Імітаційне моделювання наукового знання (методологічний аналіз): Автореф. дис… канд. філос. наук / М.П. Шишкіна, Ін-т філос. ім. Г.С.Сковороди НАН У

2

?INOEOOO O?EINIO?? ?I.A.N.NEIAI?IAeE

IAOe?IIAEUeII? AEAAeAI?? IAOE OE?A?IE

OAeE 1:519.876.5

Oeoe?ia Ia??y Iaae?aia

?I?OAOe?EIA IIAeAETHAAIIss IAOEIAIAI CIAIIss

(IAOIAeIEIA?*IEE AIAE?C)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.09 — o?einio?y iaoee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Oeaio?? aeine?aeaeaiue iioaioe?aeo ? ?noi??? iaoee
?i.A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

EOCI?OeIA Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: 1. Aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe

Iiaeueyi/ee Aaeaioei Eineiiae/,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie.

2. Eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeaeoeae TH??e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?einio?? oa iaoiaeieia?? iaoee Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe IAI Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «26» aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.161.01 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa) iaoe
a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i.A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

252001, Ee?a-1, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 25 » ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aiae?in ?.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. O aaeoc? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo ca inoaii? ?iee cia/ii
ca?eueoeeany e?euee?noue i?ia?ai, iia’ycaieo c ?i?oaoe??th oeo /e oeo
aoai?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, cie?aia o aaaaoueio ?icae?eao o?ceee,
o?i??, iaoaiaoeee. Oae? i?ia?aie iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy
??cieo aniaeo?a aoaeiae ? ooieoe?thaaiiy oe?e?nieo nenoai iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy. O iaaeao naiiai ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy aeoiaeyoue
caeaa?eueoiai c oyaeaiue i?i no?oeoo?o ciaiiy, ye? aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey
iaoiaeieia?? iaoee 50-60-o ?ie?a. I?ioa oe? oyaeaiiy caiaaeoi aocuee?
aeey oiai, uia ioiieoe an? o? aniaeoe ciaiiy, ye? oaeoe/ii
?icaeyaeathoue i?e eiai ?i?oaoe?eiiio iiaeaethaaii?. I?iaeaiiino?oaaoe
ia?niaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy a ?i?oaoe?eiiio iiaeaethaaii? a?eueo
no/anieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a — iaeia c oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iiaeeea?noue aiae?co ?i?oaoe?eieo i?ia?ai c ?aeeii? iaoiaeieia?/ii?
oi/ee ci?o iaaea? no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaia ?aeiino?oeoe?y nenoaie ciaiiy
(I.Ao?a?i, A.Eoci?oeia). ?? aeei?enoaiiy iiyniththoue, c iaeiiai aieo,
oei, ui o i?e iniaeeaino? ? i?e?iaeo iaoeiaiai ciaiiy aea/athoue iiai?oa
e aeaoaeuei?oa, i?ae a ?ioeo ?nioth/eo ia iao /an iaoiaeieia?/ieo
?aeiino?oeoe?yo (noaiaea?oi?e, no?oeoo?ae?nonuee?e, ?ino?oiaioaeuei?e oa
?i.). C ?ioiai aieo, no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaia ?aeiino?oeoe?y e??i
aeane?eioeaiiai ia? ua e ii?iaoeaiee aniaeo.

Ioaea, oaia iaaoaa? aeooaeueiino? o ca’yceo, ii-ia?oa, c iioe?aiiyi
no/anieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo oyaeaiue i?i ciaiiy ia iiao aaeocue, ii-ae?oaa,
?c c’ynoaaiiyi o nai?e oe?e aaeoc? eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae oa ia’?eo?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui iiaea ni?eyoe ?? iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeia?.

I??a ?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Noaoe/i? e aeeiai?/i? no?oeoo?e iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaee no/ani? oe?a?inuee? oa ?in?enuee? a/ai? o aaeoc?
o?einio?? iaoee: I.Ao?a?i, A.?oio?aoia, O.Eaiae, A.Ea?iiae/,
I.Eaae?ianueeee, A.Eiiaa?nueeee, I.Eiii?i, A.E?aa/aiei, N.E?einueeee,
A.Eoci?oeia, ?.E?aei?eia, A.Eoe’yiaoeue, I.Ii?ic, A.Iiaeueyi/ee,
A.Iiii???iei, I.Iiiiae/, A.?ocaa?i, A.?eaeei, E.Nieiaae, A.Noueii?i,
A.Oeiea?oe; a oaeiae ca?oa?aei? a/ai?: I.Noiian, O.Naiia, Aeae.Ni?ae,
A.Ooaaitheea? oa ?io?. O aaeoc? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy
cia/i? ?acoeueoaoe iaea?aeaee oe?a?inuee? oa ?in?enuee? aaoi?e:
A.Aoaiia, A.Aeooeia, I.Aeiaayeei, A.Eiotheia, N.Eooii?i, A.Eaiei,
A.Iaiio?i, A.Ieoaeaae/, A.Ieioi?eia, TH.?ainueeee, E.Naiioaaeia,
A.Oeuaiei, N.Oo?aiei, E.Oiiaiei; a oaeiae ca?oa?aei? iaoeiaoe?:
Aeae.Aiaea?nii, Aeae.A?aaeoio, A.Ao?en, A.Eiiaeaa?, Ae.E?iao,
Aeae.Eo?ieai, I.Eaiae?, ?.Ieoaeuenuee?, A.Iuethae, A.Naeiii, I.Oaaa?ae.

Aeey iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny ??ciiiai?oi?
iaoaiaoe/i? e eiii’thoa?i? caniae. O?aaeeoe?eiee «o?einionueeee»
i?aeo?ae cacae/ae iia’ycothoue c eia?eith ? caiaeyoue aei iiaeaethaaiiy
i??eoaaiue ye aeaaeoeoeaieo aeniiae?a, ui i?aeeyaathoue i?aaeeai
ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaeieo oaa?aeaeaiue aei ?ioeo. O iaaeao oeueiai i?aeoiaeo
ia ?icaeyaeathoue ye niaoeeo?/i? e iaca?aei? iiai?noth aei eia?/ieo
aeniiae?a oae? aaaeeea? aniaeoe ooieoe?thaaiiy ciaiiy, ye aenoiaiiy
a?iioac, canoinoaaiiy i?ioeaaeo?, oi?ioaaiiy eiioeaioe?e, eiino?othaaiiy
iiaeo iiaeaeae, aeaaaeaiiy caeii?a, iiiyoue oiui.

?io? i?aeoiaee o iiaeaethaaii? ciaiiy aaea iaeaaeaoue aei aaeoc?
ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo. O i?e ?i?oaoe?eii iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane aeiaaaeaiiy
oai?ai, aa?enoe/iiai iiooeo, eeaneo?eaoe??, ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue
aenia?oii, iaa/aiiy, iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a. I?ioa i?e iiaoaeia?
?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae ia caaaeaee aeineoue oi/iee ci?no aeeaaeathoue o
aeei?enoiaoaai? iiiyooy, ia/?oei aecia/athoue ca’ycee i?ae ??cieie
eiiiiiaioaie ciaiiy aai ia aa?ooue aei oaaae eiai aaaeeea? neeaaeia?.
Aeei?enoaiiy no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aea? ciiao cia/iith
i??ith onoiooe cacia/ai? i?ioe??//y, a oaeiae cai?iiiioaaoe
iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeey ocaaaeueiaiiy e ?icaeoeo ?nioth/eo iai?yie?a
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie,
iia’ycai? c iiaeaethaaiiyi iaoeiaiai ciaiiy o aaeoc? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?eioeei?a
iiaoaeiae eiii’thoa?ieo i?ia?ai iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy oa
no?oeoo? ciaiiy, ia yeeo a?oioothoueny i?ia?aie.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ?: iaoiaeieia?/iee
aiae?c iayaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo ? i?ia?aiieo cania?a, ui ?i?oothoue
??ci? aniaeoe nenoaie iaoeiaiai ciaiiy; noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiia aeey
nenoaiaoecaoe?? aieiaieo iai?yie?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy;
aecia/aiiy oaiaeaioe?e ? ia?niaeoea o aaeoc? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
uiaei iiaoaeiae eiai a?eueo aoaeoeaieo, iiaieo ? oi/ieo cania?a ?
iaoiae?a.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ica’ycoaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:

· aea/eoe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeey aiae?co i?aeoiae?a aei
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy cania?a oa aia?aoo
iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy o no/ani?e iaoiaeieia?? iaoee;

· aeyaeoe ? i?iaiae?coaaoe iaoiaeieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa no?oeoo?o
iayaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo ? i?ia?aiieo cania?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy;

· aeine?aeeoe oaiaeaioe?? o aaeoc? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy;

· aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?nioth/eo
iai?yie?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?oioo?oueny ia no/anieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo oyaeaiiyo i?i no?oeoo?o oa
ooieoe?? iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, ia aeei?enoaii? no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaiiai
i?aeoiaeo, o iaaeao yeiai ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y i?aenenoai oa
aeaiaio?a oai?aoe/ieo nenoai iaoeiaiai ciaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a aiae?c?
eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy c iiaeyaeo no/anieo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo oyaeaiue i?i iaoeiaa ciaiiy. Aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ? oaeeie:

· ia i?aenoaa? aeie?aieaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo no?oeoo? ciaiiy, ui
iiaeaeththoueny, aecia/aii aieiai? iai?yiee ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.
Iieacaii, ui i?aaeeeaoiee i?aeo?ae a?aeoai?th? aeaye? eia?/i? no?oeoo?e,
i?iaeoeoe?eiee ? o?aeiiaee — i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?i?, a naiaioe/iee —
e?iaa?noe/i? ? iiaeaethth/?;

· o ?acoeueoao? aiae?co cania?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
anoaiiaeaii, ui aeneiaethaaeuei? no?oeoo?e neeaaeathoue eeoa
i?aeiiiaeeio no?oeoo? ciaiiy, aeine?aeaeoaaieo o i?aaeiaoiiio iie?
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy. E??i ieo aeei?enoiaothoueny iiaeaethth/?,
i?ioeaaeo?i?, i?iaeaii? oa ?io? no?oeoo?e;

· cai?iiiiiaaii ?icoi?iiy i?iaeaie ye no?oeoo?e, ca aeiiiiiae yei?
cae?enith?oueny ?icaeoie ciaiiy, a caaaeaiiy — ye no?oeoo?e canoinoaaiiy
aaea io?eiaieo ciaiue;

· i?iaaaeaii no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaio eeaneo?eaoe?th iiaeyae?a ia
i?e?iaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo i??eoaaiue a iniiaao iaoaiaoeee. O ?acoeueoao?
anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?iae?ci ?iaeoue iaaiein ia i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iiio
oa eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iiio aioe? ciaiiy, eia?oeeci — ia
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iiio aioe?, ?ioo?oe?ii?ci — ia /anoei?
iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaii? oa i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ii? i?aenenoai, a
iai?yiie, iia’ycaiee c eiino?oeoeaiith naiaioeeith caaaeaiue — ia
i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/iiio aioe? ciaiiy;

· aaaaeaii e iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy i??eoaaiue o aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? ye
ia?aoiae?a a?ae iaeieo oaa?aeaeaiue aei ?ioeo ca?aeii c i?aaeeaie
aeniiaeo ? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ye ia?aoai?aiiy aoaeue-yeeo no?oeoo?
ciaiiy;

· ?ice?eoi nenoaiiee iaa?? aeaiaio?a ciaiiy ? iia’ycaieo c ieie
i?ioean?a, ye? a ?i?oaoe?eiiio iiaeaethaaii? aein? i?aeoe/ii ia
?icaeyaeaee. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue i?ioeane eiino?othaaiiy i?aaee iiaoaeiae
ae?ac?a, aeoaa?o?a, i?aaee aeniiaeo; aeaaaeaiiy aen?ii, ioe?iie;
aeie?aieaiiy oa ?iaioaaiiy ia’?eo?a c i?aaeiaoiiai iiey nenoaie ciaiiy,
?o aeanoeainoae ? a?aeiioaiue; caeiie ??cieo ??ai?a, ca’ycee aeaiaio?a
??cieo i?aenenoai oiui. Iaa?oioiaaii oaco, ui ?icaeyae oeeo no?oeoo? ?
i?ioean?a ni?eyoeia noai?aiith aoaeoeai?oeo cania?a ? nenoai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeai?
o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee iiaiai iai?yieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
?nio? o iaaeao ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, — ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Aiae?c ?icaeoeo ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ia?
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy o?einionueeeo ieoaiue c oaiaoeee
ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, a oaeiae i?iaeai noi?aeieo c? ooo/iei ?ioaeaeoii
aeenoeeie?i, oaeeo, ye ineoieia?y, iaoeiciaanoai, e?iaa?noeea, ?noi??y
iaoee, iaaeaaia?ea, i?e?iaeie/? iaoee.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iaoiaeieia?/ieo
ia?aaeoiia iiaoaeiae i?ia?ai oa aeie?aieaii? aieiaieo aeaiaio?a ciaiiy o
i?aaeiaoiiio iie? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy ye o
aaeoc? naiiai ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy c iaoith iiaoaeiae a?eueo
aeineiiaeeo oa iiooaeieo i?ia?ai, oae ? o oai?aoe/ieo oa i?aeoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo c iaoeiciaanoaa, ?noi??? oa o?einio?? iaoee, o yeeo
nooo?ao ?ieue a?ae?a?athoue ?i?oaoe?ei? iiaeae? ciaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe ei?enieie i?e ?ic?iaoe?
iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae iaa/aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy oa i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?no iniia ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.
Aiaeii/an iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i, aea
canoiniaothoueny ?i?oaoe?ei? iiaeae? ciaiiy, iiaeooue i?iaiaeeoeny
a?eueo aoaeoeaii c o?aooaaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iaoiaeieia?/iiai aiae?co
eiie?aoii-iaoeiaiai ciaiiy, yea ? ia’?eoii ?icaeyaeo o eiaeiiio
aeiaaeeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaii ia can?aeaiiyo
a?aeae?eo nenoaiieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo Oeaio?a
aeine?aeaeaiue iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?i.A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo cania?a iaa/aiiy oa iaa/aeueiiai iaeaaeiaiiy
?inoeoooo ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy II Oe?a?ie. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy oa
?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ia O?V Ee?anueeiio
neiiic?oi? c iaoeiciaanoaa oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy (Ee?a,
1992), ia eiioa?aioe?yo iieiaeeo o/aieo iaoeiciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a iaoee
(Ee?a, 1992, 1993), ia can?aeaiiyo iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai nai?ia?o «Iniiae
iaoaiaoeee ? ?ioi?iaoeee» (Ee?a, 1997, 1998). Iniiaiee ci?no
aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o 9 ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aeaii noeneee iaeyae i??e
?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
?iaioe, iaaaaeai? aieiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “No/ani? iaoiaeieia?/i? oyaeaiiy i?i iaoeiaa ciaiiy”
iaaaaeaii iien aieiaieo iniaeeainoae aoaeiae ? ooieoe?e nenoai iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy, yeee noi?iaiaeaeaii i?eeeaaeaie canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo
oyaeaiue aeey oe?eae aiae?co eiie?aoii-iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Ca?aeii ?c
no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaiei i?aeoiaeii a i?aai?caoe?? nenoaie ciaiiy
aeie?aieaii i?aenenoaie ? ??ai?, ui ooai?ththoue, oae ae iiaeoe,
«ai?eciioaeueiee» oa «aa?oeeaeueiee» c??ce o aoaeia? ciaiiy. Aieiaieo
i?aenenoai o neeaae? ?aeiino?oeoe?? /ioe?e — eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/ia,
iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaia, i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ia oa
i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/ia. Aeey oe?eae aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaiiy aeei?enoiaaii
aia?ao oai??? ?iaiiaaieo iiiaeei.

O ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo ??ai?a ???a?o?? eiaeii? c i?aenenoai
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. O eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/i?e i?aenenoai? oea: iiiyooy;
ciaeia? oi?ie ae?aaeaiiy iiiyoue (neiaieee); i?aaeea iiaoaeiae ae?ac?a;
iiai? nenoaie iaoeiai? oai???; aen?iie; i?aaeea aeniiaeo; oai?aie;
/eneaiiy; iiiaiaeaee /eneaiue. O iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeai?e — iacae
ia’?eo?a c i?aaeiaoii? oea?eie; iacae ?o aeanoeainoae oa a?aeiioaiue;
aano?aeoi? aeanoeaino? oa a?aeiioaiiy, ui ioiieththoue aeanoeaino?
aeanoeainoae, aeanoeaino? a?aeiioaiue oiui; noeoii?noue aacenieo
aeanoeainoae ? a?aeiioaiue ia’?eo?a; iiaeae? ia’?eo?a; iiaeaeuei? oi?ie
iiaeaiiy caeii?a ??cieo ??ai?a.

Aei i?iaeaiii? /anoeie i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/ii? i?aenenoaie aoiaeyoue iiene
i?iaeaiieo neooaoe?e, iiaeeea? caaaeaiiy, ae?eni? oa aeooaeuei?
caaaeaiiy; aei aa?enoe/ii? /anoeie — a?iioace, aa?enoeee, no?aoaa??
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai oa ?io? aeaiaioe. O i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?i?e
i?aenenoai? aei i?ioeaaeo?ii? /anoeie iaeaaeaoue iia?aoe??, i?ioeaaeo?e
oa i?ioeane; a aen?ieia?/i?e /anoei? i?noyoueny ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee
ioe?iie ?ioeo aeaiaio?a oai???.

Aaaeeeaei ia’?eoii ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? i?ioeane iaoaiaoe/ieo
i??eoaaiue. I?ioa iiaeyaee aeaeaoieo i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoaiaoeee oa
o?einio?? iaoaiaoeee ia aoaeiao oa ?icaeoie nenoai iaoaiaoe/iiai ciaiiy
cia/ii a?ae??ciythoueny. Aei aieiaieo iai?yie?a a iniiaao iaoaiaoeee
iaeaaeaoue eia?oeeci (A.?annae, A.Oaeooaae), ?ioo?oe?ii?ci (E.A?aoa?,
A.Aaeeue oa ?i.), oi?iae?ci (Ae.A?eueaa?o oa ?i.) oa ?io?. Iaa?oioiaaii
oaco, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaii? ?aeiino?oeoe??
oi?iae?ci ?iaeoue canaaeiaeie i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?i? ?
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/i? aniaeoe iaoaiaoe/ieo i??eoaaiue; eia?oeeci —
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/i?; ?ioo?oe?ii?ci — /anoeiai iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeai?
oa i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?i?; a iai?yiie, iia’ycaiee c eiino?oeoeaiith
naiaioeeith caaaeaiue, — i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/i? aniaeoe.

Eiioeaiooaeueiei i?ae??oioyi ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ? oaeee ia’?eo
iaoiaeieia?/iiai aiae?co, ye oai??y aeai?eoi?a. O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co o
neeaae? oai??? aeai?eoi?a ae/eaiiaaii aieiai? aeaiaioe an?o /ioe?ueio
i?aenenoai iaoeiai? oai??? ? aeine?aeaeaii iiiyooy aeai?eoio. I?e
aiae?c? aeai?eoio aei ?icaeyaeo a?aeeny i?ioeaaeo?iee oa i?ioeanoaeueiee
eiai aiee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeine?aeaeaiiy c? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo oa i?iaeaia
iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy” ?icaeyiooi aieiai? i?aeoiaee aei iiaeaethaaiiy
ciaiiy. O iaaiiio ?icoi?ii? nenoaia ciaiiy ? ia’?eoii iiaeaethaaiiy
i?ia?ai o aaeoc? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo. Eeaneo?eaoe?th i?ia?ai iiaeia
i?iaanoe uiaei oiai, ye? ??ciiaeaee i?ioean?a ?iaioe c? ciaiiyie aiie
caoi?eothoue. Iieacaii, ui aenia?oi? nenoaie, ui neoaothoue aeey
?ica’ycaiiy i?eeeaaeieo caaaeaiue, iiaeia ?icoi?oe ye i?ecia/ai? aeey
i?ia?aioaaiiy i?ioean?a ia?iaee ? aeei?enoaiiy ciaiiy. Ae?oaee iai?yiie
o iiaeaethaaii? ieneaiiy iia’ycaiee c i?ioeanaie caeiaoaaiiy ciaiiy. A?i
i?noeoue o nia? ??ciiiai?oi? i?ia?aie naiiiaa/aiiy oa i?ia?aie
a?aee?eoo?a.

Aei aieiaieo iiaeaeae ciaiiy o ooo/iiio ?ioaeaeo? a?aeiinyoue o?aeie,
naiaioe/i? ia?aae?, i?iaeoeoe?ei? nenoaie, eia?/i? i?aaeeeaoe. Aeania,
oe? iiaeae? a?ae?a?athoue ?ieue cania?a ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo, ye?
iio?aaothoue naiino?eiiai ?icaeyaeo ii?yae ?c caaaeueiiiaoiaeieia?/ieie
? caaaeueiioai?aoe/ieie oyaeaiiyie, i?i ui eoeiny o ia?oiio ?icae?e?.
Cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th cania?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy noiniaii
oiai, ye? c aeaiaio?a oe?e?nii? nenoaie ciaiiy aiie aeei?enoiaothoue.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui i?aaeeeaoiee i?aeo?ae a?aeia?aaeo?
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iee a?e o aoaeia? ciaiiy, ioiiethth/e oa?aa eiiiiiaio?a
a?aeiia?aeii? i?aenenoaie, a naia aeo?aei?, a oaeiae aea?aei?
oaa?aeaeaiiy oa oi?iaeuei? iiae. I?iaeoeoe?eiee i?aeo?ae a?aeianaii aei
i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ii? i?aenenoaie, ine?eueee i?aaeea ye eiai
canaaeia? no?oeoo?e ? ??ciiaeaeii ciaiue i?ioeaaeo?iiai oeio. I?e
caa?oaii? aei iaaiiai o?aeio ia?aaeaa/aii aeoea?caoe?th i?ioeaaeo?
aeei?enoaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo ia’?eo?a aai iiiyoue, ui ? aecia/aeueiith
?enith ooieoe?thaaiiy o?aeiiai? nenoaie, ioaea, oeae i?aeo?ae oaeiae
iiaeia a?aeianoe aei i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iiai oeio. Naiaioe/i? ia?aae?,
caoi?eoth/e naiaioe/i? oa iiiyo?ei? aniaeoe iia?oaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe??th,
a?aeia?aaeothoue e?iaa?noe/i? oa aeaye? iiaeaeuei? aeaiaioe iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy. Iaoai?ci oiiaeaiaeo o a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ioiieth? i?iaeaii? oa
aa?enoe/i? eiiiiiaioe. Oaeei /eiii anoaiiaeaii, ui o i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc?
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ie??i aeneiaethaaiue, ui iaeaaeaoue aei
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iiai oeio, aeine?aeaeothoue oaeiae no?oeoo?e
i?ioeaaeo?iiai, i?iaeaiiiai, iiaeaeueiiai oa ?ioeo oei?a nenoaiiino?
ciaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Aieiai? ia’?eoe ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
iaoeiaiai ciaiiy” aecia/aii ia’?eoe iiaeaethaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui ieie ?
??ciiiai?oi? aeaee i??eoaaiue, ye? aa?ooueny o oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii?, ye
ia?aoai?aiiy aoaeue-yeeo no?oeoo? ciaiiy — iiiyoue, iiaeaeae, caeii?a,
i?aaee oiui, a ia eeoa aeneiaethaaiue, ye o i?aeoiae? oi?iaeueii?
eia?ee. Aecia/aiiy ia’?eo?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy aea? i?aenoaae
aeey aeie?aieaiiy aieiaieo iai?yie?a iiaeaethaaiiy.

Iaeiei c oei?a i??eoaaiue, ui ? aeineoue aeine?aeaeaiei o aaeoc?
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, ? noaie i??eoaaiue. Eiaeia noaia yaey?
niaith iaoai?aaeei aai i?ioeaaeo?o, canoiniaoaai? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
iaaiiai oeio caaaeaiue o aeaye?e i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc?. Iieacaii, ui ca
aeiiiiiae noai iiaeaeththoue ye eiino?othaaiiy, oae ? canoinoaaiiy
i?ioeaaeo?ieo eiiiiiaio?a ciaiiy (iai?eeeaae, i?ia?aia EURICA).
?icaeyiooi iai?yiie o iiaeaethaaii? i??eoaaiue, yeee noino?oueny
i?ioean?a eeaneo?eaoe?? oa ?ici?ciaaaiiy. Eiaeia i?aaeei eeaneo?eaoe??
a?aeiia?aea? aecia/aiiio i?aecaaaeaiith — aeie?aieaiith na?aae iiiaeeie
ia’?eo?a ??cieo eean?a, iio?i aeie?aieaiith i?aaenoaaiee?a i?aeeean?a
na?aae eiaeiiai eeano oiui. A?aecia/aii, ui i?ae caaaeaiiyi
eeaneo?eaoe?? /anoi ?icoi?thoue canoinoaaiiy i?aaee aeey eeaneo?eaoe??
ia’?eo?a, a i?ae caaaeaiiyi ?ici?ciaaaiiy — eiino?othaaiiy i?aaee.
Cacae/ae, eeaneo?eaoe?ei? nenoaie ia?aaeaa/athoue iiaeeea?noue ia eeoa
cae?eniaiiy eeaneo?eaoe??, a e aeaaaeaiiy i?aaee o i?ioean?
naiiiaa/aiiy, iai?eeeaae, aenia?oia nenoaia MYCIN, ?ethno?aoeaia
i?ia?aia eeaneo?eaoe?? oaa?ei uiaei ?iae?a, eean?a oa aeae?a oa ?io?.
?niothoue oaeiae caaaeuei? aeai?eoie, iai?eeeaae ID3, i?ecia/ai? aeey
aeaaaeaiiy i?aaee eeaneo?eaoe?? o aeia?euei?e i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc?.
Iieacaii, ui i?ioeane aa?enoe/iiai iiooeo, ua iaeiiai oeio i??eoaaiue,
caoi?eothoue i?iaeaii? oa aa?enoe/i? aniaeoe ciaiiy. Aa?enoeee yaeythoue
niaith aii??e/i? i?aaeea, ui iioei?cothoue oa ni?yiiaothoue iiooe. ?o
aeei?enoiaothoue a aenia?oieo nenoaiao aeey ?ica’ycaiiy i?eeeaaeieo
caaaeaiue o aeaye?e i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc?. I?eeeaae oaei? i?ia?aie —
nenoaia DENDRAL, yea aecia/a? iieaeoey?io aoaeiao ?a/iaeie ca aeiiiiiae
iiooaeiiai iaai?o aa?enoee. O aaeoc? iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a
?i?oothoue i?ioeane ia eeoa canoinoaaiiy aa?enoee aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai, a e aeaaaeaiiy naieo aa?enoee (iai?eeeaae, o i?ia?ai? EURISCO).

Ia ie?aio oaaao caneoaiaothoue aeaa aieiaieo oeie i?iaeaiiiai i?inoi?o,
canoiniaoaaieo i?ae /an ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, — i?ino?? iien?a oa
i?ino?? noai?a. I?ino?? noai?a neeaaea?oueny ?c noai?a oa iia?aoi??a, ui
neoaothoue aeey ia?aoiaeo a?ae iaeiiai noaio aei ?ioiai o i?ioean?
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, aieiaiith eiiiiiaioith, ui aecia/a?
i?aai?caoe?th i?inoi?o noai?a, ? caaaeaiiy ye canaaeie/a no?oeoo?a
canoinoaaiiy ciaiiy. A?aecia/aii, ui no?oeoo?a i?inoi?o caeaaeeoue a?ae
oei?a ciaiue, aeei?enoiaoaaieo i?ae /an ?ica’ycaiiy. Oae, o no?oeoo??
i?inoi?o iiaeooue aooe ?ai?acaioiaai? iiaeae? (AFEX, DN), iiiyooy
(iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia WHY) oiui. Iia?aoi?e o i?inoi?? iien?a caaeathoue
ia?aaeaa/oaai? iiene ooeaieo no?oeoo? ciaiue (aaia?othoue ia?ai?uaiiy o
i?inoi??), a aa?enoeee ? caniaaie a?aeai?o e?aueo a?iioac. C’yniaaii, ui
o aoaeia? i?inoi?o iien?a a?aeia?aaeo?oueny ooieoe?thaaiiy i?iaeaie ye
aieiaii? no?oeoo?e ?icaeoeo ciaiiy.

Aaaeeeaee iai?yiie aeine?aeaeaiue ooai?ththoue ?i?oaoe?ei? i?ia?aie
iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a. Ca aeiiiiiae oeeo i?ia?ai iiaeaeththoue i?ioeane
aeaaaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aeaiaio?a nenoaie ciaiiy — iiaeaeae (DALTON),
a?iioac (EC), iiiyoue (AI), caeii?a (BACON, GLAUBER), aeai?eoi?a
(“Program formation”), i?aaee eeaneo?eaoe?? (GLAUBER), oai?ai (OTTER)
oiui. ?niothoue i?eeeaaee i?ia?ai, eiee aeaaaeai? ciaiiy o iiaeaeueoiio
canoiniaothoue (iai?eeeaae, caeiie canoiniaothoue aeey oi?ioaaiiy nenoai
??aiyiue, GALILEO). Iieacaii, ui i?ia?aie iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a iiaeia
nenoaiaoecoaaoe noiniaii aeaiaio?a ciaiiy, ye? ? ia’?eoaie aeaaaeaiiy.

Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeea?noue ?icoi?iiy ?icaeoeo ciaiiy o aaeoc?
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ye caeiaoaaiiy ciaiiy c? ci?iith eiai
no?oeoo?e oa i?aai?caoe??. Noaa?aeaeaii, ui ci?ia no?oeoo?e iayaieo
ciaiue a?aeaeaa?oueny o ci?i? no?oeoo?e ? i?aai?caoe?? i?inoi?o noai?a.
Oeae i?ino?? aaeineiiaeth?oueny i?ae /an iaaoaaiiy “aeina?aeo”
?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue oa naiiiaa/aiiy. C’yniaaii, ui oeyoii ci?ie
i?inoi?o iien?a a?aeoai?ththoue oi?ioaaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e
iien?a o i?ioean? aeaaaeaiiy iiaeo aeaiaio?a ciaiue.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo e aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy” iieacaii, ui no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaia
?aeiino?oeoe?y aea? iiaeeea?noue nenoaiaoecoaaoe aieiai? iai?yiee
iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy noiniaii aeaiaio?a oa no?oeoo? ciaiiy, ye? ?
ia’?eoaie iiaeaethaaiiy. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeyaea ca’ycee aeaiaio?a
ie?aieo i?aenenoai oa aeaye? i?ioeane e aiee ciaiiy, ui caeeoaeeny iica
oaaaith o aaeoc? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy. ?o ?icaeyae iiaeia
aaaaeaoe iaei??th c ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo oe??? aaeoc?.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui i?ia?aie ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy iiaeia
iiae?eeoe ia o?e ??ciiaeaee. O i?ioean? caeiaoaaiiy iiaeo iiiyoue,
iiaeaeae, caeii?a eiino?oththoue aeaiaioe eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/ii? oa
iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaii? i?aenenoai. Aeey oiai, uia iaea?aeaoe oe?
ciaiiy, iaiao?aeii aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo ??ciiaeae?a iaoaciaiue —
aa?enoee, a?iioac, ioe?iie, no?aoaa?e oa noai i??eoaaiue, ye? o naith
/a?ao ? aeaiaioaie i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ii? oa i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/ii?
i?aenenoai. Iaoaciaiiy oaeiae iiaeooue aooe ia’?eoii aeaaaeaiiy.
Ia?aoo?, iiaeia aeie?aieoe ua e iaoaiaoaciaiiy, ye, iai?eeeaae,
aa?enoeeo aeey aeaaaeaiiy aa?enoeee aai i?iaeaio iinoaiiaee i?iaeaie.
?acoeueoaoe eeaneo?eaoe?? i?ia?ai uiaei no?oeoo? ciaiiy, ui ieie
canoiniaothoueny aai eiino?oththoueny, aeey aeiaaeeo aeaio ia?oeo
i?aenenoai iaaaaeaii o oaaeeoeyo 1 ? 2.

Oaaeeoey 1. Eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/ia i?aenenoaia.

Aeie?aieaiiy,

eiino?othaaiiy Iacaa aeaiaioo ciaiiy CanoinoaaiiyAeie?aieaiiy oa
?iaioaaiiy AMIIIssOOssEeaneo?eaoe?ei? (i?ia?aia eeaneo?eaoe?? oaa?ei;
GLAUBER, ROSPECTOR, MYCIN)Eiino?othaaiiy NEIAIEEE

(AEOAA?OE)Oi?iaeuei? iiae, iiae eia?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy (PROLOG, LOGO);
i?ia?aie-ia?aeeaaea/? (RUTA, PARS, RUMP); i?ia?aie iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a
(AM); i?ia?aie eeane-o?eaoe??, iiaeaethaaiiy, aeiaaaeaiiy oai?ai
oiuiEiino?othaaiiy I?AAEEA IIAOAeIAE

AE?AC?AOi?iaeuei? iiae, iiae eia?/iiai i?ia?aioaai-iy (PROLOG, LOGO);
i?ia?aie-ia?aeeaaea/?

(RUTA, PARS, RUMP)Oi?ioaaiiy

Oi?iaeuei? iiae, iiae eia?/iiai i?ia?aioaaiiy (PROLOG,
LOGO)IIAEOi?iaeuei? iiae, iiae eia?/iiai i?ia?aioaai-iy (PROLOG, LOGO);
aeai?eoi?/i? iiae (PASCAL, BASIC, C oa ?io?); aeaeea?aoeai? oa
i?ioeaaeo?i? iiae; i?ia?aie ia a?oio? naiaioe/ieo ia?aae (IIAO, WHY)
Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy AEN?IIEI?ia?aie aeiaaaeaiiy oai?ai (OTTER,
GTE)Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy I?AAEEA

AENIIAEOI?ia?aie aeiaaaeaiiy oai?ai (OTTER, GTE)Aeaaaeaiiy OTTER, GTE,
BACON oa ?i.OAI?AIE,

OAA?AeAEAIIssI?ia?aie ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue (EURICA oa ?io?); ia/eneaiiy
ca oi?ioeaieEiino?othaaiiy

Oi?iaeuei? iiae; Iaa/aeueia i?ia?a-ia “iiaeaethaaiiy
/eneaiue”*ENEAIIssOi?iaeuei? iiae;

Iaa/aeueia i?ia?aia “iiaeaethaaiiy /eneaiue”Oaaeeoey 2.
Iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaia i?aenenoaia.

Aeie?aieaiiy,

eiino?othaaiiyIacaa aeaiaioo ciaiiy CanoinoaaiiyAeie?aieaiiy oa
?iaioaaiiy ?IAIA

IA’?EO?AI?ia?aie iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae, caeii?a; i?iaeoeoe?ei?, o?aeiia?
nenoaie; iiaeaethth/? na?aaeiaeua; naiaioe/i? ia?aae? oa
?io?Aeie?aieaiiy oa ?iaioaaiiy ?IAIA ?O AEAN-OEAINOAE OA A?AeIIOAIUe
I?ia?aie iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae, caeii?a; ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue;
i?iaeoeoe?ei?, o?aeiia? nenoaie; iiaeaethth/? na?aaeiaeua oa ?io?.
Ni?anoaaeaiiy AANO?AEOI? AEANOEAINO? OA A?AeIIOAIIss I?ia?aie iiaoaeiae
iiaeaeae, caeii?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue; i?iaeoeoe?ei?, o?aeiia?
nenoaie; iiaeaethth/? na?aaeiaeua oa ?io?.Aeie?aieaiiy

I?ia?aie iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a (DALTON); eeane-o?eaoe?ei? (GLAU-BER,
i?ia?aia eeaneo?eaoe?? oaa-?ei); iaa/aeuei? i?aaeiaoii-i???i-oiaai?
na?aaeiaeuaAACENI? AEANOEAINO? OA A?AeIIOAIIss ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue
(AFEX, GALILEO); eeaneo?eaoe?? (i?ia?aia eeaneo?eaoe?? oaa?ei);

iaa/aeuei? i?aaeiaoii-i???ioiaai? na?aaeiaeuaEiino?othaaiiy oa
?ai?acaioaoe?y

I?ia?aie ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaiue AFEX); a?aee?eoo?a (DALTON, GLAUBER);
iaa/aeuei? i?aaeiao-ii-i???ioiaai? na?aaeiaeuaIIAeAE??ica’ycaiiy
caaaeaiue (AFEX, DC); iaa/aeuei? iiaeaethth/? na?aaeiaeua (“iiaoaeiaa
iiiaia?aiiee?a”, GEOMETR’S SKETCHPAD) oa ?io? Aeaaaeaiiy

I?ia?aie iaoeiaeo a?aee?eoo?a (GLAUBER, GALILEO)CAEIIE I
??AIssGALILEOAeaaaeaiiy

CAEIIE A?EUeO

AENIEEO ??AI?A Canoinoaaiiy

Aeie?aieai? ia?niaeoeai? noa?e canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy ciaiiy o o?einio??, iaoiaeieia?? iaoee oa iaoeiciaanoa?.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

O ?acoeueoao? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? ae?eoia oaeeo
aeniiae?a:

· ia i?aenoaa? aeie?aieaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo no?oeoo? ciaiiy, ui
iiaeaeththoueny, aecia/aii aieiai? iai?yiee ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy.
Iieacaii, ui i?aaeeeaoiee i?aeo?ae a?aeia?aaea? aeaye? eia?/i?
no?oeoo?e, i?iaeoeoe?eiee ? o?aeiiaee — i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?i?, a
naiaioe/iee — e?iaa?noe/i? ? iiaeaethth/?;

· ?acoeueoao aiae?co cania?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy na?ae/eoue, ui
aeneiaethaaeuei? no?oeoo?e neeaaeathoue eeoa i?aeiiiaeeio no?oeoo?
ciaiiy, aeine?aeaeoaaieo o i?aaeiaoiiio iie? ?i?oaoe?eiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. E??i ieo aeei?enoiaothoue iiaeaethth/?, i?ioeaaeo?i?,
i?iaeaii? oa ?io? no?oeoo?e;

· cai?iiiiiaaii ?icoi?iiy i?iaeaie ye no?oeoo?e, ca aeiiiiiae yei?
cae?enith?oueny ?icaeoie ciaiiy, a caaaeaiiy — ye no?oeoo?e canoinoaaiiy
aaea io?eiaieo ciaiue;

· cae?eniaii no?oeoo?ii-iii?iaoeaio eeaneo?eaoe?th iiaeyae?a ia
i?e?iaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo i??eoaaiue a iniiaao iaoaiaoeee. O ?acoeueoao?
anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?iae?ci ?iaeoue iaaiein ia i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iiio
oa eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iiio aioe? ciaiiy, eia?oeeci — ia
eia?ei-e?iaa?noe/iiio aioe?, ?ioo?oe?ii?ci — ia /anoei?
iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaii? oa i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?ii? i?aenenoai, a
iai?yiie, iia’ycaiee c eiino?oeoeaiith naiaioeeith caaaeaiue — ia
i?iaeaiii-aa?enoe/iiio aioe? ciaiiy;

· aaaaeaii ? iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy i??eoaaiue o aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? ye
ia?aoiae?a a?ae iaeieo oaa?aeaeaiue aei ?ioeo ca?aeii aei i?aaee
aeniiaeo ? a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ye ia?aoai?aiiy aoaeue-yeeo no?oeoo?
ciaiiy;

?ice?eoi nenoaiiee iaa?? aeaiaio?a ciaiiy ? iia’ycaieo c ieie
i?ioean?a, ye? a ?i?oaoe?eiiio iiaeaethaaii? aein? i?aeoe/ii ia
?icaeyaeaee. Aei ieo iaeaaeaoue i?ioeane eiino?othaaiiy i?aaee iiaoaeiae
ae?ac?a, aeoaa?o?a, i?aaee aeniiaeo; aeaaaeaiiy aen?ii, ioe?iie;
aeie?aieaiiy oa ?iaioaaiiy ia’?eo?a c i?aaeiaoiiai iiey nenoaie ciaiiy,
?o aeanoeainoae ? a?aeiioaiue; caeiie ??cieo ??ai?a, ca’ycee aeaiaio?a
??cieo i?aenenoai oiui. Iaa?oioiaaii oaco, ui ?icaeyae oeeo no?oeoo? ?
i?ioean?a ni?eyoeia noai?aiith a?eueo aoaeoeaieo cania?a ? nenoai
iiaeaethaaiiy.

C oaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii oae? ?iaioe:

1. Oeoe?ia I. Aei eeaneo?eaoe?? aieiaieo i?aeoiae?a a iniiaao iaoaiaoeee
// Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy. — 1997, aei. 19, n.24-30.

2. Oeoe?ia I. Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy aa?enoe/ieo aniaeo?a iaoeiaiai
ciaiiy // Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy. — 1997, aei.21, n.42-46.

3. Oeoe?ia I. Canoinoaaiiy eiii’thoa?ieo oaoiieia?e aeey ?ic?iaee
?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae ciaiue o iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo // Ca??iee
noaoae Anaoe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo iaoeiaoe?a «?ioi?iaoe?ei?
oaoiieia?? a iaooe? oa ina?o?» / *a?eanueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — *a?eane,
1997. — /.?, n.89-95.

4. Oeoeeia I. Iniiaiua iiaenenoaiu iao/iiai ciaiey a eiiiuethoa?iii
aniaeoa // Iaoiaeieiae/aneea e oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu iaoaiaoeee e
eioi?iaoeee. O?oaeu iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai naieia?a «Iniiaaiey
iaoaiaoeee e eioi?iaoeee» / Iiae ?aae. I.Ao?aeia. — Eeaa: Oe?aeineay
Aeaaeaiey eioi?iaoeee, 1997, — n. 86-90.

5. AEoe TH., Oeoe?ia I. I?i aeaye? aniaeoe ioe?ithaaiiy i?ia?ai
iaa/aiiy, ui ?aae?ciaai? ia aac? iiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e // Iia?
?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy a o/aiaeo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie (?inoeooo
ci?noo ? iaoiae?a iaa/aiiy). — Iaeana, 1997, n.210-211.

6. Oeoe?ia I. Canoinoaaiiy i?ia?ai ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo o iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo // Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Canoinoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eieo oaoiieia?e o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?», — i.Oa?e?a, 1997,
n.62-63.

7. Oeoeeia I. Eiiiuethoa?iia iiaeaee?iaaiea eae n?aaenoai enneaaeiaaiey
ciaiiy // Iaoa??aee V iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo
iaoeiciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a iaoee. — Ee?a, 1994, n.62-63.

8. Eoci?oeia A., Oeoe?ia I. ?aoeaic?y ia ei.: Iyoaoeueeee-Oai??i AE.,
O?ioe? O. «A?aee?eooy ciaiue o aacao aeaieo» // Iaoea ? iaoeiciaanoai,
1994. — N. 1-2(4), n.234-237.

9. Oeoe?ia I. I?i aeaye? aniaeoe eeaneo?eaoe?? i?ia?ai iaa/aiiy //
I?aeaea?aeaaia eiioa?aioe?y «Eiii’thoa?ia iiaeaethaaiiy». —
Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinuee: Aei?i?iaeca?aeeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, 1997, n.86.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oeoe?ia I.I. ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy (iaoiaeieia?/iee
aiae?c). Aeena?oaoe?y (ia i?aaao ?oeiieno) ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.09 —
o?einio?y iaoee. ?inoeooo o?einio?? ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie.
Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi o?einionueei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo
canaae iiaeaethaaiiy iaoeiaiai ciaiiy o aaeoc? ooo/iiai ?ioaeaeoo.
Aeie?aieaii aieiai? iai?yiee ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa i?iaaaeaii
?o nenoaiaoecaoe?th ye oaeeo, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue ??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe
oe?e?nii? nenoaie iaoeiaiai ciaiiy. Aeyaeaii no?oeoo?e ciaiiy o
i?aaeiaoi?e aaeoc? ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy oa iieacaii, ui
aeneiaethaaeuei? no?oeoo?e neeaaeathoue eeoa ?o i?aeiiiaeeio. Aaaaeaii e
iaa?oioiaaii iiiyooy i??eoaaiue o aocueeiio ?icoi?ii? ye ia?aoai?aiue
aeneiaethaaiue ca?aeii aei i?aaee aeniiaeo ? o oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? ye
ia?aoai?aiue aoaeue-yeeo no?oeoo? ciaiiy. I?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th
cania?a ?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaii ?icoi?iiy i?iaeaie ye
no?oeoo?e, ca aeiiiiiae yei? cae?eniththoue ?icaeoie ciaiiy, a caaaeaiiy
ye no?oeoo?e canoinoaaiiy aaea io?eiaieo ciaiue. Aecia/aii aieiai?
aeaiaioe ciaiiy e iia’ycai? c ieie i?ioeane, ui a ?i?oaoe?eiiio
iiaeaethaaii? aein? i?aeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaeaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaethaaiiy, iaoeiaa ciaiiy, nenoaii?noue,
oiiaea?ae, aa?enoeea, i?iaeaiiee i?ino??, aaca ciaiue.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oeoeeia I.I. Eieoaoeeiiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea iao/iiai ciaiey
(iaoiaeieiae/aneee aiaeec). Aeenna?oaoeey (ia i?aaao ?oeiiene) ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe
09.00.09 — oeeinioey iaoee. Einoeooo oeeinioee eiaie A.N.Neiai?iaeu IAI
Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia oeeinionei-iaoiaeieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai,
naycaiiui n iiaeaee?iaaieai iao/iiai ciaiey a iaeanoe eneonnoaaiiiai
eioaeeaeoa. A oeaio?a enneaaeiaaiey — ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
i?eioeeiia iino?iaiey eiiiuethoa?iuo i?ia?aii iiaeaee?iaaiey ciaiey e
auyaeaiea no?oeoo? ciaiey, eioi?ua eniieuecothony i?e ?aaioa i?ia?aii. A
iniiao enneaaeiaaiey iieiaeaiu nia?aiaiiua iaoiaeieiae/aneea
i?aaenoaaeaiey i no?oeoo?a e ooieoeeyo iao/iiai ciaiey, a /anoiinoe,
no?oeoo?ii-iiieiaoeaiue iiaeoiae, a ?aieao eioi?iai ?ac?aaioaia
eeanneoeeaoeey iiaenenoai e yeaiaioia ciaiey, aoiaeyueo a ninoaa
oai?aoe/aneeo nenoai iao/iiai ciaiey. Eniieueciaaiea
no?oeoo?ii-iiieiaoeaiiai iiaeoiaea iicaieyao ?anniao?eaaoue
eieoaoeeiiiua i?ia?aiiu n aaeeiie iaoiaeieiae/aneie oi/ee c?aiey eae
io?aaeathuea ?acee/iua aniaeou no?iaiey e ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oeaeinoiuo
nenoai iao/iiai ciaiey. I?iaaaeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea aaaeao e
?ani?ino?aiaieth nia?aiaiiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i ciaiee
ia iiaoth iaeanoue, a oaeaea i?iyniyao a naiie yoie iaeanoe
eiioeaiooaeueiua iniiau e iauaeo eco/aiey, /oi iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue aa
aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth.

Ia iniiaa auaeaeaiey niaoeeoe/aneeo no?oeoo? ciaiey a i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe eieoaoeeiiiiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ii?aaeaeaiu aai iniiaiua
iai?aaeaiey. Iieacaii, /oi i?aaeeeaoiue iiaeoiae io?aaeaao iaeioi?ua
eiae/aneea no?oeoo?u, i?iaeoeoeeiiiue e o?aeiiaue —
i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iua, a naiaioe/aneee — eeiaaenoe/aneea e
iiaeaee?othuea. A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca n?aaenoa eieoaoeeiiiiai
iiaeaee?iaaiey onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?aaeeiaeai/aneea no?oeoo?u ia?acotho
anaai eeoue iiaeiiiaeanoai no?oeoo? ciaiey, eioi?ua enneaaeothony a
i?aaeiaoiie iaeanoe iiaeaee?iaaiey. E?iia ieo eniieuecothony
iiaeaee?othuea, i?ioeaaeo?iua, i?iaeaiiua e ae?oaea no?oeoo?u.
I?aaeeiaeaii iiieiaiea i?iaeaiu eae no?oeoo?u, i?e iiiiue eioi?ie
inouanoaeyaony ?acaeoea ciaiey, a caaea/e — eae no?oeoo?u i?eiaiaiey
eiathueony ciaiee.

I?iaaaeaia no?oeoo?ii-iiieiaoeaiay eeanneoeeaoeey acaeyaeia ia i?e?iaeo
iaoaiaoe/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee a iniiaaieyo iaoaiaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa
onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?iaeeci aeaeaao aeoeaio ia i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iie e
eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneie noi?iia ciaiey, eiaeoeeci — ia
eiaeei-eeiaaenoe/aneie noi?iia, eiooeoeeiieci — ia /anoe
iiaeaeueii-?ai?acaioaoeaiie e i?aaiaoeei-i?ioeaaeo?iie iiaenenoaiao, a
iai?aaeaiea, naycaiiia n eiino?oeoeaiie naiaioeeie caaea/ — ia
i?iaeaiii-ya?enoe/aneie noi?iia ciaiey.

Aaaaeaiu e iainiiaaiu iiiyoey ?annoaeaeaiee a oceii niunea, eae
ia?aoiaeia io iaeieo ooaa?aeaeaiee e ae?oaei, e a oe?ieii niunea, eae
i?aia?aciaaiee ethauo no?oeoo? ciaiey. ?ane?uo nenoaiiue iaai? yeaiaioia
ciaiey e naycaiiuo n ieie i?ioeannia, eioi?ua a eieoaoeeiiiii
iiaeaee?iaaiee i?aeoe/anee ia ?anniao?eaathony. E eo /eneo ioiinyony
i?ioeannu eiino?oe?iaaiey i?aaee iino?iaiey au?aaeaiee, aeoaaeoia,
i?aaee auaiaea, aeneii; auaeaeaiey e eiaiiaaiey iauaeoia ec i?aaeiaoiie
iaeanoe nenoaiu ciaiey, eo naienoa e ioiioaiee; auaaaeaiey ioeaiie,
iiaeaeae eiee/anoaaiiiai oeia; caeiiia ?aciuo o?iaiae, naycae yeaiaioia
?acee/iuo iiaenenoai e ae?oaea.

Oai?aoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou aeenna?oaoeee iiaoo iaeoe i?eiaiaiea eae a
naiii eieoaoeeiiiii iiaeaee?iaaiee aeey iino?iaiey aieaa niaa?oaiiuo e
iiuiuo i?ia?aii, oae e a oai?aoe/aneeo e i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaieyo ii
iaoeiaaaeaieth, enoi?ee e oeeinioee iaoee, a eioi?uo eeth/aaui iauaeoii
enneaaeiaaiey yaeyaony iao/iia ciaiea e aai eieoaoeeiiiua iiaeaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eieoaoeeiiiia iiaeaee?iaaiea, iao/iia ciaiea,
nenoaiiinoue, eiae/aneee auaiae, ya?enoeea, i?iaeaiiia i?ino?ainoai,
aaca ciaiee.

SUMMARY

Shishkina M.P. Simulation of scientific knowledge (methodological
analysis). The dissertation (manuscript) is for the Degree of Candidate
of Philosophical Science, speciality 09.00.09 — philosophy of science.
G.S.Scovoroda Institute of Philosophy, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is a theoretical research of the
philosophical-methodological basis of scientific knowledge simulation in
the field of artificial intelligence. The main approaches to scientific
knowledge simulation are separated and systematized as depicting
different aspects of the whole knowledge system. The knowledge
structures in the domain of simulation programs are revealed and
propositional structures are confirmed to be a subset of them. A
concepts of reasoning in narrow sense as propositions transformation and
reasoning in broad sense as any knowledge structures transformation are
introduced and justified. Simulation means classification is
accomplished. Understanding of the notion of a problem as a structure of
knowledge development and a task as a structure of knowledge application
is proposed. Main knowledge elements and the processes connected to them
which are not presented in knowledge simulation are separated.

Key words: simulation, scientific knowledge, system, inference,
heuristic, classification, problem space, knowledge base.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.02.99. Oi?iao 60o84/16

Iai?? ae?oe. Oiiai. a?eoo. 1,0.

Ia.-aeae. a?eoo. 1,0. Oe?aae 100. Caiiae.

__________________________________

Iaae?oeiaaii a ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie

252057, Ee?a — 57, aoe.AEaeyaiaa, 8/4

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *