Комплексна оцінка режимів світлофорного регулювання на перехрестях: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / П.М. Полозенко, Укр. трансп. ун-т. — К., 1999.

4

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

OE?A?INUeEEE O?AINII?OIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

IIEICAIEI Iaaei Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 656.13.08

EIIIEAENIA IOe?IEA ?AAEEI?A NA?OEIOI?IIAI

?AAOETHAAIIss IA IA?AO?ANOssO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.22.01 – o?ainii?oi? nenoaie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio o?ainii?oiiio oi?aa?neoao?

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

??ANIA Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EA?AIAeAEIA Aaiiaae?e Aaneeueiae/

Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith;

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe

I?IEIIAIEI TH??e Ieeieaeiae/

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee oeaio? aaciaee ?ooo

OAeA? IAN Oe?a?ie, a/aiee nae?aoa?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?e?anueeee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee

oi?aa?neoao, i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ”14” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo a 10 aiaeei ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.059.02 i?e Oe?a?inueeiio
o?ainii?oiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252010, Oe?a?ia, Ee?a-10, aoe.
Noai?iaa,1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
o?ainii?oiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Oe?a?ia, i. Ee?a, aoe E?ea?aeca, 42)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “13” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aecthaa I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. C? c?inoaiiyi aaoiiia?eueiiai ia?eo ? c?
ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? ?ooo ia aei?iaao aeieeea i?iaeaia, ui
iia`ycaia c oii?yaeeoaaiiyi i?ioeano ?ooo, oa iaeneiaeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy aaciaee an?o eiai o/aniee?a.

C on??? e?eueeino? aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae (AeOI) 70%
i?eiaaea? ia aoee/ii-aei?iaeith ia?aaeo (AAeI) i?noa. A naith /a?ao
aiae?c noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo na?ae/eoue, ui 75% AeOI a i?noao
a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ia?ao?anoyo. Caaea/a i?aai?caoe?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo
(IAe?) ia ia?ao?anoyo iieyaa? o aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai ??oaiiy, yea
caaacia/eei a a?eueiee ? aacia/iee aca?iiee ia?aione iioie?a o?ainii?oo
oa i?oioiae?a aac c?oeiaiue, caoi??a ? ca iaea?eueo ei?ioeee /an.
O?ainii?oi? caniae oa i?oioiaee ?ooathoueny aac nooo?aeo cao?eiie ia
ia?ao?ano? (aeieea? naii?aaoeyoe?y ?ooo aiane?aeie aeeiiaiiy i?aaee
aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo), aea aei iaaiiai nooiaiy caaaioaaeaiiy aieiaieo oa
ae?oai?yaeieo iai?yi?a. C i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? o?ainii?oieo ?
i?oioiaeieo iioie?a ia ia?ao?anoyo ii/eiathoue aeieeaoe eiioe?eoi?
neooaoe??, ui ??cei ca?eueoothoue e?euee?noue AeOI. O ca`yceo c oeei
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue a oi?aae?ii? iioieaie, ui ?ooathoueny ii AAeI.

Iaea?eueo iiioey?ieie iaoiaeaie oi?aae?iiy ?ooii ia ia?ao?anoyo ?
oi?aae?iiy ?ooii o?ainii?oieo ? i?oio?aeieo iioie?a ca aeiiiiiaith
ciae?a, aei?iaeiuei? ?ici?oee, iai?yiieo i?eno?i?a, a oaeiae
na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy (NO?). Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy NO? e?ea?aeo?
a?eueo?noue eiioe?eoieo oi/ie, aea i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy
o?ainii?oii? cao?eiee. Oaeei /eiii, aaaaeaiiy NO? ia caaaeaee
aei?aaaeaia ? caeaaeeoue, ianaiia?aae, a?ae aaee/ei ?ioaineaiino?
iioie?a, ui eiioe?eoothoue, a oaeiae nooiaith ?o eiioe?eoo. Aaaaeaiiy
NO? aeiaaa? iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy na?oeioi?ieie ia`?eoaie. Oea
iiaeeeai o?eueee c aeei?enoaiiyi no/anii? oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia??
oi?aae?iiy, yea aeicaiey? iaaeeceoe ?aaeeie ?iaioe na?oeioi??a, aei
a?aeiia?aeieo oiia ?ooo ia AAeI. Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoiaothoueny
i?ia?aiii-aia?aoi? caniae, ye? ia’?aeiothoueny a aaoiiaoeciaaio nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy aei?iaei?i ?ooii (ANOAe?). Aeina?ae noai?aiiy ? aenieoaoaoe??
ANOAe? ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue i?i iiaeeeaino? ?noioiiai i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?ioeano ia?aaacaiue ? aaciaee o/aniee?a ?ooo i?e aenieeo
??aiyo ?ioaineaiino? a oiiaao iaiaaeaii? i?iioneii? caeaoiino? AAeI
i?noa, oiaoi ae??oaiiy o?ainii?oii? i?iaeaie. Aea a noa?? oi?aae?iiy
aei?iaei?i ?ooii ca aeiiiiiaith ANOAe? naia ia?ao?anoy ? i?noeai
i?eeeaaeaiiy ea?oth/eo aieea?a i?e NO?. E??i oeueiai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe,
ui ia?ao?anoy ? ia?oith ? aieiaiith eaieith oi?aae?iiy, ui iaoiiaeth?
iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ? oaeineiiaeaiue naia ia
ia?ao?anoyo AAeI i?noa. Aac aeineiiaeiai oi?aae?iiy ia ia?ao?ano?
iaiiaeeeai iaeaaiaeeoe i?ioean oi?aae?iiy ?ooii ia iaa?no?ae?, a oei
a?eueoa a ?aeii?, a i?no?. E??i oeueiai, nueiaiaei? aecia/eoe
oi?aa?naeueiee e?eoa??e, yeee a?aoiao? an? oaeoi?e aoaeoeaiino?
o?ainii?oiiai i?ioeano (iaeneiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy i?iioneii? caeaoiino?
AAeI, i?i?i?caoe?y e?eueeino? aei?iaeiuei-o?ainii?oieo i?eaiae,
caaacia/aiiy aeieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ciaioaiiy /ano ii?caeee oa ??
aacia/i?noue oa ?io?) ? aeoaea neeaaeiei caaaeaiiyi /a?ac oa, ui ia an?
oaeoi?e aeinoaoiuei aea/ai?. Iaeiae, aoaeue-ye? ea?oth/? aieeae ia
ia?ao?ano? iaia’yceiai iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoe oaeoi? aaciaee ?ooo (A?). Ia
nueiaiaei? aeineoue aaaeei /?oei iaa?oiooaaoe ? ioe?ieoe aaaaeaiiy oeo
/e ?ioeo ea?oth/eo aieea?a /a?ac a?aenooi?noue iiaeeeaino? aecia/aiiy
e?euee?niiai iieacieea ??aiy A? ia ia?ao?ano? i?e NO?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? a
eiioaeno? “I?ia?aie caaacia/aiiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo oa
aeieia?/ii? aaciaee o?ainii?oieo cania?a”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia iinoaiiaith
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 06.04.1998 ?. ? 466.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ?aaeei?a
NO? ia ia?ao?anoyo AAeI, ui a?aoiao? noaie i?aai?caoe?? aei?iaeiueiai
?ooo (IAe?): ia?aiao?e aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? iieacieee A?, aeey
oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy na?oeioi?iith neaiae?caoe??th.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

· aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ioe?iee neeaaeiino? ia?ao?anoue ? e?eoa???a
oi?aae?iiy ?ooii ia ia?ao?ano?;

· ioe?iea iiaeeeaino? i?eioeeiiai? noi?niino? ?aaoeueiaaieo iai?yie?a a
ie?aieo oacao ?aaoethaaiiy aai neaiaeueieo a?oiao (aecia/aiiy
iiaeeeaino? eiioe?eo?a);

· aecia/aiiy e?euee?nii? ioe?iee eiioe?eoiino? ia ia?ao?ano?;

· iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaeei?a NO? uiaei aeai?o i?eioeeio oi?aae?iiy, noai
iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo, /a?aiaino? ? e?eueeino? oac ?aaoethaaiiy
(neaiaeueieo a?oi), a oaeiae iieaciee?a aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo;

· ?ic?iaea aeai?eoi?a ioe?iee oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy na?oeioi?iith
neaiae?caoe??th aeey oi?ioaaiiy aace iaoaiaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy nenoai
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy (NAI?) IAe? ia ia?ao?anoyo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe — ia iniia? oi?iae?caoe?? ca’yceo iieaciee?a
iioaioe?eii? aaa??eiino? ia ia?ao?ano? c ia?aiao?aie ?aaeei?a
na?oeioi?ii? neaiae?caoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae eiiieaenii? ioe?iee
?aaeei?a NO? c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? ?ooo o?ainii?oieo iioie?a,
nooiaiy ?o eiioe?eoiino?, oeio ? iaaacia/iino? eiioe?eoieo oi/ie.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey?:

· io?eioaaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo yeino? ?aaeei?a NO? ia ia?ao?anoyo
AAeI;

· oaeineiiaethaaoe ?aaeeie NO? ia ia?ao?ano?;

· iaa?oioiaoaaoe oa ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ?aaeeie NO? “ca ie?aieie iai?yieaie”
(neaiaeueieie a?oiaie);

· ioe?ithaaoe cai?iiiiiaai? aei ?aae?caoe?? noaie IAe?, c oi/ee ci?o
caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy A? ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy.

· aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy na?oeioi?ieo ia’?eo?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo Oe?a?inueeiai o?ainii?oiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1993 — 1999
??.), ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie o?ainii?oo oa
oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy” o i.Ee?a? (1994 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 noaoae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoeo. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 136 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo. Aeena?oaoe?y
i?noeoue 53 ?enoiee, 12 oaaeeoeue, 110 iaeiaioaaiue e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? aeeeaaeai? iieiaeaiiy i?i aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiue, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aiae?co no/anieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee neeaaeiino?
ia?ao?anoue ? oaoiieia?e oi?aae?iiy ?ooii ia AAeI. Iniaeeao oaaao
i?eae?eaii i?iaeai? e?eoa??aeueiino? oi?aae?iiy, ae??oaiiy yei?
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy ia
ia?ao?ano?. Oeueiio i?enay/ai? iaoeia? i?aoe? aaaaoueio a?o/eciyieo oa
?iicaiieo iaoeiaoe?a: Aaanoa?a O., Aaa?eeiaa I.A., Aecthae I.I., Ae?th
Ae., ??aniaa A.?., Eai?oaiiaa A.A., Ee?ieiaooaeia A.?., E?aiaioey A.?.,
Eiaaiiaa ?.I., Eoe’yiiaa A.A., Ia/a?nueeiai I.I., Iie?uoea A.I.,
?aiiiii?oa A., N?eueyiiaa A.A., Naiieeiaa Ae.N., O?oaeueniia I.N., Oaeoa
O., *aoaa?oo?ia A.I., Oaooieana A.A., sseooeia E.A. oa ?i.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iieacaa, ui ia aeaiee /an ioe?iea
neeaaeiino? ia?ao?anoy iae/ano?oa cae?enith?oueny iaoiaeii eiioe?eoieo
oi/ie, yeee aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee o 60-oeo ?ieao ?aiiiii?oii A. ?
?icaeiooee aeae? i?io. O?oaeueniiii I.N., i?io. Ee?ieiaooaeiii A.?.,
i?io. Oaooieanii A.A oa ?ioeie. Oaea ioe?iea neeaaeiino? ia?ao?anoy
a?aoiao? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?ainii?oiiai iioieo ? oei eiioe?eoii? oi/ee,
aea ia aea? iiaii? ea?oeie aeey aeai?o ea?oth/eo aieea?a, oiio ui
ia?ao?anoy — neeaaeia nenoaia, yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia o?eueee
i?ioeannii ?ooo, a oaeiae aaaaoueia ?ioeie oaeoi?aie, a naia: aei?iaei?
oiiae, ?nioth/a caaoaeiaa, aeaeei?noue, noaia IAe? ? oaea ?ioa. Oiio
cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae iio?aao? aeiii?aoethaaiiy ? ooi/iaiiy.

I?io. Eiaaiia ?.I. cai?iiiioaaa iaoiae, ui a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ii aiae?co AeOI, yeee aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe
eiaeio eiioe?eoio oi/eo iieacieeii — iaaacia/i?noue eiioe?eoii? oi/ee.
Oaea ioe?iea eiioe?eieo oi/ie aea? iiaeeea?noue io?eiaoe i?iaiiciaaio
aaee/eio — aaa??ei?noue ia ia?ao?ano?. Aiia aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ??aaiue
A? ia ia?ao?ano?. Aea oey iaoiaeeea ia i?noeoue ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
oeyo?a iioeiaeueiiai ae??oaiiy noaie IAe? ? canoinoaaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
ea?oth/eo aieea?a.

Aaaaeaiiy NO? aai ?ioeo ea?oth/eo aieea?a (aei?iaei? ciaee, ?ici?oea)
?aaeaiaioo?oueny a?aeiia?aeieie aea?aenoaiaea?oaie, i?ioa ia?aiao?e
?aaeei?a NO?: i?eioeei oi?aae?iiy (ca oacaie /e neaiaeueieie a?oiaie),
e?euee?noue oa /a?aia?noue oac, caai?iia ie?aieo iaiaa??a ia ia?ao?ano?
— ia ?aaeaiaioothoueny ? i?ecia/athoueny caeaa?eueoiai ia iniia?
?iaeaia?ii-?ioo?oeaieo iaoiae?a. E??i oiai, aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? nai
niin?a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oeo /e ?ioeo ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia
o?ainii?oiee iio?e.

