iaeaaeiiio noai? aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, ui ni?ey?
eiie?aoecaoe?? ci?noo ii?ooaiiy — oi?ie ae?yiiy.

O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiaoaa/ai ?ic?iaeai? oa aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno oae? iieiaeaiiy:

— c iiceoe?e nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, oaoi?/ieo, ii?iaoeaieo oa
e?ei?iieia?/ieo a?oi oaeoi??a iaa?oioiaothoueny i?aenoaae anoaiiaeaiiy
oa iiaeaeueoiai caa?aaeaiiy o e?ei?iaeueiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae iineeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca oeae cei/ei oeyoii e?ei?iae?caoe??
aeiaaee?a caaaeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo caeoe?a o iaaieo ?ici??ao;

— a?aoiaioo?oueny aeioe?euei?noue ii?aeiaiiy cei/ei?a, ui iinyaathoue ia
aaciaeo ?ooo oa aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oo, o naiino?eio aeaao
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno;

— aecia/a?oueny ?iaeiaee oa aaciina?aaei? (iniiaiee ? aeiaeaoeia?)
ia’?eoe cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE, a ia’?i? /iai
aeine?aeaeothoueny neeaaeia? aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? iniaeeai oa,
ui iia’ycaia ?c oaoi?/iei noaiii aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo
ia?a?cae?a oa ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae, aecia/a?oueny ci?no iiiyooy
“aei?iaei?e ?oo”, ye iciaee neeaaeo cei/eio;

— ia a?aei?io a?ae ae?th/i? ?aaeaeoe?? no. 2155 EE i?iiiio?oueny
iaiaaeeoe ia’?i noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ioi?iiith
ii?ie aeacaii? noaoo?, a?aeiineiaie, ui iia’ycai? ?c caaacia/aiiyi
aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. I?e oeueiio caeiaoaa/
aeoiaeeoue ?c i?iiiceoe??th aeaanoe c-i?ae ioi?iie aeaiith ii?iith oiiae
aaciaee ?ooo i?oioiae?a;

— oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noni?eueii-iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy, aeey /iai
aecia/a?oueny ii?iaoeaiee ianea ae?th/eo i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, oi?ie ae?yiiy oa
?o ia’?i, iciaee ae?yeueiino? ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia
?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a;

— ia i?aenoaa? ii?aoethaaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ia?o ia oai?aoe/iiio oa
i?eeeaaeiiio ??aiyo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ci?no iiiyoue “ae?y” oa
“aacae?yeuei?noue”, ye oi?i ae?yiiy;

— aeine?aeaeothoueny aoaie ?icaeoeo i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo i?ae ii?ooaiiyi
a?aeiia?aeieo ii?iaoea?a aaciaee oa caiiae?yiith oeiaeith, aeacothoueny
iniaeeaino? anoaiiaeaiiy i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo o cei/ei?, ui ia?aaeaa/aiee
no. 2155 EE;

— aiae?cothoueny noa’?eoeaia noi?iia cei/eio, ?? iciaee: aeia oa iioea,
a oaeiae iiaeeea? aa??aioe ii?aeiaiiy na?aeiiino? oa aie? aeiii? iniae
i?ae /an nei?iiy cei/eio;

— oa?aeoa?eco?oueny noa’?eo cei/eio, ?iaeoueny ni?iaa oi?iae?coaaoe eiai
iciaee oa aecia/eoe iaaia eiei in?a, caeaoieo a/eieoe cei/ei.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

a) a aaeoc? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? — iaoa??aee
aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoiai ii?aoeueiaoaaiiy
i?iaeai aaciaee ?ooo oa aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

a) a i?aaioai?aii? – iniiai? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii a aeiiia?aei?e caienoe?, iai?aaeai?e a
Aa?oiaio ?aaeo Oe?a?ie. I?iiiceoe??, aecia/ai? a aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiaiai EE Oe?a?ie a /anoei?
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? ii?aeiaiiy a naiino?eio aeaao cei/ei?a, ui
iinyaathoue ia aaciaeo ?ooo oa aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oo, a oaeiae aeey
ci?ie ?aaeaeoe?? noaoo?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

a) a i?aaicanoiniaieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino? – ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
iathoue ca iaoo oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy noaoo? 2155 EE i?e
ioe?ioe? i?e/ei nei?iiy aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee, eaae?o?eaoe??
ae?e aeiieo in?a oa ?i.;

a) a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? – iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee i?aoe? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?e?a i?ae?o/iee?a ?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, a aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a Caaaeueii? oa Iniaeeai?
/anoei e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa, a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio? aeeeaaea/?a,
aae’thieo?a, eo?naio?a oa neooa/?a;

ae) a i?aaiioi?iii?e ae?yeueiino? – noi?ioeueiaai? i?iiiceoe?? ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue noaoe iaoiaee/iei iaoa??aeii a ?iaio? ii
i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e ianaeaiiy ? i?ioan?eii?
i?aaina?aeiiino? i?aoe?aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a.

