Характеристики радіаційних центрів мінералів органічного і неорганічного походження стосовно ретроспективної дозиметрії: Автореф. дис… канд. геол.-м

Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiaee oeaio? ?aae?iaaio?i?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
IAI Oe?a?ie oa IIN Oe?a?ie

Iaoyo Iaenei ?aaiiae/

OAeE 613.2:539.1.074

Oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a

i?ia?ae?a i?aai?/iiai ? iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy

noiniaii ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???

21.00.08 — oaoiiaaiia aaciaea

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aea?aeaaiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? ?aae?iaaio?i??
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua IAI Oe?a?ie oa IIN Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe,

A?ee Ieaenaiae? Ai?eniae/,

a?aeae?e ?aae?iniaeo?ineii??

i?ia?aeueii? ?a/iaeie ?AI? IAI

Oe?a?ie, caa. eaai?aoi???th.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?ioani?, Aoaae Ieaenaiae? A?eaae?eiae/,
?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie, caa. a?aeae?eii o?ce/ieo
i?iaeai aeiceiao???;

aeieoi? aaie.-i?i. iaoe, Oa?ai Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo aaio?i??,
i?ia?aeia?? oa ?oaeiooai?aiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ia.iaoe.ni?a?ia?oiee
a?aeae?eo ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeueii?
?a/iaeie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo aaieia?/ieo iaoe IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e aaieia?? aio?iiiaaio,
Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 15 “ a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i “ 14-00 ” aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.192.01,
Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiaee oeaio??aae?iaaio?i?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua
IAI Oe?a?ie oa IIN Oe?a?ie, 252142 Ee?a 142, i?ini. Iaeaae?ia, 34.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aaio?i??,
i?ia?aeia?? oa ?oaeiooai?aiiy IAI Oe?a?ie, 252142 Ee?a 142, i?ini.
Iaeaae?ia, 32.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 11 “ eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.192.01 Oeueiiue I.A.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeaia ?iaioa a?aeiia?aea? iaoeiaiio iai?yieo o aaeoc? aeieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, yeee ?icaeaa?oueny o AeIOe ?IN IAIO aeaaeai?eii IAIO
A.A. Niaioiae/ai ? i?iaeiaaeo? aeine?aeaeaiiy o aaeoc? ?aae?aoe?eii?
i?ia?aeia??, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny a ?AI? IAIO aeieoi?ii o?c.-iao. iaoe
I.A. A?eeii.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeaii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny c?inoath/ei ?ioa?anii
aei aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iaaiieo i?ia?ae?a aeey ae??oaiiy ye iaoeiaeo, oae ?
i?aeoe/ieo caaaeaiue. ?iaioo i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith no?oeoo?e
i?ia?ae?a i?aai?/iiai ? iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy
?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieie iaoiaeaie oa iaa?oiooaaiith iiaeeeaino?
canoinoaaiiy oeeo ia’?eo?a aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai
ii?ii?iaiiy a eiioaeno? i?iaeai e?ea?aeaoe?? iane?aee?a *i?iiaeeuenei?
eaoano?ioe ? eiiieaeniiai ?aae?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao, cie?aia.

O?aaeeoe?eii iniiaiei ia’?eoii a?iaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e
aeiceiao??? ia nueiaiaei? ? aiaeue coa?a ethaeeie. Aea ia aeeaey/enue
ia oe?iea canoinoaaiiy aiae?, a?aee?eoeie caeeoaeeny oae? i?eioeeiia?
ieoaiiy, ye iioiaeaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a, ?o ?aeaenaoe?ei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, caeaaei?noue ?aae?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aiae? a?ae
nooiaiy c?iniaaiino? coa?a oa ?io?. Oaeiae aaaeeeaei aeey ?icoe?aiiy
?aiie canoinoaaiiy ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao??? a Oe?a?i? ? iiooe iiaeo
ia?niaeoeaieo a?ii?ia?ae?a, ye? a a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai aei
?aae?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? ?, a oie aea /an, aoee aeinoaoiuei iioe?aieie o
i?e?iaeieo ? oaoiiaaiieo eaiaeoaooao. Ui noino?oueny aaea a?aeiieo
a?ii?ia?ae?a aeey ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a (/a?aiaoee iiethne?a a ssiii??), oi
iaiao?aeii aoei ciaeoe a Oe?a?i? oae? aeaee, ye? a aeicaieyee iaae?eia
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, ia’?eoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ia?aii iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeai?, noiniaii
aeei?enoaii? iaoiaeeee AI?, a?iaaii? i?ia?aee: aiaeue coa?a ethaeeie,
oea?aeoia eo?y/eo y?oeue ? /a?aiaoee iiethne?a. I?aeo?ae aei a?aeai?o
i?ia aeey eiaeiiai c ia?a?aoiaaieo ia’?eo?a aecia/aany ianaiia?aae oeie
caaaeaiiyie, ye? ia?ane?aeoaaeenue i?e ?o aeine?aeaeaii?. Oae, aeey
iaea?eueo aeine?aeaeaiiai c oeeo ia’?eo?a aiae? coa?a e?eoa??yie
a?aeai?o i?ia aoee nooi?iue c?iniaaiino?, ?aeii, aea a?aeae?aeenue i?iae
oa ?ioa. Aeey oea?aeoie y?oeue aaaeeeaei aoei eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
?? ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a. Oiio oea?aeoia a?aeae?aeanue a aeieia?/ii
/eno?e i?noeaaino? (no?ae *a?eanueei? iaeano?); aaaeeeaith aoea
a?aenooi?noue iaoai?/ieo iioeiaeaeaiue ? i?e?iaeieo aeaoaeo?a. *a?aiaoee
iiethne?a iiaeii? aoee a?aeiia?aeaoe e?eoa??th oe?ieiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeaeo ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoei
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoaeo?a, ye? aeieeathoue i?ae aieeaii aaeeeeo aeic
ii?ii?iaiiy o i?ia?aeao iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Cie?aia, aea/aeenue
Na-aio?aiee ?c cii o?aiiai? i?ia?ae?caoe?? OU.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? oaeineiiaeaiiy ? iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeee a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeey iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ia’?eo?a
?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeenue ianooii? aieiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeine?aeeoe aieea ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i o no?oeoo?? aiae? coa?a,
aeeeeeaieo ea??iciei caoai?thaaiiyi, ia ?? ?aae?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue.

2. Ia?aa??eoe ?nioaaiiy ?ioeo, i?ae Rwmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&? ?MathType??P????u?th??????3.
I?iaanoe i?aea?? aeaeo iiethne?a, i?eaeaoieo aeey ei?aeoiiai
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic oa oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeaieo ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie;
?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo canoinoaaiiy /a?aiaoie iiethne?a o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e
aeiceiao???.

Iniaenoi caeiaoaa/ai aeeiiaii naeaeoe?th oa i?aeaioiaeo 36 i?ia
oea?aeoie y?oeue, aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii AI? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy an?o io?eiaieo aeaieo. Aaoi?ii naiino?eii aeeiiaii a?aea??
? i?eaiooaaiiy 35 c?ace?a aiae? coa?a, caeaa?eueoiai io?eiaieo o
noiiaoieia?/ieo ee?i?eao Ee?aa, ye? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue a aeai?e ?iaio?,
aenia?eiaioe ii ?o ii?ii?iaiith, iaa??aaiith, caieno niaeo??a AI? ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy io?eiaieo aeaieo. C?acee /a?aiaoie iiethne?a aoee iaaeai?
A?eeii I.A. I?eaiooaaiiy 40 c?ace?a /a?aiaoie, aenia?eiaioe ii
ii?ii?iaiith, iaa??aaiith ? caieno neaiae?a AI?, a oaeiae ocaaaeueiaiiy
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeeiiaii aaoi?ii naiino?eii. Caeiaoaa/
naiino?eii i?ia?a noaoenoe/iee aiae?c ? io?eiaa ioe?iee aeinoia??iino?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oaeiae naiino?eii aaoi?ii aeeiiaii
?ioa?i?aoaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a eaai?aoi?iiai ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy ?
i?ia??ao Na-aio?aie?a, aeine?aeaeaiiy e?iaoeee ?aaeoe?e
?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy ? a?aeiiaeaiiy cae?ca a Na-aio?aieao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny aei caoenoo:

1. Oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ca aeiiiiiaith aiae? coa?a: aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeiaaaeaii, ui ci?ie no?oeoo?e coa?a aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo ea??icieo
caoai?thaaiue aiinyoue iioeaeo aei 20 % o ?acoeueoaoe ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
aeiceiao???, a i?e neeueiiio o?aaeaii? coa?a ?iaeyoue ?o iai?eaeaoieie
aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeic.

2. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui aeey oea?aeoie y?oeue iiaeeeaa a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy a?ae 0,3 A? (i?eeaae PS-100.O). A?aee?eoi
?nioaaiiy AA6-oeaio?o, yeee aaia?o?oueny oa?iiia?iaeith ii?ii?iaii?
oea?aeoie y?oeue ? iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e
aeiceiao??? a yeino? aeiaeaoeiaiai.

3. Aea?aii aeae iiethne?a ae?aenaia ??/eiaa (Dreissena polymorpha), c
canoinoaaiiyi /a?aiaoie yei? iiaeeeaa ei?aeoia ?aeiino?oeoe?y aeic.
Aeaiee aeae a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai oe?ieiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe.

1. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaai? ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie a aiae? coa?a (iai?eeeaae,
aiane?aeie ea???no) aieeaathoue ia ?aae?aoe?eio /ooeea?noue inoaiiuei?.
Ea??ici? i?ioeane iiaeooue nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia ?acoeueoaoe a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeic ? iiaeii? a?aoiaoaaoenue i?e ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

2. Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy oaeiai iiaiai ia’?eoo ye oea?aeoia
y?oeue; ?aae?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue inoaiiuei? oo?e/? ieae/a, i?ae aeey
aiae? coa?a, aea oea ? aeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei iieacieeii. A?aee?eoi
?nioaaiiy ?aae?aoe?eiiai AA6-oeaio?o o oea?aeoi?. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue
?aeaenaoe?? ?aae?aoe?eieo Rwmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&? ?MathType??P????u?th??????3.
Iaa?oioiaaii aea?? na?aae aaaaoueio ??ciiaeae?a iiethne?a Oe?a?ie aeaeo
Dreissena polymorpha ye oaeiai, ui ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo, aeicaiey?
ei?aeoia aecia/aiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Caaaeyee
ia?aiaai?oiino? iaoa??aeo /a?aiaoie oa oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith ?
i?aeoe/i?e a?aenooiino? i?a?aoe??, Dreissena polymorpha ia?niaeoeaia a
yeino? ?iaeeeaoi?a ?aae?iaeieia?/iiai noaio na?aaeiaeua.

4. Aeiaaaeaii i?eioeeiiao iiaeeea?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy aeniiceoe?eieo aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ii e?eueeino? ?aae?aoe?eii ieeneaiiai
cae?ca a Na-aio?aieao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo
ia’?eo?a, ye? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue i?e a?aeiiaeaii? aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iaie iaa?oioiaaii ? cai?iiiiiaaii oae?
iia? aeey Oe?a?ie ia’?eoe, ye oea?aeoia y?oeue ioao?a ? /a?aiaoee
iiethne?a aeaeo Dreissena polymorpha. Iieacaii, ui c on?o aeine?aeaeaieo
aeae?a naia inoaii?e neeaaea?oueny c iaoa??aeo, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o
iaia?aiaai?oiiio noai?. I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeai?o oeueiai aeaeo iieyaa?
o eiai oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaii? o an?o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, a ciiao
caa?oaeiaiiy ?aae?iioee?aeaie ?, cie?aia, a ?aeiiao ?icoaooaaiiy
oaoiiaaiieo ia’?eo?a. Ia?aaaaith i?e canoinoaaii? oea?aeoie ? i?inoioa
?iaioe a ?aieao ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iaaaaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oea?aeoie
y?oeue ? /a?aiaoie iiethne?a ?iaeyoue ia?niaeoeaieie ?o canoinoaaiiy
aeey oe?ieiianooaaii? ?aae?iaeieia?/ii? ioe?iee caa?oaeiaiiy oa?eoi??e.

Aeey iniiaiiai ia nueiaiaei? ia’?eoo ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao??? aiae?
coa?a io?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i caeaaei?noue ?? ?aae?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino?
a?ae ??aiy ii?oieia?/ieo ci?i, aeeeeeaieo caoai?thaaiiyi ia ea???n. Aeey
c?iniaaieo coa?a ?aae?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue iiaea ca?eueooaaoenue aei 20%
o ii??aiyii? ?c caei?iaeie, ui aiineoue iii?aaeo o iaoiaeeeo
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic i?e i?aeoe/iiio canoinoaaii? aiae? coa?a o
?ao?iniaeoeai?e aeiceiao???.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo “The Radiological Consequences
of the Chernobyl Accident “I?inuee, A?ea?onue, 18-22 aa?aciy 1996;
“Ieia?aeiaey e aeeciue: aeiieia?aeueiua acaeiiaeaenoaey”, Neeoeaea?,
?in?y, 1996; “Third European Meeting: Spectroscopic Methods in
Mineralogy”, Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1996; “I?iaeaie ?aae?aoe?eii? iaaeeoeeie
i?ney *i?iiaeeuenei? eaoano?ioe”, Ee?a, Oe?a?ia, 1996.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 12 ?ia?o (aeea.
Aeena?oaoe?y: Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae), iniiai? c yeeo iaaaaeaii a
aaoi?aoa?ao?.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa caaaeueiei ia’?iii 90 n. ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo ?
neeaaea?oueny c Anooio, i’yoe ?ICAeIE?A, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a ?
aeiaeaoe?a, 25 ?enoie?a, 11 oaaeeoeue. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e ioiieth? 108
iaeiaioaaiue.

Aaoi? ue?i aaey/iee aeaaeai?eo IAI Oe?a?ie A.A. Niaioiae/o ca iino?eio
i?aeo?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaoeiaiio ea??aieeo aeieoi?o o?c.-iao. iaoe
I.A. A?eeo, on?i ni?a?ia?oieeai a?aeae?eo yaea?ii? aaio?i?? ? einiio?i??
AeIOe ?IN IAIO oa IIN Oe?a?ie ? a?aeae?eo ?aae?aoe?eii? i?ia?aeia?? ?AI?
IAIO ca aeiiiiiao i?e aeeiiaii? aenia?eiaio?a oa iaaiai?aii?
?acoeueoao?a, caa. eaai?aoi???th caaaa/aiiy ?AI? IAIO A.ss. Oa?aoeue.
Iniaeeai aaoi? caaaey/o? iieiaeoiio iaoeiaiio ni?a?ia?oieeo Ua?aei? I.?.
ca aeiiiiiao i?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue iaoiaeii AI? oa aenia?eiaio?a
ii iaa??aaiith c?ace?a oea?aeoie y?oeue a aoiinoa?? iia?o?y.

CI?NO ?IAIOE.

O IA?OIIO ?ICAeIE? “I?IA?AEE I?AAI?*IIAI IIOIAeAEAIIss ssE IA’?EO
?AO?INIAEOEAII? AeICEIAO???” (E?OA?AOO?IEE IAEssAe I?IAEAIE) ?icaeyiooi
iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe canoinoaaiiy ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo iaoiae?a AI?
? ssA? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oaa?aeeo o?e acaaae? ?, cie?aia,
i?ia?ae?a i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii aiae?co
oa?i?io “i?ia?ae i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy”, no/aniiai noaio
a?ii?ia?aeia??, eeaneo?eaoe?? a?iaaiieo i?ia?ae?a. I?eeiyoi, ui a aeai?e
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oa?i?ie “i?ia?ae a?iaaiiiai iioiaeaeaiiy”,
“a?ii?ia?ae” ? “a?iaaiiee i?ia?ae” ? ??aiicia/ieie ? ioioiaeiththoueny c
aiaeeth coa?a, oea?aeoiith y?oeue ? /a?aiaoeaie iiethne?a. Aeae?
?icaeyaeathoueny iniiae iaoiaeeee a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Iaoiaeeea aaco?oueny ia ooieoe?iiaeuei?e caeaaeiino?
aeice ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, io?eiaii? ia’?eoii, a?ae
?ioaineaiino? ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo neaiae?a, ye? i?iaeoeothoueny
?aae?aoe?eieie oeaio?aie.

Iaaaaeaii aeanoeaino? oa ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a NI3- , NI32- , NI2- , SO3- aeey oa?aeoa?ieo
i?ia?ae?a i?aai?/iiai oa iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Ae?OAEE ?ICAeIE “AeINE?AeAEAIIss IIAEEEAINOAE OAeINEIIAEAIIss IAOIAeEEE
?AO?INIAEOEAII? AeICEIAO??? II AIAE? COA?A” i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith
aeanoeainoae ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a a aiae? coa?a, caeaaeiino?
?aae?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? aiae? a?ae ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue,
?ic?iaoe? iiaeae? ?aeaenaoe?? ?aae?aoe?eieo Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aiae?cothoueny aeai? i?i neeaae ? no?oeoo?o
coa?a, i?aee?aneththoueny a?aei?iiino? coa?a a?ae i?ia?ae?a
iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy; ia a?aei?io a?ae aiaoeo?a iai?aai?/iiai
iioiaeaeaiiy, a?eueo?noue i?ioean?a o e?enoae?oao aiae? ea?o?oueny
i?aai?/iith neeaaeiaith.

Iienaii iaoiaeeeo caa??aaiiy ? i?aeaioiaee c?ace?a ii?ioeo aiae? aei
aenia?eiaio?a. Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii canoiniaoaaoe oeioaoe?eiee iaoiae
aeey ?icae?eaiiy o?aeoe?e aeaioeio oa aiae?, aeei?enoiaoth/e ??cieoeth a
?o ieoii?e aac?. C?acee ii?ii?ithaaeenue ia ?aioaai?anuee?e o?oaoe?
?OI-120-5-1 i?e nee? oieo 1 iA ? iai?oc? aioeeaoiaeo 65 eA. *an
ii?ii?iaiiy aa??thaaany a?ae 1 aei 30 oa. Aeica, a?aeiia?aeia iaei?e
oaeeei? ii?ii?iaiiy, ioe?ithaaeanue i?eaeecii a 1,7 A?. Iaa??aaiiy
c?ace?a i?iaiaeeeinue a aoiinoa?? iia?o?y o iooaeuei?e ia/?. I?e oeueiio
oaiia?aoo?a ia/? iaea o?eniaai? cia/aiiy c oi/i?noth +5 oN a ?ioa?aae?
80-430 0N.

Aiaeue coa?a caeia? iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ia’?eo?a ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
aeiceiao???, aaeaea aeai?, io?eiai? ca ?? aeiiiiiaith,
aeei?enoiaothoueny, iai?eeeaae, aeey aeai?o iaoiae?a e?eoaaiiy ethaeae,
ye? iino?aaeaeaee a?ae ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy. Oiio iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny oaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeee a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy ii aiae? coa?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino? neaiae?a AI? Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Iaaaaeai? aeua oaeoe iiaeooue aooe iiyniai?
aoaeiaith coaii? aiae?. Inoaiiy neeaaea?oueny c ie?aieo i?e?ie?enoae?a —
e?enoae?o?a c ?ici??aie a?ae aeanyoe aei nioaiue iaiiiao??a. Oe?
e?enoae?oe ?icae?eai? oiieeie aiaeii-i?aai?/ieie i?ioa?eaie, ia yeeo
e?enoae?oe ? ?inoooue ai?oaen?aeueii. Caaaeyee iaeei ?ici??ai
e?enoae?o?a, aianie iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? o ?o caaaeueio aia?a?th
iaaecae/aeii aaeeeee. Oaeei /eiii, i?aai?/ia iao?eoey ea?o? ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaa?oiaai? aia?a?? aeanoeainoyie ye ie?aieo e?enoae?o?a,
oae ? onueiai a?ii?ia?aeo o oe?eiio. Aeey oai?eo coa?a iathoue i?noea
ci?ie aeanoeainoae i?aai?/ii? iao?eoe? ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aeanoeainoae
e?enoae?o?a. Oaiia?aoo?ia noaa?euei?noue ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a ? ?o
noaa?euei?noue aei iaoaii?o?/ieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e cia/ii aieeaathoue ia
iaae?ei?noue ?acoeueoao?a ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???. ?acoeueoaoe,
iieacai? ia ?en.1 iiyniththoueny iaie noaiaea?oiith iiaeaeeth aeey
?aae?aoe?eii aaia?iaaieo aeaoaeo?a. Oaea oa?aeoa?enoeea ye /an aeeooy
oeaio??a o e?enoae?oao ??ciiai ?ici??o ? c ??ciith iiaa?oiaaith
aia?a??th a?aeiia?aea? aeaeo?iiiei ianoeai ??cii? aeeaeie, a
cia/eoue, ??ciei aia?a?yi aeoeaaoe??.

Aeey ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a c ??cieie aia?a?yie aeoeaaoe?? A iiaeia
aaaaeaoe:wmetafile8? ??P?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?
???&??yyyy?????AyAya?A ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy???????????wA?Nwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aeey a?coaeueiiai iiyniaiiy e?eaeo
?cioa?i?/iiai iaa??aaiiy aiae? ie acyee ??aiyiiy o iaaeeaeai?e oi?i?: N
= N1exp(-t/wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay ??? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Coai? caoai?thaaiiy aeeeeeathoue ci?ie o
o?i?/iiio neeaae?, ?ici??ao, i???ioaoe?yo oa ?ioeo aeanoeainoyo
e?enoae?o?a o coai?e aiae?. O ea??icieo coaao e?euee?noue ea?aiiaoieo
a?oi iiaea c?inoaoe a?ae 5 aei 15%. ?aae?aoe?ei? aeaoaeoe o coai?e
aiae?, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???,
iia’ycai? c ea?aiiaoieie a?oiaie; oea iiaea iiynieoe c?inoaiiy
?aae?aoe?eii? /ooeeaino? a ea??icieo coaao. I?aee?aneeii, ui
ii?oieia?/i? iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaeooue iaoe i?noea ia o?eueee ai?iaeiaae
oai?iae coaa, aea e oaeiae i?ae /an iaoaaie?cio a ieo. Ieiua iiaa?oi?
e?enoae?o?a eieinaeueia (a?ey 250 i2/g). Oea iiaea i?ecaiaeeoe aei
oaeaeeiai iaoaaie?cio a i?ia?aeuei?e /anoei? aiae? coa?a. O?i?/iee
neeaae, ?ici??e oa ?io? aeanoeaino? e?enoae?o?a ci?iththoueny ai?iaeiaae
onueiai aeeooy ethaeeie. E??i oiai, cae/aeiee iaoaaie?ci ? caoai?thaaiiy
coa?a iiaeooue i?aeneethaaoe ci?ie ca?yaeiaiai noaio ea?aiiaoieo a?oi ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, ci?ie o ?o iaai?oiiio noai?. Oaeei /eiii, aeieea? aaeeea
e?euee?noue neooaoe?e, eiee coaia aiaeue ia caa??aa? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
naith ?aae?aoe?eio ?noi??th.

O?AO?E ?ICAeIE “IIAEEEAINO? A?AeIIAEAIIss AeIC ?AAe?AOe?EIIAI
AEI?II?ITHAAIIss CA AeIIIIIAITH Oea?aeoiE ss?OeUe” i?enay/aiee
aeine?aeaeaiith ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a o oea?aeoi? y?oeue ? ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee noiniaii ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???.

O ?icae?e? iienothoueny aoaeiaa, no?oeoo?a, a?aei?iiino? oa caaaeuei?
?ene, ye? i?eoaiaii? oea?aeoi? y?oeue ??cieo aeae?a; o o?i?/iiio neeaae?
oea?aeoie ia aeieth i?aai?/ii? ?a/iaeie i?eiaaea? anueiai 2-8 ian %, a
ai?no i?ia?aeueii? ?a/iaeie ia aoaa? ieae/ei 92 ian %. I?ia?aeueia
neeaaeiaa i?aaenoaaeaia eaeueoeeoii, yeee ooai?th? a eiei iiaa?oiaaiio
oa?? oea?aeoie ae??ai? e?enoaee, i???ioiaai? oae, ui ?o iioe/i? a?n? ?
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ieie aei iiaa?oi? yeoey. Aiae?c aeaieo iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeiee?a iieaco?, ui ?aae?aoe?ei? oeaio?e o oea?aeoi? y?oeue
aea/aeenue eeoa aeey iio?aa aaio?iiieia??.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca aoea oaeith ae ye ? aeey aeine?aeaeaiue aiae?
coa?a. Caaaeath/e ia a?aeiinio iiaecio ia’?eoa aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeino?
c?ace?a a?aeae?aeanue iaiioeiaeaeaia oea?aeoia eo?y/eo y?oeue c ?aeii?a,
ye? ia aoee caa?oaeiai? ?aae?iioee?aeaie (no?ae *a?eanueei? iaeano?,
Ae?aa?anuee?e ?aeii).

Aeae? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a. Aeine?aeaeaii caeaaei?noue
?ioaineaiino? neaiae?a AI? a?ae /ano (aeice) ii?ii?iaiiy aeey oea?aeoie
y?oeue. Caeaaei?noue ? e?i?eiith. ?ioaineai?noue neaiae?a AI? i?e
iaeiaeiaeo aeicao ii?ii?iaiiy aeey oea?aeoie y?oeue i?eaeecii oo?e/?
iaioa, i?ae aeey aiae? coa?a (?en. 2).

Neaiae AI? o oea?aeoi? y?oeue o ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii? iiaea aooe iienaiee
aen?aeueiei g-oaici?ii c aieiaieie cia/aiiyie 1,997 + 0,0005 ? 2,002 +
0,0005. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue ?ioaineaiino?
neaiae?a AI? a?ae /ano (aeice) ii?ii?iaiiy aeey oea?aeoie y?oeue iineoue
aeineoue oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa? ? a iaaeao 20% aeey ??cieo c?ace?a
ni?aiaaea?. I?i?iaeueia aeica ?aae?aoe?eiiai ii?ii?iaiiy, i?e ye?e
iiaeeeaa ?a?no?aoe?y neaiae?a AI? o oea?aeoi? y?oeue ia i?eeaae?
PS-100.X i?eaeecii aei??aith? 0,3 A?. I?e oeueiio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
neaiae/ooi iiaea aooe aeiaaaeaii aei o?ueio.

Io?eiaii caeaaeiino? ?ioaineaiino? neaiae?a AI? Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Ie??i ?aae?aoe?eiiai Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????Aeine?aee ii aeiii?ii?iaiith iiia?aaeiuei
ii?ii?iaiiai ? iio?i iaa??oiai c?acea oea?aeoie (AA6-oeaio? aaia?iaaiee)
iieacaee, ui oaea aeiii?ii?iaiiy ciaioo? e?euee?noue AA6-oeaio??a: i?ney
60-oe oaeeeiiiai aeiii?ii?iaiiy ?ioaineai?noue niaeo?o AI? AA6-oeaio??a
ciaioeeanue i?eaeecii o 3 ?ace. Anoaiiaeaii, ui oea?aeoia y?oeue
i?eaeaoia aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy ii i?e aeiciaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oeueiio ni?ey? /?oea i?yii i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue
?ioaineaiino? neaiae?a AI? Rwmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????A?aecia/aii iiae?ai?noue
?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o no?oeoo?? oea?aeoie y?oeue ?
aiae? coa?a. Oea aeicaiey? i?eionoeoe, ui ?aae?aoe?ei? neaiaee a oeeo
ia’?eoao iia’ycai? c iaeiaeiaeie ea?aiiaoieie eiiieaenaie.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? aeiaiaeyoue, ui ?aae?aoe?ei? oeaio?e o no?oeoo??
oea?aeoie (? aiae?) ia iia’ycai? c ?ciii?oieie cai?uaiiyie, ine?eueee
iao?eoey ia aieeaa? nooo?ai ia oe? oeaio?e. Iaea?eueo eiia??ii, ui
?aae?aoe?ei? oeaio?e a no?oeoo?? oea?aeoi? (? aiae?) iia’ycai? c
iieaeoeaie NI2, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o no?oeoo?? oeeo a?iaaiieo i?ia?ae?a
iiaeeco ??cieo ii?ooaiue ?? ia??iaee/iino?, a naia iiaeeco aai ia
iiaa?oi? e?enoae?oo. Oaeei /eiii, oi?ioaaiiy ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a o
no?oeoo?? oea?aeoie (? aiae?) i?e ?o ii?ii?iaii? iia’ycaii ia c
ooai?aiiyi iiaeo ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a, a c ia?aca?yaeeith i?ae
aieeaii ii?ii?iaiiy aaea ?nioth/eo no?oeoo?ieo aeaoaeo?a. I?ioeane ia
eiie/aiiy iiae?aieo oeaio??a i?e ii?ii?iaii? e?enoae?o?a aeaoaeueii
iienai? o e?oa?aoo??. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo an? aeaeo?iie (aai ae??ee), ye?
c’yaeeenue aiane?aeie ii?ii?iaiiy, caoiieththoueny iaeiei oeiii
ianoie, a ?aeiia?iaoe?y iiaiooai?aieo oeaio??a ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. I?e
aeeiiaii? oeeo oiia e?euee?noue ia?aiaai?oieo ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a,
ye? aeieeathoue (?, a?aeiia?aeii, ?ioaineai?noue neaiae?a AI?), ?
iia’ycaieo c aeii?oeaie ia ii/aoeo ii?ii?iaiiy, ia caeaaeeoue a?ae
e?eueeino? aeii?oie. Naia oaea neooaoe?y ?aae?co?oueny o oea?aeoi?
y?oeue (? aiae? coa?a).

O aeaiiio aeiaaeeo iaoee oi?aa?naeueieo aeiciaeo caeaaeiinoae
aecia/a?oueny aoaeoeai?noth i?iaeoeoaaiiy aeaeo?iiii-ae??eiaeo ia?.
Inoaii? iiaea aooe i?e/eiith a?aei?iiino? oaeiai iaoeeo aeey oea?aeoie
? aiae?. ?acoeueoaoe ?cioa?i?/iiai iaa??aaiiy iieacothoue, ui i?ioean
?iciaaeo ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a o oea?aeoi? y?oeue ? neeaaeiei ? ia
a?aeiia?aea? o?ea?aeuei?e iiaeae? c iaeiei /anii aeeooy (?en. 3), oiaoi
o oea?aeoi? ?nio? iaa?? ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a c ??cieie aeanoeainoyie.
Ca?aeii c iiaeaeeth, yea i?iiiio?oueny iaie, ?aaeueiee ?iciiae?e
?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a c ??cieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaeia cai?ieoe ia
a?oie oeaio??a c o?eniaaiith aeeaeiith iioaioe?eieo yi Aj , yeui
i?eionoeoe, ui e?euee?noue oeaio??a a oaeeo a?oiao
aei??aith?wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????AyAy@` ???&? ?MathType?? ????u?th??????
N(t) = N1exp (- t/wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay ??? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????Aeaiee ae?ac i?e cia/aiiyo ia?aiao??a:
O, N 120 140 160

wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay ??? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ay ??? ???&?
?MathType??0????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????AyAy@` ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????wmetafile8? ??…????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????AyAy@` ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????caaeia?eueii iieno? aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?.

Aiae?c niaeo?aeueieo e?i?e oeaio?o AA6 iieaco?, ui ?iciiae?e a?aenoaiae
i?ae oeeie e?i?yie /?oei a?aeiia?aea? a?iiio Iuethoiia. *?oea i?yii
i?iii?oe?eia caeaaei?noue AA6-oeaio??a a no?oeoo?? oea?aeoie y?oeue
?iaeoue iiaeeeaei aeei?enoaiiy oeueiai oeaio?o aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy
aeiciaeo iaaaioaaeaiue ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

O *AOAA?OIIO ?ICAeIE? “IIAEEEAINO? CANOINOAAIIss A ?AO?INIAEOEAI?E
AeICEIAO??? *A?AIAOIE IIETHNE?A AEAe?A Unio pictorum OA DREISSENA
POLYMORPHA” iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
/a?aiaoie o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e aeiceiao???.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy /a?aiaoie iiethne?a iia’ycaia c
a?aenooi?noth ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy o
?ao?iniaeoeai?e aeiceiao??? oeo aeae?a, ye? ?iciianthaeaeai? ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. A ?iaio? aiae?co?oueny noai oa ia?niaeoeai? oeyoe
iiaeieaiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi oeeo ia’?eo?a.
Iaaaaeaii aeai? i?i iioiaeaeaiiy, no?oeoo?o ? aeanoeaino? /a?aiaoie
iiethne?a. Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth /a?aiaoie iiethne?a, ye ia’?eoo
?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???, ? i?ieea?noue neeaaeo /a?aiaoie iaeiiai ?
oiai ae aeaeo ia ??cieo oa?eoi??yo (iai?eeeaae, a?aaii?oiaee neeaae
iiaea ci?ithaaoeny eaeueoeeoiaei), a oaeiae i?eoaiaii?noue ie?aieo
aeae?a iiethne?a eiie?aoiei oa?eoi??yi, ca iaaeaie yeeo aiie a?aenooi?.
Oaeei /eiii, aaeeea e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo i?iaeai?
canoinoaaiiy o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e aeiceiao??? aeayeeo aeae?a iiethne?a, ye?
oa?aeoa?i?, iai?eeeaae, aeey oa?eoi??? ssiii??, ia iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue aeey ae??oaiiy aiaeia?/ieo caaaeaiue ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie.

Iniaeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a, iniiai? iaoiaee ? iaoiaeeee, ye?
canoiniaoaaeenue, aenia?eiaioaeuei? i?eeaaee oa ?aaeeie ?o ?iaioe o
?aieao aeine?aeaeaiiy /a?aiaoie aoee oaeeie ae, ye iienaii aeey aeaio
iiia?aaei?o ?icae?e?a.

Iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy /a?aiaoie iiethne?a noaei
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaie aeai?o na?aae ?icia?ooy aeae?a aeaeo Dreissena
polymorpha, /a?aiaoea yeiai iiaoaeiaaia ?c iaia?aiaai?oiiai iaoa??aeo.
Io?eiaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? i?i ia?ao?ae o ia?aiaai?oiee noai
ea?aiiaoiiai iaoa??aeo o /a?aiaoeao iiethne?a aeaeo Dreissena polymorpha
i?e oaiia?aoo?? i?eaeecii 320-340 0N. Iniiaiith i?iaeaiith aeei?enoaiiy
iiethne?a aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy
aiane?aeie *i?iiaeeuenei? eaoano?ioe aoei oa, ui o a?eueoino? aeae?a
iiethne?a ?o /a?aiaoee iathoue aeaniee ia?aiaai?oiee neaiae a?ae Mn2+.

?nioaaiiy oaeiai neaiaeo ?iaeoue i?iaeaiaoe/iei a?aeie?aieaiiy oi?

ceeaaeiai?, yea c’yaey?oueny aiane?aeie ii?ii?iaiiy. Naia oiio ae?ae
aaaeeeaei aoa iiooe oaeeo aeae?a iiethne?a, o yeeo ?a/iaeia /a?aiaoie ia
? ia?aiaai?oiith. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaoueio aeae?a aeicaieeei iai
aea?aoe iiethnee aeaeo Dreissena polymorpha, /a?aiaoee yeeo
a?aeiia?aeathoue iaaaaeai?e aeiic?. Ii?ii?iaiiy c?ace?a /a?aiaoie
iiethne?a oeueiai aeaeo aeicaieeei io?eiaoe iaiaeeaaeaiee neaiae AI?
a?ae ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui caeaaei?noue
?ioaineaiino? neaiaeo AI? a?ae aeice ii?ii?iaiiy ? i?yii i?iii?oe?eiith
(?en. 5). Oaeei /eiii, cai?iiiiiaaiee aeae iiaea aooe canoiniaaiee o
?ao?iniaeoeai?e aeiceiao??? caaaeyee ciaoiaeaeaiith ?a/iaeie /a?aiaoie o
iaia?aiaai?oiiio noai?, a oaeiae oe?ieiio ?iciianthaeaeaiith aeaeo o
i?e?iaeieo eaiaeoaooao Oe?a?ie. Aeinoia??i?noue a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic oa
aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy Dreissena polymorpha i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny
anoaiiaeaiei iaie aenia?eiaioaeueiei oaeoii i?i ia?ao?ae ?a/iaeie
/a?aiaoie o ia?aiaai?oiee noai i?ae /an iaa??aaiiy i?e O = 320-340 0N,
oiaoi i?e oaiia?aoo?ao, iaiiaeeeaeo o na?aaeiaeu? ?nioaaiiy iiethne?a.

I’yoee ?icae?e “Aeine?aeaeaiiss ?AAe?AOe?EIEO AEANOEAINOAE I?IA?AE?A
IAI?AAI?*IIAI IIOIAeAEAIIss” i?enay/aiee ia?aaaaeii aeine?aeaeaiith
?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a a Na-aio?aieao, eio?? noi?iaiaeaeothoue ciie
?aae?iaeoeaieo aeaiaio?a.

aeine?aeaeaiiy Na-aio?aie?a ?c iao???aeo iaoanoiiaoeo?a OU (n.
?e?n??aea) iaoiaeii ssA? i?ney oaiia?aoo?ii? ia?iaee (O = 560 0N)
iieacaei iayai?noue o aeine?aeaeaieo c?aceao 1 ? 2, a?aeiia?aeii, 14 ?
10% a?aeiiaethaaii? oi?ie cae?ca. Eoaeo a?aeiiaeaiiy cae?ca i?e
iaa??aaii? ia iia?o??, ui niinoa??aa?oueny, iaiiaeeeai iiynieoe
a?aeiieie caeiiii??iinoyie iiaaae?iee ca e?ca i?ae /an i?ioean?a
oa?i?/iiai ia?aoai?aiiy aio?aie?a ?c aac?oaeieo cii. I?ia??a inoaii?o a
aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny o?eueee ieeneaiiyi cae?ca. sse
aeieeaa? c ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo ?ai?oa ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie, aoaeo
a?aeiiaeaiiy Fe3+ aei Fe2+ i?ae /an i?ia??ao ia iia?o?? oa?aeoa?iee
o?eueee aeey ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/ii ieeneaieo ?ii?a Fe3+. A?i ia
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia Fe3+ ?ioi? aaiaoe/ii? i?e?iaee, cie?aia, ia
oaeee, ui aoiaeeoue o no?oeoo?o aio?aie?a o i?ioean? e?enoae?caoe?? ?
iaoaii?o?/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo o ieo. Oeae eao?ii iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaiee
o?eueee i?e iaa??aaii? aio?aie?a o a?aeiiaethaaeueiiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aeey
a?aeiiaeaiiy aeniiceoe?eieo aeic, ye? io?eiaee aeine?aeaeoaai? c?acee 1
? 2 iaie i?iaaaeaii ?o eaai?aoi?ia aeiii?ii?iaiiy aeicaie 104, 106
?108 A?.

Iiaoaeiaaii eae?a?oaaeueio e?eao, ca aeiiiiiaith yei? iiaeia a?aeiiaeoe
aeice ?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, io?eiai? c?aceaie 1 ? 2 (?en.
6). Aeice noaiiaeee 5 ? 3 o 107 A?, a?aeiia?aeii. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny oaeiae c e?oa?aoo?ieie aeaieie.

CAAAEUeI? AENIIAEE.

1) ?aae?aoe?eia /ooeea?noue aiae? coa?a caeaaeeoue a?ae ii?oieia?/ieo
ci?i aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo caoai?thaaiiy coa?a ? iiaea ca?eueooaaoenue aei
20% aeey ea??icieo coa?a o ii??aiyii? ?c caei?iaeie. Oaea caeaaei?noue
aiineoue a?aeiia?aei? ei?aeoeae o i?ioeaaeo?o a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic
?aae?aoe?eiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, a i?e neeueiiio ea??iciiio o?aaeaii?
coaa ?iaeoue eiai iai?eaeaoiei aeey canoinoaaiiy o ?ao?iniaeoeai?e
aeiceiao???.

2) ?aae?iniaeo?ineii?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoe?eieo Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????3) Oea?aeoia y?oeue — iiaee ia?niaeoeaiee
ia’?eo ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao???, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith
?aae?aoe?eiith /ooeea?noth oa i?inoioith canoinoaaiiy a ?aieao
i?iiiiiaaii? iaoiaeeee a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic. I?i?iaeueia aeica ii?ii?iaiiy,
yea iiaea aooe a?aeiiaeaia ii oea?aeoi? y?oeue ca iaoith iaoiaeeeith,
neeaaea? 0,3 A? (i?eeaae PS-100.X). I?e iaa??aaii? iiia?aaeiuei
ii?ii?iaii? oea?aeoie y?oeue iaie cao?eniaaii iiyao neaiaeo AI? a?ae
AA6-oeaio?o i?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oeaio? cieea? i?e oaiia?aoo?ao
o?ce/iiai ?oeioaaiiy i?aai?/ii? neeaaeiai?. AA6-oeaio? iiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue a yeino? eiio?ieueiiai aeey i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy
aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a a?aeiiaeaiiy aeic ii Rwmetafile8?
??…???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
???????  `???&??yyyy?????Ay ? A ???&?
?MathType??P????u?th??????4) I?ae?a?aii aeae iiethne?a Dreissena
polymorpha, /a?aiaoee yeeo neeaaeathoueny c iaia?aiaai?oiiai iaoa??aeo,
ui aeicaiey? ei?aeoio ?aeiino?oeoe?th ?ioaa?aeueieo aeic c ?o
canoinoaaiiyi ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaie iaoiaeeeith. Oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
aeaiiai aeaeo oa a?aenooi?noue i?a?aoe?? ?iaeyoue oeae nai???aeiee
?iaeeeaoi? noaio iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua iniaeeai ia?niaeoeaiei aeey
ioe?iee ?aae?iaeieia?/iiai noaio oa?eoi??e. Aecia/aii, ui ia?ao?ae aei
ia?aiaai?oiiai noaio aeey /a?aiaoie iiethne?a aeaeo Dreissena polymorpha
ia? i?noea i?e O = 320-340 0N, yea ia cono??/a?oueny a oiiaao ?nioaaiiy
iiethne?a, oiaoi oaiia?aoo?e, ye? ?niothoue a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ia
ii?ooothoue noaio iaia?aiaai?oiino? iaoa??aeo /a?aiaoie aeaiiai aeaeo.

5) Iaoeie aenia?eiaioaie c Na-aio?aieaie iieacaii, ui ?acoeueoaoe
aecia/aiiy aianeo cae?ca ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy (Fe3+) a
eiai caaaeueiee neeaae a i?eioeei? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
ioe?iee aeniiceoe?eieo aeic ii?ii?iaiiy eiei ?oaeieo aio?aie?a a ciiao
?aae?iaeoeaii? i?ia?ae?caoe??. Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii, ui
i?aeaeuaiee ai?no Fe2O3 a aio?aieao ?c cii o?aiiai? i?ia?ae?caoe?? ? ia
o?eueee ?acoeueoaoii aieeao a?ae?ioa?iaeueieo ?ic/ei?a, ye aaaaeaeinue
?ai?oa, aea e iane?aeeii ?aae?aoe?eii-o?i?/iiai ieeneaiiy cae?ca.

Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 12 ?ia?o (aeea. Aeena?oaoe?y: Nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae), iniiai? c yeeo:

1) Brik A., Radchuk V., Scherbina O., Matyash M. and Gaver O.
Metamorphic Modifications and EPR Dosimetry in Tooth Enamel // Appl.
Radiat. Isot. — 1996. — Vol. 47. — No 11/12. — pp. 1317-1319.

2) Brik A., Matyash M., Radchuk O., Scherbina O. IGMR // Final Report of
Experimental Collaboration Project No 10. — 1996. — pp 65-67.

3) A.A. A?ee, A.A. ?aae/oe, I.E. Iaoyo, I.E. Ua?aeia, A.I. Aieineee. I
?aaeeaoeeiiiuo oeaio?ao a eaeueoeeoa aeiaaiiiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey ii
aeaiiui YI? // Iei. AEo?i. — 1996.- No 4. — C. 20-25.

4) A.I. Eaaieoeeee, I.E. Iaoyo, A.N. Eeoia/aiei. Iniaaiiinoe ninoiyiey
aeaeaca a Na-aioeaieao ec cii o?aiiaie ieia?aeecaoeee. // Iei. AEo?i. —
1996. — No 5. — C. 52-56.

5) A.N. Eeoia/aiei, A.A. Eaeeie/aiei, A.A. Iacueei, I.E. Iaoyo, A.I.
Ceiaaiei. Eco/aiea aeeyiey aaiia-iaeo/aiey ia no?oeoo?o e oa?ie/aneoth
onoie/eainoue eaieeieoia iaoiaeii YI?. // Iei. AEo?i. — 1996. — No 5. —
C. 46-51.

6) A.A. Niaioiae/, I.?. Iaoyo. I?aaenoaaieee a?iaaiiiai na?oo —
?iaeeeaoi?e noaio aeiae?eey. // A?niee IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — No 3/4. —
C. 34-37.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaoyo I.?. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aae?aoe?eieo oeaio??a i?ia?ae?a i?aai?/iiai
oa iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy noiniaii ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao??? —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaieia?/ieo
iaoe ii niaoe?aeueiino? 21.00.08 — oaoiiaaiia aaciaea, Aea?aeaaiee
iaoeiaee oeaio? ?aae?iaaio?i?? iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua IAI Oe?a?ie oa
IIN Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi canoinoaaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo aeaoaeo?a o
i?ia?aeao i?aai?/iiai oa iai?aai?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaii?
aeiceiao???. Ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eieo
ia?aiaai?oieo oeaio??a oaeeo a?ii?ia?ae?a, ye aiaeue coa?a, oea?aeoia
y?oeue ? /a?aiaoee iiethne?a iaoiaeii AI? oo?eiaii iia? aeai? i?i ?o
aeanoeaino? oa i?e?iaeo. Iaa?oioiaaii ia?niaeoeai?noue oeeo
a?ii?ia?ae?a, ye? iiaeooue canoiniaoaaoenue aeey eiiieaeniiai
?aae?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao i?noeaaino? ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?aae?aoe?eii?
?noi??? ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ia’?eo?a. I?e a?aeiiaeaii? aeic ?aae?aoe?eiiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe ii?oieia?/i? ci?ie o coaao ?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaii? aeiceiao??? iia? ia’?eoe: oea?aeoio
y?oeue ? /a?aiaoee iiethne?a aeaeo Dreissena polymorpha, ia?niaeoeaiiai
aeey Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ao?iniaeoeaia aeiceiao??y, ?aae?aoe?ei? ia?aiaai?oi?
oeaio?e, AI?, aiaeue coa?a, oea?aeoia y?oeue, /a?aiaoee iiethne?a,
Dreissena polymorpha.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaoyo I.E. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo oeaio?ia ieia?aeia
i?aaie/aneiai e iai?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey i?eiaieoaeueii e
?ao?iniaeoeaiie aeiceiao?ee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaieiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 21.00.08 — oaoiiaaiiay aaciianiinoue. —
Ainoaea?noaaiiue iao/iue oeaio? ?aaeeiaaioeiee ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu IAI
Oe?aeiu e I*N Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai eniieueciaaiey ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo aeaoaeoia
a ieia?aeao i?aaie/aneiai e iai?aaie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey aeey
?ao?iniaeoeaiie aeiceiao?ee. Aeaoaeueiuie enneaaeiaaieyie ?aaeeaoeeiiiuo
ia?aiaaieoiuo oeaio?ia aeiieia?aeia: yiaee coaia, nei?eoiu yeoe e
?aeiaei iiethneia iaoiaeii AI? iieo/aiu iiaua aeaiiua ia eo naienoaao e
i?e?iaea. Iainiiaaia ia?niaeoeaiinoue yoeo aeiieia?aeia, eioi?ua iiaoo
i?eiaiyoueny aeey eiiieaeniiai ?aaeeiyeieiae/aneiai iiieoi?eiaa
oa??eoi?ee e ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aaeeaoeeiiiie enoi?ee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
iauaeoia. I?e ainnoaiiaeaiee aeiciauo iaa?ocie i?aaeeiaeaii o/eouaaoue
ii?oieiae/aneea eciaiaiey a coaao e eniieueciaaoue aeey ?ao?iniaeoeaiie
aeiceiao?ee iiaua iauaeou: nei?eoio yeoe e ?aeiaeiu iieethneia aeaea
Dreissena polymorpha, ia?niaeoeaiiai aeey Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?ao?iniaeoeaiay aeiceiao?ey, ?aaeeaoeeiiiua
ia?aiaaieoiua oeaio?u, YI?, yiaeue coaia, nei?eoia yeoe, ?aeiaeiu
iieethneia, Dreissena polymorpha.

SUMMARY

Matyash M.I. The characteristics of radiation centers of the minerals of
organic and non-organic origin applied to retrospective dosimetry. —
Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by the speciality 21.00.08 —
techogenical safety. The State Science Center of Environmental
Radiogeochemistry of Ukrainian NAS, Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to application of the new data about
radiation defects of some biominerals for retrospective dosimetry.
Basing on the proceed investigation of the radiation paramagnetic
centers of the biominerals like tooth enamel, egg shell and mollusk
shell by the ESR method the data about their genesis and properties are
obtained. This information can be used for complex radioecological
monitoring of environment as well as for restoring radiation history of
individual objects. It is proposed to take into account metamorphic
modifications in tooth to use that in the technique of dose restoring.
The new objects for retrospective dosimetry: egg shell and mollusk shell
(Dreissena polymorpha) are investigated and proposed.

Key words: retrospective dosimetry, radiation paramagnetic centers, ESR,
tooth enamel, egg shell, mollusk shell, Dreissena polymorpha.

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