Aeoiaey/e c oeeo oiia i?iiiio?oueny oaeineiiaeeoe ii?iaoeaio
(o?aaeeoe?eio) noaio ?ic?aooieo ?aaeei?a NO? (?en. 1) oeyoii
iioei?caoe?? ea?oth/eo aieea?a c o?aooaaiiyi aeiaeaoeiaeo e?euee?nieo ?
ye?nieo iieaciee?a (?en. 2).

I?ae ?aaeeiii (i?ia?aiith) NO? ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue o?eaaeino?
oeeeeo ?aaoethaaiiy, iine?aeiai?noue oa o?eaae?noue oac ? oaeo?a aeey
neaiaeueieo a?oi on?o iai?yie?a ia?ao?anoy.

I?ae neaiaeueiith a?oiith ?icoi??oueny noeoii?noue na?oeioi?ieo naeoe?e
(o?ainii?oieo, i?oio?aeieo, o?aiaaeieo, aeiaeaoeiaeo), ye?
ia?aieeathoueny neio?iiii i?ioyaii onueiai oeeeeo. I?e oeueiio ?aaeeie
ia?aieeaiiy neaiaeueieo a?oi ?aae?cothoue i?eeiyoo noaio iioaciaiai
?ic’?caeo o?ainii?oieo cania?a ? i?oioiae?a ia ia?ao?ano?, ui ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith caaaeueii? noaie IAe? ia ia?ao?ano? ? ?aaeeio
NO? cie?aia.

Ia ?en. 2 aeae?eai? iia? aeiee, ye? i?iiiio?oueny aeeth/eoe aei
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo ?aaeei?a NO? ia ia?ao?ano?. Ia a?aei?io a?ae
ii?iaoeaii? iaoiaeeee cai?iiiiiaaia, aeicaieeoue iioei?coaaoe ea?oth/?
aieeae ia o?ainii?oi? iioiee aaea ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy, ui ?
nooo?aei, ine?eueee o caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo aaaeei ioe?ithaaoe
aoaeoeai?noue iaoiae?a ? oaoi?/ieo cania?a oi?aae?iiy aeiee ia
i?iaaaeai? iaoo?i? aei?iaoaaiiy a ?aaeueieo oiiaao.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? e?euee?nii? ioe?iee iioaioe?eii?
eiioe?eoiino? o?ainii?oieo iioie?a ia ia?ao?ano?. Aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy
e?eueeino? oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi) a ?aaeei? NO? aoei ?ic?iaeaii iaoai?ci
ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? noi?niino? ie?aieo iaiaa??a o?ainii?oieo cania?a a
iaei?e oac? (neaiaeuei?e a?oi?).

Aecia/aiiy “aaae” eiioe?eo?a ia ia?ao?ano? (nooiaiy eiioe?eoiino?)
aeicaieeei i?aeaanoe aiae?oe/io aaco aeey i?ecia/aiiy e?eueeino? oac, a
ao?i, ? ?ic?iaeo noai iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo ? /a?aoaaiiy oac.
Aeey ae??oaiiy aeaii? caaea/? aoei i?iaaaeaii oi?iae?caoe?th ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?th ianeao aeaieo, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? noaio IAe? ia
ia?ao?ano?, o aeaeyae? iao?eoe? iai?yie?a, yea a?aeaeaa? iiaeeeaino?
aeeiiaiiy ie?aieo iaiaa??a c iaeiiai aieo ? nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino?
iaeii/aniiai aeeiiaiiy aeae?eueeio iaiaa??a (o oac?) — c ?ioiai. Oaea
iao?eoey ?ioi?iaoe?eii a?aeia?aaea? noaio IAe? ia ia?ao?ano? ?acii c
iaaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie eiai aaiiao???. Iinoaaeaia caaea/a aoea
ae??oaia canoinoaaiiyi iaaii? nenoaie eiaeoaaiiy eii??ie iao?eoe?, a
oaeiae ?o ai?noo.

Ia ?en. 3 cia?aaeaii iao?eoeth i?eioeeiiai? eiioe?eoiino? aeey 4-o
noi?iiiueiai ia?ao?anoy c 4-o nioaiaei ?ooii ia eiaeiiio i?aeoiae?.

Ao?aei? iai?yiee iicia/athoueny iaia?ieie oeeo?aie, a aeo?aei? — ia?ieie
ca aiaeeiieeiaith no??eeith. Aoea iiaoaeiaaia iao?eoey, eieiiee yei?
iicia/ai? iiia?aie aeo?aeieo iai?yie?a, a ?yaeee — iiia?aie ao?aeieo.
Oaeei /eiii, eiaeia eii??ea a?aeiia?aea? iaeiiio c iaiaa??a. Aaaaeai?
iicia/aiiy iaiaa??a o?ainii?oieo cania?a: ? — ?icai?io,

I — i?yii,

E — e?ai?o/,

R — i?aai?o/.

Nooo?ai, ui i?e oaeiio a?aeia?aaeaii? eiaeiee iaiaa? caeia? naith
ae?aaiiaeue, oiaoi iao?eoey ? neiao?e/iith. E??i oiai, eiaeia eii??ea
iao?eoe? a?aeiia?aea? iaeiicia/ii iaaiiio iaiaa?o. Ia ?en.3 ia oaiiiio
oii? aeae?eai? oneeaaeiai? iaiaa?e. I?ae oneeaaeiaiiyi iaiaa?o
?icoi??oueny, iai?eeeaae, ?oo e?ai?o/ ?c e?aeiuei? i?aai? nioae. Oe?
caeiiii??iino? oa?aeoa?i? ? aeey a?eueo neeaaeieo ia?ao?anoue.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aecia/a? iao?eoeth iaiaa??a ia ia?ao?ano?, aea
aeey e?euee?nii? ioe?iee A? iaiao?aeii iaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ??aaiue
aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo i?e cae?eniaii? oiai /e ?ioiai iaiaa?o ? aeey
ia?ao?anoy aoe?eiio. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii aecia/eoe aaaia?
eiao?oe??ioe eiaeii? eii??ee iao?eoe? ia?ao?anoy. I?ae aaaiaei
eiao?oe??ioii ?icoi??oueny /eneiaee iieaciee, yeee ioe?ith? iioaioe?eio
eiioe?eoi?noue iaiaa?o ia ia?ao?ano?.