Aeaniee aianie aaoi?a a ii?aoeueiaoaaiiy oaie iieyaa? a aiae?c?
ae?th/iai e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, i?iaeo?a iiaiai EE Oe?a?ie,
?icaeyaeo i?iiiceoe?e ??cieo aaoi??a, aeneiaeaieo a e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?aeao, iaa?oiooaaii? nai?o noaeaeaiue ii i?iaeaiao, ui aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno, oi?ioaaii? i?iiiceoe?? ii ci?i? ?aaeaeoe?? noaoo? 2155
/eiiiai EE Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee a ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth” (19 eenoiiaaea
1997 ?., i. Oa?e?a), a oaeiae iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e
e?ei?iaeueiiai i?aaa ? e?ei?iieia?? Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN
Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe?? aaoi?a neeaaeathoueny ?c /ioe?ueio noaoae, ye? i?enay/ai?
?acoeueoaoai aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?icoaoiaai? o “A?nieeo Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo
iaoe Oe?a?ie”, “A?nieeo Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa”, “A?nieeo
Eoaainueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie”, iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaiaiue iaoee ?
oaoi?ee a ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth”.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny ?? iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie ? aeeth/a?
anooi, /ioe?e ?icae?ee c aeanyoueia i?ae?icae?eaie, aeniiaie, nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e a e?eueeino? 203 aeaea?ae oa 1 aeiaeaoie ia 40
noi??ieao. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 207 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaea?oueny iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/athoueny aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeacothoueny eiai ia’?eo,
iaoa oa caaaeaiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
a?aei?/athoueny oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue, iaoeiaa iiaecia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca’ycie inoaiiueiai ?c iaa/aeueieie oa iaoiaee/ieie
ieaiaie, a oaeiae iaaiaeyoueny aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo.

?icae?e 1 “Nioe?aeueia iaoiiaeai?noue e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” i?noeoue ?icai?iooo oa?aeoa?enoeeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, oaoi?/ieo, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo oa
e?ei?iieia?/ieo a?oi oaeoi??a anoaiiaeaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae ??
iineeaiiy oeyoii e?ei?iae?caoe?? noni?eueii-iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a o
aeaeyae? iaeiiai? oeiaee. ?icae?e neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.
O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1. “Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? oaoi?/i? oaeoi?e, ui
iaoiiaeththoue anoaiiaeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?”
iaaiaeeoueny oa?aeoa?enoeea aaaiiino? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ye aeey
aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae, oae ? aeey noni?euenoaa caaaeii. Oae, o ieiuei?
ci?o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a aeaco?oueny ia
?iciianthaeaeai?noue aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, eiai iaa?ae’?ii?noue a?ae
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aeey caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa o ia?aaacaiiyo ianaaee??a oa aaioaae?a. Iaeiei ?c iaea?eueo
aaaiieo o a?oi? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a aaaaea?oueny aenieee
i?ioeaio i?enooiino? o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ethaeae, ui i?aee?aneth?
aaaeeea?noue iayaiino? noaio aaciaee o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Ie??i
oiai, aei oaaae aa?aoueny aea?aeia aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy aea?aeaae
Oe?a?ia, ui, ca iayaiino? ye?nieo oa aacia/ieo aaoiiia?eueieo aei??a,
aeicaieeoue ui??/ii io?eioaaoe 5-7 ieae?. aeiea??a NOA o yeino? iieaoe
ca o?aiceo.

Aena?oeaiith aino?ioe i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo,
ui iia’ycaia ?c ia?aaoaaiiyi o eiai noa?? ethaeae ni?ey? oa?aeoa?enoeea
oaoi?/ieo oaeoi??a. Iaoai?/i? o?ainii?oi? caniae yaeythoue niaith
i?aaeiaoe iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo, ui ca nai?th eiino?oeoe??th ? ianeai? oa
?ooathoueny ia aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo. Iaeii/anii c oeei aiae?e
o?ainii?oiiai caniao /e ianaaee? ca oiiae ianoaiiy
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee eeoa a?aeiinii caoeuai? a?ae caa?ice
ooeiaeaeaiiy caei?ia’y /e ao?aoe aeeooy. Ua iaio caoeuaiei ? i?oio?ae /e
aaeineiaaeeno i?ae /an ia?caeo. Oaeoe/ia iaiiaeeea?noue oaacia/eoe
aeeooy oa caei?ia’y o/anieea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo a iiiaio nei?iiy
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? i?eaiaee coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
?iciiae?eueiiai o i?inoi?? oa /an? aeei?enoaiiy noa?e aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
i?oio?aeiei oa o?ainii?oiei iioieii, a a iaaeao o?ainii?oiiai — ie?aieie
o?ainii?oieie caniaaie. Nooo?aiai cia/aiiy aeey ye?niiai ?iciiae?eo
iaaoaa? noai aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo ia?a?cae?a, ?ioeo aei?iaei?o
nii?oae.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Ii?iaoeai? oaeoi?e, ui iaoiiaeththoue anoaiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” aecia/a?oueny nenoaia ii?i,
ii?aeiaieo ?aei?noth (oioiaei?noth) i?aaeiaoa i?aaiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, o
yeino? yeiai aa?aoueny aaciaea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

No?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee aiae?c ii?i Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, Caeii?a “I?i
o?ainii?o” oa “I?i aei?iaei?e ?oo”, E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno, ii?i
iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a oaeiae i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a
iaaiaeeoue ia oie aeniiaie, ui aaciaea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aei i?eeiyooy
no. 2155 EE, ia iaea anaa?/iiai caoenoo. Oae, ii?iaie e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa ia?aaeaa/aeanue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aiae??a o?ainii?oieo
cania?a, i?oioiae?a oa ?ioeo o/aniee?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a oaeiae
in?a, a?aeiia?aeaeueieo ca oaoi?/iee noai o?ainii?oiiai caniao i?ae /an
?ooo. E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iaye?niee noai aei?iaei?o
oiia ?ooo aoea a?aenooiy. Iaeii/anii c oeei o E?ei?iaeueiiio eiaeaen?
ia?aaeaa/aeanue a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ae?yiiy, ui ii?oooaaee
aacia/i?noue oiia ?ooo cae?cie/iiai, iia?o?yiiai, ii?nueeiai /e
??/eiaiai aeae?a o?ainii?oo. Oei naiei noni?eueiei a?aeiineiai ii
caaacia/aiith aacia/ieo oiia ?ooo aeacaieo aeae?a o?ainii?oo iaaeaaaany
i??i?eoao. Iiae?aia iieiaeaiiy o caeiiiaeaanoa? ni?eyei iaaiei /eiii
aacae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeaeueieo in?a, ii?ooaiith ieie i?aaee, ii?i oa
noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, oa
aeieeiaiith o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo noaio caa?ice caiiae?yiiy oeiaee
aeeooth, caei?ia’th ethaeae, a oaeiae cieuaiiy iaeia.

