Італійська еміграція в Україні: джерела та шляхи формування, міжнародні зв’язки (80-ті роки ХVІІІ — перша третина ХІХ ст.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст.

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?INUeEI? A?OAIA?AO?? OA AeAEA?AEICIAANOAA

?i. I.N.A?OOAANUeEIAI

AAOeAE Einoyioei TH??eiae/

OAeE 940.2 (45+477) «17/18»

?OAE?ENUeEA AI?A?AOe?ss A OE?A?I?: AeAEA?AEA

OA OEssOE OI?IOAAIIss, I?AEIA?IAeI? CA’ssCEE

(80-o? ?iee XVIII — ia?oa o?aoeia XIX no.)

07.00.02.- Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? anana?oiuei? ?noi??? oa i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie AA?AA?OeAA Ieeiea
Ieeieaeiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee IAEAI?IAeA Ieaenaiae? Ieeeoiae/, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
aoiiiie?oieia?? ?inoeoooo iie?oieia?/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e caaaeueii? ?noi???
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa
E?EAEAI?ANUeEA Aaeaioeia Aieiaeeie??aia

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. O.Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a
iiai? e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «25» ethoiai 1999 ?ieo i(a) 11 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.228.01. a ?inoeooo?
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «12» n?/iy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiae. ?no. iaoe Aa?aa ?.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeINE?AeAEAIIss

?icaoaeiaa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee no/anii? Oe?a?ie ia i?eioeeiao
??aiii?aaiino? oa ia?oia?noaa c ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ia?aaeaa/a?
a?aooaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ?? aca?iei ?c
ca?oa?aeaeyi, iniiaith yeeo aoei ? caeeoa?oueny aaaaoia?aiia ni?eeoaaiiy
a ??cieo aaeocyo noni?eueiiai aoooy. Aea/aiiy ?noi??? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei Oe?a?ie noaiiaeoue iaoeiaee oa i?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an c iaeyaeo ia
?? iinooiiao ?ioaa?aoe?th a nenoaio ?a?iiaenueeiai aeiiii?/iiai,
iie?oe/iiai oa eoeueoo?iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa.

O oeueiio ca’yceo aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? ?oae?eoe?a
a Oe?a?i? e?ioey XVIII — ia?oi? o?aoeie XIX no. coiiaeth?oueny
iaiao?aei?noth a?aeoai?aiiy ?noi?e/iiai oea oa c’ynoaaiiy oaiaeaioe?e
oe?a?inueei-?oae?enueeeo aca?iei. O ?aieao oe??? ??ciiieaiiai? i?iaeaie
?icaeyae ?noi??? ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? ia? ?ice?eoe ?? i?noea ? ?ieue
a aeiiii?oe? oa eoeueoo??, o?aai?caoe?eieo i?ioeanao Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii oa ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ? ?oae?enueea
ai?a?aoe?y (ye noeoii?noue ?oae?eoe?a-ai?a?aio?a, ui i?iaeeaaee a
Oe?a?i?), a oaeiae i?a?aoe?ei? ?ooe ia Aiaii?inueeiio i?aino?ia? oa
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ye? i?ecaaee aei ?? oi?ioaaiiy.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae c 80-o ?ie?a
XVIII no. aei e?ioey ia?oi? o?aoeie XIX no. — ii/aoeiaee aoai
ae?yeueiino? ?oae?enueei? iaioeie Oe?a?ie, eiee ii/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy
ia?oeo ?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?aai?/ii iia’ycaia c iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith oaiaoeeith a?aeae?eo
anana?oiuei? ?noi??? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie «Oe?a?inueei-?a?iiaenuee? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?i?
aca?iiaieeae (e?i. XVIII — O?O no.)», ui aeeiio?oueny i?ioyaii 1997 —
1999 ??.

A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iaoo aeena?oaoe?eii? i?aoe? — eiiieaenii aena?oeeoe
oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? ia ii/aoeo 80-o
?ie?a XVIII — a ia?o?e o?aoei? XIX no. Aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?eaia
ae??oaiith oaeeo caaaeaiue:

noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iiia?aaei? ia??iaee ?oae?enueei? i?enooiino? ia
oe?a?inueeeo oa?aiao;

aeine?aeeoe aeiiii?/i? e iie?oe/i? ia?aaeoiiae oi?ioaaiiy ai?a?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a o ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaaao oa ?ii?a?aoe?eiiai ?ooo c Aiaii?i ia
oe?a?inuee? caie?;

aeyaeoe iai?yiee ?ii?a?aoe?? c Aiaii?i, aecia/eoe oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy
?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae a Oe?a?i? oa i?ioan?eiee neeaae
?oae?eoe?a-?ii?a?aio?a;

aena?oeeoe o/anoue ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? a aeiiii?/iiio aeeoo?
Oe?a?ie, i?aeia?iaeieo oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yceao oe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a;

?ice?eoe i?noea ?oae?eoe?a o ?a?iia?caoe?? i?no oa
eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeeo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeeie ?noi?e/iiai i?ciaiiy
— ia’?eoeai?noue oa ?noi?eci. Iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy —
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, aiae?oe/iee oa noaoenoe/iee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e ia iniia? oe?ieiai
eiea caeo/aieo aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iiaeo a?o?aieo oa iioae?eiaaieo
aeaea?ae oia?oa cae?eniaii eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?oae?enueei?
ai?a?aoe?? a ?? ca’yceo c aeiiii?/ieie, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieie oa
eoeueoo?ieie i?ioeanaie, ui a?aeaoaaeeny ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo oa a
e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a?, ui ?? oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, eiai
iaoeiaa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y oa aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a (niaoeeo?n?a), i?ae?o/iee?a,
ocaaaeueithth/eo iaoeiaeo ?ia?o, aoc?anueeeo oa oe?eueieo iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai. Aiie oaeiae iiaeooue i?eneoaeeoeny oao?aoeyi, ye? i?aoeththoue
iaae aeine?aeaeaiiyi i?iaeai ?noi??? aoi?/ieo iaioei a Oe?a?i?,
aea/aiiyi ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?iiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa Oe?a?ie ?c cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia /ioe?ueio iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 140-??//th a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai oa 90-e?ooth XIII A?oaieia?/iiai
c’?caeo «?aa?iiaeueia ? caaaeueia a ?noi???» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1995);
oe?a?inueei-neiaaoeuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?ia ?
neia’yinueeee na?o» (Oaeai?iae, 1996); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaiu a?a/aneie eoeueoo?u» (Naaanoiiieue, 1997);
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?ia, oe?a?ioe?,
oe?a?iiciaanoai XIX noie?ooy» (Ee?a, 1997).

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo anana?oiuei?
?noi??? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI
Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee o naie ioae?eaoe?yo:
o?ueio noaooyo o iaoeiaeo ca??ieeao oa aeo?iae?, a oacao aenooi?a ia
aeaio iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa a aeaio i?iaeaiieo ?aoeaic?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia iinoaaeaiith iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio (i?noeoue ?noi??ia?ao?th oa
iaeyae aeaea?ae), o?ueio ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? 217
noi??iie, o oiio /ene? nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (317
iiceoe?e; 23 n.), ae?aa?aia (1 n.) oa a?ao?e (1 n.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??,
aecia/a?oueny i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeena?oaoe??,
iaoa e caaaeaiiy, c’yniao?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
oa?aeoa? ai?iaaoe?? ?iaioe, iiaea?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca oa
?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie.

Aeaea?aeueio iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue a?o?ai? oa iioae?eiaai?
aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee, a oaeiae oiai/ania ia??iaeeea.

Aieiaio /anoeio aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue a?o?ai?
aeieoiaioe. Iae/eneaii?oeie na?aae ieo ? ca?oe ieoieoeue ?in?enueei?
?iia??? i?i i?e?cae ? iiaa?iaiiy ia aaouee?aueio ?oae?eoe?a, ianii?oe ?
a?eaoe, ui aeaeaaaeeny ?i ia i?aai oei/aniaiai i?iaeeaaiiy a
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo (?c cacia/aiiyi a?eo, i?ioan??, iaoe i?e?caeo oa
no?ie?a ia?aaoaaiiy). Iaea?eueoa oaeeo aeieoiaio?a cina?aaeaeaii o
oo.442, 533, 1342 Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie
o i.Ee?a?; o.1 Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Ee?anueei? iaeano?; oo.1, 2
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Iaeanueei? iaeano?. Aeieoiaioe noiniaii oaoiai?
ae?yeueiino? aeo?aeoe?a c Aiaii?i o i?noao oa naeao Oe?a?ie a?aeeeaeeny
o ni?aaao oiiaeo 2 Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Ee?anueei? iaeano?, oo.4, 17 oa
59 Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Iaeanueei? iaeano?. ?ai?oa ia iioae?eiaai?
noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae ianaeaiiy Iaeane o 1834 ?.
aoee aeyaeai? o ni?aaao iniaenoiai oiiaeo i?ioani?a Iiai?in?enueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo I.Io?caeaae/a (Aea?aeaaiee a?o?a Iaeanueei? iaeano?,
o.148).

Na?aae ?ioeo aeae?a aeaea?ae, ye? aeicaieythoue, cie?aia, i?inoaaeeoe
i?ioean ?icaoaeiae ?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae oa ?o o/anoue o noaiiaeaii?
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa i?ae oe?a?inueeeie oa
?oae?enueeeie ii?oaie, aaaeeeao a?oio neeaaeathoue iioae?eiaai?
aeieoiaioe eiinoeuenoa ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa a Iaean?, cie?aia
iaaiie?oainueeiai oa oineainueeiai.

Aei ie?aii? a?oie aeaea?ae ne?ae a?aeianoe caienee no/aniee?a —
?oae?eoe?a, ye? iaoeaee a oe?a?inueeeo i?noao aai a?aea?aeoaaee ?o i?ae
/an iiaei?iaeae i?aaeaiieie ieieeoeyie ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Oe?iio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ?icaoaeiao Iaeane, ?icaeoie ?? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?
oa ci?oeiaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aca?iei c ?oae?enueeeie aea?aeaaaie i?noeoue
eieaa «A?aeiiino? i?i Iaeano», iioae?eiaaia o Oei?aioe?? 1817 ?.
aiii?iiei ?oae?eoeai-iaaioe?aioii. Oaeoe c ?noi??? Iaeane, noaoenoeeo
ianaeaiiy i?noa ( o oiio /ene? e ?iicaioe?a) c?a?aii a «Ia?en? i?i i?noi
Iaeano», iaienaiiio 1834 ?. iaaiie?oainueeei a?oea-eiinoeii a Iaean?
I.Aea ??aanii ia caiiaeaiiy naiai ei?ie?anueeiai aeai?o. Aaeeeo
e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a c ieoaiue oi?a?ae? /i?iiii?nueei-acianueeeo
ii?o?a c ?oae?enueeeie aea?aeaaaie iiaeaii o «Iiaei?iaei?o iioaoeao»
a/aiiai, ?iaeaia?a oa aeeieiiaoa Eo?aeae? Na???noi??.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey iaienaiiy aeena?oaoe?? noaee ui??/i?
noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee «Ainoaea?noaaiiay aiaoiyy oi?aiaey a ?aciuo aa
aeaeao». Aiie i?noyoue oeeo?ia? aeai? i?i oi?aiaa ii?aieaanoai a
/i?iiii?nueei-acianueeeo ii?oao, ianyae oi?a?ae? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? c
?oae?enueeeie aea?aeaaaie, iaeiaioaaiiy iniiaieo oiaa??a
aenii?oo-?iii?oo. A ieo oaeiae ioae?eoaaeeny nienee eoioe?a, ye?
cae?enithaaee i?aeia?iaeio oi?a?aeth a i?aaeaiieo ii?oao.

Aaaaoee oa ??ciiieaiiaee iaoa??ae i?i o/anoue ?oae?eoe?a o
a?iiaaenueeiio oa eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai I?aaeiy
oa i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yceao oeueiai ?aa?iio cina?aaeaeaiee o ioae?eaoe?yo
aacaoe «Iaeanneee aanoiee», yea aeaeaaaeany c 1827 ?.

O a?o/eciyi?e oa ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?aenooi? ocaaaeueithth/?
i?aoe? c eiiieaeno ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? ?oae?enueei?
ai?a?aoe?? ia oe?a?inueeeo oa?aiao, noaiiaeaiiy yei? i?eiaaea? ia 80-o?
?iee XVIII — ia?oo o?aoeio XIX no. I?ioa oea ia icia/a?, ui aeine?aeieee
acaaae? iaieiaee oeth i?iaeaio. Ua o ia?o?e iieiaei? XIX no. ii/aee
c’yaeyoeny ?ica?aeee, aaoi?e yeeo noaaeee caaaeaiiyi aena?oeaiiy ?noi???
eieii?caoe?? I?e/i?iiii?’y ? a ca’yceo c oeei ?icaeyaeaee ie?ai?
nthaeaoe i?i ?oae?enueeeo iinaeaioe?a. Aiie ii?oooaaeeny ianaiia?aae o
i?aoeyo A.Neaeueeianueeiai, i?enay/aieo ainiiaea?nueeiio inai?iith oa
aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo Iiai?in?? a inoaii? aeanyoee?ooy XVIII no. Aaoi?
aeae?eea ie?ai? nioe?aeuei? a?oie ?oae?eoe?a-ai?a?aio?a, aeacaa ia
i?e/eie ?o iiyae ia oe?a?inueeiio I?aaei? oa, ia aaeath/enue aei
iaeaaeiiai aiae?co, a?aecia/ea caoiaee ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo uiaei
iinaeaiiy eieii?no?a c Aiaii?inueeiai i?aino?iaa.

Ia ii/aoeo 1900-o ?ie?a c’yaeythoueny ia?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aea aieiaiei
ia’?eoii aea/aiiy noa? ?oae?enueea eieii?caoe?y ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie
iai?ee?ioe? XVIII no. Eaeaoueny i?i i?aoeth A.Iena?aanueeiai «Aucia
eieiienoia ec THaeiie Aa?iiu e aoio ei?neeaioeaa», iioae?eiaaio a
«?onneii aanoieea», yea i?ci?oa oa?eoea ie?aiei ?icae?eii aei eiai
iiiia?ao?? «Ec enoi?ee eiino?aiiie eieiiecaoeee a ?innee a XVIII a.»
Aeei?enoiaoth/e a?aeiiino? c ae?eiaeo iaia??a A.I.Iioueiie?ia,
A.Iena?aanueeee ?icaeyioa aeaye? ia?aaeoiiae ianiai? ai?a?aoe??
?oae?eoe?a ia oe?a?inueeee I?aaeaiue, aia?oa iaa?a i???ioiaio noaoenoeeo
ia?anaeaioe?a, ?ice?ea i?i?aooiee ?iia?nueeeo aeanoae, ye? ni?e/eieeeny
aei e?ea?aeaoe?? ?oae?enueeeo aa?a?ieo eieii?e. ?acii c oei, aaoi?
iiaa?oiai iinoaaeany aei aecia/aiiy ?oiueiai nioe?aeueiiai neeaaeo: on?
ia?anaeaioe? aoee a?aeianai? iei aei noaio i?nueeiai i?ieaoa??aoo ia o?e
i?aenoaa?, ui ia /an ia?a?caeo a Oe?a?io aiie aoee aac?ia?oieie.
Iiae?aia oi/ea ci?o ia oea ieoaiiy iiae?eyeany ia ii/aoeo XX no. e
?ioeie ?in?enueeeie aeine?aeieeaie.

?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee caa?ioeeny aei i?iaeai ?noi??? ?oae?enueei?
ai?a?aoe??, cie?aia, ieoaiue eieii?caoe?? aeo?aeoeyie c Aiaii?i
i?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, iai?ee?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a. I.Ae?oaeei?iith a ?iaio?
«Naaa?iia I?e/a?iiii?uea a 1775-1800 aa.» aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee aeaui iiaee
iiaeyae ia oeth i?iaeaio. Aeiiiaieaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Iena?aanueeiai
aeyaeaieie a a?o?aao noaoenoe/ieie aeaieie, aiia aia?oa aeneiaeea
i?eiouaiiy, ui a?eueo?noue ?oae?eoe?a-ia?anaeaioe?a ca oaoiaith
niaoe?ae?caoe??th oyae?ea aei i?no, /ei iiynithaaany ?oi?e ianiaee
a?aeo?e c aecia/aieo o?yaeii iinaeaiue o iiaicaniiaai? oe?a?inuee?
ii?oe. Ie??i ?oae?eoe?a-o/aniee?a i?aai?ciaaiiai ia?anaeaiiy 1782-1784
??., I.Ae?oaeei?ia aeyaeea ?ioo ie?aio a?oio iinaeaioe?a-aeo?aeoe?a c
Aiaii?i — caieaaeaniee?a.

O 60-o — 80-o ?ieao XX no. ?yae aniaeo?a ae?yeueiino?
?oae?eoe?a-?ii?a?aio?a a Oe?a?i? ciaeoia a?aeaeoie o iiiia?ao?yo,
i?enay/aieo ?oaei-?in?enueeei aeeieiiaoe/iei oa aeiiii?/iei aca?ieiai,
ciai?oi?e oi?a?ae? /i?iiii?nueeeo oa acianueeeo ii?o?a, ?icaeoeo
ioce/ii? eoeueoo?e Iaeane. Iii?oia i?noea na?aae ioae?eaoe?e
?icaeyaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iin?aea? iiiia?ao?y A.Oeoia?ueiaa, i?enay/aia
aena?oeaiith ?noi??? ?iiainueeeo iinaeaiue o /i?iiii?nueei-acianueeiio
?aa?ii?. Aeine?aeiee nenoaiaoecoaaa iioae?eiaaiee iaoa??ae, aieiaiei
/eiii, i?i ?oae?eoe?a Iaeane oa E?eio, caa?ioa oaaao ia iaiao?aei?noue
anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ?ie? ?oae?eoe?a o eoeueoo?iiio inai?ii? ?aa?iio.

Ae?yeuei?noue ?oae?eoe?a a Oe?a?i? ye naiino?eia iaoeiaa i?iaeaia aia?oa
a ?noi??ia?ao?? aoea ii?ooaia ? aena?oeth?oueny a i?aoeyo I.Aa?aa?oeaaa.
A eiai iiiia?ao?? «Oe?aeia a ?inneenei-eoaeueyineeo iauanoaaiiuo e
eoeueoo?iuo naycyo» ?icaeyaea?oueny ?yae aaaeeeaeo aniaeo?a
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ?oae?eoe?a a Oe?a?i?, ?oiy o/anoue o
?in?enueei-oe?a?inueei-?oae?enueeeo eoeueoo?ieo eiioaeoao o ia?o?e
iieiaei? XIX no. Aeine?aeaeaiith ?oae?enueei? i?enooiino? a eoeueoo?iiio
i?inoi?? Oe?a?ie ieioeiai noie?ooy i?enay/aia ?ioa i?aoey I.Aa?aa?oeaaa
— «?oae?eoe? a Oe?a?i?», aea o oi?i? ?noi?eei-a?ia?ao?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy c’yniao?oueny aianie ?oae?enueeeo ieooe?a, ina?oyi oa
iaoeiaoe?a, o oiio /ene? ai?a?aio?a, a ?ioaeaeooaeueio nea?aieoeth
Oe?a?ie.

Iinoaaeaia a aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaia i?eaa?oaea aei naaa iaaio oaaao
ca?oa?aeii? ?noi??ia?ao??, ia?aaeon?i ?oae?enueei?, yea ?icaeyaea?
oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? a
eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ieo i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaaeeny a aea?aeaaao
Aiaii?inueeiai i?aino?iaa. Ia?o? ioae?eaoe?? ia oeth oaio c’yaeeeny ia
ii/aoeo XX no. Oae, 1906 ?. a ?ei? aeeoea noaooy aeeeaaea/a
Iiai?in?enueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo I.Nia?aiaeai, aea iiaeaii iaeyae
ae?yeueiino? ?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee Iaeane a?ae /ano canioaaiiy i?noa.
Aaoi? a?aecia/ea ?? i?e/aoi?noue aei noai?aiiy eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeueeiai
na?aaeiaeua i?noa, iiyae oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?oae?enueeeo eiinoeuenoa,
?oae?enueeiai aeaaiae?eiiai oiaa?enoaa. Ia?aaaaeia /anoeia iaaaaeaiiai
ooo oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo iiaoi?thaaea ?nioth/? ?in?enuee? ioae?eaoe??.

I?ioa iaea?eueoa oaaae a ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?aeaaaeaii ieoaiiyi
?oae?enueei? eieii?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai I?aaeiy. Aeniiaee, c?iaeai?
I.Ae?oaeei?iith noiniaii oyae?iiy ?oae?eoe?a-eieii?no?a, caeaaeii a?ae
oaoiai? niaoe?ae?caoe??, aei i?no, i?aeoaa?aeea ?oae?enueeee aeine?aeiee
Aeae.Eaa?. Iioae?eoaaaoe ia?ae?e ai?a?aio?a iaei??? c ia?o?e, ui
a?aeaoee i?ioyaii 1782-1783 ??. c E?ai?ii aei Oa?niia, a?i iieacaa, ui
an? ia?anaeaioe? aoee eaae?o?eiaaieie i?aoe?aieeaie, a a?aenioie
caiea?ia?a na?aae ieo aoa i?ca?iei. Ia iniia? aeieoiaioaeueieo
na?ae/aiue aaoi? i?aeoaa?aeea oaeo iiaiiai ?aii?oaaiiy ?in?enueeei
o?yaeii iio?aa ?oae?enueeeo eieii?no?a i?ney caaa?oaiiy ?oiueiai
?icnaeaiiy.

Ieoaiiy ?oae?enueei? eieii?caoe??, a naia ai?a?aoe??
?oae?eoe?a-eieii?no?a c Oineaie aei Oa?niia, ciaeoee ?icaeoie o i?aoe?
*.*?aii «?in?y ? Oineaia a ae?oa?e iieiaei? XVII — XVIII no. Noi??iee
?noi??? oi?a?ae? oa ii?aieaanoaa».

Aei ie?aieo oai, iia’ycaieo c ii/aoeiaei aoaiii ae?yeueiino?
?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? a Oe?a?i?, caa?oathoueny ? ca?oa?aei?
aeine?aeieee ?oaei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei. Oae, o ?ica?aeeao
«Aeaeaa?enonueeee ?oo ? a?aoe Iiaeae?i», «?oaei-?in?enuee? aca?ieie,
ae?oaa iieiaeia XVII no. — 1825 ?.» O.Aaioo?? oa «Nooae?yo
?oaei-?in?enueeeo ca’yce?a (c iaiioae?eiaaieie «Iiaei?iaei?ie iioaoeaie»
Eo?aeae? Na???noi??)» ?.??cae?o? iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iei ? eoeueoo?iei aniaeoai ae?yeueiino? ?oae?eoe?a a
Oe?a?i?. *anii oe? ieoaiiy ii?ooothoueny oaeiae o ca’yceo c aea/aiiyi
i?enooiino? ?iicaioe?a o nai?e ?oae??, ui cana?ae/o? ?iaioa I.Eaoeoeiee
«?in?enuee? iaiae??aieee a Aaio? ? ia ??a’???», aea ?icaeyaea?oueny
oaoiaee oa e?euee?niee neeaae iaei??? c iaenoa??oeo ?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae
oe?a?inueeiai I?aaeiy — iaeanueei?.

O iecoe? ca?oa?aeieo ioae?eaoe?e i?aeo?eio?oueny oaiaeaioe?y
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oe?a?inuee? nthaeaoe i?e ?icaeyae? ?noi??? aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa c ?in?enueeith ?iia???th. A oeueiio
ca’yceo ia oaaao caneoaiaothoue i?aoe? ?.??cae?o?. Oae, ie?ai? ?icae?ee
eiai iiiia?ao?? «I?iaeaie ?oaei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei o ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao??» i?enay/ai? aena?oeaiith oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae
ii?oaie ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (o oiio /ene? /i?iiii?nueeeie) oa
?oae?enueeeie (E?ai?ii e Iaaiieai).

Aaaaoee oaeoe/iee oa noaoenoe/iee iaoa??ae uiaei /i?iiii?nueei? oi?a?ae?
?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa i?iaiae?ciaaiee oaeiae o ?ica?aeeao «?in?y ?
Oineaia a ia??iae ??ni?aeae?iaioi» ?.??cae?o?, «?in?enueea ioaieoey e
ii?o E?ai?ii» oa «Iaeana: ?noi??y, 1794-1914 ??.» I.Ouei?e?o?.
Iaci?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oeeo i?aoeue ? iaoa??aee i?i o/anoue
?oae?enueeeo ai?a?aio?a o ?icaeoeo /i?iiii?nueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueei?
oe?aii? oi?a?ae?.

Oaeei /eiii, o a?o/eciyi?e ? ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? noai?ai?
i?aeaaeeie aeey eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaeeeaiai aoaio a ?noi???
?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? — ?? ia?aaeoiia, oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy e ?ioaa?aoe??
a aeiiii?/ia, eoeueoo?ia ? a?iiaaenueea aeeooy Oe?a?ie e?ioey XVIII —
ii/aoeo XX no., ?ie? o iaeaaiaeaeaii? o?nieo aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a
/i?iiii?nueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio.

?icae?e 1 «?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??, i?e/eie oa oa?aeoa? ?oae?enueei?
ai?a?aoe?? a Oe?a?io o 80-o ?ieao XVIII — ia ii/. 30-o ?ie?a XIX no.»
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. O ia?oiio — «?oae?eoe? ia oa?aiao
Oe?a?ie (I no. aei i.a. — 70-o? ?iee XVIII no.)» — aeine?aeaeaii
o?aaeeoe?? ?oae?enueei? i?enooiino? a Oe?a?i? oa ?oaei-oe?a?inueeeo
ca’yce?a.

Oe?a?ia ye ?noi?e/iee ?aa?ii iino?eii ia?aaoaaea a cii? ?ioa?an?a
aiaii?inueeeo aea?aeaa, aeo?aeoe? c yeeo caeaaia inaeyeeny a I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? oa E?eio (?einuee? eaa?iia?e o I no. aei i.a. — III no.
i.a., aaioacoe? oa aaiaoe?aioe? a XIII — XV no.), Ee?a?, Eueaia?,
I?aeei? oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo na?aaeiueia?/ieo i?noao. ?oae?eoe?,
a?eueo?noue c yeeo aoea caeiyoa a eiia?oe?ei?e noa??, ni?eyee
aeeth/aiith Oe?a?ie aei nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?, aeoeaiiio iai?io
a aaeoc? eoeueoo?e.

Iino?ei? eiioaeoe Oe?a?ie c aea?aeaaaie Aiaii?i ia i?eieiyeeny a iiaee
/an: Aaiaoe?y a iiooeao nithcieea a ai?iouea? c Iooiiainueeith Ii?oith
caa?oa?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith aei aaoueiaia A.Oiaeueieoeueeiai (i?n?y
A?i?ie 1650 ?.); o XVIII no. ?oae?eoe?-oi?aiaoe? ??ciiiai?oiei e?aiii
aa?ooue o/anoue a oe?a?inueeeo y?ia?eao, eoioe?-aeo?aeoe? c Aiaii?i
oi?aothoue ia N?/? iacaaeiaai aei ?? c?oeioaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?i?
ia?aaeoiiae ai?a?aoe??» ?icaeyioo? aioo??oi? /eiieee, ui neeaeeny a
?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaaao o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ? ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith
ai?a?aoe?eieo iioie?a c Aiaii?i.

Cacia/a?oueny, ui a?aeo?e ianaeaiiy c ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa aoa
aeeeeeaiee aeeaieeie oa o?eaaeeie e?eciaeie yaeuaie, ye? ioiieee ??ci?
noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aea?aeaaii-iie?oe/ia ?icae?iaeai?noue,
o?aioeocueea oa aano??enueea iaioaaiiy, aeeeeeaia iino?eieie a?eiaie
iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue ni?eyee caaino?aiith neooaoe?? ia Aiaii?iao.
?acoeueoaoii oeueiai noaea iiyaa oa?iieo ?aaiethoe?eieo (ea?aiia?nueeeo)
i?aai?caoe?e, ye? o 1820-1821 ?. i/ieeee iianoainueeee ?oo o
Iaaiie?oainueeiio ei?ie?anoa? oa I’?iiio?, ni?yiiaaiee i?ioe ?iicaiiiai
iaioaaiiy. Iie?oe/ia oa ?aeaieia?/ia ?aaeoe?y, ?ai?an?? i?ioe /eai?a
ea?aiia?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a ?oae?? cioneee aaaaoueio i?aaenoaaiee?a
iiai? ao?aeoac??, a?enueeiaee?a oa iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??
ai?a?oaaoe ca ei?aeii.

E?eca a aaeoc? ?oae?enueei? aeiiii?ee aecia/aeany, c iaeiiai aieo,
oi?ioaaiiyi o ?yae? iaea?eueo ?icaeiaieo ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa iiaeo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ia?o ca ana, ia nae?, ui aoei iia’ycaia c?
c?inoaiiyi oiaa?iino? a aa?a?iiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee. Iia? i?ia?aneai?
niiniae i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa aeo?niyee c naea caeao ?iai/o neeo. A
aeiiii?/ii a?aenoaeeo ?aeiiao Aiaii?i aa?a?ia e?eca aoea aeeeeeaia
neaaeith eiieo?aioiicaeaoi?noth oaiaeaeueiiai ainiiaea?noaa, yea oaeaeei
caiaiaaeaei a oiiaao neeaaeaiiy eai?oae?noe/iiai ?eieo.

*anoeia naeyi-a?aeiye?a, ye? ia ao?aoeee i?ioan?eieo iaae/ie, o iiooeao
?iaioe ae?ooaea ca ei?aeii — aei O?aioe??, Oaaeoea??? oa I?ia//eie, ?io?
no?eaeeny aei ii?oiaeo i?no, oaeeo, ye Aaioy, E?ai?ii, Aieiia oiui a
i?aaiaii? ooeaoe aeie? a aeaeaeeo caieyo. E?aeiy a?aei?noue oa aieiae ye
aieiai? i?e/eie ai?a?aoe?? cacia/aeeny a iia?aeiieaiiyo ?in?enueeeo
aeeieiiao?a c E?ai?ii ?iia?aoi?nueeiio aeai?o . A 1808 ?. a Aaio? c
ianaeaiiyi iiiaae 188 oen. /ie. a?aeiyee (10412 /ie.) oa aeaa?aee (2923
/ie.) noaiiaeee 7% on?o iaoeaioe?a i?noa. Ca iani?eyoeeaeo oiia, eiee
c?inoaee oe?ie ia i?iaeoeoe oa?/oaaiiy — oceieo aai a iao?iaeaei? ?iee —
/anoeia a?aeiye?a ia??aeei iaeiaeany iao?inaie ia oi?aia? noaeia, ui
a?aei?aaeyeeny aei ?ioeo e?a?i.

Iioaioe?eieie ai?a?aioaie aoee oaeiae ?ai?nieee, ye? ao?aoeee ?iaioo
aiane?aeie c?oeioaaiiy nenoaie oeao?a. E?eca aac?ia?ooy ioiieea iaa?oue
o? aaeoc? ?oae?enueei? i?iieneiaino?, aea ?icaeaaeiny iaiooaeoo?ia
ae?iaieoeoai: oiaeiao oa aiaiyio.

Aaaee? oiiae neeaeeny oaeiae o aaeoc? ii?nueei? oi?a?ae?. A iniaeeai
neeaaeiiio noaiiaeu? iieieeeny Aaioy, Aaiaoe?y oa O???no o ia??iae
iaiieaii?anueeiai iaioaaiiy. «Eiioeiaioaeueia aeieaaea» caoaii
iicia/eeany ia ianyaao oiaa?iia?ao oeeo ii?o?a. Caiaiaae oi?a?ae? aai ??
neaaea aeeiai?ea a aeayeeo eieeoi?o ?icaeiooeo ii?oiaeo oeaio?ao Aiaii?i
aeeeeeaee ianiaee ae?cae ca ei?aeii ii?ye?a oa iaaioe?aio?a, ye? ?ai?oa
iaee oai iino?eiee ca?ia?oie.

E?iaoeue XVIII no. oa?aeoa?ecoaaany iiaeie oaiaeaioe?yie a aaeoc?
?oae?enueei? eoeueoo?e oa ienoaoeoaa. O oeae /an iaae?aa iiioey?iino?
?oae?enueeee ioce/iee oaao?, yeee noaa i?ia?aeieeii aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aeae
o ienoaoeoa?, iniaeeai i?ney ooaa?aeaeaiiy ia eiai noeai? aeai?o
iia?e-aoooa. Ia?aiiaiai?noue oaao?aeueieo eieaeoea?a oa aenie? aeiiae
aei oaoiai? iaenoa?iino? aeeeeeaee eiieo?aioe?th i?e aeaoooaaii? ia
?iaioo, ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith o?oi, ye? a?aei?aaeyeeny ca ei?aeii. ?c
naiino?eieie i?ia?aiaie iiaei?iaeoaaee ?a?iiaenueeeie i?noaie e ie?ai?
ioceeaioe. Aiie, ?acii c aano?iethth/eie oaao?aeueieie eieaeoeaaie nai?o
ni?aa?o/eciee?a, ooai?thaaee oae caaio oei/aniao ai?a?aoe?th.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.3. «?oae?enueea ?ii?a?aoe?y a eiioaeno? ?noi?e/ieo,
aoiiiie?oe/ieo oa ainiiaea?nueei-eieii?caoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo» ?icaeyaeathoueny ia?aaeoiiae, ui neeaeeny a Oe?a?i?
? ni?eyee ni?yioaaiith aei ia? ai?a?aio?a c Aiaii?i, a oaeiae
ae?yeuei?noue ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo a ni?aa? eieii?caoe?? ?oae?eoeyie
i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue.

Iie?oeea oi?o?eaoe?? aioo??aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, cae?enithaaia
?iia?ao?eoeath Eaoa?eiith ?? a inoaii?o aeanyoee?ooyo XVIII no., iaea
iaeiei ?c nai?o iai?yie?a iioe?aiiy i?aa oa i?ea?ea?a ?in?enueeiai
aeai?yinoaa ia a?enoie?aoe/i? eiea oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.
?icaoaeiaoth/e ia?oee oa i?nuee? ?aceaeaioe??, i?aai?coth/e e??iini?
oaao?e, oi?ia? eaiaee, i?eano?e, oeiee iii?ueee cai?iooaaee oao?aoe?a ?c
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, na?aae yeeo iii?oia i?noea iaeaaeaei ?oae?eoeyi.

Iia? oaeoi?e, ui ni?eyee caeo/aiith aeo?aeoe?a c ?a?iie aei
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?, neeaeeny ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe?
XVIII — ia ii/aoeo XIX no. I?e?aeiaiiy i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei
?in?enueei? ?iia??? aiane?aeie e?ea?aeaoe?? Caii??cueei? N?/? (1775 ?.),
oeeaaeaiiy Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeae?enueeiai (1774 ?.) oa ssnnueeiai (1791 ?.)
ie?ieo oaiae c Oo?a//eiith aeeeeeaei iaiao?aei?noue ?oiueiai
?ioaineaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai inai?iiy. *a?ac iaiiaeeea?noue cae?eniaiiy
eieii?caoe?? iiaii?e?aeiaieo caiaeue ca ?aooiie i?noeaaiai
iaaaaaoi/enaeueiiai ianaeaiiy o?yae i?iaeiaaeea ae?th (c aeayeeie
ooi/iaiiyie) «Ieaio i?i ?icaea/o a Iiai?in?enuee?e aoaa?i?? eacaiieo
caiaeue aeey ?o canaeaiiy», yeee, cie?aia, ia?aaeaa/aa ?icaea/o
caiaeueieo iaae?e?a ?iicaioeyi, ui i?eeiyee ?in?enueea i?aeaeainoai.

Aiaeii/an ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei inai?iiyi i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo
oa?ai?a ?in?enueeee o?yae ia?aaeaa/aa noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?icaeoeo a
i?ai?/iii?e/i?iiii?nueeiio ?aa?ii? i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae? (oeueiio a
cia/i?e i??? ni?eyee ie?ai? noaoo? Eth/oe-Eaeia?aeae?enueeiai ie?iiai
aeiaiai?o, ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeiai oi?aiaiai aeiaiai?o 1783 ?.).
?in?enueeee o?yae, ia?aeaeueii c ?icaeoeii
na?aaecaiiiii?nueei-/i?iiii?nueei? oi?a?ae?, oaeea eiiieaen caoiae?a, ui
ni?eyee ?ioaineaiiio c?inoaiith noa?eo oa ?icaoaeia? iiaeo
/i?iiii?nueeeo ii?o?a. I?eueae ?iicaioeyi, ui inaeyeeny a Oa?nii?,
Oaiaein?? oa Naaanoiiie?, aa?aiooaaeeny ie?aieie ?iia?aoi?nueeeie
iai?oanoaie: Eaoa?eie ?? (1783 ?.) oa Iaaea ? (1798 ?.). O Oaiaein?? oa
?aiaoi???, a caiaeii ? a Iaean? c iaoith i?aeo?eiee i?aeia?iaeii?
oi?a?ae? oa noaeiiieaanoaa ia 30-??/iee oa?i?i cai?iaaaeaeoaaeiny
ii?oi-o?aiei.

O i?ae?icae?e? oaeiae aeine?aeaeo?oueny o?ae eieii?caoe?? caiaeue
Iiai?in?? aeo?aeoeyie c Aiaii?i. ?oi? iinaeaiiy a?aeaoaaeiny ia oeo
naieo oiiaao, ye? aoee ?ic?iaeai? aeey an?o ?ii?a?aio?a c ?a?iie ca?aeii
c aeii?aoeueiaaiei «Ieaiii» 1764 ?. I?ioa, ?acoeueoaoe aaeeoeo
?in?enueeei o?yaeii caoiae?a aoee caaaeii iaaaeaeeie: c aeecueei oeny/?
?oae?enueeeo ?ii?a?aio?a, ?ici?uaieo o caiea?ianueeeo eieii?yo iiaeeco
Oa?niia i?ioyaii 1783-1784 ??., ia e?iaoeue XVIII no. ia caeeoeeiny
aeiaeiiai. Oae? iane?aeee iiyniththoueny iaaeaae?noth ?iia?nueeeo
aeanoae i?e i?aai?caoe?? ia?anaeaiiy: na?aae iaeaooi?o eieii?no?a
ia?aaaaeaee ?oae?eoe?, /ey i?ioan?eia ae?yeuei?noue aoea iia’ycaia
aieiaiei /eiii c i?nueeei ainiiaea?noaii. Oiio, iieieaoenue ia
iaeiinai?ieo caieyo, aiie ianiai i?a?oaaee a /i?iiii?nuee? ii?oe, aea
ciaoiaeeee nia? i?ioan?eia canoinoaaiiy, aai iiaa?oaeeny ia
aaouee?aueio.

?icae?e 2 «?ioaa?aoe?y ?oae?eoe?a o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia oa eoeueoo?ia
aeeooy Oe?a?ie» neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a oa /ioe?ueio
i?aeioieo?a. O i?ae?icae?e? 2.1. «Oeaio?e ?oae?enueei? ?ii?a?aoe??,
iai?yiee ?icnaeaiiy oa i?ioan?eiee neeaae aeo?aeoe?a c Aiaii?i»
?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy a?oi ?ii?a?aio?a o ca’yceo c ?oiueith
oaoiaith ae?yeuei?noth oa oeyoaie i?a?aoe?? ia oe?a?inuee? oa?aie.

*a?ac ieoieoe? ia ei?aeii? c Aano??enueeith ?iia???th (?aaeceaee?anueeo,
Aonyoeinueeo oiui) a Oe?a?io i?eaoaaee aieiaiei /eiii
?oae?eoe?-i?a?aioe. Aei oe??? iia?eueii? a?oie ?ii?a?aio?a c Aiaii?i
iaeaaeaee ?ai?nieee, ae??ai? oi?aiaoe?, iaiae??ai? a?oenoe, aeanieee
ca??eioe?a oiui, ye? ia?a?aeaeaeaee c i?noa aei i?noa, i?iiiioth/e nai?
iineoae ?o iaoeaioeyi. Nooiaeieii i?e?caeeee oaeiae iaaioe?aioe, ieooe?
oa ioceeaioe aeey ?iaioe o iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oeao oa aeey i?ioan?eii?
ae?yeueiino? o i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo ii?oao, aea ia oeae /an ii/aee
neeaaeaoeny ?oae?enuee? a?iiaaee.

