Громадянське суспільство: світоглядні версії та історичне втілення (соціально-філософський аналіз): Автореф. дис… канд. філос. наук / Я.І. Пасько, Н

?INOEOOO O?EINIO??

?iai? A.Neiai?iaee

IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

IANUeEI ss?ineaa ?ai?aae/

OAeE 101.1:316.33

A?IIAAessINUeEA NONI?EUeNOAI:

NA?OIAEssAeI? AA?N?? OA ?NOI?E*IA AO?EAIIss

(nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ?inoeoooo
o?einio?? ?i. A. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, IIEEssE Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/; ?inoeooo
o?einio?? ?i.A.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii?
o?einio??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe

Aie/aiei ?aai Aaneeueiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

(?inoeooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie)

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio Ninia Aaneeue Iao?iae/
(Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??)

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Aeiiaoeueeee eiia?oe?eiee ?inoeooo

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «20» eenoiiaaea 1998 ?ieo

i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

a ?inoeooo? o?einio?? ?i. A. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252001, Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo o?einio??
?i. A. Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a, aoe.
O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea, 4.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «19» aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee_________________________________ Neoie/aiei E.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeena?oaoe??

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe OAIE AeINE?AeAEAIIss. Iaaeinoaoiuei ?acoeueoaoeai?
iane?aeee coneeue c iiaeieaiiy noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece iaoiai
noni?euenoaa ii?iaeaeothoue ??ciiiai?oi? ?icaeoie, noeeythoue aei
i??eoaaiue i?i iaaio oai?aoe/ii-iaoiaeieia?/io iaiaaeai?noue iaoiai
nueiaiaeaiiiai noni?euenoaiciaanoaa, niiioeathoue aei iiooe?a iiaeo
nioe?aeueii-aiinaieia?/ieo eaoaai??e ? iaoiae?a. Aea /e iiai?noth ie
aeei?enoiao?ii eaoaai??aeueio niaaeueio nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ieioeiai?
Caea?oueny, ui i?. Aei oeo iiiyoue, ui a iaaiee /an aeiaaee a ?a?ii?
o?einionueei-?noi?e/io ?ino?oiaioaeuei?noue oa aiinaieia?/io
aoaeoeai?noue, iaoii?noue aaci?aenoaaii aoee i?aeaeai? caaoooth, iaaooue
iaeaaeeoue ? iiiyooy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Iia? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/i? oa aeooiai? ?aae?? iaoi? aea?aeaae yne?aai
aena?oeththoue iaiiaeeea?noue aoaeoeaiiai i?inoaaiiy Oe?a?ie ii noa?iio
oioae?oa?ii-aoaoenueeiio oeyoo ?icaeoeo ia i?aenoaaao oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy. Ca nueiaiaeaiieo oiia, aoaeue-ye? aea?aeaai?
ieaie, aee?aeoeae /e ?i?oe?aoeae i?e?a/ai? aac aeoeaii? i?aeo?eiee c
aieo on?o aa?noa noni?euenoaa. Oiio ia ?aaeuei? oni?oe iiaeia
niiae?aaoenue eeoa oiae?, eiee aeaaea aoaea ni?iiiaeia i?eeiaoe
aea?aeaai? ??oaiiy c iaeneiaeueiei o?aooaaiiyi iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo
oa nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a ? niiae?aaiue oeeo noni?eueieo aa?noa. A
iaoiio no/aniiio noaiiaeu? aeeiiaiiy oe??? oiiae aeaeyaea? aaeueie
i?iaeaiaoe/ii.

Caiia?aoe oeei ae?aiaoe/iei neooaoe?yi iiaeia eeoa aeei?enoiaoth/e oo
naio niaoeeo?/io nioe?aeueio ?inoeoooe?th, yea a ?a?iiaenuee?e
o?aaeeoe?? io?eiaea iacao a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Oea cian?i ia
eiiaeiia?ao noni?eueieo a?oi, ui aaei?i?no?aoeaii-iie?oe/ii
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? aea?aeaa?, a oe?e?nia noa?a noni?eueiiai aeeooy
a?aeiinii naiino?eia a?ae aea?aeaae ? naia aeaoa?i?ioth/a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? oa ?inoeooo?a. A?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai — oea oi?eaeueia nenoaia aca?iiae?? noni?eueieo
?iaeea?ae?a, a?oi, aa?noa, i?ioa?e?a, ui aca?iicaaeainiao? aaeoi?e nee
nai?o neeaaeiaeo, aeyaeyth/e ??aiiae?th/o aace?/? ethaenueeeo i?aaiaiue
oa niiae?aaiue, Ia aea?aeaaa iiaeiia aecia/aoe ni?eueiee ciaiaiiee
noni?eueieo ani??aoe?e, ai aiia i?eioeeiiai ia caeaoia aeey aeeiiaiiy
oe??? ooieoe?? ? iiaea eeoa ?i?ooaaoe oeae i?ioean, a iaaiaee,
noni?eueiee eaae nai?i ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ia’?eoeaii a?aeoai?th?
noni?euei? ?iia?aoeae iie?oe/i?e nenoai?, iaeii/anii iaoiiaethth/e
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oaeeo aea?aeaaieo oi?i, ye? aoee a ni?iiiaei?
aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia aieiai? ia’?eoeai? ?ioa?ane noni?euenoaa. Naia
caaaeyee oi?ioaaiith ? ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
?a?iiaenueea oeea?e?caoe?y i?ioi?oaaea oeyo aei naiaiaee, noni?eueiiai
aeia?iaooo ? i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao??.

Noa? c?icoi?eei, ui ooai?aiiy ni?aaaeiueiai, ae??caeaoiiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a iao?e e?a?i? ? aeooaeueiith iaaaeueiith
i?iaeaiith. Caa?iaiiy aei ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo noaiiaeaiiy ?
ona?aeiieaiiy oaiiiaio a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aoaea ni?eyoe
inieneaiith iaoeo aeanieo i?iaeai.

Aeooaeuei?noue cai?iiiiiaaii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny e oei,
ui Oe?a?ia cae?enith? eeoa ia?o? e?iee ia oeyoo aei ?icaoaeiae aeanii?
aea?aeaaiino?. Oea aeiaaa? ie?aneaiiy caaaeueieo ?en aeanii? iiaeae?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, eio?a a aoea ni?iiiaeia aa?iii?coaaoe ?ioa?ane
aea?aeaae c i?aaiaiiyie ??ciiiai?oieo noni?eueieo a?oi, aaoiiiiieo
anioe?aoe?e oa ie?aieo ?iaeea?ae?a. Naia oaeee i?aeo?ae iiaea ni?eyoe
na?aeiiiio ia?aiith a?aeiia?aeii? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ii? i???ioaoe??
Oe?a?ie oa aecia/aiith ?? nioe?aeueii-oeea?e?caoe?eii? iaeaaeiino?. Oe?
i?iaeaie aeiaaathoue a?ae ian iaei?ene?ieea?oa i?eaeeaeoenue ia o?eueee
aei cao?aeii-?a?iiaenueeiai aeina?aeo o a?iiaaeyinuee?e noa??, aea e aei
aeanii? a?iiaaeyinueei? ? aeooiaii? ?noi???, ?? iaaooe?a ? ao?ao.

Iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? caeeoa?oueny
ona?aeiieaiiy ci?noo iiiyooy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye
?noi?e/iiai ?inoeoooo iiooe?a a?aeiiai ethaeei? niiniao ?nioaaiiy oa
naii?aae?caoe?? ethaeeie a noni?euenoa?. Naia a?iiaaeyinueei?
naii?aae?caoe?? oae a?aeoaaei ia?an?/i?e ethaeei? a Oe?a?i? ia i?ioyc?
inoaii?o noi??/. I?iiiiiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye ni?iao
aeiaanoe, ui ooai?aiiy oa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie a?iiaaeyinueeeo no?oeoo?
ioneoue noaoe ia?aaeoiiaith aeoiaeo c caaaeueii? e?ece, iiiaeaiiy on?o
noa? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie, noai?aiiy iiaeeeainoae ??
naii?aae?caoe??. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai iiaea noaoe oei caniaii, ui
aeiiiiiaea, ye aeneiaeany I. Iaia?aeaoa?e?, iniaenoino? a?aeaooeny o
oe?e yeino?.

Noai iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. I?ioyaii onueiai ?icaeoeo ?noi???
?a?iiaenueei? noni?eueii? aeoiee iae??ciiiai?oi?o? aniaeoe noaiiaeaiiy
?icaeoeo oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ?
a?iiaaeyinueei? naiaiaee aoee ia’?eoii oaaae ? i?aaeiaoii oai?aoe/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaaaoueio ieneeoae?a na?oiaiai ??aiy, a oaeiae no/anieo
nioe?aeueieo o?einio?a, oaieia?a, i?aaiee?a, iie?oieia?a oa nioe?ieia?a.
Ia?o? a?iiaaeyinuee? ?aea? ? i?eioeeie aoee aeneiaeai? Ieaoiiii,
A?enoioaeai, Oeeoea?iiii, ?einueeeie i?aaieeaie.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeiai na?oiaeyaeo aoa iia’ycaiee c
aeiaith Na?aaeiueia?//y. Eiioeaioe?y Aaaonoeia Aa?ae?y i?i Aiaeo ? caiio
a?iiaaee oai?aoe/ii a?aeaeca?eaeeea aaeeeee i?ioean nioe?aeueiiai
a?aeie?aieaiiy aeooiaii? aeaaee Oea?eae ? iie?oe/ii? aeaaee aea?aeaae,
ui cae?enithaaany ia i?ioyc? oe??? aeiae. ?aoeaioe?y ? ia?ainieneaiiy
?einueeiai i?aaa na?aaeiueia?/ieie ieneeoaeyie ooai?thaaee i?aeio?ee
th?eaee/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy noaoono iniaenoi? oa noaiiai? naiaiaee,
iaaeaaaee iiaeeea?noue oi?ioaaiiy aeayeeo i?aaiaeo i?eioeei?a iie?oe/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? noni?euenoaa.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy — ?noi?e/iee /an aeieeiaiiy ia?oeo aa??aoe?e
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa o na?aaeiueiii?nueeeo i?noao-eiioiao,
iaeyne?aa?oa ?ai?acaioo?oueny nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iith o?einio??th I?eiei
Iae?aaaee?. Aea ni?aaaei?e niaeao eiioeaiooaeueii? oaaae aei oaiiiaio
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa niinoa??aa?oueny o Iiaee /an. Oi aoea
aiioa ianiaiai noaiiaeaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a ?a?iiaenueeiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, aiioa ?o ?aoeaen?? ? iiooe?a iioeiaeueieo
iiaeaeae. Aeaa?ae THi, Aaeai Oa?athnii, Oiian Aiaan, Aeaeii Eiee,
AEai-AEae ?onni, Aeaenen Oiea?eue, Oa?eue Iiioane’?, Aai?a Aaaaeue — ia
o?eueee na?aeee ia?iaeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, aea e ia?o?
aeine?aeieee eiai ?aaeueieo ac??oe?a. Aiae?enueea
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea aeoiea, cie?aia Aiaan oa Eiee, caeoeaiooaaea
oaaao ia i?iaeaiao i?aaiaiai iaiaaeaiiy iiia?oi? aeaaee a oiiaao
aaniethoecio, ia i?iaeaiao oeea?e?ciaaiiai i?eie?aiiy ??cieo
a?iiaaenueeeo nee a noni?euenoa?. Ca?aeii c iiaeyaeaie caaaeaieo
ieneeoae?a, ?aeay a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iia’ycaia c caoenoii
i?eaaoiiai aeanieea a?ae iaaei??iiai eiio?ieth ? ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae ca
aeiiiiiaith noni?eueiiai aeiaiai?o. Icia/aia eiioeaioe?y
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aeaea iiooiao noaiiaeaiith ?aea? i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae a iania?e ?a?iiaenuee?e na?aeiiino?.

Oai?aoe/ia iiaeaeue a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa Oiea?ey iaaeeoa?oueny
noni?eueiith i?aeoeeith Niieo/aieo Ooao?a Aia?eee. Oiio, aeey iueiai,
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai – oea noeoii?noue aaoiiiiieo a?ae aea?aeaae
a?iiaaenueeeo ? iie?oe/ieo anioe?aoe?e, ui ia?aaeothoue aea?aeaa?.

Iaeia/a iaea?eueo a?oioiaiee aiae?c oaiiiaio a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa cono??/a?ii o niaaeuei? Aaaaey. Naia a?i, ye neooii
cacia/ea A.?. Oeiea?oe, “ocaaaeueiea oeea?e?caoe?ei? caeiaooee
ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa… o iiiyoo? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ye
iniiae i?aaiai? aea?aeaae”. Aaaaeue aia?oa /?oei ?iciaaeiao? iie?oe/io
aea?aeaao ? a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai ye noa?o i?eaaoiiai aeeooy
noni?eueieo ?iaeea?ae?a ? ia?oei a ?noi??? o?einio?? aeine?aeaeo?
noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye ?noi?e/iee i?ioean. ?acii c
oei, eiai eiioeaioe?? aeanoeaa iaaia noia?a/i?noue. A?aeiii, ui
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai aeieea? ?noi?e/ii i?ci?oa n?i’? oa
aea?aeaae. A eia?/i?e noai? Aaaaey — ?iaeoa: a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai
iinoa? ye aioeoaca ? caia?a/aiiy n?i’?, ye oaca iinooio cae/a?aino?, a
iie?oe/i?e iaieiioe? aea?aeaae. Aea?aeaaa, aeey iueiai, ? acaaae? ia?oa,
a na?aaeei? eio?iai ?iaeeia ?icaeaa?oueny o a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai.

C aaaae?anueei? eiioeaioe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iinoa?
e?eoe/ia o?einio?y Ea?ea Ia?ena. Ia?en neooii o?aeoo? ? ?noi??th
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye i?ioean aea?eueiaiiy noni?eueieo
?iaeea?ae?a c eaaao anaioiiethth/i? aea?aeaae. ?acii c oei, aeey iueiai,
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai oea eeoa nooi aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie
aaeaeaaoi? iaaiiio ??aith ?icaeoeo i?iaeoeoeaieo nee, oiaoi oea
noni?euenoai ao?aeoacia, yea ioneoue aooe i?aeaeaia ?noi?e/iiio
caia?a/aiith. A nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e ?ica?aeoe?, i?enay/ai?e aeia?
?anoaa?aoe??, “XVIII a?thia?a Eo? Aiiaia?oa”, Ia?en aeoiaeeoue ca iaae?
aecia/aiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye eeoa aeiiii?/ii? noa?e,
i?ioenoaaeyth/e aaoi?eoa?i?e aea?aeaa? iacaeaaeio i?ano oa nioe?aeuei?
?i?oe?aoeae a?iiaae. Iaeia/a oe? aeoiee ia iaee iiaeeaeaiiai
oai?aoe/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ia?enenonueei? eiioeaioe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa iia’ycaiee c ?i’yi Aioii?i A?aioe. O i?aoe? “Oth?aii?
cioeoe” a?i caoaaaeo?, ui a XX noi??//? ana aaaii?oa i?noea ii/eiathoue
iin?aeaoe noni?euei? ?inoeoooe, ye? ia iiaeooue aooe a?aeianai? ai? aei
aeiiii?/ii?, ai? aei iie?oe/ii? noa?e nioe?oio. Oeth noa?o a?i iaceaa?
nioe?aeueiith. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, ca?aeii c eiai ia?aeiiaiiyi,
? noni?euenoaii nioe?aeueiei, noa?ith a?iiaaeyinueeeo anioe?aoe?e,
i?ioni?eie, oea?eae, cania?a ianiai? eiioi?eaoe??, i?ioa?eii i?ae
aea?aeaaith ? aeiiii?/iith no?oeoo?ith, “i?inoi?ii ai?ioueae ??cieo
nioe?aeueieo a?oi ca aaaaiii?th”.

I?iaeaie aaiace a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aeineoue a?oioiaii
aena?oeththoueny a i?aoeyo Iaena Aaaa?a, cie?aia ?ieue ?ae?a?eiiai
/eiieea.

A no/ani?e cao?aei?e nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e o?aaeeoe?? i?iaeaie
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa caeiathoue aaaiia i?noea. Ieoaiiy
aa?iii?caoe?? noinoie?a i?ae noni?euenoaii ? aea?aeaaith o oie /e ?ioee
niin?a ae??oothoueny a i?aoeyo E. Aeeaia, A. Aeiiiaea, A. A?aoi, A.
A?aiaea, ?. A?iia, ?. A?ioia, N. Aa?ae, ?. Aea?aiaei?oa, Ae. Eiea, I.
Eaiaa, I.Ia?eona, E. Iiiia?a, A. Oieia?, TH. Aaaa?iana oa ?ioeo.
??ciianiaeoi? ieoaiiy ?noi??? ?a?iiaenueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ooiaeaiaioaeueii aiae?co?oueny a i?aoeyo i?aaenoaaiee?a
no/anii? o?aioeocueei? ?noi?e/ii? oeiee “Aiiae?a”, ia?aaeian?i Oa?iaia
A?iaeaey oa AEaea Ea Aioa.

Ia iaae? XIX-XX noi??/ ?a?iiaenueea o?einionueea oa iie?oe/ia aeoiea
ao?a/a? caoe?eaaeaii?noue aei ?aea? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.
Cia/ia /anoeia eiioeiaioo aiaaea? a aeoi??th iiooe?a oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo ?aoeaio?a caniaaie eiai oioae?oa?ecaoe??. Iinoa? aeiaa
oioae?oa?iiai ieneaiiy, ui aecia? a?iiaaeyinuee? ?aeaaee oeia?ieie
?ae?eoaie aeiae I?ina?oieoeoaa oa e?aa?ae?cio. C caaaeueiia?aeiieo
ieneeoae?a oeeo /an?a a??i?noue a?iiaaeyinueeei aa?oinoyi caa??aathoue
eeoa Iaen Aaaa?, Ea?e Iiiia?, Etha?a oii Aa?e, ?nay Aa?e?i ? aeaye?
?io?.

Eeoa iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a noa?a i?iaeaia a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
ciiao aenoaa?oueny ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee ?ioaeaeooaeueieo aeeneon?e ? c
oeo /an?a caeeoa?oueny o oieon? ?a?iiaenueei? nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei?
aeoiee. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ia o?eueee aaeeea e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?e c oe??? oaie, aea e iino?eia aeei?enoaiiy iiiyooy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iie?oeeaie, aeo?iae?noaie, a?iiaaenueeeie
ae?y/aie ye ia Caoiae?, oae ? ia Noiae? ?a?iie.

A no/ani?e e?oa?aoo?? aeii?iothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui ?icaeaathoue
noiniaii ?aae?e OO noi??//y “oiea?e?anueeo” eiioeaioe?th
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. A oie naiee /an ua ia? i?eoeeueiee?a
iai?yiie o?aeooaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa caii/aoeiaaiee Ae.
Eieeii. A oeueiio eiioaeno? iiaeii ?icaeyaeaoe ?aeath
“iinoeai?oae?noe/iiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa”, ui iaaoea
iiioey?iino? o 80-o? ?iee. Ia?aoo? iniaeeaa i?noea iin?aea?
oi?aa?naeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa A?ianoa
Aaeeia?a “Oiiae naiaiaee. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai oa eiai ?noi?e/i?
noia?ieee”. Oeth i?aoeth iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye naiai ?iaeo
ea?ioanaioe?th ? i?aenoiie oai?aoe/ieo aeeneo?n?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a ?a?iiaenuee?e e?oa?aoo?? inoaii?o aeanyoe??/.
A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai Aaeeia? o?aeoo? ye iniiao aeaiie?aoe/iiai
noni?euenoaa ia a?aei?io a?ae eiai ?noi?e/iiai noia?ieea noni?euenoaa
?aeaie?aoe/iiai, iiaoaeiaaiiai ia oioaeuei?e aeeeoaoo??
?aeaieia?/ii-?ae?a?eieo aeiai.