I?ae?icae?e 1.3. “E?ei?iieia?/i? oaeoi?e, ui iaoiiaeththoue anoaiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?” i?enay/aiee aiae?co
noni?eueii? iaaaciaee ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, a ia’?i? yeiai
?icaeyaeathoueny nioe?aeuei? aeanoeaino? ia’?eoo iinyaaiiy, oyaee?noue
iane?aee?a, iioe?ai?noue ii?ooaiiy aeacaieo ii?iaoea?a aaciaee oa ?io?
ieoaiiy.

A iniiao aeniiae?a i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, yeui oea
ni?e/eieei nia?oue ethaeeie, oeiaeo ?? caei?ia’th /e cieuaiiy aeaniino?,
aoee iieeaaeai? oae? nioe?aeuei? aeanoeaino? noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo
iane?aee?a ye aaaaoiia’?eoi?noue, oyaee?noue ?aaeueii? oeiaee oa
iaiiaeeea?noue ?? onoiaiiy.

Ca nai?ie aeanoeainoyie ae?yiiy, ia?aaeaa/aia no. 2155 EE, iinyaa? ia
aaciaeo aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aeeooy oa caei?ia’y ethaeeie, aeani?noue,
oiaoi ? iie?ia’?eoiei. ?c aeacaii? iiiaeeie nioe?aeueieo oa o?ce/ieo
iane?aee?a iniaeeai noni?eueii iaaacia/ieie ? nia?oue ethaeeie oa
oyaee? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy. Aeacai? iane?aeee iiaeooue oaeiae aooe
icia/ai? ye no?ee? ? onoiooe ?o iaiiaeeeai. Iane?aeee o aeaeyae?
o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue na?aaeiuei? oyaeeino? aeciathoueny oaeiae
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieie, a?aeiinii no?eeeie ? onoiooe ?o iiaeia eeoa
/anoeiai. Iaaacia/i?noue eaaeeo o?eanieo ooeiaeaeaiue ia aecia?oueny
iano?eueee noni?eueii iaaacia/iith, uia noaaeoe ieoaiiy i?i e?ei?iaeueio
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue. Ie??i oiai, iaiao?aeii cacia/eoe, ui iaiaa?aaeia
caiiae?yiiy oaei? oeiaee caei?ia’th ia oyaia e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca?aeii ii?i /eiiiai E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno, yeeie
anoaiiaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca cei/eie i?ioe iniae. ?acii ?c oei,
aeinoaoiuei noni?eueii iaaacia/ieie aeey e?ei?iae?caoe?? aeciathoueny
iane?aeee o aeaeyae? iaeiiai? oeiaee o aaeeeeo ?ici??ao oa ?aaeueii?
caa?ice ao?aoe aeeooy. Aeaia iiceoe?y aeena?oaioa aaco?oueny ia
noaa?aeaeaii?, ui iaeiiao oeiaeo o oaeeo ?ici??ao iiai?noth onoiooe
(eiiiainoaaoe) iaiiaeeeai, a caaeaae? ethaeeie i?e ?aaeuei?e caa?ic?
aaea?oueny oieeiooe eeoa caaaeyee uaneea?e aeiaaeeiaino?.

?icae?e 2 “Ia’?eo cei/eiiiai ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” i?enay/aiee
aeine?aeaeaiith neeaaeiaeo aeaiaio?a oa ci?noo ia’?eoo cei/eio,
eeaneo?eaoe?? ia’?eoo ii aa?oeeae? oa ai?eciioae?, neeaaea?oueny ?c
aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. “Caaaeueiee oa ?iaeiaee ia’?eo”
aecia/a?oueny, ui ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, caeaoia ni?e/eieoe ?noioio
oeiaeo noni?eueiei a?aeiineiai, a neeo /iai a?aeiineoueny aei ea?ieo o
e?ei?iaeueiiio ii?yaeeo. Aeae? o oeueiio ae i?ae?icae?e?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?iaeiaee ia’?eo cei/eio, ui ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE.
Aecia/aiiy eiea iaeii??aeieo a?aeiinei, ui no?aaeaeathoue a?ae aeacaiiai
cei/eio i?eaiaeeoue aei ii/aoeiaiai aeniiaeo i?i iaiao?aei?noue
?aoi?ioaaiiy aeaae O EE ca i?e/eie ?icia?ooy cei/ei?a, ii?aeiaieo o i?e.
Iiaeaeueoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeiaiai ia’?eoo aeicaiey? i?e?aeiaoeny aei
aeoiee, uiaei aeioe?eueiino? aeae?eaiiy o naiino?eiee ?icae?e (aeaao)
“O?ainii?oi? cei/eie” a?oio ii?i E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno, aei yei?
aoiaeeoue ii?ia no. 2155 EE ? aeciaoe, ui ?iaeiaei ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai cei/eio ? aaciaea ?ooo oa aenieoaoaoe?? o?ainii?oo.

I?ae?icae?e 2.2. “Aaciina?aaei?e ia’?eo cei/eio ? iaoai?ci caiiae?yiiy
eiio oeiaee” i?enay/aiee nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiio aiae?co noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, yeei aaciina?aaeiuei caaaea?oueny oeiaea. A?aecia/aii, ui
i?aea?oioyi aeieeiaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ?
ona?aeiieaia iio?aaa (?ioa?an) o iaaieo iaoa??aeueieo /e iaiaoa??aeueieo
aeaaao. Ia?aaoaaiiy o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ii?iaeaeo? ?ioa?an, ui
caiaeii o?ainoi?io?oueny o nioe?aeueiee (oiaoi iioe?aiee o
noni?euenoa?), a caoeno? aeeooy, caei?ia’y /e iaeia a?ae iiaeeeaiai
?oei?aiiai aieeao iiooaeieo ? iaeii/anii c oeei iano?eeeo oa iaiiai?noth
i?aeeiio?ieueieo iaoai?/ieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Ia iaioo caa?ico
noaiiaeoue ?oo iaiaoai?/ieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, aaaee iiooaeiino? yeeo
onoaathoueny “caaaeyee” iaeiio?ieueiaaiiio aieeao nee i?e?iaee.

Aecia/aiiy i?aaeiaoo cei/eiiiai iinyaaiiy oa iaoai?cio caiiae?yiiy
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a aeicaieeei ae?eoe aei aeniiaeo, ui
iniiaiei aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE, ?
noni?euei? a?aeiineie ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo
o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Aei ?ic?yaeo aeiaeaoeiaiai-iaia’yceiaiai ia’?eoo,
i?e oeueiio, a?aeianai? aeeooy oa caei?ia’y ethaeeie, aeani?noue.
?acoeueoaoii iaeaaeiiai ooieoe?thaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ?oi?i
noni?eueiei i?aaeiaoii ? noai aaciaee, oiaoi a?aenooi?noue caa?ice
ooeiaeaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaiai-iaia’yceiaiai ia’?eoo. O naith /a?ao ??aaiue
noaio aaciaee iia’yco?oueny, ianaiia?aae, ?c no?ee?noth aeia?ia?eueiiai
nioe?aeueiiai aca?iica’yceo i?ae noa’?eoaie noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, nooue
yeiai iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? oa i?aeo?eioe? noaio aaciaee. Iaaeeiiaiiy
/e iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy noa’?eoii nai?o iaia’yce?a oyaia iineaaeaiiy, a
oi ? ao?aoo nioe?aeueiiai aca?iica’yceo (iaea?eueo a?aceeaiai aeaiaioo
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei), aeaoi?iaoe?th eaiae?a ia?aianaiiy aeiia
ii?iaoea?a aaciaee ia i?ioean noai?aiiy aei?iaei?o oiia ?, ye
?acoeueoao, iaiiaeeea?noue inoaii?o oo?eioaaoe o?ainii?oiee can?a o
??aiiaac? oa i?ae aeinoaoi?i eiio?ieai.

Ia aeiaeaoie aei e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eoo, o
i?ae?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny ia’?i iiiyooy “aei?iaei?e ?oo”, ui o
iiaeaeueoiio noa? i?aenoaaith aeey i?iiiceoe?? i?i aeioe?euei?noue
aeaaaeaiiy c-i?ae e?ei?iaeueii? ioi?iie ii?iith no. 2155 EE noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo i?oioiae?a, a
oaeiae a?aeiia?aeiiai ooi/iaiiy ci?noo aeeniiceoe?? noaoo?. Cai?noue
aecia/aiiy “i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” aeei?enoiao?oueny oi?ioea “i?aaee, ii?i oa
noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo
o?ainii?oieo cania?a”.

?icae?e 3 “Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo” i?noeoue
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiao oa?aeoa?enoeeo iciae ia’?eoeaii? noi?iie cei/eio,
neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. “Ii?ooaiiy
i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo (noni?eueii iaaacia/ia ae?y, aacae?yeuei?noue)”
i?iaiaeeoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE. Ii?ooaiiyi aecia?oueny iaeeie/ia /e
aaaaoi?aciaa, naiino?eia /e eieaeoeaia ae?yiiy, ui iieyaa? o iaaeeiiaii?
/e iaiaeaaeiiio aeeiiaii? aeiia i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, a oaeiae
a/eiaiiy i?yii caai?iiaieo ae?e. O ieiuei? aea/aiiy
caaaeueii-oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue i?iaiaeeoueny ?iciaaeoaaiiy ae?? oa
aacae?yeueiino?. I?aenoaaith ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia?aiee ia’?i oa nioe?aeuei?
aeanoeaino? iiaaae?iee aeiii? iniae. Aei noni?eueii iaaacia/ii? ae??
a?aeiinyoueny aeiaaeee i?yiiai ii?ooaiiy aeiia ii?iaoea?a aaciaee, oiaoi
a/eiaiiy ae?e, ui i?yii caai?iiai? i?aaeeaie, ii?iaie /e noaiaea?oaie.
I?e oeueiio i?e?iaea ae?? aecia/a?oueny ye aaia?aoi? ?oei?aii? aia?a?? o
noa?? ae?yeueiino? ii noai?aiith aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a. Aei noni?eueii iaaacia/ii? aacae?yeueiino? a?aeiinyoueny
aeiaaeee iiaiiai aai /anoeiaiai iaaeeiiaiiy aeiia ii?iaoea?a aaciaee. A
nenoai? oiia, ni?yiiaaii? ia iiaeieaiiy iaa??aiiaaaeaiino? aeaea?aea
i?aeaeuaii? iaaaciaee oa i?aaeiao?a, ui iaaoaathoue oae? aeanoeaino? ca
?aooiie nee i?e?iaee, ae?y oa aacae?yeuei?noue noathoue i?e/eiith ao?aoe
eiio?ieth iaae o?ainii?oiei caniaii ? nei?iiy aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii?
i?eaiaee.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie eaae?o?eaoe?? cei/eio,
ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE, iaaoaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaea?ae oa ci?noo
i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Aea/aiiy noaeiai? i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy noaoo? 2155
EE iieacaei, ui aeiiei iniaai ?ie?ei?io?oueny ii?ooaiiy eeoa ii?i Caeiio
Oe?a?ie “I?i aei?iaei?e ?oo”. I?e oeueiio ci?noii caeioaa/aiiy ia
ioiieththoueny ii?ie, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/aee ii?yaeie oa oiiae
noai?aiiy aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a ? aoee ii?ooai?, a
?acoeueoao? /iai a?aeaoeanue aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oia i?eaiaea.
Ii?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo Caeii?a Oe?a?ie, i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaieo
aeo?a, o oiio /ene? Aea?aenoaiaea?oo Oe?a?ie, ea?oth/eo aeac?aie
Ieaioi?a Aa?oiaiiai Noaeo Oe?a?ie aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?e
eaae?o?eaoe?? cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE, ae?yiiy aeiii? iniae
iiaea ii?oooaaoe ye ii?ie i?aeia?iaeieo oaiae, oae ? Caeiio “I?i
aei?iaei?e ?oo”, i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a (AeNOO, AeAI oa ?i.),
?ino?oeoe?e, iaeac?a ii i?aei?e?inoaao, a oaeiae i?yii aeacaieo o
a?aeiia?aeieo eaoaeiaao i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a eieeoiuei? O?N?,
N?N? oa ??ON?.

A?eueo aeaoaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith noni?eueii iaaacia/iiai ae?yiiy
ni?ey? oa?aeoa?enoeea iciae ae?yeueiino? ii noai?aiith aei?iaei?o oiia
?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Na?aae iciae oaei? ae?yeueiino?
aeae?eythoueny o?ce/ia iciaea, oiaoi ni?yiiaai?noue ae?yeueiino? ia
noai?aiiy ia’?eoo iaoa??aeueiiai na?oo — aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo
ia?a?cae?a, ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae, nioe?aeueia, ui aeaco? ia aeo?aoe
ethaenueei? i?aoe?, a oaeiae ii?iaoeaia — aca?iicaeaaei?noue ye?niiai
noaio aei?iaei?o oiia oa a?aeianaiiy aei?iae aei iaaii? eaoaai???.
A?aeianaiiy aei?iae aei iaaii? eaoaai??? na?ae/eoue i?i aeinoaoi?noue
aeeaaeaiiy ethaenueei? i?aoe? o aei?iaei? oiiae oa a?aeiia?aei?noue
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeiiaai i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a.
Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui ii?iith no. 2155 EE ioi?iiy?oueny aaciaea naia
aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Iica cacia/aieo oiia aaciaea
?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a noa? oe?eeii caeaaeiith a?ae ?oiueiai
oaoi?/iiai noaio, ae?e aiae?y /e iiaaae?iee ?ioiai o/anieea
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “Iane?aeee ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a” aecia/athoueny ??ai? noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a.
Iane?aeeaie ia?oiai ??aiy, ye? ia aeciathoueny aeinoaoiuei noni?eueii
iaaacia/ieie aeey e?ei?iae?caoe??, ? aeieeiaiiy o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo noaio caaaeueii? caa?ice ao?aoe aeeooy, ooeiaeaeaiiy caei?ia’y /e
iaeia, a oaeiae eaae? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy oa iaeiiaa oeiaea, ui ia
nyaa? aaeeeiai ?ici??o. Ia ae?oaiio ? aeinoaoiuei aenieiio noni?eueii
iaaacia/iiio ??ai? ciaoiaeyoueny iane?aeee o aeaeyae? ?aaeueii? caa?ice
ao?aoe aeeooy oa caei?ia’y, o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? oyaeeino?
/e iaeiiaa oeiaea a ?ici???, ui ia?aaeuo? aaeeeee ?ici?? (250 oa a?eueoa
i?i?iaeueieo ?ici???a ca?ia?oii? ieaoe). Aei iniaeeai iaaacia/ieo
iane?aee?a (o?ao?e ??aaiue) a?aeianai? iane?aeee o aeaeyae? nia?o?
iaei??? /e aeae?eueeio ethaeae, oyaee? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy. C
o?aooaaiiyi ?aaeaeoe?? noaoo? 215 EE, ui neeaaea?oueny ?c o?ueio /anoei,
aei eiaeii? c yeeo noaooy 2155 EE a?aeneea? a ??ai?e i???, i?iiiio?oueny
iane?aeee, ianoaiiy yeeo oyaia e?ei?iaeueio a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
aeacaoe aaciina?aaeiuei o aeeniiceoe?? no. 2155 EE. I?e oeueiio iniaeeai
iaaacia/i? iane?aeee — aeae?eeoe o naiino?eio /anoeio ? cae??ieoe o
yeino? eaae?o?eoth/eo ianoaaei neeaaeo cei/eio. Oaeiae ia a?aei?io a?ae
ae?th/i? ?aaeaeoe?? noaoo? 2155 EE i?iiiio?oueny aeae?ei?iae?coaaoe
iaaacia/i? iane?aeee o aeaeyae? iaiaa?aaeieo eaaeeo o?eanieo
ooeiaeaeaiue.

I?ae?icae?e 3.3. “I?e/eiiee ca’ycie i?ae ae?yiiyi (ae??th,
aacae?yeuei?noth) ? noni?eueii iaaacia/ieie iane?aeeaie” i?enay/o?oueny
ieoaiiyi anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a a?ae
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, a oaeiae
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeaeo i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio cei/ei?.
Aecia/a?oueny, ui noni?eueii iaaacia/ia iiaaae?iea a?aeiia?aeaeueii?
iniae ? i?e/eiith ooai?aiiy a noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a noaio caaaeueii? caa?ice caaaeaiiy oeiaee aeeooth /e caei?ia’th
ethaeeie, cieuaiiy iaeia. O oaeeo oiiaao ?ooo i?aeaeuaia iaa?aaei?noue
aiae??a o?ainii?oieo cania?a aenooia? oaeoi?ii, ui i?ioeae?? caa?ic? ?
a?aeaa?oa? iiaeeea?noue ao?aoe eiio?ieth iaae aeaea?aeii i?aeaeuaii?
iaaaciaee. I?ioa /eneaii? ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a o nai?e
noeoiiino?, ia??ai? ?c aeanoea?noth aeaaaeaiiy o?ainii?oiiai caniao ?c
noaio ??aiiaaae, caeaoi? iicaaaeoe aiae?y iiaeeeaino? a/anii iii?oeoe
iaaaciaeo oa aaeeoe iaiao?aei? caoiaee ii ciaioaiith oaeaeeino? ?ooo /e
iiai?e coieioe?. O?ainii?oiee can?a (o aeaiiio aeiaaeeo — iaoai?/iee) o
eiie?aoieo iaaacia/ieo oiiaao i?i?ioi ?c 8-i?ioeaioiith eiia??i?noth
aeoiaeeoue c-i?ae eiio?ieth aiae?y ? i?iieea? o noa?o ?ooo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a o cai?ioiiio iai?yieo aai o noa?o aeeeth/iiai ?ooo i?oioiae?a,
/e ce?oa? i?ae oe?n ca iaae? aei?iaeiueiai ianeio. Oeiaea
aeiaeaoeiaiio-iaia’yceiaiio ia’?eoo ua ia ianoaea, aea o oaeee iiiaio
caaaeueia caa?ica o?ainoi?io?oueny o ?aaeueio, a?ae yei? aaciina?aaeiuei
iioa?iathoue aeeooy, caei?ia’y ethaeeie /e aeani?noue. Iiaeaeueoei
aoaiii ?icaeoeo i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio cei/ei? ?
caaeaaeue ethaeeie, eae?oeoai, o?eaaeee ?iceaae caei?ia’y /e cieuaiiy
iaeia. I?e oeueiio i?e/eiith aeieeiaiiy aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii?
i?eaiaee ? ianoaiiy noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a aecia?oueny naia
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, a iaia’yceiaith oiiaith
ooeiaeaeaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei — ?oo o?ainii?oiiai caniao, a oaeiae
a?aenooi?noue iaiao?aeii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo.
Caeaaei?noue “?acoeueoaoeaiino?” i?ioeano caiiae?yiiy oeiaee a?ae
iayaiino? iaia’yceiaeo oiia aeaco? ia iiina?aaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa?
i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo o cei/ei?, ui ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE.

O ?icae?e? 4 “Noa’?eoeai? iciaee ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a,
ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo
cania?a” aeine?aeaeothoueny iciaee noa’?eoeaii? noi?iia oa noa’?eoo
cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai no. 2155 EE. ?icae?e neeaaea?oueny ?c aeaio
i?ae?icae?e?a. I?ae?icae?e 4.1. “Noa’?eoeaia noi?iia cei/eio” ca nai?i
ci?noii i?enay/aiee oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeie ? iioeao ae?yiiy (ii?ooaiiy) oa
eiai noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a. Aacoth/enue ia iieiaeaiiyo
ci?oaii? oi?ie aeie caeiaoaa/ aecia?, ui ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa
noaiaea?o?a iiaea aooe nei?ia iaaienii aai iaiaa?aaeii. O ?ac?
iaaieniiai ii?ooaiiy aeiia aaciaee noa’?eo ona?aeiieth? noni?eueio
iaaacia/i?noue aeanii? iiaaae?iee ? aaaea? oae ae?yoe aac ia?aaeaa/aiiy,
caa?iaiiai aei iane?aee?a. Oiaoi a eiai ae?yii? i?noyoueny iciaee
i?yiiai oieneo ?, iai?ioe, cei/eiii? iaaeaaeino?, yeui noa’?eo,
i?eioneath/enue ii?ooaiiy, ia ona?aeiieth? noni?eueii? iaaacia/iino?
nai?? iiaaae?iee. Ui noino?oueny noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a, oi
noaaeaiiy aei ieo aeiii? iniae eeoa iaiaa?aaeia (iiaeeea? aeaa
aeaee iaiaa?aaeii? oi?ie aeie: cei/eiia naiiaiaaiai?noue oa cei/eiia
iaaeaae?noue). Ci?oaia oi?ia aeie oa?aeoa?eco? aa??aio nei?iiy cei/eio o
?ac? iaaieniiai ii?ooaiiy oa iaiaa?aaeiiai noaaeaiiy aei noni?eueii
iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a. sseui ae ? ae?yiiy a/eiy?oueny /a?ac cei/eiio
iaaeaae?noue, oi cei/ei ? oe?eeii iaiaa?aaeiei.

O aeena?oaoe?? cacia/a?oueny, ui o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ia iioeaaoe?th
iaaieniiai ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, aieeaathoue oae?
oaeoi?e ye: aaaeaiiy caa?iooe oaaao i?aai?a aeaaee ia iaiao?aei?noue
nai?/aniiai o?iainoaaiiy ae?yeueiino? ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee
aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe;
i?aaiaiiy ne?aeoaaoe o?aaeeoe?yi, ui neeaeeny o eieaeoea?; ia?aioe?iea
aeaniiai aeina?aeo. Iaiaaienia ii?ooaiiy aeiia aaciaee (ca cei/eiii?
iaaeaaeino?) ia?aaeaa/a? ea?iaai?noue iiaaae?iee noa’?eoa iioeaaoe?eieie
oaeoi?aie, ui ciaoiaeyoueny iica noa?ith ae?yeueiino? ii caaacia/aiith
aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 4.2. “Noa’?eo cei/eio” aecia/a?oueny, ui nei?oe cei/ei,
ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE, iiaea iniaa, a?aeiia?aeaeueia ca
i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai, ?aeiino?oeoe?th, ?aiiio /e oo?eiaiiy
aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo ia?a?cae?a, ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae. Oea
iiaeooue aooe ye neoaeaia? iniae, oae ? ?yaeia? ?ia?oieee th?eaee/ieo
in?a, i?aaeiaoii ae?yeueiino? yeeo ? caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o
oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, i?eaaoi? i?aei?e?ioe?. ?c aaaaeaiiyi aei
aenieoaoaoe?? ia?aae? i?eaaoieo aei??a noa’?eoii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
cei/eio iiaea aooe aeaniee a?aeiia?aeii? ae?eueieoe? aei?iae. O
a?aeiioaii? i?iaeaie, iia’ycaii? ?c “niaoe?aeueiith” inoaei?noth,
aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui ni?iiiaei?noue noa’?eoa cei/eio ona?aeiiethaaoe
oaeo ii?ooaiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiia aaciaee ia iio?aao? “niaoe?aeueiiai”
noaio na?aeiiino? ? iiai?noth ioiieth?oueny iiiyooyi
“a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue”.

O aeniiaeao caeiaoaa/ neiioeaio?oaaa oaaao ia aieiaieo iieiaeaiiyo
aeena?oaoe??, aecia/eaoe oaeei /eiii cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey oai??? oa i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa. Aaoi?ii ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe
e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eoeaieo oa noa’?eoeaieo iciae
cei/eiiiai ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Ie??i
oiai, i?aenoiiaothoueny i?iiiceoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith noaoo? 2155
/eiiiai EE ? iaaiaeeoueny i?iaeo ?? iiai? ?aaeaeoe??.

Noaooy 2155. Ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia

?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a

(1) Ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, a/eiaia iniaith,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiith ca i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai, ?aeiino?oeoe?th,
?aiiio /e oo?eiaiiy aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo ia?a?cae?a, ?ioeo
aei?iaei?o nii?oae, yeui oea noai?eei caa?ico caaeaae? ethaeae /e
ianoaiiy ?ioeo oyaeeeo iane?aee?a aai ni?e/eieei iioa?i?eiio na?aaeiuei?
oyaeeino? o?eania ooeiaeaeaiiy, aai caaaeaei aaeeei? iaoa??aeueii?
oeiaee,

— ea?a?oueny …….

(2) Ae?yiiy, aeacaia o /anoei? 1 ni?aaaeiuei? noaoo?, ui iioyaei
caaeaaeue ethaeae aai ?io? oyaee? iane?aeee,

— ea?a?oueny ……

I?ei?oea: aaeeeei ?ici??ii o no. 2155 aecia?oueny i?yiee iaoa??aeueiee
caeoie, ui a 250 ? a?eueoa ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? i?i?iaeueiee ?ici??
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. Ia’?eo cei/eiiiai ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i ? noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo // Aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue iaoee ? oaoi?ee o ai?iouea? c? cei/eii?noth. Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? (19 eenoiiaaea 1997 ?., i. Oa?e?a). —
Oa?e?a, “I?aai”. — 1997. — N. 192-194. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

2. E?ei?iaeueii-i?aaiaa oa?aeoa?enoeea ia’?eoa cei/eiiiai ii?ooaiiy
i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo // A?niee Aeaaeai?? i?aaiaeo iaoe Oe?a?ie. — 1998. —
? 4. — N. 191-198.

3. I?e/eiiay naycue i?e ia?ooaiee i?aaee, ii?i e noaiaea?oia,
eanathueony iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiuo oneiaee aeaeaeaiey
o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa // A?niee Eoaainueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa
IAN Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 126-135. (o ni?aaaoi?noa?).

4. Iniaeeaino? i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo i?e nei?i? cei/eio, ia?aaeaa/aiiai
noaooath 2155 EE Oe?a?ie // A?niee Oi?aa?neoaoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ? 5. — N. 56-63.

Aiioaoe??

A?c?i/oe N. A. E?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ii?ooaiiy i?aaee,
ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo (no. 2155 EE Oe?a?ie). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 12.00.08 — e?ei?iaeueia i?aai ? e?ei?iieia?y;
e?ei?iaeueii-aeeiiaa/a i?aai. — Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN
Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a, 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ca?aeii e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
Oe?a?ie.

A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?, oaoi?/i?, ii?iaoeai? oa
e?ei?iieia?/i? a?oie oaeoi??a nioe?aeueii? iaoiiaeaiino? anoaiiaeaiiy,
iiaeaeueoiai caa?aaeaiiy, a oaeiae iineeaiiy e?ei?iaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/ei, ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE. Aenieee
i?ioeaio i?enooiino? ethaeae o noa?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, iaa?ae’?ii?noue
?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a a?ae noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iecueea
aoaeoeai?noue o?ce/iiai caoenoo ethaeae oa iaeia ia aeiaaeie
aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oii? iiae??, iaiao?aei?noue eiiieaeniiai caoenoo
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, iie?ia’?eoi?noue cei/eio, oyaee?noue
noni?eueii iaaacia/ieo iane?aee?a ? iaiiaeeea?noue ?o onoiaiiy oa ?io?
oaeoi?e iaoiiaeththoue, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, e?ei?iae?caoe?th
ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny e?ei?iaeueii-i?aaia?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe?
i?aenoaa? i?eoyaiaiiy aei e?ei?iaeueii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca cei/ei,
ia?aaeaa/aiee no. 2155 EE, — neeaaeo cei/eio oa eiai aeaiaioai. Ia’?eo.
Caaaeueiei ia’?eoii cei/eio aeciathoueny noni?euei? a?aeiineie, ui
ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae ioi?iiith e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiio, ?iaeiaei —
a?aeiia?aei? a?aeiineie ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee ?ooo oa aenieoaoaoe??
o?ainii?oo, iniiaiei aaciina?aaei?i — ii caaacia/aiith aaciaee
aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Aeae?ey?oueny
aeiaeaoeiaee-iaia’yceiaee ia’?eo – aeeooy, caei?ia’y ethaeeie,
aeani?noue. Ia’?eoeaia noi?iia. Noni?eueii iaaacia/ia ae?yiiy —
ii?ooaiiy, ca nai?th oi?iith ioiieth? ae?th ? aacae?yeuei?noue, ca
niiniaii — iaeeie/iee aeo /e iiiaeeiiee, iaeiiiniaiaee /e eieaeoeaiee.
Ci?no ii?ooaiiy aecia/a?oueny i?aaeeaie, ii?iaie oa noaiaea?oaie, ui
i?noyoueny o Caeiiao Oe?a?ie, i?aecaeiiieo ii?iaoeaieo aeoao i?i?noa?noa
? a?aeiinoa, eieaeueieo ii?iao oa ?aaoeththoue ae?yeuei?noue ii
noai?aiith ? i?aeo?eiaiith o aacia/iiio noai? aei?iaei?o oiia ?ooo
o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa noni?eueii iaaacia/i?
iane?aeee ii?ooaiiy — nia?oue ethaeeie, oyaee? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy oa
o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy na?aaeiuei? oyaeeino?, iaoa??aeueia oeiaea o
aaeeeiio ?ici???, ?aaeueia caa?ica ao?aoe aeeooy iio?aaothoue
e?ei?iae?caoe??, iaiaa?aaei? eaae? o?eani? ooeiaeaeaiiy — i?. I?e/eiiee
ca’ycie o cei/ei? oneeaaeiaiee iaia’yceia?noth ?ooo o?ainii?oiiai caniao
o iaaacia/i?e cii? c iaeii/aniith a?aenooi?noth iiia?aaeaeoth/i?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iaaaciaeo. Noa’?eoeaia noi?iia. Cei/ei a?aeiineoueny aei
iaiaa?aaeieo. Iiaeeeaa ci?oaia oi?ia aeie o ?ac? iaaieniiai ii?ooaiiy oa
iaiaa?aaeiiai noaaeaiiy aei eiai iane?aee?a. Ia iioea oa iioeaaoe?th
ii?ooaiiy aieeaathoue oaeoi?e iaa/anii? iieaoe i?aoe? oa o?iainoaaiiy
aei?iaei?o ?ia?o, iaaaoeai? o?aaeeoe?? o o?oaeiaiio eieaeoea?,
ia?aioe?iea aeaniiai aeina?aeo oa ?i. Noa’?eo. Noa’?eoii cei/eio
aecia?oueny iniaa, a?aeiia?aeaeueia ca i?iaeooaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoai,
?aeiino?oeoe?th, ?aiiio /e oo?eiaiiy aei??a, aoeeoeue, cae?cie/ieo
ia?a?cae?a, ?ioeo aei?iaei?o nii?oae. Aei ieo a?aeiinyoueny ye neoaeaia?
iniae, oae ? ?yaeia? ?ia?oieee, i?eaaoi? i?aei?e?ioe?.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?iaeyoueny aeniiaee i?i iaiao?aei?noue aaeineiiaeaiiy
e?ei?iaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa uiaei aoaeoeaiino? eiai canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?ei?iaeueia i?aai, e?ei?iaeueia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue,
aaciaea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, ii?ooaiiy i?aaee, ii?i oa noaiaea?o?a, ui
noinothoueny caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

Aecei/oe N. A. Oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca ia?ooaiea i?aaee, ii?i e
noaiaea?oia, eanathueony iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey
(no. 2155 OE Oe?aeiu). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa th?eaee/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 12.00.08 — oaieiaiia i?aai e e?eieiieiaey;
oaieiaii-eniieieoaeueiia i?aai. — Oieaa?neoao aioo?aiieo aeae IAAe
Oe?aeiu, a. Oa?ueeia, 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea
i?aaee, ii?i e noaiaea?oia, eanathueony iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, niaeanii oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa Oe?aeiu.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u nioeeaeueiie iaoneiaeaiiinoe
onoaiiaeaiey e aeaeueiaeoaai nio?aiaiey oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ia?ooaiea i?aaee, ii?i e noaiaea?oia, eanathueony iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, a oaeaea oneeaiey oaieiaiie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. Iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony oaieiaii-i?aaiaie
oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaaieth i?eaea/aiey e oaieiaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
i?anooieaiea, i?aaeoniio?aiiia no. 2155 OE, — ninoaaa i?anooieaiey e aai
yeaiaioai. A aeenna?oaoeee aeaeathony auaiaeu i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaieiaiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ioiineoaeueii
yooaeoeaiinoe aai i?eiaiaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oaieiaiia i?aai, oaieiaiay ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
aaciianiinoue aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, ia?ooaiea i?aaee, ii?i e
noaiaea?oia, eanathueony iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aei?iaeiiai
aeaeaeaiey.

Gizimchuk S.V. Criminal responsibility for the infringement of the
rules, norms and standards concerning traffic’s securing safety (art.
2155 of Penal Code of Ukraine). — Manuscript.

Dissertation for the academic degree of Candidate of Legal Studies with
specialization in 12.00.08 – Criminal Law and Criminology; Penal Law.
University of Internal Affairs, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the issues of the criminal responsibility
for the infringement of the rules, norms and standards concerning
traffic’s securing safety according to criminal legislation of Ukraine.

Dissertation shows the factors, which socially stipulated setting and
further conservation of criminal responsibility for the infringement of
the rules, norms and standards and strengthening of criminal
responsibility too. Great attention is devoted to criminal law analysis
of grounds to criminal law prosecution for the crime, described in art.
2155 of Penal Code,- to crime’s structure and her elements. Dissertation
has the inferences concerning necessity of the criminal law
legislation’s perfection and efficiency of the legislation’s
application.

Key words: criminal law, criminal responsibility, safety of traffic, the
infringing of the rules, norms and standards for traffic safety
providing.

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee aeioneiaee I. I. Aooi?iaa

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.05.99 ?. Iai?? ionaoiee. Oi?iao 60o8416. Ae?oe
ionaoiee. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,06. Iae. aeae. a?e. 1,0.

Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Caiiae. ? 880

Ae?oea?iy ? 18 I?aaeaiii? cae?cieoe?.

310052, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 7

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