Ia?aeaeueii ?nioaaa ua iaeei oeyo ?oae?enueei? ?ii?a?aoe?? —
Na?aaecaiiei oa *i?iei ii?ai aei iiaeo ii?oiaeo i?no I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y oa I?eacia’y. Iei oe?iei ei?enooaaeeny i?aaenoaaieee
ii?nueeeo i?ioan?e. Aiie aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo eiiaiae aai aoee
eai?oaiaie oi?aiaeo ei?aae?a, ye? i?eaoaaee c ii?o?a I?aaeaiii? ?a?iie.
Aaioacueea aacaoa «Corriere mercantile» 3 eenoiiaaea 1829 ?. ienaea:
«An? ?in?enuee? ii?oe *i?iiai ii?y caaaey/othoue nai?i i?ioea?oaiiyi
?oae?eoeyi; ine?eueee c oeny/? ei?aae?a, ye? aenii?oothoue ?oith
i?iaeoeoe?th, aeecueei ainueienio ea?iaai? eai?oaiaie-?oae?eoeyie».
*anoeia ?oae?enueeeo ii?ye?a, ye? i?eaoaaee aei oe?a?inueeeo aaaaiae,
caeeoaeany i?ney cae?i/aiiy naciio iaa?aaoe?? a i?no? ia cei?aeth. C
ianoaiiyi aanie aiie iaeiaeenue ia o?ainii?oe, ye?, iaaaioaaeai? ca?iii,
a?aeieeaaee aei Iaaiiey, Aaio?, E?ai?ii, O???noa oa ?ioeo ii?o?a
Cao?aeii? ?a?iie, aai ia eaaioaaei? noaeia, ui ianeoaiaoaaee ii?oe
E?eio, Ia??oiiey ? Oaaai?iaa.

Ie??i oeo, ooi iino?eii i?a?oaaa, a Oe?a?i? ia?aaoaaee aeo?aeoe? c
aiaii?inueeeo aea?aeaa, ye? in?ei i?iaeeaaee a aoaa?inueeeo i?noao,
iia?oiaeo i?noa/eao aai i?aoethaaee a iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oeao (ooai?thaaee
a?oio «?icn?yiiai i?iaeeaaiiy»). Ca oaoiaith niaoe?ae?caoe??th aiie aoee
iia’ycai? aieiaiei /eiii c? noa?ith ienoaoeoaa oa ina?oe (aoee
a?o?oaeoi?aie, ooaeiaeieeaie, ni?aaeaie, ioceeaioaie, iaaeaaiaaie),
ianeoaiaoaaiiy (i?eneoaa, oi?aaeoae? ia?oiinoyie). Aei oe??? eaoaai???
aoiaeeee oaeiae aeaye? ?ai?nieee oa iaaioe?aioe, ye? o nai?e ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? inaeyeeny o /i?iiii?nueeeo ii?oao.

O?yaeia? i?eueae, aa?aioiaai? ?iicaioeyi-ia?anaeaioeyi, ?icaeoie
ii?nueei? oi?a?ae? ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith ?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae o E?eio. Aei
iaenoa??oeo c ieo iaeaaeaoue oaiaein?enueea oa ea?/ainueea, ye? neeaeeny
i?ioyaii ia?oeo aeaio aeanyoee?oue XIX no. Iniiao oaiaein?enueei?
a?iiaaee noaiiaeee iaaiie?oaioe? oa aaioacoe?, a?eueo?noue c yeeo aoee
iaaioe?aioaie oa ii?yeaie. Caieaaeanieee oa i?aaenoaaieee ?ai?nie/eo
i?ioan?e neeaaeaee iacia/iee a?aenioie ?oae?enueeiai ianaeaiiy i?noa.
?oae?eoe?-ii?yee, ye? caeiaeeny ?eaieiaeath, eaaioaaeiei
noaeiiieaanoaii, neoaeeee a ii?oo eioeiaiaie, inaeyeeny ia?aaaaeii a
Ea?/?.

Iii?oia ?ieue iaeaaeaea ?oae?eoeyi o ?icaoaeia? ioi?oeeiaeueiiai aeeooy
i?no: aaaaoi c ieo a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue o i?noeaaeo i?aaiao
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, caeiaeeny aoae?aieoeoaii oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith
ae?yeuei?noth.

O 20-o ?ieao XIX no. a?aeaoeiny aeoeaia ?icnaeaiiy ?oae?eoe?a o
I?ai?/iiio I?eacia’?, iia’ycaia aieiaiei /eiii c? aoiaeaeaiiyi ?aa?iio
aei nenoaie i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?. O oeae /an ?yae ?oae?enueeeo eoioe?a
canioaaee oi?aia? i?aaenoaaieoeoaa a Ia??oiie?, ooai?eaoe iniiao
?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee i?noa.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. «Iaeana — aieiaiee ina?aaeie ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe??
a Oe?a?i?» ?icaeyaea?oueny oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue iaea?eueoi?
?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee. ?? iiyaa oa ?icaeoie aoee aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycai? c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ii?oo oa ii?oiaeo neoaea. Iaei? c ia?oeo
iinaeaioe?a Iaeane — ?oae?eoe?-a?enueeiaeee ia ?in?enuee?e neoaea?
aeoeaii caeiaeeny oi?aiaaeueiei i?iieneii o ia?o? ?iee i?ney canioaaiiy
Iaeane. Aea?aeaai? i?eueae, ni?yiiaai? ia ?icaoaeiao i?noa oa ?icoe?aiiy
eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaeanueeiai ii?oo, ni?eyee caeo/aiith iiaeo
aeo?aeoe?a c Aiaii?i-iaaioe?aio?a oa ii?ye?a, ye? inaeeeeny a i?no? e
neeaee yae?i i?noeaai? ?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee. Iaaeiei ieo ao?ooaaeeny
?oae?eoe? ?ioeo i?ioan?e, iia’ycaieo c ianeoaiaoaaiiyi ii?oo: ?ia?oieee
(aaioaaeieee, eiiiiaoieee), ?ai?nieee, aoae?aaeueieee, ni?a?ia?oieee
oiaa?ieo a??ae, aaie?a, oi?aiaeo oa no?aoiaeo eiioi?, th?enoe oiui.
Aeeiai?ea oaeaeeiai c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? ?oae?eoe?a o neeaae? ianaeaiiy
Iaeane aecia/aeany ia?aaaaeii i?aaenoaaieeaie iacaaieo i?ioan?e. A ia?o?
?iee XIX no. aeo?aeoe? c aiaii?inueeeo aea?aeaa noaiiaeee 1/10 /anoeio
ianaeaiiy i?noa (800 in?a) i?e caaaeuei?e e?eueeino? aeeoae?a 7-8 oen.
/ie. A 1834 ?. a Iaean? oa ia ?? ieieeoeyo ia?aoiaoaaeiny 61 899 /ie.,
i?iii?oe?eii c?inea e?euee?noue ?iicaioe?a, ui i?iaeeaaee a i?no?,- 5174
/ie., na?aae ieo ?oae?eoe? neeaaeaee a?eueoa /aa?o?: 28% (aai 1016
/ie.). A 1837 ?. a Iaean? i?iaeeaaei aaea 1600 aeo?aeoe?a c Aiaii?i.

O ?icaeyaeoaaiee ia??iae ?oae?eoe? Iaeane ooai?eee aoi?/io a?iiaaeo o
oi?i? caieyoeoaa, ui ciaoiaeeei a?aeaeoie o ??ciiiai?oieo i?iyaao
iaoe?iiaeueii? nie?aea?iino? oa aca?iii?aeo?eiee. A?ae naiiai ii/aoeo
aiie i?aaioee aei eiiiaeoiino? aoi?/iiai i?iaeeaaiiy a i?no?. *eaie
?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee a?aee i?ae naith ii?eo iiaii?eaoeeo aei Iaeane
ni?aa?o/eciee?a. Iaea?eueo iiaaaei? oa caiiaei? ?oae?eoe?-iaeaneoe a
?ac? iaiao?aeiino? cae?enithaaee i?ioaeoe?th oa iaaeaaaee iaeiia?
aa?aio?? i?e oniaaeeoaaii? aai caeeaaeaii? ?ooiiiai oa ia?ooiiiai iaeia,
ca?aooaaii? aei eoiaoeueeeo a?eueae?e, o aeiaaeeo oei/aniaiai ae?caeo
caieyea c i?noa, na?ae/eee ia noaeiaeo i?ioeanao, ii?eoaaeeny iaeiii
iaaioe?aio?a-aaie?oo?a, iice/aee noie aeey i?eaaoiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ca
?oi?i iina?aaeieoeoaii a?aeaoaaeeny eiioaeoe c ae?eiaeie,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieie ? eoeueoo?ieie eieaie ?oae??.

Onoaeai? ca’ycee iaeanueeeo ?oae?eoe?a c aaouee?aueiith oa ?ioeie
?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie ni?eyee iioe?aiith a Iaean? o?aaeeoe?e
?a?iiaenueeiai a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy: a i?no? ae?ya
nai???aeiee iie?oe/iee eeoa — oae caaia «?oae?enueea eaceii»; ia ii/aoeo
20-o ?ie?a aeaeaaaeany «Eiia?oe?eia aacaoa i?aaeaiiiai e?ath ?in??»
o?aioeocueeith oa ?oae?enueeith iiaaie, yea ioae?eoaaea naiino?ei?
noaoo? ia iie?oe/i? oaie. *eaie ?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee a?aee aeoeaio
o/anoue o ae?yeueiino? ianiinueei? eiae? «Iiio Aaen?inueeee» (?nioaaea
i?ioyaii 1817-1822 ??.), i?aeo?eioaaee o?ni? ca’ycee c? nai?ie
caieyeaie-/eaiaie oaiaein?enueei? eiae? Ei?aeaia (1812-1821 ??.). O
ia??iae iie?oe/ieo ?ai?an?e a ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaaao aei Iaeane oa
?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a i?e?caeeee ai?na?e noai?aii? 1833 ?.
?anioae?eainueei? i?aai?caoe?? «Iieiaea ?oae?y», ye? cae?enithaaee
i?iiaaaiaeenonueeo ?iaioo na?aae ?oae?enueeeo ii?ye?a.

Cia/io ?ieue o a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?iiio aeeoo? i?noa a?ae?a?aaaea
?oae?enueea ?ioae?aaioe?y: a?o?oaeoi?e, ni?aaee, ioceeaioe, a/eoae?,
ooaeiaeieee, neoeueioi?e oa e?ea??. Iaeaea iaci?iia ae?yeuei?noue
?oae?eoe?a ia iinaae? i?nueeeo a?o?oaeoi??a (a?ao?a O?aiiee?, O.Aiooi,
Ae.Oi???/aee?, Aeaeeaeae) aecia/eea noeeueia? oa ieaiia? iniaeeaino?
a?o?oaeoo?ieo ainaiae?a noa?i? Iaeane, iniaeeaino? ieaioaaiiy caaoaeiae
i?noa ca c?aceaie i?aaeaiii?a?iiaenueei? a?o?oaeoo?e.

Eoeueoo?iei oeaio?ii Iaeane aoa ?oae?enueeee oaao?, ae?yeuei?noue yeiai
ia?aaoaaea a o?ni?e aca?iiae?? c ienoaoeueeei aeeooyi ?oae??. Oea
iicia/eeiny ia oi?ioaaii? eiai ?aia?ooa?o ca ?aooiie e?aueo iaaeaaiue
oiai/aniiai ?a?iiaenueeiai iia?iiai ienoaoeoaa. Ieoaiiyie aiaaaeoaaiiy a
?oae?? ni?aae?a oa ioceeaio?a aeey i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia
iaeanuee?e noeai?, ye i?aaeei, caeiaeeny aio?ai?aia?e-?oae?eoe?,
aieiaiei /eiii, caiiaei? iaeanuee? iaaioe?aioe. ?oae?enuee? eoioe?
ia??aeei cae?enithaaee iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy oaao?o, aeinoaaeyth/e
ia nai?o oi?aiaeo ei?aaeyo iaiao?aeia oaao?aeueia iaeaaeiaiiy. A ooao?
oaao?o iino?eii i?aoethaaee /eaie ?oae?enueei? a?iiaaee, ye?
caaacia/oaaee iianyeaeaiio ?iaioo o?oie: ia?oea??,
ooaeiaeieee-aeaei?aoi?e, aa?caoi?e, iano?ithaa/? ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a,
iaaeyaea/? oiui.

?icae?e 3 «?oae?eoe? o ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a Oe?a?ie ?c
Cao?aeiith ?a?iiith» neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a. O i?ae?icae?e?
3.1. «Oeyoe noaiiaeaiiy oi?aiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aea?aeaa ia Aiaii?iao
c oe?a?inueeei I?aaeiai» aeine?aeaeothoueny oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a oe?a?inueeeo oa ?oae?enueeeo ii?o?a.

Ia?o? ni?iae iaeaaiaeaeaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo eiioaeo?a i?ae aea?aeaaaie
Aiaii?i oa oe?a?inueeeie ii?oaie iaeaaeaee ?oae?enueeei iaaioe?aioai oa
ii?yeai, ye?, ia /aeath/e io?oe?eieo caoiae?a nai?o o?yae?a, aeoeaii
acyeeny ca oeth iiao e ?eceeiaaio ni?aao. Noeo?eii, aea c? noaa?eueiith
oaiaeaioe??th aei c?inoaiiy, ?icaeaaeiny ?oae?enueea oi?aiaa
noaeiiieaanoai, iniaeeai i?ney canioaaiiy Iaeane, ui noaea oeaio?ii
i?aeia?iaeii? oi?a?ae?. O 1809 ?. eeoa a Iaean? ae?yee 10
ciai?oiueioi?aiaeo eoiaoeueeeo eiioi?, caniiaai?
?oae?eoeyie-ai?a?aioaie, o 1818 ?. a /i?iiii?nueeeo ii?oao ?o aoei aaea
14 (c?inoaiiy a?aeaoeiny ca ?aooiie i?aai?ciaaieo ?oae?eoeyie oi?aiaeo
o??i o Ia??oiie? (2), Oaiaein?? (1) oa Ieeiea?a? (1), o 1832 ?. — 23 (a
Iaean? (14), ?cia?e? (3), Ia??oiie? (3), Oaiaein?? (2) oa Ea?/? (1).

Iaaieiiiio c?inoaiith e?eueeino? oaeeo o??i o i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo
ii?oao iaaiith i??ith ni?eyea ae?yeuei?noue oeo ?oae?enueeeo
iaaioe?aio?a, ye?, caeiyaoenue oi?a?aeath ia *i?iiio ii??, i?aeo?eioaaee
o?ni? aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee c aaouee?aueiith, caeeeeaee nai?o
ni?aa?o/eciee?a aei ia?anaeaiiy a iiaicaniiaai? ii?oe oa iiaioaaiiy
iiaeo aaeocae /i?iiii?nueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueei? oi?a?ae?. sse i?aaeei,
?oae?eoe?-eoioe?, ui in?ee a /i?iiii?nueeeo ii?oao, c iaoith cae?eniaiiy
i?aeia?iaeieo oiaa?ieo ia?aaacaiue noaaeee ia /ie? aeanieo ei?aae?a
oe?ia??a-ni?aa?o/eciee?a, ye?, a naith /a?ao, oi?ioaaee ae?iaae? noaeai,
iaaeath/e ia?aaaao iao?inai-?oae?eoeyi. Ii?ye?a c Aiaii?i ye iaea?eueo
iaae?eieo oa ia?ciaieo o nai?e ni?aa? /anoi iaeiaee oaeiae aeanieee
?ioeo oi?aiaeo o??i.

Ca?eueoaiiy na?aae ianaeaiiy i?aaeaiiioe?a?inueeeo i?no e?eueeino?
aeo?aeoe?a c ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa ni?e/eieeiny aei canioaaiiy
iai?ee?ioe? XVIII — ii/aoeo XIX no. a aeayeeo c ieo ?oae?enueeeo
eiinoeuenoa: iaaiie?oainueeiai, na?aeeinueeiai, ei?neeainueeiai,
?anioae?ee ?aaoca, a caiaeii aa?oeianoaa Oineaie. Ie??i ioi?ieaiiy
th?eaee/ieo iaia??a (ianii?o?a, aeieoiaio?a i?i niaaeueio oa aeani?noue)
? i?eeoaaiiy i?i nai?o ni?aa?iiaaeyi, eiinoee ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa
caeiaeeny ieoaiiyie oi?a?ae? oa noaeiiieaanoaa. ?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
aeiiiiaaaea iaeaaiaeaeaiith noaeeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ?oae?enueeeo
aea?aeaa c oe?a?inueeei I?aaeiai, ye? neeaaeaeeny a oiiaao
?in?enueei-o?aioeocueeiai oa ?in?enueei-oo?aoeueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy, ?,
ioaea, iino?eii? caa?ice oiaa?iiai?io oa oi?aiaiio ii?aieaanoao.
Na?eiciith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo noaiiaeaiiy oi?aiaaeueieo ca’yce?a i?ae
?oae?enueeeie oa /i?iiii?nueeeie ii?oaie aoea i?iaeaia I?ioie,
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c ai?ioueaith ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oa
Iooiiainueei? Ii?oe ca aaaaiii?th ia *i?iiio ii??.

O?yaee ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa, caoe?eaaeai? o oe?a? oa ?ioeo oiaa?ao c
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, aaeeaaee on?o iiaeeeaeo caoiae?a aeey i?enei?aiiy
/i?iiii?nueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai oiaa?iiai ia?ao. Ia?o?, ia cian?i
aaeae?, ni?iae aeiiiaeoeny c Eiinoaioeiiiieai i?i a?eueiee i?io?ae
oi?aiaeo noaeai /a?ac *i?iiii?nuee? i?ioiee aoee cae?eniai?
iaaiie?oainueeei o?yaeii iacaaa?ii i?ney oeeaaeaiiy 1787 ?. oi?aiaiai
aeiaiai?o c ?in?enueeith ?iia???th. Oineainueeee eaa?iao o iiooeao
iiaeeeainoae noeeeoe ia na?e a?e oo?aoeueeeo iiaeiiaeaaeoe?a ? io?eiaoe
aeica?e a?eueiiai i?ioiaeo /a?ac I?ioiee oaeaaaany aei i?aeeoio. Aeaye?
?oae?enuee? iaaioe?aioe, ui in?ee a I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?, naiino?eii
caaacia/oaaee ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ne?aeoaaiiy nai?o eiia?oe?eieo
aaioaae?a /a?ac *i?iiii?nuee? i?ioiee, caeo/ath/e ?iaeeii? ca’ycee.

O naith /a?ao, oea?nueea aeeieiiao?y, c iaeyaeo ia iaaeinoaoith
e?euee?noue noaeai ?in?enueeiai eiia?oe?eiiai oeioo, ai?ieany ca a?eueia
oi?aiaa noaeiiieaanoai o *i?iiio ii??. Aeea?iainueea eiiaaioe?y 1826 ?.
oa Aae??aiiiieuenueeee ie?iee aeiaia?? 1829 ?., oeeaaeai? i?ae
?in?enueeith oa Iooiiainueeith ?iia??yie, ni?eyee e?aa?ae?caoe?? ieoieo
aa?’???a i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? ?oae?enueeeo oi?aiaeo ei?aae?a /a?ac Ainoi? ?
Aea?aeaiaeee, i?aeaeuaiith aeoeaiino? c aieo ?oae?enueeiai eoiaoeoaa a
oe?a?inueeeo ii?oao.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. «Eoiaoeuee? o??ie ?oae?eoe?a-?ii?a?aio?a o
i?aeia?iaei?e oe?ai?e oi?a?ae? oe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a» ?icaeyaeathoueny
oiiae iiai? aeiiii?/ii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? oa?ai?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???, aea
Oe?a?i? a?aeaiaeeeany ?ieue ?aa?iio c ia?aaaaeiei ?icaeoeii ca?iiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Oiaa?ecaoe?y aa?a?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa aeiaaaea iiooeo
iino?eieo oa a?aeiinii aeecueeeo ?eie?a caooo, a a?aee?eooy iiaeo
/i?iiii?nueeeo ii?o?a oa iiaeeeaino? oaeaeeiai o?ainii?ooaaiiy oe?aa
/a?ac I?ioiee aei e?a?i I?aaeaiii? ?a?iie a?aeiia?aeiei /eiii ni?yioaaee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai o iii?ueoeueeeo ia?oeao
oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e. C ?ioiai aieo, iaaenieee ??aaiue aa??eoeueoo?e oa
cia/ia nia?aa?o?noue ca?iiaeo, ?noioia caeaaei?noue a?iaea?a a?ae
i?e?iaeieo oa iiaiaeieo oaeoi??a o e?a?iao Na?aaecaiiiii?’y, o oiio
/ene? e ?oae??, ni?eyee i???ioaoe?? ?oiuei? aeiiii?ee ia i?ea?cio oa
aeaoaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeo ne?iaeio, aenii?oa?ii yei? aenooieee
iia? oe?a?inuee? aaaai?. Ia?oa cia/ia i?aeianaiiy a aaeoc?
oe?a?inueei-?oae?enueei? oe?aii? oi?a?ae? a?aeaoeiny i?ney A?aeainueeiai
eiia?ano, yeee i?iaieinea ii/aoie a?eueii? oi?a?ae? a
na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiio aanaei?.

Aeoea?caoe?y iaeanueei? oe?aii? oi?a?ae? c Aiaii?iaie ni?e/eieeany aei
iiaeaaaeaiiy oi?aiaiai noaeiiieaanoaa: a ia??iae ni?eyoeeai? iaa?aaoe??
iaeei eeoa ii?o o E?ai?ii uioeaeiy i?eeiaa ii 5-6 oi?aiaeo noaeai c
Iaeane. Cia/ia iio?aaa ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa a oe?a?inuee?e ioaieoe?
caaeiaieueiyeany /a?ac O???no (caaacia/oaaa oiaa?aie e?a?ie
i?ai?/ii-no?aeii? ?oae??) oa, a?eueo cia/iith i??ith, /a?ac Aaioth ?
E?ai?ii aeey caooo a Oineai?, E?ao??? oa I’?iiio?. Ie??i caaacia/aiiy
oe?aii aioo??oi?o iaeanoae ?oae?? (aieiaiei /eiii i?ai?/ieo ?aa?ii?a),
Aaioy oa E?ai?ii a ia?o?e o?aoei? XIX no. cae?enithaaee iina?aaeieoeoai
a oe?ai?e oi?a?ae? Aaeeeia?eoai?? ? O?aioe?? c oe?a?inueeeie ii?oaie.

Iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia aeeiai?eo oe?a?inueei-?oae?enueei? oe?aii?
eiia?oe?? aioo??oi? iie?oe/i? iaaa?acaee ?in?enueei? ?iia???. Oae, o
ca’yceo c iieuenueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei iianoaiiyi 1830-1831 ??. cia/ii
nei?ioeany aea?c ioaieoe? aei i?aaeaiieo ii?o?a, ui iaaaeii iicia/eeiny
ia /i?iiii?nuee?e oe?ai?e oi?a?ae?. Aei ?oae?enueeeo aea?aeaa aoei
a?aei?aaeaii 299963 /aa?oae ioaieoe?, ui neeaei 47% ieioei??/iiai
aenii?oo. Oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee 1831 ?. oneeaaeithaaeeny oaeiae /a?ac
ai?aeai?th oiea?e, yea ioiieea ?yae oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e. O 1833 oa
1834 ??. nei?i/aiiy oe?aieo iinoaaie a ?oae?enuee? aea?aeaae aoei
iaoiiaeaia iianthaeiei iaa?iaea?i ca?iiaeo o aoaa?i?yo-iniiaieo
ae?iaieeao oiaa?iiai ca?ia. ?acii c oei, ca caaaeueieie ianyaaie
oe?aiiai aenii?oo /i?iiii?nueeeo ii?o?a 1827-1834 ??., aea?c ioaieoe?
aei ?oae?? noaiiaea 2591220 /aa?oae ? iinooiaany eeoa aenii?oo a
Oo?a//eio.

Iniiaiee iio?e oe?a?inueei-?oae?enueei? oi?a?ae? ianeoaiaoaaany
eoiaoeueeeie o??iaie ?oae?eoe?a-ai?a?aio?a. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue oaeeo
oe?aioi?aiaeo eiioi? ae?yea a Iaean?: aei ?? ii?oo aeinoaaeyeiny 60%
on??? aenii?oii? ioaieoe? (33% ca?ia ?aae?ciaoaaeiny /a?ac acianuee?
ii?oe, 7% i?eiaaeaei ia aeieth aeoiaenueeeo oa e?einueeeo).

I?ioyaii ia?oi? o?aoeie XIX no. aeieeee oa ci?oei?ee iia? eoiaoeuee?
oe?aioi?aia? eiioi?e, aeaye? c yeeo i?ioyaii ianooiieo aeanyoee?oue
i?aeo?eioaaee oi?aiaaeuei? ca’ycee c ?oae?enueeeie ii?oaie. Iinooiiai
neeaeany aa?o?aea ?oae?enueeiai eoiaoeoaa, yea niaoe?ae?coaaeany iaeaea
aeeeth/ii ia oe?aiiio aenii?o?. Iaea?eueo? oe?aioi?aiaoe?-?oae?eoe? a
?iee ni?eyoeeai? ?eieiai? eii’thieoo?e io?eioaaee i?eueeiii? ??/i?
i?eaooee a?ae ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae? ioaieoeath.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeai? ianooii? aeniiaee:

?oae?enueea ai?a?aoe?y 80-o ?ie?a XVIII — ia?oi? o?aoeie XIX no.
oi?ioaaeany ia iniia? aaaaoia?eiaeo o?aaeeoe?e ?oae?enueei? i?enooiino?
ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie, ui cia/iith i??ith aecia/eei eieae?caoe?th iiaeo
?oae?enueeeo iinaeaiue.

Oi?ioaaiiy ai?a?aoe?eieo iai?yie?a c Aiaii?i, cie?aia, ia oe?a?inuee?
caie? coiiaethaaeiny, c iaeiiai aieo, aeiiii?/ieie oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie /eiieeaie, ui neeaaeaeeny a aiaii?inueeeo
aea?aeaaao, a c ?ioiai — eieii?caoe?eiith oa o?aai?caoi?nueeith
iie?oeeith ?in?enueei? ?iia??? ia ?? i?aaeaiieo oa?aiao; aecia/aeiny
ia’?eoeaiith iio?aaith a niaoe?ae?noao aeey ?icaeoeo ??cieo aaeocae
aeiiii?ee oa eoeueoo?e.

?nioaaee aeaa iniiai? oeyoe ?oae?enueei? ?ii?a?aoe?? a Oe?a?io:
ii?nueeee — /a?ac Ainoi? ? Aea?aeaiaeee, oa oa?aiaie Aano??enueei?
?iia??? /a?ac cao?aei? ieoieoe? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae.

Aieiaiei ?aa?iiii cina?aaeaeaiiy ?ii?a?aio?a c Aiaii?i noaa I?aaeaiue
Oe?a?ie, aea a oeae /an ?ioaineaii ?icaeaaeany oi?a?aey oa ii?aieaanoai,
ui ni?eyei ooai?aiith eiiiaeoieo ?oae?enueeeo a?iiaae Iaeane, Oaiaein??,
Ea?/? oa Ia??oiiey.

?oae?enuee? a?iiaaee oe?a?inueeiai I?aaeiy noaee ni?eyoeeaei
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/iei na?aaeiaeuai, o yeiio a?aeaoaaeany ii/aoeiaa oaoiaa
aaeaioaoe?y a?eueoino? iiaii?eaoeeo aeo?aeoe?a c Aiaii?i.

Ca aeoeaii? o/ano? ?oae?eoe?a a?aeaoaaeeny i?ioeane ?a?iia?caoe??
eoeueoo?e oa iiaooo a Oe?a?i?, ?o caaaa/aiiy e?aueie iaaeaaiiyie
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai ienoaoeoaa.

Ae?yeuei?noue ?oae?enueeiai ai?a?aionueeiai eoiaoeoaa oa ii?ye?a ni?eyea
aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo ii?o?a, nooo?aei /eiii aieeaaea ia
?icoe?aiiy oi?aiaiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa aea?aeaa Cao?aeii? ?a?iie c
/i?iiii?nueei-acianueeei ?aa?iiii.

Oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue ?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? ia?aaoaaei o o?niiio
ca’yceo c a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iei oa eoeueoo?iei aeeooyi ia Aiaii?iao.

Iniiaiee ci?no ? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii

o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

?ioaa?aoe?y ?oae?eoe?a a aeiiii?/ia oa eoeueoo?ia aeeooy I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie (80-o? ?iee XVIII — ii/aoie 30-o ?ie?a XIX no.) // Oe?a?ia a
?a?iiaenueeeo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiineiao. Iaoeiaee ca??iee.- Ee?a:
?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAIO, 1998.- N.307-326.

La partecipazione degli italiani alla colonizzazione dell’Ucraina
meridionale (Anni ’80 del XVIII secolo — anni ’30 del XIX secolo) //
Slavia (Roma).- 1998.- ?2 (Aprile — Giugno).- P.188-201.

?oae?enueea a?iiaaea Iaeane o iioe?aii? o?aaeeoe?e ?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e oa ina?oe ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie o ia?o?e o?aoei? XIX no. //
Saeculum: ?noi??y, noni?euei? iaoee. Aeueiaiao.- Ee?a: ?inoeooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie IAIO, 1998.- N.49-58.

[?aoe.] Aa?aa?oeaa I.I. ?oae?eoe? a Oe?a?i? (XIX no.). A?ia?ao?/iee
neiaiee ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e.- Ee?a: ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAIO, 1994.-
196 n. // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1997. — ?5. — N.157-158.
(Ni?aaao. Oeeiaa A.A.).

[?aoe.] Mykola M. Varvartsev, Gli italiani in Ucraina (XIX sec.).
Dizionario biografico degli uomini di cultura; Kiev, Accademia nazionale
delle scienze d’Ucraina, Istituto per la storia d’Ucraina, 1994, pp.194
(in lingua ucraina).S.p. // Rassegna storica del Risorgimento.- 1998.-
Aprile — Giugno.- P.274-275.

A?aee e eoaeueyioeu a yeiiiie/aneie, iauanoaaiiie e eoeueoo?iie aeecie
Iaeannu (eiiaoe XVIII — ia?aay o?aoue XIX a.) // I?iaeaiu a?a/aneie
eoeueoo?u. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee.-
Neioa?iiieue: E?uineee a?oea, 1996.- N.114-116.

?oae?eoe? a inai?ii? i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue XVIII — ii/aoie XIX no.)
// ?aa?iiaeueia ? caaaeueia a ?noi???. Oace i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??,
i?enay/aii? 180-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ae.?.ssai?ieoeueeiai oa
90-e?ooth XIII A?oaieia?/iiai c’?caeo.- Aei?i?iiao?ianuee: Ii?iae,
1995.- N.264-265.

Aiioaoe?y

Aaoeae E.TH. ?oae?enueea ai?a?aoe?y a Oe?a?i?: aeaea?aea oa oeyoe
oi?ioaaiiy, i?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee ( 80-o? ?iee XVIII — ia?oa o?aoeia XIX
no.). — ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 — Anana?oiy ?noi??y:
?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i.
I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oiiae oi?ioaaiiy ?oae?enueei?
ai?a?aoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa iai?yiee ?? ae?yeueiino? o 80-o ?ieao XVIII —
ia?o?e o?aoei? XIX no. ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy ?icaoaeiae ?oae?enueeeo
aoi?/ieo a?iiaae o ca’yceo c i?a?aoe?eieie i?ioeanaie o I?aaeaii?e
?a?ii? oa aeaiia?ao?/iith iie?oeeith, cae?enithaaiith ?in?enueeith
?iia???th a Oe?a?i?. Aena?oeth?oueny ?ieue ?ii?a?aio?a-ii?ye?a oa
iaaioe?aio?a o iaeaaiaeaeaii? i?aeia?iaeieo oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ca’yce?a /i?iiii?nueei-na?aaecaiiiii?nueeiai ?aa?iio oa o/anoue
?oae?enueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? (a?o?oaeoi??a, a/eoae?a, a?oeno?a, ioceeaio?a
oiui) a ?a?iia?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo i?no, iioe?aii? iaaeaaiue eoeueoo?e
oa ienoaoeoaa Caoiaeo. Iieacaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy oa ae?yeuei?noue
?oae?enueei? ai?a?aoe?? a?aeaoaaeeny a o?niiio ca’yceo c
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iei oa eoeueoo?iei aeeooyi ia Aiaii?iao.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?oae?enueea ai?a?aoe?y, ?ii?a?aioe, ?oae?enuee? aoi?/i?
a?iiaaee, ?oae?enueea ?ioae?aaioe?y, i?a?aoe?ei? i?ioeane, aeaiia?ao?/ia
iie?oeea, i?aeia?iaei? oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/i? ca’ycee, ?a?iia?caoe?y.

Annotation

Batsak K. Y. The Italian emigration in Ukraine: its sources, ways of
forming and international relations (the 80s XVIII — the first one-third
of the XIX century).- Manuscript. The thesis submitted for a scientific
degree of a Candidate of History by speciality 07.00.02 — World history.
Hrushevsky Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies of the
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation investigates the conditions of the Italian emigration’s
forming in Ukraine and the directions of its activities in the 80s of
the XVIII — the first one-third of the XIX century. The problems of the
Italian ethnic communities’ development have been considered in
connection with the migratory processes in the South Europe and Russian
Empire demographic policy in Ukraine. It has been affiliated the role of
the merchants and sailors-immigrants in establishing of the
international commercial and economical relations in Black Sea and
Mediterranean Sea area. Besides it has been shown the place occupied by
the Italian intellectuals (architects, teachers, artists, musicians
etc.) in europeization of the Ukrainian cities and dissemination of the
main achievements of western culture and art. The Italian emigration’s
forming and activities were shown to have been in close connection with
social, political and cultural life of the Apennine states.

Key words: Italian emigration, immigrants, Italian ethnic communities,
migratory processes, demographic policy, international commercial and
economical relations, europeization.

Aiiioaoeey

Aaoeae E.TH. Eoaeueyineay yiea?aoeey ia Oe?aeia: enoi/ieee e iooe
oi?ie?iaaiey, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce (80-a aiaeu XVIII — ia?aay o?aoue
XIX a.).- ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 — Anaiauay
enoi?ey: Einoeooo oe?aeineie a?oaia?aoee e enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey ei.
I.N.A?ooaaneiai IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth iaeienneaaeiaaiiuo aii?inia
oi?ie?iaaiey eoaeueyineie yiea?aoeee ia Oe?aeia e iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aniaeoia aa aeayoaeueiinoe a 80-a aiaeu XVIII — ia?aie o?aoe XIX a.

A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee aeayoaeueiinoe
eoaeueyioeaa ia Oe?aeia e oe?aeinei-eoaeueyineeo naycae, yeiiiie/aneea e
iieeoe/aneea i?aaeiinueee oi?ie?iaaiey iea?aoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia a
eoaeueyineeo ainoaea?noaao e eiiea?aoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey n Aiaiiei ia
Oe?aeio a iiaia a?aiy; ?anniao?eaathony iai?aaeaiey aeaeaeaiey
eiiea?aioia e noa?u eo i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe, a oaeaea
i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey eoaeueyineeo yoie/aneeo iauei thaa Oe?aeiu;
auyniyaony ?ieue eoaeueyineie yiea?aoeee a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie Oe?aeiu
e aa ianoi a noaiiaeaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneeo naycae
/a?iiii?nei-acianeeo e n?aaeecaiiiii?neeo ii?oia.

Aaoi?ii iieacaii, /oi eoaeueyineay yiea?aoeey eco/aaiiai ia?eiaea
oi?ie?iaaeanue ia iniiaa iiiaiaaeiauo o?aaeeoeee eoaeueyineiai
i?enoonoaey ia oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu, /oi a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie
ii?aaeaeeei eieaeecaoeeth iiauo eoaeueyineeo iinaeaiee.

Auyaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea yiea?aoeeiiiuo iai?aaeaiee n Aiaiiei, a
/anoiinoe ia oe?aeineea caiee, ii?aaeaeyeinue iaaeaaii?eyoiuie
yeiiiie/aneeie e iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneeie oaeoi?aie, neiaeeaoeieny a
eoaeueyineeo ainoaea?noaao, a oaeaea aeaiia?aoe/aneie iieeoeeie
?inneeneie eiia?ee ia aa thaeiuo caieyo, iaoneiaeeaaeinue iauaeoeaiie
iio?aaiinoueth a niaoeeaeenoao aeey ?acaeoey iiauo aeey yoiai ?aaeiia
io?aneae yeiiiieee e eoeueoo?u.

A aeenna?oaoeee onoaiiaeaii, /oi a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae neiaeeeinue aeaa
iniiaiuo iooe eoaeueyineie eiiea?aoeee a Oe?aeio: ii?neie — /a?ac
*a?iiii?neea i?ieeau, e ii oa??eoi?ee Aano?eeneie eiia?ee /a?ac
caiaaeiua oaiiaeie ?inneeneie eiia?ee.

Aeaaiui ianoii nin?aaeioi/aiey auoiaeoeaa ec Aiaiiei noae THa Oe?aeiu,
aaea a yoi a?aiy aeoeaii ?acaeaaeenue oi?aiaey e ii?aieaaaiea, /oi
niaeaenoaiaaei ia?aciaaieth eiiiaeoiuo eoaeueyineeo iauei Iaeannu,
Oaiaeinee, Ea?/e e Ia?eoiiey; eoaeueyineea iaueiu noaee aeey
aieueoeinoaa eiiea?aioia aeaaii?eyoiie eoeueoo?ii-yoie/aneie n?aaeie,
aaea i?ienoiaeeea eo i?ioanneiiaeueiay aaeaioaoeey.

I?e aeoeaiii o/anoee eoaeueyioeaa, aeaaiui ia?acii eoaeueyineie
eioaeeeaaioeee, i?ioaeae i?ioeann aa?iiaecaoeee eoeueoo?u e auoa a
Oe?aeia, iaiaauaiea eo eo/oeie aeinoeaeaieyie caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai
eneonnoaa e eoeueoo?u. ?anoe?aieth oi?aiaiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
/a?iiii?nei-acianeiai ?aaeiia n ainoaea?noaaie Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu
cia/eoaeueiui ia?acii niinianoaiaaea i?ioanneiiaeueiay aeayoaeueiinoue
eoaeueyineiai yiea?aioneiai eoia/anoaa e ii?yeia.

Aaaeiui auaiaeii a enneaaeiaaiee yaeyaony auyniaiea oiai, /oi
oi?ie?iaaiea e aeayoaeueiinoue eoaeueyineie yiea?aoeee enneaaeoaiiai
ia?eiaea i?ioiaeeee a oaniie acaeiinayce n iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie e
eoeueoo?iie aeeciueth a ainoaea?noaao ia Aiaiieineii iieoino?iaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eoaeueyineay yiea?aoeey, eiiea?aiou, eoaeueyineea
yoie/aneea iaueiu, eoaeueyineay eioaeeeaaioeey, iea?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu,
aeaiia?aoe/aneay iieeoeea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oi?aiai-yeiiiie/aneea nayce,
aa?iiaecaoeey.

Saggio sulla citta di Odessa di Michele de Ribas e altri documenti
dell’archivio di Stato di Napoli / a cura di Moracci G.- Genova,
[1988].- 107 p.

Risaliti R. Russia e Toscana nel Risorgimento.- Pistoia, 1982.-
p.94-106.

Notizie di Odessa.- Firenze, 1817.- 35 p.

Saggio sulla citta di Odessa di Michele de Ribas e altri documenti
dell’archivio di Stato di Napoli / a cura di Moracci G.- Genova,
[1988].- P.49-59.

Serristori L. Ricordi di viaggi // Risaliti R. Studi sui rapporti
italo-russi.- Pisa, 1972.- P. 127-238.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee ca 1813-1815, 1818, 1824,
1826-1834 ??.

Neaeueeianeee A. O?iiieiae/aneia iaic?aiea enoi?ee Iiai?inneeneiai
e?ay. 1730-1823. A 2-o /.: *.1.- Iaeanna, 1836.- N.146-147, 160-161;
Neaeueeianeee A. Iiuo noaoenoe/aneiai iienaiey Iiai?inneeneiai e?ay: A
2-o /.: *.1.- Iaeanna, 1850.- N.270-271.

?onneee aanoiee.- 1901. — O.271 (oaa?aeue).- N.471-487; O.273 (iae).-
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