Aeey aecia/aiiy aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a eiaeii? eii??ee iao?eoe?
ia?ao?anoy aoea aeei?enoaia iaoiaeeea, a iniiao yei? caeeaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiue aaa??eiino? ia
/ioe?ueionoi?iii?o ?aaoeueiaaieo ia?ao?anoyo, ui ia iaee iaiaaeaiue ii
aeeiiaiith iaiaa??a, a ia an?o i?aeoiaeao cae?enithaaany aeainoi?iii?e
?oo. Aoee aecia/ai? 15 noai oeiiaeo eiioe?eo?a (oei?a eiioe?eoieo
oi/ie), ui iiaeooue aeieeaoe ia ia?ao?anoyo (?en. 4). A iniiao
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee eiioe?eoiino? iieeaaeaii caeaaei?noue e?eueeino?
AeOI, ye? iiaeooue aeieeiooe ia ia?ao?ano?, a?ae ?ioaineaiinoae ?ooo
o?ainii?oieo iioie?a ? oeio eiioe?eoo. Ia ?ieue aaaiaiai eiao?oe??ioo
aoei aaaaeaii noaoenoe/io aaee/eio — i/?eoaaia e?euee?noue AeOI ia
ia?ao?ano? ca iaeeieoeth /ano (??e).

Ia ?en. 4 iiaeai? noaie oeiiaeo eiioe?eo?a oa iaoaiaoe/i? ??aiyiiy, ye?
aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe aaaia? eiao?oe??ioe eiaeii? c? noai. Oe?
??aiyiiy a?aoiaothoue caeaaei?noue i/?eoaaii? e?eueeino? AeOI (n) ia
ia?ao?ano? a?ae ?ioaneaiinoae ?ooo o?ainii?oieo iioie?a (N) o
a?aeiia?aeieo iai?yieao.

Oaeiae, aoee aecia/ai? iaiao?aei? /eneia? eiao?oe??ioe, ye? ei?eaothoue
iieaciee i/?eoaaii? e?eueeino? AeOI (b0,b1,b2) (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1 — *eneia? eiao?oe??ioe a?aeiia?aeii eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e

? noaieb0b1b2?
noaieb0b1b210,165510-696,981510-91,489220,101410-6105,59010-122,786238,6
12910-91,0682111,301210-91,14320,435348,129610-60,3662120,010610-60,6135
0,785850,344910-60,13630,6013130,484610-60,27690,447960,041810-60,463414
1,774110-91,11210,546770,211310-60,34680,4091150,535510-60,461082,679210
-60,2476

Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaieea iiaoaeoaaoe noaie eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e, ye?
aeieeathoue i?e cae?eniaii? eiaeiiai iaiaa?o. Aeey eiaeii? eiioe?eoii?
neooaoe?? aecia/a?oueny iieaciee i, a iaaacia/i?noue aeaiiai iaiaa?o
aecia/a?oueny a?aeiia?aeiei nooiaiai eiioe?eoiino?, yeee ?ic?aoiaaiee ye
noia aaaiaeo eiao?oe??io?a (i) eiaeii? c eiioe?eoieo neooaoe?e. Aeey
i?eeeaaeo ia ?en. 5 iiaoaeiaaia noaia aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy eiioe?eoiino?
i?e iaiaa?? “?oo i?yii”. Ia ?en. 5 iicia/ai? eiioe?eoi? oi/ee: —
ia?aoeiaiiy; — ceeaaiiy; — ?icaaeoaeaeaiiy.

Eiioe?eoe ca noaiaie 1 ? 2 a?aeaoaathoueny ana?aaeei? o?ainii?oiiai
iioieo ? a?ae??ciythoueny i?noeai aeieeiaiiy (ca noaiith 2 — a cii?
ia?ao?anoy, ca noaiith 1 — ia i?aeoiae? aei iueiai). Eiioe?eo ca noaiith
3 ? eiioe?eoii c? cono??/iei ?ooii. Oaeei /eiii, i?ae /an
cae?eniaiiy iaiaa?o “?oo i?yii” iiaeeeaa aeieeiaiiy 11 oei?a
eiioe?eoo, ye? aeieeathoue ca noaiaie 1, 2, 3, 4 (aea?/?), 5, 6, 7, 8,
13, 14 (?en. 5). Aeey eiaeiiai oeio eiioe?eoo ?ic?aoiao?oueny
iieaciee i, a nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? (nnoi) aecia/a?oueny ca ca
oi?ioeith:

nnoi=n1+n2+n3+n4+n4’+n5+n6+n7+n8+n13+n14 (1)

Aeey iaiaa??a “?oo i?aai?o/”, “?oo e?ai?o/” aiaeia?/iei /eiii aoee
iiaoaeiaai? noaie ? ia/eneai? nooiai? ?o eiioe?eoiino?.

Oaeei /eiii, oi?io?oueny iao?eoey ia?ao?anoy c iieacieeaie A? o
caeaaeiino? a?ae noai IAe? oa ?ioaineaiinoae o?ainii?oieo iioie?a. O
?ie? e?eoa??y IAe? ia ia?ao?ano? aeei?enoiao?oueny i?iaiiciaaia aaee/eia
— nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino?. Nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? ia?ao?anoy yaey? niaith
?ioaa?aeueiee e?euee?niee iieaciee ioe?iee ??aiy i?aai?caoe?? ? A? ia
ia?ao?ano? (ye ?aaoeueiaaiiio, oae ? ia?aaoeueiaaiiio), ui caeaaeeoue
a?ae noai IAe? (noai iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo), e?eueeino? ? oeio
eiioe?eoieo oi/ie, a oaeiae ?ioaineaiinoae iioie?a, ui eiioe?eoothoue.
?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith:
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 ,
(2)

aea inoi. ? — nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? ?-oiai iaiaa?o;

k — e?euee?noue iaiaa??a iiaeeeaeo aeey aeeiiaiiy ia ia?ao?ano?.

Caaaeyee aeeeaaeaiiio i?aeoiaeo aeieeea i?eioeeiiaa iiaeeea?noue
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee noaie IAe? o oacao NO?, c o?aooaaiiyi iieaciee?a
aaciaee oa ianya?a aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee oaeineiiaeaiith oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy
o?ainii?oieie iioieaie ia ?aaoeueiaaieo ia?ao?anoyo.

A i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy /eneiaeo aenia?eiaio?a aoei aeyaeaii, ui i?e
iaaieo oiiaao, ye? aecia/athoueny niiniaii ?ic?aooieo aeiaeaoeiaeo
oaeo?a (ia?ao?aeieo ?ioa?aae?a) oeeeeo NO?, oaeee ia?aiao? ?aaeeio NO?,
ye ao?a/aiee o oeeee? /an (L) caeaaeeoue ia eeoa a?ae caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? oac (oaeo?a), a oaeiae a?ae /a?aiaino? oeeo oac (oaeo?a) o
oeeee?. Oae i?e a?aooaaii? /ano ?ooo o?ainii?oiiai caniao aei
iaeaeaeueoi? eiioe?eoii? oi/ee (IEO) ia?aoeiaiiy a eiaeiiio c
aeiaeaoeiaeo oaeo?a, aaee/eia L ci?ith?oueny ia 15-20% o caeaaeiino?
a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea oac (oaeo?a) ?aaoethaaiiy oa ?o /a?aiaino? (aeea.
?en. 6,7).