A o?einionueei-iie?oieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? e?a?i, oae caaiiai,
nioe?ae?noe/iiai oaai?o i?iaeaie a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ii/aee
aena?oethaaoenue c 80- ?ie?a o aeaeyae? e?eoeee oioae?oa?iiai
noni?euenoaa ? aenoaaiiy iiceoeaii? ?aea? “nioe?ae?noe/iiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa” oa “nioe?ae?noe/ii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae”.
Iaaio aeaieio oe?e ?aea? a?aeaeaee iieyee C. Iae/einueeee oa E.
Eieaeianueeee, oai?oe? I. Aaeaea oa ss. E?o, ?aaeyinuee? aeine?aeieee A.
I?a?aiyi oa A. Ia?nanyioe.

Aea aaea ia ii/aoeo 90-o iinoa? ona?aeiieaiiy caaaeueiiethaenueei?
aa?oino? iiiyoue a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? eiai i?aai?/i?
niieo/iino? c aeaiie?ao??th. Ia oe? iiceoe?? iinooiiai ia?aoiaeyoue E.
Eieaeianuee?e oa ss. E?o. A ?in?enuee?e e?oa?aoo?? aei iiae?aii?
iiceoe?? noeeythoueny ?. Aiaea?nii, A. Ao??ca?, E. Aaoe?i, A. A?oothe,
I. Aeoey?aa, I. Aieeia, E. Aaaeaee?a, I. Aaey?aa, A. Aaee?i, C.
Aieaieiaa, ?. A?eai?’?aa, ?. Ao?aiei, A. Aeoea, I. ?eue?i, E. Ea?iia, ?.
E?aa/aiei, TH. E?an?i, A. Eueaiae/, A. Iaaeooaanueeee, A. Eiaaeue,
A.Ianoooia, ?. Iaio?i, N. Ia?aaoaeia, I. Iao?iaa, A. Neaaiee, A.
Nooieoei, A. Nie?iiaa, Ae. Oaeueaeiai.

Cia/ii iaioa oaaae i?eae?ey?oueny aeine?aeaeaiith i?iaeai
a?iiaaeyinueei? ?aea? a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?. Iaeaea ia
aena?oeaiei caeeoa?oueny i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy oa aaiethoe??
a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?inoeoooe?e aae aei OO noi??//y. Eeoa ?ica?aeee Aiaaeaia
Oeeiaae?noiai oa ?aaia Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai ? ni?iaaie ni?anoaaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-a?iiaaeyinueeiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i? c a?aeiia?aeieie
i?ioeanaie ia Caoiae?.

Aeaui e?aua aeine?aeaeo?oueny noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? oa iaaeaaiy ?noi?e/ia niaaeueia, ui iaoyaeo? oeae
i?ioean. Aaaiiee aianie a iaa?oiooaaiiy o?einionueei-?noi?e/ieo ?
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
yaeythoue niaith i?aoe? A. Oeiea?oea. Ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? nioe?aeueii? ?
iie?oe/ii? noa?e, iniaenoino? ? aea?aeaae a?oioiaii aena?oeththoueny a
ioae?eaoe?yo I. Iieeyea. Iniaeeaa i?noea o eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae? aei
aiae?co a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?ioean?a a no/ani?e Oe?a?i? iin?aeathoue
a?oioiai? iiiia?ao?? “A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai a Oe?a?i?: nioe?aeuei?
oaiaeaioe?? oa /eiieee noaiiaeaiiy” oa “A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai:
?aeaieia?y ? ?aaeuei?noue” i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th I.I. Iieeyea, a oaeiae
i?aoey A.A. Oai?ae “I?aia?aciaaiea iauanoaa. I?aaeaeu aiciiaeiiai”.
??ciiiai?oi? aeooaeuei? aniaeoe a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
i?aeaeathoueny aena?oeaiith o ?ica?aeeao A. Aa?eiaa, TH. Aaoiaia, A.
A?eiona, TH. Aaneeue/oea, A. Aieeiaa, A. Aa?oey, A. Aea?aa/iaa, A.
?a?aoueaooa, A. ?eue?ia, A. Caia?ianueeiai, TH. Ei?i?eiaa, A.
Einoeoeueeiai, A. Ei/aoeiaa, A. Eioethaeinueeiai, A. Eoooe, I.
Eaci?aiei, A. Iieioaea, I. ?ya/oea, N. Naiaioey, I. Ne?eiithea, A.
Nethna?aiea, N. Nooa/iaa, I. Iaaeaoe?anueei?, I. Oea/aiea, I. Oiiaiea,
A. Oai?ae, E. Oeey?a, A. Uaae?iai?, N. Oa?aieea, ?. Oiaeueea.

I?aenoiiaoth/e aeuaiaaaaeaia iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee, ia?oee, ui i?ioean
ona?aeiieaiiy a?iiaaeyinueei? ?aea? a cao?aeii?a?iiaenuee?e ?
o?einionuee?e o?aaeeoe?? ua ia caaa?oeany, ae?oaee, ui a oe?a?inuee?e
o?einionuee?e ?aoeaen?? ? iaeaea ia aeine?aeaeaiee ?a?iiaenueeee
eiioaeno, ia oe? eio?iai ?icai?oaeany aeania oe?a?inueea ?noi??y
a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?aeae, ?inoeoooe?e ? i?eioeei?a. Ni?iaith yeinue ni?eyoe
caiiaiaiith ae?oai? eaeoie ? ? i?iiiiiaaiee aei ?icaeyaeo oa??.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai a eiai aaiethoe??.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeaoa?i?iaioe noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ii??aiyeueiee nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueei?
?aea? ? oi?ie ?? i?aeoe/ii? naii?aae?caoe?? — a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa — a ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi??? oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ? aeyaeaiiy ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai c?noaaeaiiy ia?niaeoea ?
eiioo??a ooi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.
?aae?caoe?y noi?ioeueiaaii? iaoe aeinyaaeanue ??oaiiyi oaeeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

— c’ynoaaoe eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae oa iniiai? oace ?icaeoeo
?a?iiaenueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa ?o a?aeiia?aeieee a
oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???;

— i?inoaaeeoe aieiai? iai?yiee i?ioeano noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
a?iiaaeyinueei? ?aea? a ?noi??? nioe?aeueii? o?einio??;

— aeine?aeeoe ooai?aiiy ?aaeueieo aa??aoe?e a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ye nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ieo cania?a naiiaeyaeaiiy ethaeeie;

— aecia/eoe ci?no iiiyooy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye i?aenoaae
aeaiie?ao?? ? naiaiaee;

— cae?enieoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?a?iiaenueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo
a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?ioean?a, ie?aneeaoe noai ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae ? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?aoa?iaai? i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny c o?aooaaiiyi inoaii?o aeinyaiaiue a?o/eciyii? ?
na?oiai? o?einionueei? aeoiee. A ?iaio? aeei?enoai? caaaeuei?
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aiae?co o?einionueei?, nioe?aeueii? oa
eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii? niaaeueie — i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio,
aeaoa?i?i?cio, oiui. Niaoeeo?/iee iaoiae, ui ciaeoia oe?iea canoinoaaiiy
— eiiia?aoea?nonueeee, /e ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee iaoiae,
aeei?enoiaoth/e eio?ee cae?enithaaeinue c?noaaeaiiy ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo
oac ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueei? ?aea? a ?a?iiaenuee?e ?noi???, a oaeiae —
neio?iiii ni?a?nioth/eo a ?a?iiaenuee?e ? oe?a?inuee?e ?aaeueiino?.

A aeine?aeaeaii? aoee aeei?enoai? ??ci? ca na?oiaeyaeiith i???ioaoe??th
i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a c ?noi??? o?einio??, ?noi???
iie?oe/ieo ? i?aaiaeo ?aeae, ?noi?ee?a eoeueoo?e ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, iia’ycai? c i?ciaiiyi aiae?ciaaieo i?iaeai. A ca’yceo c
aaaaoiaei??i?noth ? oai?aoe/i?noth i?iaeaie, aii??e/iith iniiaith
eiioeaiooaeueieo ocaaaeueiaiue noaa oe?ieee ianea ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue caeo/aieo c ?ioeo aaeocae ciaiue — ?noi???, iie?oieia??,
i?aaiciaanoaa, eoeueoo?ieia?? oa nioe?aeueii? ineoieia??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiia aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa a
a?o/eciyi?e nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e i?aeoeoe? cai?iiiiiaaii
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?aae?e ? ia?niaeoea noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?, cae?eniaiee a eiioaeno? caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeeo
oaiaeaioe?e ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo oeueiai oaiiiaio. A oiae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy io?eiaii ?yae iieiaeaiue, ui i?aoaiaeothoue ia iaoeiao
iiaecio. Aiie ? ianooiieie:

— ?noi?e/i? aeoiee no/aniiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ne?ae aaa/aoe
a aioe/iiio iie?n? c eiai nenoaiith a?iiaaenueei-i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia
caieth. Naia inoaiiy aoea i?aenoaaith noaoono a?iiaaeyinoaa, aa?aioii
on?o i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie, iniiaith ?? naiiaeyaeaiiy ? iaaii?
aaoiiii?? ui aei aea?aeaae. Aioe/iee iie?n aeaa iai ac??aoeue
i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— na?aaeiueia?/ia ?noi??y ?a?iie aoea ia??iaeii noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo
ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy ni?aaaeiueiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.
Ia?oith c ieo aoei aea?eueiaiiy aeooiaii? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy
c-i?ae iie?oe/ii? oioaeueiino? aea?aeaaii? aeaaee. Oei naiei aoei
oiaiiaeeeaeaii ?aeaie?ao?th — iie?oe/io oi?io aeooiaii? ianaiaiaee, ui
iiai?noth caia?a/o? a?iiaaeyinuee? ?aea? oa aa?oino?. Ae?oaa ia?aaeoiiaa
— noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie oeea?eueii? i?aaiai? ?aaoeyoe?? i?ae iniaeno?noth
? aea?aeaaith, noaiiaeaiiy i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e ? i?aaiaiai niiniao
ieneaiiy, aac eio?eo a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai aoei a iaiiaeeeaei;

— ia?iaeaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iia’ycaia c o?aai?noe/iei
?aianainii XIII-XV noi??/. Naia i?noi noaei noano?aoii oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa — iaoai?cio o?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueieo
eiioe?eo?a ? iaiaaeaiiy ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae ia canaaeao
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? naiaiaee ? i?eaaoii? aeaniino? oi?aiaaeueiiai oa
i?iieneiaiai eai?oaeo. O naith /a?ao, a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai
ooieoe?iio? ye ?eieiaa noni?euenoai c noaiaea?oeciaaiith eoeueoo?ith
Eiee oaea eoeueoo?a ?acii c a?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii aeoiaeeoue ca
iaae? i?noa ? caiiaith? iaaiee oa?eoi??aeueiee a?aae aiia noa?
iaoe?iiaeueiith eoeueoo?ith, a a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai — iaoe??th;

— a oe?a?inueeeo oiiaao ooai?aiiy i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
ii/aeiny a aeiao eica//eie ia i?aenoaaao niaoeeo?/ii? aca?iiae??
caiaeueii? oi?ie aeaniino? aaeaeaaoi?e aioe/iiio iie?no ?
i?ciueioaiaeaeueiiai oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aoa caaeieiaaiee ao?aoith
oe?a?inueeiai i?noa. Naeyinueei-i?e?oa?ia nenoaia aeyaeeanue iacaeaoiith
o?ainoi?ioaaoenue a o?aai?nie/ii-i?iieneiao. Oe?a?inueea i?noi noaei
oeaio?ii aeniain?? ?ioi? eoeueoo?e, ?ioiai niiniao aeeooy;

— aiae?coth/e ia?niaeoeae noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa,
ioneii eiinoaooaaoe ?o iiaio iaaecia/ai?noue a no/anieo oiiaao:
iayai?noue oi?iaeueii? aeaiie?ao?? ? naiaiaee ua ia aeinoaoi? i?aenoaae
aeey iioei?noe/ii? a?aeiia?ae?. A?aenooi?noue i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ?
iaae??oaii?noue ieoaiiy c i?noii ia ?ac? ia?ae?aneththoue iaae??. Eiio
iaeaaeeoue i?noi — oiio iaeaaeeoue ? noni?euenoai. ssea i?noi — oaea e
noni?euenoai. Oaeee aa?aeeeo aeiineoue ?a?iiaenueeee aeina?ae.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue ni?eyoe iiaeeaeaiith oyaeaiue i?i oa?aeoa?,
ci?no, aaiethoe?th oa no/aniee noai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a
oeea?e?ciaaiiio na?o?, eiai ia?niaeoeae a iao?e e?a?i?. Iai?aoeueiaai?
iaoa??aee ? i?eioeeie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a aea?aeaaieo i?iaeoao
?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? iinooiiai? ?ioaa?aoe?? a
?a?iiaenueeo ni?eueiioo.

Caaaeueiee iaoin ?iaioe ni?yiiaaiee ia iiaeieaiiy ?ae?eo?a
oioae?oa?ii-eieii?aeueiiai ieneaiiy, canai?iiy caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei?
nioe?aeueii-na?oiaeyaeii? iiaeae?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
?? aei?iae?a aeey ae??oaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo i?iaeai nioe?aeueii?
o?einio??, o?einio?? i?aaa ? eoeueoo?e oa a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? o
a?aeiia?aeieo oaiao eo?n?a nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? oa iie?oieia??.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa IOAE?EAOe?ss ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? a 8-io iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a caaaeueiei ianyaii 6,5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

Iaai? ?aea? oa iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? aaoi?ii o
aeiiia?aeyo ? iia?aeiieaiiyo ia i?ae?aa?iiaeuei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “*aeiaae a nia?aiaiiii ie?a” (Iineaa-Aeiiaoee, 1992);
i?aeia?iaei?e iieiae?aei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iieiaeue ?
i?iaeaie eiioe?eoo a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa”
(*a?i?aoe? — 1994); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “O?einio?y. Iaioae?oao.
Ina?oa” (Iaeana — 1994); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoe?y ?
noni?euenoai: oeyoe eiinie?aeaoe??” (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee — 1995);
iaoeiai-iaoiaeieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe??” “Iioieia?/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i?
aniaeoe i?ciaiiy” (Oa?iii?eue — 1995).

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. No?oeoo?a ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny iaoith oa
caaaeaiiyi aeaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue anooi, aeaa
?icae?ee, eiaeiee c eio?eo iiae?eaiee ia ia?aa?aoe, oa aeniiae?a. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 160 noi??ieao oaenoo ? 20 noi??ieao nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae, a yeiio i?noeoueny 217 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie, i?iaiae?ciaaii noai
oa ??aaiue iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie, aecia/aii iaoo, iniiai?
caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii eiai oai?aoe/i?
oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeei?enoai? aeaea?aea,
noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui noaiiaeyoue iaoeiao iiaecio ?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, ?ice?eoi oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ?ioi?iiaaii i?i oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? ?? i?aenoie?a,
no?oeoo?o oa ia’?i.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “A?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai o aeca?eae? ?noi??? ?a?iiaenueei? noni?eueii? aeoiee oa
eiioaeno? ?aaeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano” i?enay/aiee iine?aeiaiiio
?icaeyaeo aoai?a ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo a ?a?ii? ?aeae, ia?ac?a ? ?aae?e
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. A?i neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe ia?aa?ao?a.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “A?aei-?einueeee na?o — noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeeo
?aeae, ?inoeoooe?e, i?eioeei?a” aiae?co?oueny i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy
i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a aioe/iiio na?o?. A?aeiii, ui
aioe/iee iie?n aoa ia o?eueee iie?oe/iith, aea e nioe?aeueiith oi?iith
aoooy oiai/aniiai noni?euenoaa. Eiai aeiiii?/iei i?aea?oioyi aoea
niaoeeo?/ia caiaeueia aeani?noue: iaeii/anii eieaeoeaia ? i?eaaoia. Naia
c oe??? ?aae?? iinoa? ae?aeaeoeea noni?eueii-aea?aeaaiiai ?
iniaenoi-i?eaaoiiai: o?eueee iiaiii?aai? a?iiaaeyie iaee i?aai i?eaaoii?
aeaniino? ia /anoeio iie?nii? caie?, ? iaaiaee, o?eueee iin?aeaiiy
caiaeueiith aeani?noth aoei iaiao?aeiith i?aenoaaith noaoono
a?iiaaeyinoaa.

Aca?iia iaoiiaeai?noue a?iiaaeyinueeiai noaoono ? i?aaa aeaniino? ia
caieth noai?thaaea niaoeeo?/i? ooiaeaiaioaeuei? canaaee a?o?oaeoii?ee
iie?no, ui ca nai?th aeeaeiiith nooi?noth ia ca?aaeany ai? c i?nueeith,
oa?eoi??aeueiith iaueiith, ai aeaeaei ia on? iaoeaioe? i?noa iaee
a?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa, ai? c aea?aeaaith, ai iie?oe/ia i?aai?caoe?y
iie?no ii?aeioaaea o aea?aeaaio oe?e?ni?noue iiaiii?aaieo aee?i?a,
iai?ai?aaieo iaoae?a ? aaci?aaieo ?aa?a. Iie?n aoa, ia?o ca ana,
a?iiaaeyinueeith iaueiith, aai i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeei noni?euenoaii —
a?iiaaeith aeaniee?a o iaaeao ? ia??yo iie?nii? aeaniino?.

O aeiao iinooiiaiai ?icaeoeo aioe/iiai noni?euenoaa iinoaaaea ? i?oei?ea
eiai aieiaia nioe?aeueia oa iie?oe/ia aa?noaa “na?aaei?e eean”. Oaeei
“eeanii” aoa ae??aiee caiaeueiee aeaniee. Naia a?i aoa iae?aaiei
i?eoeeueieeii noaa?eueiino? oa ii?yaeeo a noni?euenoa?, noa’?eoii
iie?oe/ii? aie?. Aiaoii?y aioe/iiai noni?euenoaa a nioe?aeueiiio
ia?a??c? ?icai?oa?oueny ye a?iiaaeyinueea iaueia, a a iie?oe/iiio — ye
aaciina?aaeiy aeaiie?ao?y. I?i?nioaaaoe aeae?eueea noi??/ ye
oi?aa?naeueia oi?ia noni?eueiiai aeeooy aioe/iiai na?oo iie?nia
no?oeoo?a ciaeoea nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iianyeaeaii?e ? oai?aoe/i?e
na?aeiiino? ia o?eueee nai?? aeiae, a e on??? iiaeaeueoi? ?a?iiaenueei?
?noi???. Aeooiaia eoeueoo?a iie?nii? aeiae ni?iiiaeany aeoai?eoe oae?
ia?ace ? ?aea? a?iiaaeyinueeiai niaeo?o, eio?? caiaeii aoee iieeaaeai? a
iniiao nenoaie eaoaai??e caaaeueii?a?iiaenueei? o?aaeeoe?? nioe?aeueiiai
ieneaiiy.

Oea, ia?o ca ana, a?iiaaeyinueea ?aeay, ye ?aeay ona?aeiieaiiy aioe/iei
?iaeea?aeii naaa ia?nii?o?eaoe??th aioe/ii? ni?eueiioe. Ii/oooy
a?iiaaenueei? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, i?e/aoiino? aei noni?eueiiai aeeooy
noaee ?enaie iaioaeueiino? aee?ia ? ?eieyieia. Ieoiia aaaa
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a iaaeao aea?aeaae caaaeaee aoea i??ith
nioe?aeueii? ? iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?, i??ith eiai caeaoiino? aei
naiicaa?aaeaiiy. Ii?ooaiiy ??aiiaaae i?ae aeani?noth ? a?iiaaeyinoaii
aoei iaeiei c aaaeeea?oeo neiioii?a e?ece iie?no. Oey i?iaeaia
?iaa??aioii caa??aa? nai? cia/aiiy ia i?ioyc? on??? ?a?iiaenueei?
?noi??? aae aei iaoeo aei?a.

Ae?oaa aeooiaia aa?o?noue aioe/iiai iie?no — ?aeay naiaiaee. Ca?ac
aaaaoi aeeneooothoue iane?eueee no/ania oeoia/aiiy naiaiaee
a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae aioe/iiai. Oi/ea ci?o, ui a aioe/iiio noni?euenoa?
ia iaea i?noey naiaiaea i?eaaoiiai aeeooy, ui ooo ?iaeea?ae ua ia
i?ae?eia?oueny aei ??aiy iniaenoino?, ui noaiiaeaiiy ni?aaaeiuei?
ethaeeie iia’ycaia o?eueee c aeiaith A?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ? a?aeaeaaia aeoaea
iioe?aiith a e?oa?aoo??. Oe? a?aoiaioe iathoue iaaiee nain. Iaea?eueo
iioe?aiei ?icoi?iiyi naiaiaee a aioe/iiio noni?euenoa? aoei ?icoi?iiy ??
ye naiaiaee a?ae oe?ai??. Aea iie?oe/ia naiaiaea ooo iaia’yceiai
ii?aeioaaeanue c iaaiith aeooiaiith naiaiaeith. Aeinoaoiuei caaaeaoe
nio?no?a ? Nie?aoa, e?i?e?a ? noi?e?a — oaeiio ?icia?ooth
ii?aeueii-?ae?a?eieo iiooe?a iiaea iicacae?eoe no/ani?noue. Naia oiio
aioe/ia noni?euenoai iiaeia o?aeooaaoe ye ?aiith oaco ?icaeoeo
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, oaco ona?aeiieaiiy ? oi?ioethaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueei? ?aea? oa ?aea? naiaiaee.

E?eca aioe/ii? a?iiaaeyinueei? iaueie aoea iia’ycaia c ii?ooaiiyi
iaoa??aeueii? iniiae iie?nii? no?oeoo?e — ?aeiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai
iiaiii?aa’y oa caiaeueii? aeaniino?. Eoi?aey ? i?iaeaae caiaeueieo
ae?eyiie ia?aoai?thaaee caieth o oiaa?. Nenoaia “caiaeueia aeani?noue —
a?iiaaeyinoai” aoea c?oeiiaaia. Eiioeaio?aoe?y aaaaonoaa o ?oeao
ioai?eo?a ? coaiae?iiy a?eueieo a?iiaaeyi, c?inoaiiy nioe?aeueii?
ia??aiino? — eeoa caaaeuei? iane?aeee o??? e?ece.

A oeeo oiiaao noaaaea iaae??caeaoiith iie?nia aeaiie?ao?y: ca?aei?e?
a?iiaaeyie iaiieyaaee ia iiaeaeueoiio ?icoe?aii? nenoaie aea?aeaaieo
aeioaoe?e ? i?euea, a aaaao? — ia aa?aiooaaii? i?aaa aeaniino? a?ae
iinyaaiue a?aeiioe oa iaaaaeaii? a noni?euenoa? i?oeii? aeaaee. Iaae?y ?
iii?a eeane/iiai iie?no — na?aeiiee, caaiaaaeiaaiee
ii?aeueii-iie?oe/ieie /aniioaie, iii??eiaaii eiina?aaoeaiee, aeiiii?/ii
caaacia/aiee ? ia ?icaauaiee, /eneaiii aeii?ioth/ee na?aaei?e eean —
a?iiaaeyinoai — iinooiiai ?ic/eiy?oueny ia aeaio aioaaii?noe/ieo
iiethnao. ?ic??aaia ?aei?noue iaa?oa?oueny iaioaeuei?noth caaaeueii?
aiie?oe/iino?, ii?aeueii? aoiie, caaeaeoae?iiy a?iiaaeyinoaa aei aeie?
aeanii? aea?aeaae.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? — “A?iiaaeyinueea ?aeay a aeiao o?enoeyinueeiai
Na?aaeiueia?//y” aeiaiaeeoueny, ui i?aeaaeeie no/anieo c?ace?a
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy iiiyoue naiaiaee,
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, oeea?eueiiai i?aaa i?iaeiaaeothoue caeeaaeaoeny ? ia
oeueiio a?aeoeieo ?a?iiaenueei? ?noi???. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iie?nii?
ethaeeie aioe/iino?, na?aaeiueia?/ia ethaeeia ca nai?i nioe?aeueiei
noaoonii ? ei?ii?aoeaiei ?iaeea?aeii. Aiia iiai?noth anioe?th? naaa c
ei?ii?aoeaiei noaiii, oeaoii, nioe?aeueiith a?oiith. ? oi/a ia?aeaeueii
c oeei iinooiiai iaae?a? oiaee i?ioean ?iaeea?aeoae?caoe?? ethaeeie, ana
ae oaee aiia ua i???ioiaaia ia?aaaaeii ia caaaeueia: Aea?aeaao, Oea?eao,
Aiaa.

Ia?oith ei?ii?aoe??th, ui ona?aeiieea aa?o?noue i?iaeaie naiaiaee ?
ni?iiiaeany ia ?? caeiaoooy, aoea o?enoeyinueea Oea?eaa. Naia oea?eaa
noaea ?ioaa?oth/ith neeith, ui ii?aeiaea ii?aeueii aeaci???ioiaai?,
??ciiiiai? ? ??ciieoeueoo?i? aoiine, a oiiaao iiaii? ?oeiaoe??

iie?oe/ii-aeaaeieo iaoai?ci?a ?einueei? ?iia???, a ?aeeiee
o?enoeyinueeee na?o. Aaaonoei?anueea eiioeaioe?y aeaio a?iiaae: Aiaei?
(civitas Dei) ? caiii? (civitas terrena) yaeyea niaith ia o?eueee
o?enoeyinueei-oaieia?/iee ia?ao?ac ieaoii?anueei? ia?aaeeaie, aea e iiao
?aeath ?iciiae?eo aeooiaii? ? na?onueei? aeaaee a noni?euenoa?. Naia c
aoiai?noe/ieo ?aeae Aaaonoeia e?enoae?co?oueny ?icoi?iiy naiaiaee a
ianiai-iianyeaeaii?e na?aeiiino? na?aaeiueia?//y. C e?ioey O? noi??//y
oaiiiai naiaiaee noa? ?aaiethoe?eiei aaneii iaeaea on?o ?aaiethoe?eieo
?oo?a ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?ei. Eeoa ?icoi??oueny a?i a
niaoeeo?/ii-?noi?e/iiio eiioaeno? ye aeiiaa naiaiaee Oea?ea? (libertas
Ecclestae).

Ia iaae? oeny/i??/ a ?a?ii? cae?enieany a?aiae?iciee aeooiaiee i?ioean,
ui ca o?e noi??//y ?aaeeeaeueii ci?ith? iaioaeuei? no?oeoo?e
na?aaeiueia?/ii? oeea?e?caoe?? ? iaoiiaeth? noaiiaeaiiy aeania no/anii?
ia?aaeeaie eoeueoo?e — aeeaa?aaioe?y a?iiaaeyinueeiai ? iie?oe/iiai.
Oeae i?ioean ii/eia?oueny ye a?aeie?aieaiiy na?onueeiai a?ae aeooiaiiai,
naeoey?ii-aoaoenueeiai ? nae?aeueii-oea?eiaiiai, a eia?/ii caaa?oo?oueny
noaiiaeaiiyi oeea?eueiiai i?aaa. I?aeoe/ia oi?ioaaiiy i?aaiaeo nenoai
e?a?i Caoiaeo a?aeaoaaeinue o XII-XIII noi??//yo. ? an? i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aeoiee no/aniiai ?a?iiaenueeiai ii?yaeeo ?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa aoee caeeaaeai? ua a 1215 ?ioe? a
eiinoeoooe?eiiio aeo? anana?oiuei a?aeiiiio i?ae iacaith “Magna Charta”,
aai Aaeeei? oa?o?? aieueiinoae. Caaaeyee oeueiio aeieoiaioia? aoei
c?iaeaii ni?iao cai?iaaaeeoe a?enoie?aoe/io aeaiie?ao?th, aeaiie?ao?th
aeey iaiaaeaiiai eiea ethaeae, eio?? ona?aeiieee cia/aiiy naiaiaee ?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aa?oinoae oa i?aaioee ?o caeiaooe. Oeae i?ioean iaa
a?aee?eoee oa?aeoa? ? iinooiiai caeo/aa ana oe?o? aa?noae ianaeaiiy.

I?aenoiiaoth/e iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui na?aaeiueia?/ia ?noi??y
?a?iie aoea ia??iaeii noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ia?oith c ieo aoei aea?eueiaiiy aeooiaii?
noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy c-i?ae iie?oe/ii? oioaeueiino? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaee. Naia iica iie?oe/ieie no?oeoo?aie ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny
?a?iiaenueea oi?ia i?aaa. Ae?oaa ia?aaeoiiaa — noaiiaeaiiy nenoaie
oeea?eueii? i?aaiai? ?aaoeyoe?? i?ae iniaeno?noth ? aea?aeaaith. Ia?aoo?
inoaii?e e?ie — i?eaaoia aeani?noue.

O?ao?e ia?aa?ao — “A?ae Na?aaeiueia?//y aei A?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aeoiee
iiaea?iiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. I?noi ye noano?ao eiai
oi?ioaaiiy” — i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaiiaeaiiy no/aniiai oeio
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ia iaae? Aenieiai ? I?ciueiai
Na?aaeiueia?//y o?aaeeoe?eia noni?eueia no?oeoo?a cacia? nooo?ai?
?aeiino?oeoe??. Oi aoea aeiaa, eiee ianooaaii iinoaaaee iia? i?noa. Oi
aoa O?aai?noe/iee ?aianain — i?ieia Aaeeeiai A?ae?iaeaeaiiy.
O?aai?noe/ia no?oeoo?a iiaie? ?oeioaaea noa?o ?a?iiaenueeo iie?oe/io
nenoaio ? eiinoeoothaaeanue a naiino?ei? iie?oe/i? ooai?aiiy —
i?noa-aea?aeaae.

Ia caeiaooeao naiaiaee naiia?yaeoaaiiy iinoa? naiiaooiy oeea?e?caoe?y.
Aiia i?aai?co? iiaeaoeiao ? o?iainiao nenoaie, ii?iaeaeo? i?iieneia?noue
? ?icaeiaiee oiaa?iee ia?a, ?eiie ? i?aeia?iaeio oi?a?aeth, ia?aoai?th?
a?io? o eai?oae, a aano?aeoi? ?aea? o i?eioeeie ? ii?ie i?aaa.
Iaiao?aeiei /eiieeii ?? noaiiaeaiiy aoa ?inoeooo i?eaaoii? aeaniino?.
Ii??aithth/e aioe/ia ? na?aaeiueia?/ia noni?euenoai ia iiaeia ia
iii?oeoe iaaii? ?iaa?n??. Aioe/iee na?o nie?a?oueny ia niaoeeo?/io
caiaeueio oi?io i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, c yeith iinoaaaee naiaiaea,
??ai?noue, a?iiaaeyinoai. A?o?oaeoii?ea na?aaeiueia?//y aeaiaeeoueny c
i?aaa ? eeoa iinooiiai iaiiaith?oueny aeiiii?/iei ci?noii aeaniino?. C
oeueiai iiiaioo aeania ? ii/eia?oueny ?noi??y iiaea?iiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, neeaaeathoueny eiai ??ci? iiaeae? ?
aa??aoe??, oi?iothoueny oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe?? ona?aeiieaiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy. ? yeui aioe/ia a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai ia aeo?eiaei
aeniain?? i?noa, oi iia?oiy ?a?iiaenueea oeea?e?caoe?y ii/eia?oueny naia
c a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?noa. O?aai?noe/iee ?aianain ?icai?oaany ye i?ioean
noaiiaeaiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a iaaeao oaiaeaeueiiai noni?euenoaa.

Ia’?eoeai? ?iia?aoeae ?eieiaiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
niiioeathoue aei a?aeie?aiiy ei?ii?aoeaii? no?oeoo?e ? ei?ii?aoeaiiai
?iaeea?aea, iaoii?noue ii?iaeaeoth/e iiaee oei ethaeeie caeaoii? aei
ieanoe/ii? ci?ie oi?i ae?yeueiino? ? ae??oaiiy iae??ciiiai?oi?oeo
i?iaeai, ea?oth/enue canaaeaie aeaniiai ?icoio oa ?ioa?ano. Aeey
iicia/aiiy oeueiai oeio ethaeeie A. Aaeeia? cai?iiiioaaa aeoaea aeo/iee
oa?i?i: “iiaeoeueia ethaeeia”.

*aoaa?oee ia?aa?ao — “Noaiiaeaiiy oa aaiethoe?y a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa o Iiaee /an: iiaeae? ? aa??aioe” — Iiai/ania aeiaa —
ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa no/aniiai oeio o
a?eueoino? oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?i. Aea oeyoe ? aeie? oi?ioaaiiy oeueiai
noni?euenoaa o ??cieo ia?iae?a iathoue niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?. Naia o
iaaeao oeueiai ia??iaeo a ?a?iiaenueeo eoeueoo?o inoaoi/ii oa?eoee oae?
aa?oino? ye naiaiaea ? aeaiie?ao?y, aeani?noue, aeia?iaoo ? aaciaea,
iinoaei niie?eia ? aeaaaeaia ?icoi?iiy ui ?eiie, a?iiaaeyinueea
noni?euenoai ? i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa ia ? aaniethoieie ?aeaaeaie, ai a
aeiaeiiio ?ac? ia ?ai?acaioothoue aaniethoio noni?eueio ?noeio, a
nei??oa ao?eththoue oie ?aaeueii iiaeeeaee e?auee aa??aio noni?eueii?
nenoaie, eio?a a?aeiia?aea? i?aenoaaiaei aa?oinoyi oa ?aeayi oe???
eoeueoo?e.

Iiai/ania eoeueoo?a aenooia? i?aenoieii ? ea?ioanaioe??th on???
iiia?aaeiuei? aeiiii?/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, iie?oe/ii? oa aeooiaii? ?noi???
eiioeiaioa. Aiia ia o?eueee oiiaeeeaeea canai?iiy, caa?aaeaiiy,
i?eiiiaeaiiy, o?aineyoe?th ? oe?aaeoaaiiy noni?eueieo aa?oinoae
iiia?aaei?o aiio ? aaia?aoe?e, aea e iinoaea iiaith nenoaiith
eoeueoo?iiai na?oiaa/aiiy. Ii-ia?oa, o?eueee iino?aianainia eoeueoo?a
noaea ?aeeiith caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeith eoeueoo?ith. Ii-ae?oaa, aiia
io?eiaea ?ene naeoey?ii? oeea?e?caoe??, aea ?ae?a?eia
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny caaaeueiei i???ioe?ai na?onueeeo ii?i. Ia?aoo?,
ii-o?ao?. Iiai?a?iiaenueea eoeueoo?a io?eio? oi?io a?iiaaeyinueei?
eoeueoo?e. I?aeaaeeiaie oe??? eoeueoo?e noathoue caaaeueiiethaenuee? ?
iaoe?iiaeuei? aei??e. On? aa?oino? iiia?aaei?o ?noi?e/ieo aiio —
aoi?/i? oa ?ania?, ei?ii?aoeai? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? — a oe?e eoeueoo??
iaia’yceiai “?aoeaicothoueny” ? “?aaeaaothoueny” a?iiaaeyinueeeie
ii?iaie, oiaoi ocaiaeaeothoueny c aa?oinoyie, yeei iaaeaii
caaaeueiiethaenueeee ? caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiee noaoon.

Naia oiio a?iiaaeyinueea eoeueoo?a ia’?eoeao?oueny a ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aoaoe/ieo iiaeonao, ui ?ai?acaioothoue caaaeuei?, iniaeea?
oa iaeeie/i? iiiaioe ?? aoooy. Oe? a?aei?ie noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
a?iiaaeyinueei? eoeueoo?e iaoiiaeee niaoeeo?eo iiaeaeae naiiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa eiai ?aeae, ye ? iaaiaee. A
aeena?oaoe?? iine?aeiaii aiae?cothoueny aiae?enueea, aia?eeainueea oa
eiioeiaioaeueia (a o?aioeocueeiio ? i?iaoeueeiio aa??aioao) iiaeae?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, iniaeeaino? ?o noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo.

A i’yoiio ia?aa?ao? — “A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai a o?einionuee?e
aeoioe? Iiaiai /ano” — neiioeaio?iaaii oaaao ia aiae?c? oai?aoe/ii?
niaaeueie eeanee?a eiioeaioe?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oeueiai
ia??iaeo: O. Aiaana, Ae. Eieea, AE.-AE. ?onni, A.Aaaaey oa E.Ia?ena. A
aeena?oaoe?? i?ine?aeeiao?oueny aaiethoe?y oa niaoeeo?ea oai?aoe/ii?
?aoeaen?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a aiae?enuee?e, o?aioeocuee?e oa
i?iaoeuee?e nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?e o?aaeeoe?yo.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e — “Oe?a?inueeee oeyo aei a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa”
— yaey? niaith ni?iao i?ine?aeeoaaoe aaiaco, ?icaeoie ? aeaoi?iaoe??
a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?aae?e a Oe?a?i? a?ae eicaoeueei? aeiae aei no/aniino?
oa ie?aneeoe ia?niaeoeae ? eiioo?e ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a iao?e aea?aeaa? ia i?aenoaa? eiiia?aoeaiiai aiae?co
?noi??? a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?ioean?a a ?a?ii? ? Oe?a?i?.

Ia?oee ia?aa?ao ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae
a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?” — aecia/a? caaaeuei? ?ene oa
iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? nioe?aeueii? ?noi???. A ia??iae
iieuenueei-eeoianueeiai, aano?i-oai?nueeiai oa ?in?enueeiai iaioaaiiy
oe?a?ii-?oneinueeee ia?iae ?nio? a iaaeao aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo ?
iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a /oaei? aea?aeaae, ae?? ca caeiiaie ?? aoooy ?
oaiaeaioe?yie ?icaeoeo, io?eioth/e /e ao?a/ath/e i?aaa ? naiaiaee ?acii
c? nai?i noaiii, a?aeiinii iacaeaaeii a?ae aoiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aaiace,
eeoa caa??aath/e ?? caaa?aeaiiy.

A iieuenueei-eeoianueeo aeiao a?iiaaeyinuee? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?
?icai?oaeeny ca oeiiaei eiioeiaioaeueii-?a?iiaenueeei noeaia???i.
A?iiaaeyinuee? i?aaa oa iie?oe/i? naiaiaee iinooiiai caeiaoaaee ai??oi?
aa?noae noni?euenoaa, ia?o ca ana a?enueeiai-neoaeaiaee noai oeyooe.
Ai?ioueaa ?eoea?nueei? oeyooe ca “i?ea?ea?” a?aoo?-?aoo i?eaaea aei
i?aaiaiai a?aaoethaaiiy aca?iei oeyooe c aea?aeaaith a aeoao, ui
io?eiaee iacao Eeoianueeeo noaooo?a. Oe? noaoooe aa?aiooaaee iaai?
a?iiaaeyinuee? oa iaeiia? i?aaa oeyooe. Oae ia iaoeo caieyo iinoaaaee
?a?iiaenuee? ?inoeoooe i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ia caieth oa noaiiai?
aeaiie?ao??.

Ia?aoo?, o 1447 ?ioe? aoei i?iaieioaii Aeo i?i iaaeioi?eai?noue iniae
a?ae a?aooo, oa’yciaiiy oa iicaaaeaiiy iaeia aac ae?ieo noaeo.
Iaaaaeaeii, ui oey i?aenoaaiaa iaeneia i?aa ethaeeie Habeas Corpus Act
aoea aia?oa noi?ioeueiaaia o Magna Charta aiae?enueeei ia?eaiaioii o
1215 ?ioe? ? aeineoue nei?i aeioi?oaaea aei iaoeo caiaeue. Ianooiiiai
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeueiai i?eioeeio i?ae?in?enueea Oe?a?ia /aeaea aae aei
Iai?oanoo 1905 ?ieo. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui “Eeoianuee? noaoooe” ia aeae?eueea
noi??/ ia?aaeeee aea?aeaao, o ye?e aoee oe?aaeai?. Ua a 1819 ?ioe? aiie
ae?oeoaaeenue ye ca??ea ae?th/eo caeii?a. Aiie noaee iaoe?iiaeueiei
i?aaii E?aiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ? aeei?enoiaoaaany iaei ia aei na?aaeeie
XIX noi??//y.

Iaeii/anii c o?aaoethaaiiyi caiaeueii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo a?aeiinei
cae?enithaaeanue noaiiaeaiiy iiai? o?aai?noe/ii? ia?aaeeaie. Caiaiaae
noa?eo oaiaeaeueieo i?no aoa ??oo/a i?ecoieiaiee aeoaie iaaeaiiy i?noai
oae caaiiai Iaaaeaao?cueeiai i?aaa. Ii?ie ? i?eioeeie i?nueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy iano?eueee i?oeii aei??ieeeny a iie?oe/iee ?
a?iiaaenueeee iiaoo oe?a?inoaa, ui iaa?oue ?in?enueea naiiaea?aeaaia
iaoeia aoea iani?iiiaeia iae?aco c?oeioaaoe oeae ?inoeooo, iaaeanoeaee ?
aioaaii?noe/iee ?iia?nueei-aaei?i?no?aoeai?e nenoai?. Aea a?aoo?-?aoo, a
i?ae?in?enuee?e Oe?a?i? a?iiaaeyinueeee i?ioean aoei i?ecoieiaii ?
caaeieiaaii “ath?ie?aoe/iei iaii?aeieeii” ia aeae?eueea noi??/.

Ae?oaee ia?aa?ao — “Aaiaca oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa:
eicaoeoai ? i?noi” — ?icaa?oa? i?iaeaio a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
i?ae oe?a?inueei-iaoe?iiaeueiei eooii ci?o. Aeineoue aaaeei
a?aenaia?oaaoe ?icaeoie a?iiaaeyinueeiai aeeooy ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie a?ae
i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy naia oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.
Aea oea i?eioeeiiai ??ci? ?a/?. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iiaea eoeny, a
e?ioiio ?ac?, eeoa i?i niaoeeo?eo /e a?aenooi?noue a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo a eeoianueei-iieuenuee?e /e
?in?enuee?e aea?aeaa?, a ae?oaiio — i?i ieoiii oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia
a?iiaaeyinueea aeeooy ? noni?euenoai. Oaea noni?euenoai ii/eia?
oi?ioaaoeny c /an?a aeieeiaiiy eica//eie.

Aeieeiaiiy oaiiiaio eicaoeoaa iaaiei /eiii iia’ycaia c nooo?aeie
?ica?aeiinoyie i?ae eeoianueeei ? noa?i?onueeei i?aaii. Ia oie /an
?a?iiaenueea i?aai ia aeciaaaei i?eaaoii? /e a?iiaaenueei? aeaniino? ia
caieth, a aeciaaaei eeoa aeani?noue Ei?iie. Oiio iaaaciaea iicaaaeaiiy
caiaeueieo ia?oiinoae iaaenea ye iaae ia i?aaicaeaoiei naeyinoaii, oae ?
iaae noa?ioe?a?inueeith oeyooith, ai aiia aieiae?ea caieath ia ca
eeoianueeei i?aaii, a ca noa?icae/a?aei ?onueeei, oae caaiei, ca?ieiaei,
Oea aino??oa i?ioe??//y i?ae noa?ei ? iiaei ii?yaeeii, noa?ei ? iiaei
i?aaii iaoiiaeei iaiaai?noue ? iaaecia/ai?noue, o?eaiao ? a?ae/ae,
aiao?th ? niaeao aia?a?? noa?iai ?onueeiai ia?iaeo. Oaea ae?aiaoe/ia
neooaoe?y ia’?aeiaea cia/io /anoeio oeyooe ? i?inoiai naeyinoaa, on?o
ooi iaa ian?iia?io aia?a?th, ia iiooee aeeoo?aiai aeoiaeo aeey
ia?iaeiiai caaaeo. Aiie ooai?eee e?noye iiaiai aeaniiai ia?iaeo. Naia
ian?iia?ia oeyooa, ia?aae caa?icith ao?aoe nioe?aeueii? ? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioe/iino?, ni?iiiaeany aienaoeny a ia?aiao?e ia?iaiaioii? aea?aeaae
ia i?aaao oa?eoi??aeueiiai ?a?no?iaiai a?enueea c iie?oe/iith
aaoiiii??th, aoi?/iith aaoiooii??th, iacaeaaeiei a?iiaaeyinueeei eaaeii,
naiino?eiei aaei?i?no?aoeaii-i?aaiaei ono?i?i oa aeaniei iaioae?oaoii.

Aeiiii?/iith iniiaith iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii?? ? iacaeaaeiiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai eaaeo aaoueiainueeiai a?enueea aoea niaoeeo?/ia
caiaeueia nenoaia, ui iinoaea aiane?aeie aeiaia??ii-i?aaiai? ?aaoeyoe??
aieiaieo aniaeo?a eicaoeueeiai aoooy. Aa?a?i? a?aeiineie a eicaoeueeiio
noni?euenoa? nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeenue ye a?ae cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
oaiaeaeueieo a?aeiinei, oae ? a?ae aaeeei?in?enueeiai iii?noiiai
caieaaieiae?iiy. Ca nai?th i?e?iaeith oe?a?inueea aa?a?ia nenoaia aeoaea
iaaaaeo? aioe/io, a aeoae?ciii eieaeoeaii? ? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?
iieeiai? ? ?aiaiai? caie?. sse a eeane/i?e Aeeaae? i?aenoaaith
a?iiaaeyinoaa aoea i?eaaoia caiaeueia aeani?noue, oae ? a Oe?a?i?
iniiaith ai?iaeiaiai, oiaoi ?a?no?iaiai eicaoeueeiai noaoooo aoa
i?eaaoiee caiaeueiee eeei.

Eicaoeueea oeea?e?caoe?y, aiaeia?/ii iie?ni?e, a?oiooaaeany ia?aaaaeii
ia naeyinueei-caiea?ianueeiio niinia? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, i?aai?/ii
ii?aeiaaoe a iieeiaeo no?oeoo?ao a?enueeiao i?aai?caoe?th ?
a?iiaaeyinueeo iaueio, /e oeea?eueio a?iiaaeo, yea oeaio?ii nai?i iaea
iieeiaa i?noi. C ii/aoeo XVIII noi??//y ii/eia?oueny aeiaa
aeao?aai?caoe?? Oe?a?ie. Oea aoa ia??iae e?ece oaiaeaeueii-eicaoeueei?
nenoaie. C oi/ee ci?o ?a?iiaenueeeo caeiiii??iinoae a?i ionea i?aai?/ii
ia?aeoe a oaco o?aai?noe/iiai ?aianaino. Aea oae ia noaeiny. Oe?a?ia
ai?eooe i?ae?eoea aei oe??? oace, aea iaaeo o?aai?caoe?? ia caeieaea. Oi
aoa Aeeeee ?noi???, ia yeee aeaoe A?aeiia?aeue oe?a?inueeee ia?iae ia
ni?ii?any. Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa aoa caaeieiaaiee ao?aoith i?noa. Naeyinueei-i?e?oa?ia
nenoaia aeyaeeanue iacaeaoiith o?ainoi?ioaaoenue a
o?aai?noe/ii-i?iieneiao. I?noa ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie noaee oeaio?aie
aeniain?? ?ioeo eoeueoo?, ?ioiai niiniao aeeooy. ?iaiaioia ?noi??y
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa iaaeiaai i?ecoieiy?oueny.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? — “No/ani? a?iiaaeyinuee? ?aae??: No?aeia ?a?iia ?
Oe?a?ia” — eaeaoueny i?i oa, ui c 70-o ?ie?a iaoiai noi??//y
niinoa??aa?oueny ae?acia c?inoaiiy ?ioa?ano aei oaiiiaio
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, a a?iiaaeyinueea ?aeay noa? ?ioaa?oth/ith
?aea?th on?o aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee a iinooioae?oa?ieo e?a?iao. A no/anieo
oiiaao a a?eueoino? no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i eaea iaaacaie?niee
i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy i?ioia?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ye eiiaeiia?aoa
nioe?aeueieo a?oi a ni?aaaei? noni?euenoai ye i?aai?/io nenoaio
naiia?yaeieo oa?oioaaiue oa ?icaeiaieo iacaeaaeieo iniaenoinoae.

Ua neeaaei?oa ? ae?aiaoe/i?oa neeaaea?oueny ?icaeoie iiae?e a Oe?a?i?,
aea i?ioyaii inoaii?o ?ie?a caa??aa?oueny noai oeoei? iaaecia/aiino?
i?ae ieioeei ? iaeaooi?i. ?ia?oe?y oioae?oa?ieo o?aaeeoe?e i?iaeiaaeo?
iaioaaoe a iao?e e?a?i?. Ath?ie?aoe/ia ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe?y
i?ecaaee aei aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?aeeii? ath?ie?aoe/ii? nenoaie aea?aeaae
ia eiieo?oth/e ei?ii?aoeaii-iiiaieeaoo?i? oa?oioaaiiy. Cai?noue
oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?iciiae?eo aeaniino? ? aeaaee, oa?aeoa?iiai aeey
aeaiie?aoe/iiai a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, eiee aeaaea aeeiio?
ooieoe?? a?a?o?a i?ae aeanieeaie, ie io?eiaee eiioeaio?iaaio ?aei?noue
aeaniino? ? aeaaee. Oae ath?ie?aoe/ia aea?aeaaa aaiethoe?iio? o
eeaiiai-ath?ie?aoe/io oaco. Aeaaea noa?i? ath?ie?ao?? oo?eioaaeanue
aeeeoaoo?ith. Aeaaea iiai? — noaea iiaeeeaith eeoa aiane?aeie
ia?icaeiaiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aaoaioe/ia, ?a?iiaenueeiai
oeio, a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai — aa?aio eiio?ieth noni?euenoaa iaae
ath?ie?ao??th ? aea?aeaaiith aeaaeith.

*eiieee, ui noiyoue ia caaaae? ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa
a Oe?a?i? ?icaeyaeathoueny a inoaiiueiio, /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? —
“Ia?niaeoeae ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? eiinoeoooe?eiee
i?ioean a Oe?a?i?”. Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio a?aeiia?aea? oei
?a?iiaenueeei e?eoa??yi, eio?? ? iaiao?aeieie ? aeinoaoi?ie aeey
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ae?aiaoe/i?noue neooaoe??
iieyaa? a oiio, ui cia/ia /anoeia eiinoeoooe?eieo iieiaeaiue ia ?
noaieinieie no/aniiio iaioae?oaoo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a eio??i
oeia?ii niieo/othoueny ?ene eiioi?noe/ii?, oaiaeaeueii? ? no/anii?
cao?aeii? iaioaeueiino?. Ioey oeia?i?noue nueiaiaeaiii? oe?a?inueei?
iaioaeueiino? ? ? aieiaiith ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo aei a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa. A o?i, ooo iaia? iiaiai aeey ?noi???. Iiaa ?a?iia oaeiae a
na?e /an ?iceo/aeanue c noa?eie ?aeayie ? noa?aioeiaie aeiaai, aie?nii,
?iiae? e?eaaai. Iaaaaea?ii, ui aeo?aeiith oi/eith a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a ?a?ii? aoea i?eaaoia aeani?noue. Iiiaae oa, iiee ia
iinoaea i?eaaoia aeani?noue ia caieth, ?eieia? a?aeiineie i?eiee ia
aeoiaeeee ca iaae? i?noa.

Cao?aeia ?a?iia ii/eiaea c i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ? oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno.
Naia aiie aeaoa?i?ioaaee noaiiaeaiiy iiai? iaioaeueiino?. Eiinoeoooe?yie
caaa?ooaaany ia?ao?ae aei iiai? aeiae. A Oe?a?i? iiee ui ana iaaiaee.
I/aaeaeii, ui i?eeiyooy oeea?eueiiai eiaeaeno — eiinoeoooe??
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa — ia o?eueee iaaaeueia noni?eueia
i?iaeaia, a e oiiaa ae?eniiai ia?aoai?aiiy Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie a
aeieoiaio, ui aeneiaeth? aieth oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O “Aeniiaeao” i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/athoueny eiai ia?niaeoeai? iai?yiee, a oaeiae iaaiaeeoueny nienie
ioae?eaoe?e aaoi?a c oaie aeena?oaoe??.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee o ianooiieo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ianueei ss. A?iiaaeyinueea ?aeay o aeca?eae? noni?eueii? aeoiee oa
eiioaeno? ?aaeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano a?aei-?einueeiai na?oo.//
Ca??iee i?aoeue a/aieo./ ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a — 1997. — N.41-55 /0,75 ae.a./.

2. Ianueei ss?ineaa. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai ia oe? ?a?iiaenueei?
?noi???.// Aaiaca. — ?1/5/. — 1997. N.212-213 /0,75 ae.a./.

3. Ianueei ss?ineaa. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai: No?aeia ?a?iia ?
ia?niaeoeae Oe?a?ie.// No?ae. — Aeiiaoeuee. — ?3/10/. — 1997. — N.26-29
/0,5 ae.a./.

4. Ianueei ss?ineaa, Ianueei ?ai?. Eiinoeoooe?y ? iaioaeuei?noue
ia?iaeo.// No?ae. — Aeiiaoeuee. — ?7. — 1996. — N.15-19; — ?8. — 1997. —
N.3-8 /1,5 ae.a./.

5. Ianueei ss?ineaa, Ianueei ?ai?. A?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai: ?aea? oa
?noi?e/ia i?aeoeea.// No?ae. — Aeiiaoeuee. — ?4/11/. — 1997. — N.7-11;
?6/13/. — 1997. — N.26-36; — ?7/14/. — 1997. — N.14-23 /3,0 ae.a./.

6. Ianueei ss.E., Ianueei E.O. A?aaeaeaineay eaeay e i?eioeei
?acaeaeaiey aeanoae a ca?eaea n?aaeiaaaeiauey.// Iaoa??aee aoc?anueei?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?io.-aeee. neeaaeo ca i?aenoieaie
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe: o?einio?y, iaaeaaia?ea, ineoieia?y, o?ce/ia
aeoiaaiiy. — Aeiiaoeuee — 1997. — N.34-37 /0,3 ae.a./.

7. Ianueei ss.E. *aeiaae e aeooiaiua noa?aioeiu yiioe.// *aeiaae a
nia?aiaiiii ie?a. — (Iaoa?eaeu Iaae?aaeiiaeueiiai iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai
naieia?a, ia?o 1992 a.) — Iineaa-Aeiiaoee, 1992. N.5-7 /0,2 ae.a./

8. Ianueei ss.?. Aeooiai? aei??e oa i???ioe?e iieiae?: e?eca ? iiaeeea?
oeyoe ?? iiaeieaiiy.// Iieiaeue ? i?iaeaie eiioe?eoo a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo
aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa.// oace aeiiia?aeae i?aeia?iaeii?
iieiae?aeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??/. 31 aa?aciy-1 ea?oiy 1994
?. — *a?i?aoe? — 1994. N.227-230 /0,2 ae.a./.

AIIOAOe?ss

IANUeEI ss?INEAA ?AI?AAE*. A?IIAAessINUeEA NONI?EUeNOAI: NA?OIAEssAeI?
AA?N?? OA ?NOI?E*IA AO?EAIIss. (Nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c). —
?OEIIEN.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y
?noi???. ?inoeooo o?einio?? ?iai? A?eai??y Neiai?iaee Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aiae?co oaiiiaia a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.
I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeaoa?i?iaioe noaiiaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueithth/iai iaeyaeo
?noi??? ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?aeae oa aaiethoe?? oi?i
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa a?ae aioe/iino? aei nueiaiaeaiiy
anoaiiaeth?oueny oai?aoe/ia nooi?noue oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oeueiai
nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo. Aeiaiaeeoueny caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeee oa?aeoa?
a?iiaaeyinueeeo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, a?iiaaeyinueea ?aeay,
naiaiaea, aeani?noue, aeaiie?ao?y, a?iiaaeyinueea eoeueoo?a,
na?aeii?noue, iaioae?oao, iniaeno?noue.

IANUeEI ss?INEAA EAI?AAE*. A?AAEAeAINEIA IAUANOAI: IE?IAICC?AI*ANEEA
AA?NEE E ENOI?E*ANEIA AIIEIUAIEA. (Nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec). —
?OEIIENUe.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03 — nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey
enoi?ee. Einoeooo Oeeinioee eiaie A?eai?ey Neiai?iaeu Iaoeeiiaeueiie
Aeaaeaiee Iaoe Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco oaiiiaia a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa.
I?aaeiaoii enneaaeiaaiey yaeythony aeaoa?ieiaiou noaiiaeaiey e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa. Ia iniiaaiee iaiauathuaai
iaci?a enoi?ee ?acaeoey a?aaeaeaineeo eaeae e yaiethoeee oi?i
a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa io aioe/iinoe aei nia?aiaiiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
oai?aoe/aneay nouiinoue e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea yoiai nioeeaeueiiai
einoeoooa. Iainiiauaaaony iauaaa?iiaeneee oa?aeoa? a?aaeaeaineeo
i?ioeannia a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai, a?aaeaeaineay eaeay, naiaiaea,
nianoaaiiinoue, aeaiie?aoey, a?aaeaeaineay eoeueoo?a, iaioaeueiinoue,
niciaiea, ee/iinoue.

Pasko Yaroslav. Civil society: outlook’s versions and historical
realization. — Manuscript.

Thesis for hhe Degre of Candidate of Sciense in Philosophy, speciality —
09.00.03 — sjcial philosopky and philosophy of history.

The Institute of Philosophy of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Kyiv, 1998

Dissertation deals with the analysis of the civil society phenomenon.
The investigation studies consitions of formation and development of
civil society. Generalized rewiew of the history of the development of
civil ideas and evolution of the forms of civil society since antiquity
till present day allows to determine theoretical essence and practical
importance of this social institute. Common-European character of the
civil process in Ukraine is substantiated.

Key words: civil society, civil idea, freedom, property, democracy,
civil culture, mentality, consciousness, personality.

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