Aenia?eiaioaeueii aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui:

· ?nio? iioeiaeueia /a?aia?noue oac (oaeo?a), i?e ye?e cia/aiiy
ao?a/aiiai /ano o oeeee? ?aaoethaaiiy ? i?i?iaeueiei;

· i?e ca?eueoaii? e?eueeino? oac (oaeo?a), ? ye iane?aeie — e?eueeino?
aa??aio?a /a?aiaino? oac, ae?aiacii L = Lmax — Lmin ca?eueoo?oueny
(?en. 6);

· ao?a/aiee /an aeinyaa? naiai i?i?iaeueiiai cia/aiiy i?e /a?aiaino?
oac, i?e ye?e noia a?aenoaiae aei IEO i?i?iaeueia.

A ?acoeueoao? aoea ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia??
oi?aae?iiy o?ainii?oieie iioieaie ia ?aaoeueiaaieo ia?ao?anoyo uiaei
aeai?o i?eioeeio oi?aae?iiy (ca oacaie /e neaiaeueieie a?oiaie), noai
iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo, /a?aiaino? ? e?eueeino? oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi),
oa iieaciee?a A? (?en. 8).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaiee i?ioean ?ic?iaee aeai?eoi?a aeey
?aae?caoe?? iaoiaeeee. Caaaeyee iao?e/i?e oi?i? iieno nenoaie aca?iiae??
o?ainii?oieo iioie?a ia ia?ao?ano?, c?o/iino? iaoeiii? ia?iaee, aoa
?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia ia?ao?ano?
(?en. 9).

Oiiae iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio NO? ii e?eoa??th iaeneiaeueii? A? iiaeia
caienaoe oae:
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(3)

A ?aaeueieo oiiaao ia (3) iaeeaaeathoueny iaiaaeaiiy:

picscalex1000100090000035d0100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00580091200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbbffffff400900007b0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000400115000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e000076040000002d01000009000000320a40038f02010000006e000001
09000000320a4003c006010000006e00000115000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010100
00000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01010004000000
f00100000a000000320ac003960302000000696a620062000a000000320ac003c7070200
00006b709a00b00009000000320a36058d00010000006900620009000000320a3605b001
010000006a00620009000000320a4d014000010000006d00fd0009000000320a4d01b601
010000006b009a0010000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62
6f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a4003170501000000a300
190110000000fb0280fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00020400
00002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a91036b0001000000e500c60115000000
fb02a0fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00
0076040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a3605fc00010000002c005800
09000000320a4d013c01010000002c0058000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000
000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d00000400
00002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000
(4)

i?e Tmin < T < Tmax L < Lmax picscalex100010009000003280100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02e00240081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff00080000a00200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000900009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 5c006b000500000013025c00fa000500000014025c0052040500000013025c00e1041500 0000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61 6e000076040000002d01010009000000320ac00140000100000074008f0009000000320a c00127040100000074008f0010000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010009000000320a4002e7000100 00004400d60010000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f001020009000000320ac0018002010000003c001901 17000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001010000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f00101000f000000320a4002d004 05000000edeef0ec2e00b000b000b000e7005e000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100 0000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0000 040000002d01010004000000f00102000300000000000000000000000000000000000000 00000000020100000000 2 < m < mmax (5) 15 O ae?acao (3, 4, 5): k- /enei eiioe?eoieo oi/ie j ia ia?ao?ano?; ie? - i?eeiyoa cia/aiiy e?eoa??th i, AeOI/??e; picscalex1000100090000039a0100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c005000b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffc00a0000700500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000400115000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000076040000002d01000009000000320a40034000010000006e000001 09000000320a40039a07010000006e00000115000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010100 00000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01010004000000 f00100000a000000320ac003470102000000696a6200620009000000320ac003db080100 00006a00620009000000320a36056a05010000006a00620009000000320a580106060100 00006b009a0009000000320ac003500a010000006900620010000000fb0200fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f0010100 09000000320a4003d102010000003d00190110000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010000 00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a 3605f805010000003d00c10010000000fb0280fd00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a910376050100 0000e500c60115000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a4003 6e04010000002800a80009000000320a40039409010000002900a80015000000fb02a0fe 0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000760400 00002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a3605e906010000003000b0000a000000 26060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc0200000000 0102022253797374656d0000040000002d01010004000000f00100000300000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00ffffff- noia?iee nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? iaiaa??a, ii?aeiaieo o ?-o?e neaiaeuei?e a?oi?; o - e?euee?noue neaiaeueieo a?oi (oac); O - o?eaae?noue oeeeeo ?aaoethaaiiy, n; L - cia/aiiy ao?a/aiiai /ano o oeeee? ?aaoethaaiiy, n; picscalex100010009000003a50000000300150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02000240011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffff00010000c00100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 5a0065000500000013025a00f40015000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000074040000002d01010009000000320ac001 33000100000074008f000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02 1400090000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0000040000002d0102000400 0000f0010100030000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000 - na?aaeiy cao?eiea o?ainii?oieo cania?a, n. *eneiaa cia/aiiy e?eoa??th ie?, ui aoiaeeoue aei iaiaaeaiiy (4) iiaeiii ei?eaoaaoeny aeey eiaeiiai eiie?aoiiai ia?ao?anoy c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e (iai?eeeaae, ca i?io. Eiaaiiaei ?.I. ie? <3). Cai?iiiiiaaiee aeai?eoi aea? iiaeeea?noue ia iniia? aiae?co ? ioe?iee noi?niino? iai?yie?a oa nooiaiy ?o eiioe?eoiino? aecia/eoe noaie ?ic’?caeo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, ui i?i?i?cothoue ae?ac (3), e?euee?noue neaiaeueieo a?oi ia ia?ao?ano? ca e?eoa???i ??aiy aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. I?ney i?i?i?caoe?? e?eueeino? oac ? oi?ioaaiiy neaiaeueieo a?oi aecia/a-thoueny noaie iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo o?ainii?oieo cania?a ia ia?ao?ano?. Oea iaaea? iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe on? aeiaeaoeia? oaeoe oa ia?ao?aei? ?ioa?aaee aeey on?o iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a /a?aiaino? oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi). Oiiae iioei?caoe?? ?aaeeio NO? ca e?eoa???i i?i?iaeueiiai ao?a/aiiai /ano o oeeee? ?aaoethaaiiy iiaeia caienaoe oae: picscalex100010009000003190100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028002000b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffc0ffffffc00a0000400200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000600015000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000074040000002d01000009000000320ac0014d00010000004c001e01 09000000320ac0018302010000005000380115000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010100 00000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000074040000002d01010004000000 f001000009000000320a40027003010000006d00fd0015000000fb0200fe000000000000 9001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000074040000002d010000 04000000f001010009000000320ac001a801010000002800a80009000000320ac001b104 010000002900a8000c000000320ac0018307030000006d696e008f018f00000110000000 fb0200fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010100 04000000f001000009000000320ac001d505010000003d0019010a00000026060f000a00 ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc0200000000010202225379 7374656d0000040000002d01000004000000f00101000300000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000, (6) aea ?o=(o-1)! - (7) e?euee?noue iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a /a?aiaino? c o neaiaeueieo a?oi (oac) ?aaoethaaiiy i?e iaiaaeaiiyo: 2 < m < mmax (8) I?e oeueiio ae?ac aeey aecia/aiiy ao?a/aiiai /ano o oeeee? ia? aeaeyae: picscalex100010009000003a10100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028005000c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffb0ffffffc00b0000300500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000200115000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000074040000002d01000009000000320a40034d00010000004c001e01 09000000320a400384060100000074008f0015000000fb02a0fe00000000000090010100 00000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000074040000002d01010004000000 f001000009000000320a58012904010000006d00fd0010000000fb0200fe000000000000 9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f00101000900 0000320a4003f101010000003d00190109000000320a4003e508010000002d0019011000 0000fb0280fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01 010004000000f001000009000000320a9103b90301000000e500c60115000000fb0200fe 0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000740400 00002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a4003c305010000002800a80009000000 320a4003200b010000002900a80017000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001010000cc0002 001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01010004000000 f00100000a000000320ac003230702000000ef69b0005e0009000000320a36058e030100 000069005e0009000000320a36050004010000003d00eb0009000000320a360505050100 00003100b00015000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e000074040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a4003 380a01000000310000010a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02 1400090000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0000040000002d0101000400 0000f0010000030000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0000, (9) aea ti? - cia/aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo oaeo?a (ia?ao?aeieo ?ioa?aae?a) aeey a?aeiia?aeieo iniiaieo oaeo?a, ui aa?ooue o/anoue o aeaiiio oeeee? ?aaoethaaiiy, n. O naith /a?ao, o?eaaeino? aeiaeaoeiaeo oaeo?a (ia?ao?aeieo ?ioa?aae?a) ti? ? ooieoe?yie ia?aiao??a o?ainii?oieo iioie?a ? aei?iaei?o oiia: picscalex100010009000003cd0200000400170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00520211200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffabffffffe02000006b0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000f00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402 630376070500000013026303cd090500000014026303df0b0500000013026303b0140500 00001402630371170500000013026303511c09000000fa02000008000000000000002200 040000002d010100050000001402e5010320050000001302e501c72015000000fb0200fe 0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000760400 00002d01020009000000320ae00340000100000074008f0009000000320aa302d5070100 00005600380109000000320a70059c08010000006400000109000000320aa202b00c0100 00006c008f0009000000320aa2024610010000006c008f0009000000320a70057b0f0100 00005600380109000000320aa2029718010000006c008f0009000000320a700561190100 00006100000115000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d657320 4e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01030004000000f001020009000000320a6004 9901010000006900620009000000320a2203500d010000006100b0000c000000320a2203 f11003000000484b5400fd00eb00c5000c000000320a2203421903000000484b5400fd00 eb00c50017000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001010000cc0002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01020004000000f001030009000000320a 6004e90001000000ef00b00010000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001020009000000320ae003b6020100 00003d00190109000000320ae003e105010000002b00190109000000320ae0034a0a0100 00002b00190109000000320aa202b10e010000002b00190109000000320ae0032d150100 00002d00190109000000320ae003ce1c010000002b00190110000000fb0200fe00000000 00009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f0010300 09000000320ae0033d04010000006400fa0015000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000 00000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01030004000000 f001020009000000320a70059607010000003200000109000000320aa202911701000000 3200000109000000320ae003521e010000003300000115000000fb02a0fe000000000000 9001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d010200 04000000f001030009000000320a5d011320010000003100b00009000000320a52031920 010000003200b00015000000fb0200fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d65 73204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01030004000000f001020009000000320a a202ee0b010000002800a80009000000320aa2020814010000002900a80009000000320a e003af16010000002800a80009000000320ae003471f010000002900a80015000000fb02 a0fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076 040000002d01020004000000f001030009000000320abc0109110100000027003b000900 0000320abc015a190100000027003b0009000000320abc01a6190100000027003b000a00 000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc020000 00000102022253797374656d0000040000002d01030004000000f0010200030000000000 000000000000000000000000000000000000000200000002ffff, (10) aea - oa?i?i ?aaeoe?? aiae?y,n; V - oaeaee?noue ia iai?yieo ia?ao?anoy, i/n; d - eiioi?oia oiia?eueiaiiy, i/n2; la - aeiaaeeia aaoiiia?ey, i; l’IEO , l”IEO- a?aeiia?aeii aeenoaioe?? a?ae noii-e?i?? aei IEO o oac?, i; a - iaeneiaeueia i?enei?aiiy i?e ?icaii? aaoiiia?ey, i/n2. Oea oaeiae iaeeaaea? iaiaaeaiiy ia ae?ac (6). O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui oiiaa iioei?caoe?? (6) aeeiio?oueny i?e /a?aiaino? oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi) aeey yei?: picscalex1000100090000037c0100000200150000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c028005000c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffadffffffc00b00002d0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000100115000000fb0200fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000074040000002d01000009000000320a60035b02010000006c008f00 15000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001010000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e000074040000002d01010004000000f00100000d000000320ae0030c0304000000 484b5469fd00eb00c500620009000000320a39053700010000006900620009000000320a 5b01b400010000006d00fd0010000000fb0200fe00000000000090010000000200020010 53796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a6003dc060100 00003d00190110000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c 0002040000002d01010004000000f001000009000000320a3905c000010000003d00c100 10000000fb0280fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000000 2d01000004000000f001010009000000320a9403440001000000e500c60115000000fb02 00fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000074 040000002d01010004000000f00100000c000000320a60038a08030000006d696e008f01 8f00000115000000fb02a0fe0000000000009001000000000002001054696d6573204e65 7720526f6d616e000074040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320a39059001 010000003100b0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021400 090000000000bc02000000000102022253797374656d0000040000002d01010004000000 f0010000030000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 (11) I?i?i?caoe?y ao?a/aiiai o oeeee? /ano a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?ac?a (6) ? (11) ?aae?co?oueny aeai?eoiii, ui i?eaaaeaiee ia ?en. 10. Acaaae?, aecia/aiiy a?aenoai? aei IEO (l) aeeiio?oueny aenia?eiaioaeueii /a?ac oa, ui cia/aiiy lIEO? caeaaeeoue a?ae o?aaeoi??? ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a. Ia o?aaeoi??th ?ooo aieeaathoue aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e ia?ao?anoy, oae? ye eoo ia?aoeoeio aei??a, oe?eia oa e?euee?noue nioa ?ooo. Aeey eiaeiiai ia?ao?anoy aaiiao?e/i? ia?aiao?e ? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie ? aecia/eoe aiae?oe/i? caeiiii??iino? ia/eneaiiy lIEO?, ye? a ioiiethaaee an? aeaee ia?ao?anoue, aeineoue aaaeei. I?ioa no/ani? eiii’thoa?i? a?ao?/i? oaoiieia?? aeicaieythoue ciiaeaethaaoe o?aaeoi??? ?ooo ? aecia/eoe lIEO?, lIEO? . *a?aia?noue, ui a?aeiia?aea? ae?aco (11) i?eeia?oueny ca iioeiaeueio. I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aii i?aeoe/iiio aeei?enoaiith ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, a iueiio noi?ioeueiaai? aeiiae aei aia?aoo?e, ui ?aae?co? cai?iiiii-aai? iaoiaeeee, a oaeiae iniiai? aeiii-i?/i? ia?aaaae cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?ae-oiaeo oa noa?a canoinoaaiiy. Aeiiii?/i? ia?niaeoeae cai?iii-iiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ?ethno?othoueny ia i?eeeaae? oeiiaiai ia?ao?anoy i?nueei? AAeI. I?e oeueiio aeiiii?/iee aoaeo aeinyaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy aaa??eiino? ? nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo o?ain-ii?oieo cao?eiie. Caaaeyee ?ic?iaeaiei iaoiaeai i?i?i?caoe?? eiioe?eoiino? oa ao?a/aiiai /ano a iiaea?i?ciaaiiio ?aaeei? NO? a?i noaiiaeoue aeecueei 270 oen. a?i. ia iaeia ia?ao?anoy. INIIAI? AENIIAEE 1. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy o?ainii?oieie iioieaie ? aaaeeeaith e aeooaeueiith caaea/ath, iia’ycaiith c i?aeaeuaiiyi aoaeoeaiino? i?nueeeo o?ainii?oieo nenoai. Aiae?c a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieaco?, ui o a?eueoino? i?aeoiae?a oae? ia?aiao?e ?aaeei?a NO?, ye e?euee?noue oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi), ?o /a?aia?noue, aea?? i?eioeeio oi?aae?iiy (ca oacaie /e neaiaeueieie a?oiaie) i?ecia/athoueny ia ?iaeaia?ii-?ioo?oeaiiio ??ai? ? ia iathoue iaoaiaoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy, ui o ?yae? aeiaaee?a iaiaaeo? iiaeeeaino? NO? ye ca aoaeoeai?noth, oae ? ca A?. ?nioth/? iaoiaee, aeai?eoie oa iiaeae? iio?aaothoue iino?eiiai ?icaeoeo ? aaeaioaoe?? aei no/anieo oiia, ui e neeaei iaoo aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. 2. Oi?iae?ciaaii ioe?ieo iiaeeeaino? i?eioeeiiai? noi?niino? ?aaoeueiaaieo iai?yie?a a neaiaeueieo a?oiao, ui aeicaiey? iaa?oiooaaoe e?euee?noue oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi) a ?aaeei? ?aaoethaaiiy. 3. Cai?iiiiiaaii e?euee?niee iieaciee ??aiy A? ia ia?ao?ano?, - nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? ia?ao?anoy - ui a?aoiao? noaio IAe? ia ia?ao?ano?, iioaciaee ?ic’?cae oa ?ioaineaiino? o?ainii?oieo iioie?a, oei ? iaaacia/i?noue eiioe?eoieo oi/ie, a oaeiae e?euee?noue oac aai neaiaeueieo a?oi a ?aaeei? ?aaoethaaiiy. 4. ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/iee iien (iao?eoeth eiioe?eoiino?) aeey ?aaoeueiaaiiai ia?ao?anoy, ui a?aoiao? i?eioeei oi?aae?iiy, e?euee?noue ? iine?aeiai?noue oac (neaiaeueieo a?oi), noaie iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo oa ?ioaineaiino? ?ooo o?ainii?oieo cania?a, a oaeiae iieaciee aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. 5. ?ic?iaeaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii eiiieaeniee iaoiae ioe?iee, a ia eiai aac? - iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aaeei?a ? oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? NO? uiaei aeai?o i?eioeeio oi?aae?iiy, noai iioaciaiai ?ic’?caeo, e?eueeino? ? /a?aiaino? oac ?aaoethaaiiy (neaiaeueieo a?oi), a oaeiae iieaciee?a aaciaee aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo. Canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo aeicaiey? cieceoe: nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino? ia?ao?anoy; ao?a/aiee /an o oeeee? ?aaoethaaiiy ia 15-20%. 6. ?ic?iaeai? i?aeoiaee aei eiiieaenii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy na?oeioi?iith neaiae?caoe??th ia ia?ao?anoyo AAeI ? iniiaith (aacith) aeey iaoaiaoe/iiai caaacia/aiiy nenoai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy na?oeioi?ieo ia’?eo?a. Noi?ioeueiaai? i?eioeeie, no?oeoo?a ? aeai?eoie, ni?yiiaai? ia aenia?oi? iaoiaee i?eeiyooy i?iaeoieo ??oaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? o oaeeo ?iaioao: 1. Iieicaiei I.I., A?ania A.?. Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea iioaioeeaeueiie eiioeeeoiinoe o?ainii?oiuo iioieia ia ia?ae?anoeao // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. - 1997, ?1. - N. 25-27. 2. Iieicaiei I.I., A?ania A.?. Iooe iioeiecaoeee naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iin?aaenoaii /a?aaeiaaiey oac // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie.-1997, ?2. - N. 5-8. 3. Iieicaiei I.I. Ioe?iea iioaioe?eieo eiioe?eo?a o?ainii?oieo cania?a ia ia?ao?anoyo // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. - 1998, ?2. - N. 20-23. 4. Iieicaiei I.I. Aei ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy ia ia?ao?anoyo aoee/ii-aei?iaeiuei? ia?aae? // Aaoioeyoiaee Oe?a?ie. - 1999. - ? 1 - N. 26. 5. Iieicaiei I.I. Uiaei ieoaiiy iioei?caoe?? ?aaeei?a na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ia?ao?anoyo aoee/ii-aei?iaeiuei? ia?aae? // Aaciaea aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo Oe?a?ie: iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee a?niee. - Ee?a: IAeOe A? IAN Oe?a?ie, 1998 ?. - ?1. - N. 90-97. Aiioaoe?y Iieicaiei I.I. “Eiiieaenia ioe?iea ?aaeei?a na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ia?ao?anoyo”. Aeena?oaoe?y o aeaeyae? ?oeiieno ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 05.22.01 - O?ainii?oi? nenoaie. Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999 ?. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo eiiieaenii? ioe?iee ?aaeei?a na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ia ia?ao?anoyo aoee/ii-aei?iaeiuei? ia?aae?, ui a?aoiao? noaie i?aai?caoe?? aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo: ia?aiao?e aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo ? iieacieee aaciaee ?ooo, aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy na?oeioi?iith neaiae?caoe??th. O ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeniee iaoiae ioe?iee, a ia eiai aac? iaoiaeeeo oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? oi?aae?iiy o?ainii?oieie iioieaie ia ?aaoeueiaaieo ia?ao?anoyo, yea aeicaiey? io?eioaaoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo yeino? ?aaeei?a na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, oaeineiiaethaaoe ?aaeeie na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy, iaa?oioiaoaaoe oa ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ?aaeeie na?oeioi?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy “ca ie?aieie iai?yieaie” (neaiaeueieie a?oiaie), ioe?ithaaoe cai?iiiiiaai? aei ?aae?caoe?? noaie i?aai?caoe?? ?ooo c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai ??aiy aaciaee ?ooo ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy, aaoiiaoecoaaoe i?ioean i?iaeooaaiiy na?oeioi?ieo ia’?eo?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?aai?caoe?y aei?iaeiueiai ?ooo, aaciaea ?ooo, aaoiiaoeciaaia nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ?ooii, na?oeioi?ia ?aaoethaaiiy, oaoiieia?y oi?aae?iiy, nooi?iue eiioe?eoiino?. Summary Polozenko P.M. Complex estimate of traffic light regimes at crossings. The dissertation is in the form of manuscript for obtaining academic degree of Engineering Sciences Doctor on the specialty 05.22.01 - Transport systems. Ukrainian Transport University, Kyiv, 1999. The dissertation is dedicated to the questions of methods’ elaboration of complex estimate of traffic light regulation regimes’ at cross-roads system that taking into account traffic engineering schemes. In particular, it is considered road traffic parameters and traffic safety indices to perfect traffic light signaling control technologies. As a result of researches a complex method of estimate was elaborated. And on the basis of the above mentioned method it was worked up a methodology of perfection of transport streams at regulated crossings control technologies. The worked out technology allows to receive quantitative estimate of traffic light regulation regimes’ quality, to perfect regimes of traffic light regulation, to substantiate and to calculate regimes of traffic light regulation on “separate directions” (signal groups), to estimate offered for realization traffic engineering schemes from the point of providing the necessary level of traffic safety at the stage of projecting, to automate the process of traffic light objects’ designing. Key words: traffic engineering, traffic safety, automated road traffic control system, traffic light regulation, control technologies, level of conflict. Aiiioaoeey Iieicaiei I.I. “Eiiieaeniay ioeaiea ?aaeeiia naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia ia?ae?anoeao”. Aeenna?oaoeey a aeaea ?oeiiene ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.01 - O?ainii?oiua nenoaiu. Oe?aeineee o?ainii?oiue oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999 a. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee iaoiaea eiiieaeniie ioeaiee ?aaeeiia naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ia ia?ae?anoeao oee/ii-aei?iaeiie naoe, o/eouaathuaai noaiu i?aaiecaoeee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey: ia?aiao?u aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey e iieacaoaee aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey aeey oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee oi?aaeaiey naaoioi?iie neaiaeecaoeeae. Aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e ?ac?aaioaii iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea ia?ae?anoea, i?eaiaeiia aeey ia?aaioee ia IYAI e iicaieythuaa ?aaeeciaaoue iaoaieci ioeaiee niaiauaiey ioaeaeueiuo iai?aaeaiee (iaiaa?ia) a oaca (neaiaeueiie a?oiia) i?e naaoioi?iii ?aaoee?iaaiee ia ia?ae?anoea. Aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey i?aaeeiaeaiiiai iiaeoiaea aeey ?acee/iuo oeiia ia?ana/aiee ia oee/ii-aei?iaeiie naoe. ?ac?aaioaia e enneaaeiaaia iaoiaeeea eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee eiioeeeoia o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia ia?ae?anoea n o/aoii iieacaoaeae aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey. Aaaaeaiu iiiyoey: noaiaiue eiioeeeoiinoe iaiaa?a - aaniaie iieacaoaeue iianiinoe iaiaa?a; noaiaiue eiioeeeoiinoe ia?ae?anoea - eioaa?aeueiue eiee/anoaaiiue iieacaoaeue ioeaiee o?iaiy i?aaiecaoeee e aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey ia ia?ae?anoea, eioi?ue caaeneo io noai i?aaiecaoeee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey (noai ii oaciaiai ?acuacaea), eiee/anoaa e oeia eiioeeeoiuo oi/ae, a oaeaea eioaineaiinoae eiioeeeoothueo o?ainii?oiuo iioieia. Aeieacaia aiciiaeiinoue iioeiecaoeee ?aaeeiia naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey iin?aaenoaii /a?aaeiaaiey oac (neaiaeueiuo a?oii). A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee ?ac?aaioai eiiieaeniue iaoiae ioeaiee, a ia aai aaca - iaoiaeeea oniaa?oainoaiaaiey oaoiieiaee oi?aaeaiey o?ainii?oiuie iioieaie ia ia?ae?anoea n iiiiuueth naaoioi?iie neaiaeecaoeee. I?aaeeiaeaiiay iaoiaeeea iicaieyao iieo/aoue eiee/anoaaiioth ioeaieo ea/anoaa ?aaeeiia naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ?aaeeiu naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey, iainiiauaaoue e ?ann/eouaaoue ?aaeeiu naaoioi?iiai ?aaoee?iaaiey ii neaiaeueiui a?oiiai, ioeaieoue i?aaeeiaeaiiua e ?aaeecaoeee noaiu i?aaiecaoeee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey n oi/ee c?aiey aaciianiinoe aeaeaeaiey ia yoaia i?iaeoe?iaaiey, aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeann i?iaeoe?iaaiey naaoioi?iuo iauaeoia. ?ac?aaioaiu ?aai/ea aeai?eoiu iaoiaeeee e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea eo ?aaeecothuaa. Ii?aaeaeaia noa?a eniieueciaaiey e au?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii i?eiaiaieth ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeee e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, aeieacaia yeiiiie/aneay oeaeaniia?aciinoue eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea aeey i?iaaaeaiey enneaaeiaaiee ii i?aaiecaoeee aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey ia ia?ae?anoeao oee/ii-aei?iaeiuo naoae ai?iaeia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?aaiecaoeey aei?iaeiiai aeaeaeaiey, aaciianiinoue aeaeaeaiey, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey aeaeaeaieai, naaoioi?iia ?aaoee?iaaiea, oaoiieiaey oi?aaeaiey, noaiaiue eiioeeeoiinoe.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *