Формування вмінь студентів розв’язувати прикладні задачі при навчанні математики в коледжах економічного профілю: Автореф. дис… канд. пед. наук / Г.

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao TC «Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao»

?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa TC » ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa»

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AeOOEA Aaiia sse?aia TC «AeOOEA Aaiia sse?aia»

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OAeE 51(077) : 378 TC » OAeE 51(077) \: 378″

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OI?IOAAIIss AI?IUe NOOAeAIO?A

?ICA’ssCOAAOE I?EEEAAeI? CAAeA*?

I?E IAA*AII? IAOAIAOEEE

A EIEAAeAEAO AEIIII?*IIAI I?IO?ETH TC «OI?IOAAIIss AI?IUe NOOAeAIO?A

?ICA’ssCOAAOE I?EEEAAeI? CAAeA*?

I?E IAA*AII? IAOAIAOEEE

A EIEAAeAEAO AEIIII?*IIAI I?IO?ETH»

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13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee TC »
Niaoe?aeuei?noue\: 13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee
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A A O I ? A O A ? A O TC «A A O I ? A O A ? A O»

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy TC «aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy»

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe TC «eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe»

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Ee?a — 1 9 9 9 TC «Ee?a — 1 9 9 9»

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ao?aea Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oiia A?eai??e Iao?iae/,

Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeui? iaoaiaoeee;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Nieieaiei E?e?y Ieaenaiae??aia,

*a?i?a?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. O. A. Oaa/aiea, aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? oa
iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: A?iieoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. I. Eioethaeinueeiai, eaoaae?a aeaaa?e ? iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoeee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. A?iieoey.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.053.03 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a,
aoe.Ie?iaiaa, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (252601, i. Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?. A. Ei?oae

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe TC «Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe»

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?aoai?aiiy a aeiiii?/i?e oa
nioe?aeuei?e noa?ao iaoiai aeeooy aeiaaathoue iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
?icaoaeiae an??? nenoaie ina?oe ? aenoaathoue ia ia?oee ieai caaaeaiiy
?ic?iaee iiaiai ci?noo ina?oe ? iiaeo oaoiieia?e iaa/aiiy, ye?
caaacia/oaaee a aenieiye?nio i?aeaioiaeo i?ioan?eieo eaae??a, cie?aia c
aeiiii?ee.

I?aeaioiaea niaoe?ae?no?a aeiiii?ee ia?aaeaa/a? a?oioiai? ciaiiy c
iaoaiaoeee ? ai?iiy ?o canoiniaoaaoe a iaeaooi?e i?ioan?ei?e
ae?yeueiino?. Aeaaeae? c?inoa? ?ieue oi?iaeueii-eia?/iiai aia?aoo
iaoaiaoeee, iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, noaoenoeei-eiia??i?nieo
iaoiae?a o i?e?i- e iae?iaeiiii?oe?. Iaoaiaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? oe?iei
aeei?enoiaothoueny a aeiiii?oe? no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a eiie?aoieo
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioeanao ? yaeuao. Oiio a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth
iniaeeaa i?noea ia? caeiaoe iaoaiaoe/ia i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a, yea aea?
?i ciiao ioe?ithaaoe oa i?iaiicoaaoe i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
aeiiii?oe?, i?aaeeueii iiaeaethaaoe oa aeine?aeaeoaaoe aeiiii?/i?
neooaoe??. E??i oiai, iaoaiaoeea iaiao?aeia aeey oni?oiiai canai?iiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo oa i?ioan?eii ni?yiiaaieo aeenoeeie?i, ye?
caaacia/othoue aacia? aeiiii?/i? ciaiiy oa caeeaaeathoue iniiae aeey
iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy niaoe?aeueieo aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i.

Ona oea iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy i?eeeaaeii? ni?yiiaaiino?
eo?no iaoaiaoeee eieaaeae?a aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth — ?aae?caoe??
iaoiaeieia?/iiai, ci?noiaiai e iia?aoe?eiiai ca’yceo iaoaiaoeee c
i?aeoeeith.

Aaaeeeaei caniaii i?eeeaaeii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee ?
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo. Oe? caaea/? a?aeia?aaeathoue
?aaeuei? aeiiii?/i? neooaoe??, a ?o ?ica’ycaiiy ni?ey? iciaeiieaiith
nooaeaio?a c aeiiii?/ieie iiiyooyie ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeie ca’yceaie
i?ae ieie (ia ??ai? oyaeaiiy, canai?iiy /e cae??ieaiiy), iaoaiaoe/ieie
iiaeaeyie a aeiiii?oe?, ae?iaeaiith ai?iue aoaeoaaoe oa aeine?aeaeoaaoe
iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? aeiiii?/ieo neooaoe?e, canoiniaoaaoe iaoaiaoe/i?
iaoiaee ? caeiiii??iino? a aeiiii?oe? no/aniiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a
eiie?aoieo aeiiii?/ieo oa ae?iaie/eo i?ioeanao.

Caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo — iiooaeiee can?a ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/iiai
noeeth ieneaiiy, aeiiii?/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ae?iaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii?
a?aiioiino?. Ii?yae c oeei, ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ ni?ey? ae?iaeaiith
iaoaiaoe/ii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a, ine?eueee aea? ciiao i?i?ethno?oaaoe
i?ioean canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoeee aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy aoaeue-yeeo caaea/, ui
aeieeathoue ia i?aeoeoe? (oi?iae?caoe?y, ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? ana?aaeei?
iiaoaeiaaii? iiaeae?, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y).

Ae?iaeaiith ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe i?eeeaaei? caaea/? i?eae?eyeanue
iaeaaeia oaaaa ineoieiaaie, iaaeaaiaaie-iaoaiaoeeaie, iaoiaeenoaie ?
a/eoaeyie.

A aeine?aeaeaiiyo, i?enay/aieo ?ica’ycaiith ia?aii? i?iaeaie, ? iaiaei
oe?iieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue.

Ineoieia?/iee aniaeo i?iaeaie (caeiiii??iino? ieneeoaeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, iaoai?cie iiooeo ? i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy, ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy
caaea/, iiaeaethaaiiy ye can?a i?ciaiiy oa ?i.) ?icaeyiooi a ?iaioao A.
I. Aaeea, A. A. A?ooe?inueeiai, E. N. Aeaionueeiai, I. ss. Aaeueia??ia,
A. O. Anaoeiaa, A. N. Einothea, I. I. Eaiioue?aa, I. I. Iaothoe?ia, ?.
?. Iaoaeoey, I. I. Iai/einueei?, A. A. Iieyei, N. E. ?oa?iooaeia, E. I.
O??aeiaia oa ?i.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a i?iaeaie aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iaee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?iaioe c iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a
i?eeeaaeii? i???ioaoe?? oe?eueii? iaoaiaoe/ii? ina?oe, aecia/aiiy i?noey
? ?ie? i?eeeaaeieo caaea/ o eo?n? iaoaiaoeee, iniaeeainoae i?ioeano
?ica’ycaiiy, niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy (I. O. Aiaiania, I. A. Aaee, A. I.
Aaac, I. ?. Ao?aea, A. I. Aiciye, I. A. Aaeueoaiae, I. N. Aeoaei/oe, I.
?. AEaeaeae,

I. ss. ?aiaoaiei, TH. I. Eieya?i, A. Ae. Ieoe?n, Ae. Iiea, C. ?.
Ne?ieaiue,

?. O. Oaneaiei, A. A. O??nia, I. ?. Oe?eue oa ?i.).

Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeiai?o caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, aeiia aei
?ica’ycaiiy, ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeine?aeaeoaaee A.
I. Aa?iai,

O. A. Iocai?oia, I. N. Neiiiia, E. I. Nieieaiei, ?. A. No?aeue/aiei,

I. I. Oa?aoei, ?. I. Oai??i oa ?i.

? ana ae i?iaeaia iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe i?eeeaaei? caaea/?
i?e aea/aii? iaoaiaoeee a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth caeeoa?oueny
iaaeinoaoiuei ?ic?iaeaiith. A oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? a?aeiia?aeieo oi?iue iecueeee.

sse iieacaee iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiaeiee o?ao?e nooaeaio ia cia? aoai?a
?ica’ycaiiy caaea/; 45% nooaeaio?a aeiioneathoue iiieeee i?e c’ynoaaii?
ca’yce?a i?ae aeiiii?/ieie iiiyooyie; aeecueei 60% ia ciathoue no?oeoo?e
oeeo caaea/, a 70% — iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy. Na?eici? i?iaaeeie a oi?iiyo
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo: 36% ia ai?thoue ?ica’ycoaaoe
caaea/? iaia’yceiaiai ??aiy neeaaeiino?, 45% — na?aaeiueiai.

Neooaoe?y, ui neeaeany, iiynith?oueny e?eueeiia i?e/eiaie:

— iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy ia ia?aaeaa/a? canai?iiy nooaeaioaie ciaiue i?i
caaea/? (?o ci?no, no?oeoo?o, aoaie ?ica’ycaiiy);

— iiiyo?eiee aia?ao caaea/, i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee i?ae aeaieie
iiiyooyie iaaeinoaoiuei a?aeia?aaeathoue neooaoe?? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee,
ui cieaeo? iioeaaoe?th iaa/aiiy ?o ?ica’ycoaaoe;

— iaaeinoaoiuei ocaaaeueiaii iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei a?aeai?o
caaea/ ? ?o aeei?enoaiiy a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? c iaoaiaoeee;

— oi?iiy, ye i?aaeei, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny a oe?eiio (aiae?coaaoe caaea/?,
aoaeoaaoe iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ?ioa?i?aooaaoe iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe oa
?i.). Aiie ia ?ic/eaiiaothoueny ia ie?ai? ai?iiy, ia aeae?ey?oueny ?o
iia?aoe?eiee ci?no.

Iaeiae iniiaia i?e/eia — a?aenooi?noue oe?e?nii? iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo, yea a aeeth/aea: iaoo, ci?no, iaoiaee, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie,
i?eeiie ? caniae oi?ioaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, aaaeeea?noue oai?aoe/iiai ? i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo,

?? iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue, aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey iie?auaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii?

? niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee nooaeaio?a aecia/eee aea?? oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy

e iaoiiaeee ?? aeooaeuei?noue.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — iaa/aiiy nooaeaio?a eieaaeae?a aeiiii?/iiai
i?io?eth ?ica’ycoaaoe iaoaiaoe/i? caaea/?.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo i?e iaa/aii? iaoaiaoeee a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai
i?io?eth.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — ?ic?iaeoe, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe

e aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe iaoiaeeeo (iaoa, ci?no, iaoiaee,
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, i?eeiie ? caniae) oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ie aeoiaeeee c oaei? a?iioace:

sseui iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
a?aoiaoaaoeia:

1) ci?no ? iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?, ??ai?
i?ia?aiieo aeiia aei ?o oi?ioaaiiy;

2) i?eioeeie aeiai?o caaea/;

aeaee i???ioiaieo iniia ae?yeueiino? ii ?ica’ycoaaiith caaea/,

oi oea i?aeaeueoue aoaeoeai?noue oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oi?iue
nooaeaio?a, a ioaea, ? ?o iaoaiaoe/io oa niaoe?aeueio i?aeaioiaeo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a iaaeaaia?/i?e oai???
oa i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth.

2. Ia iniia? naiaioe/iiai aiae?co caaea/ ooi/ieoe ?o iiiyo?eiee aia?ao,
no?oeoo?o oa aoaie ?ica’ycaiiy.

3. ?ice?eoe ci?no ? iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe
caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo; c’ynoaaoe caaaeuei? ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i?
canaaee ?o oi?ioaaiiy.

4. Iaa?oiooaaoe i?eioeeie aeiai?o caaea/.

5. ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaio ca
neeaaei?noth, aei iniiaieo oai eo?no iaoaiaoeee.

6. ?ic?iaeoe, oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe e aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe
iaoiaeeeo ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo; noi?ioethaaoe oai?aoe/i? e i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
aeeeaaea/?a ? iaoiaeeno?a c aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeei?enoaii oae? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy:

oai?aoe/i? — nenoaiiee aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? ?
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, naiaioe/iee
aiae?c oaenoiaeo caaea/, iiaeaethaaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo i?ioean?a, aiae?c
oa ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo iaoiaeaie
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee;

aii??e/i? — niinoa?aaeaiiy, aieaooaaiiy, oanooaaiiy, aan?aee ?c
nooaeaioaie ? aeeeaaea/aie, aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ia?aaeiaiai
aeina?aeo aeeeaaea/?a ? iaoiaeeno?a, eiinoaooth/ee, iiooeiaee ?
oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaioe, nenoaiaoecaoe?y oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaniiai
aeina?aeo iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee o aaie?anueeiio eieaaeae?.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ineoieia?/ia oai??y
ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa/aiiy; caaaeueiiaeeaeaeoe/i? oa
iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui noinothoueny ?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy, cie?aia
iaoaiaoeee; oai??y ci?noiaieo ocaaaeueiaiue; nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae aei
aiae?co iaaeaaia?/ieo yaeu. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oiooaaeiny ia iniiaieo
iieiaeaiiyo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, Aea?aeaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ia?aie “Ina?oa (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy)”, Eiioeaioe?? aaciai?
iaoaiaoe/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui: ooi/iaii iiiyo?eiee
aia?ao caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo oa ?o no?oeoo?o; ?ice?eoi ci?no oa
iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?; ?ic?iaeaii nenoaio
i?eioeei?a aeiai?o caaea/; c’yniaaii oeiia? aeiiii?/i? neooaoe??, ye?
eaaeaoue a iniia? iaeaaaeeea?oeo a?oi caaea/.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o aecia/aii? i?noey oa ?ie?
caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee; a ?ic?iaoe?
iaoiaeeee oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue c ?aeeieo iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e, yea aeeth/a?
iaoo, ci?no, iaoiaee, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, i?eeiie, caniae ? a?aoiao?
iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue, ??ai? i?ia?aiieo aeiia aei ?o oi?ioaaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe aecia/athoue:

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, yea caaacia/o? aoaeoeaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia
oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ?
iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeeeaaea/aie eieaaeae?a ?ioeo i?io?e?a;

— aeyaeai? iai?yie oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, iaoiae?a,
i?eeii?a ? cania?a iaa/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?;

— cai?iiiiiaai? aaoi?ii iiaeoeueiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae i?ia?ai

c iaoaiaoeee; i?eeiie aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?aeieo iiaeaeae ye aoaeoeaiiai
caniao o?enaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ? ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy caaea/?;
nenoaia caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaieo ca neeaaei?noth,
? aeaee i???ioiaieo iniia ae?yeueiino? ii ?o ?ica’ycaiith.

A??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaacia/aia iaoiaeieia?/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth eiai
aeo?aeieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue; a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai iao? ? caaaeaiiyi; ?ai?acaioaoeai?noth aea??ie
ia’?eo?a iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo; ?acoeueoaoaie ia?iaee ye?nieo ?
e?euee?nieo aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaeeny

o i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee nooaeaio?a eieaaeae?a
aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth i?noa Eueaiaa oa Euea?anueei? iaeano? (1994 — 1998
??.). Iniiai? ?aea? ?iaioe oa i?aenoiee ?? ai?iaaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
??cieo nai?ia?ao, eiioa?aoe?yo ? ia?aaeao, cie?aia: ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aacia?a?aii? ina?oe” (i.
Euea?a, 1995 ?.); ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aeiiii?/ia ina?oa: iia? i?aeoiaee aei ci?noo oa iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy a
oiiaao ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue”

(i. Oa?e?a, 1997 ?.); ia i’yo?e Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo AII o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
aeueo oa na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a” (i. Euea?a, 1998 ?.); ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao “Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee
o aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao” (i. Euea?a, 1996 — 1998 ??.); ia
can?aeaiiyo iaoiaee/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy aeeeaaea/?a iaoaiaoeee Euea?anueei?
iae. (1995 — 1997 ??.); ia can?aeaii? eaai?aoi??? iaoiaeeee iaoaiaoeee ?
o?ceee ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie (1998 ?.).

?c aeaa’yoe ioae?eaoe?e aaoi?a aea? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe
ye iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Ci?no ? iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo.

2. I?eioeeie aeiai?o nenoaie caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo c o?aooaaiiyi
iia?aoe?eiiai neeaaeo ai?iue ? ??ai?a i?ia?aiieo aeiia aei ?o
oi?ioaaiiy.

3. Iaoiaeeea ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
(iaoa, iaoiaee, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, i?eeiie ? caniae).

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae

(246 iaeiaioaaiue ianyaii 20 noi??iie), aeiaeaoe?a (5 aeiaeaoe?a ianyaii
45 noi??iie). Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 167 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue 25 oaaeeoeue, 12 ?enoie?a. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 232 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?? TC «INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??»

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie; aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa a?iioaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/io ? i?aeoe/io
cia/ou?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a; noi?ioeueiaaii iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “I?aaeiao ? oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy”
aecia/aii ?ieue ? i?noea caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy
iaoaiaoeee

a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth, ooi/iaii iiiyo?eiee aia?ao caaea/,
c’yniaaii aeiiae aei ?o iinoaiiaee, ?ica’ycaiiy oa a?aeai?o, ?ice?eoi
ci?no ? iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? oa
ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?o oi?ioaaiiy.

Caaea/a aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo neeaaea?oueny c i?aaeiaoiiai nthaeaoo, oiiae

? aeiiae. A i?aaeiaoiiio nthaeao? aeacothoueny aeiiii?/i? iiiyooy oa ?o
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee a ye?ni?e aai e?euee?ni?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.
Oiiaa ? aeiiaa caaea/? ?ic/eaiiao?oueny ia aeaiaioa?i? oiiae ? aeiiae.
Inoaii? aeeth/athoue: aaee/eie (iniiai? e aeiiii?aei?); ?o cia/aiiy, ui
caaeathoueny iacaith aaee/eie, aeac?aeith ia iniaeeaino? cia/aiiy
aaee/eie, ?ici??ii oeueiai cia/aiiy o aeaeyae? ?iaiiaaiiai /enea;
ca’ycee i?ae cia/aiiyie aaee/ei.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?/iee ci?no aoai?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/,
aeiia aei ?ica’ycaiiy (iiaiioa, iaa?oioiaai?noue, aeio?eiaiiy i?aaee
caie?oaeaiiy

c o?aooaaiiyi aeiiii?/ii? aeioe?eueiino?, ia?aa??ea ?ici??iino?
iaea?aeaieo ae?ac?a oa ?i.) oa iiaoaeiae iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
(aaeaeaaoi?noue, i?inoioa).

?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, ye ? aoaeue-yeeo i?eeeaaeieo
caaea/, aeeth/a? o?e aoaie: oi?iae?caoe??, ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?
ana?aaeei? iiaoaeiaaii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, ?ioa?i?aoaoe??. O
aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoi niaoeeo?/iee ci?no oeeo aoai?a. Ia aoai?
oi?iae?caoe?? cae?enith?oueny ia?ao?ae a?ae ?aaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe?? aei iiaoaeiae oi?iaeueii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. Oeae ia?ao?ae
aeiaaa? ?ici?ciaaaiiy aeaieo aeiiii?/ieo iiiyoue, ?ice?eooy no?oeoo?e
caaea/?, aeae?eaiiy oiiae ? aeiiae, aeaiaioa?ieo oiia ? aeiia,
c’ynoaaiiy iniiaieo ? aeiiii?aeieo aaee/ei, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
aeiiii?/i? iiiyooy caaea/?, a?aeoai?aiiy ? ni?anoaaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiue
? ca’yce?a i?ae ieie. Aoai caaa?oo?oueny oi?iae?caoe??th aeo?aeii?
caaea/?: ia?aaaaeaiiyi oiiae caaea/? ia aaeaeaaoio iaoaiaoe/io iiao – ia
iiao a?eoiaoe/ieo aai aeaaa?a?/ieo ae?ac?a, ??aiyiue, ia??aiinoae oa ?o
nenoai, ooieoe?e, ?ioaa?ae?a oa ?ioeo aano?aeoe?e, noi?ioeueiaaieo ?c
caeo/aiiyi iaoaiaoe/ieo oa?i?i?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia?aaaaeaiiy oiiae
caaea/? ia aaeaeaaoio iaoaiaoe/io iiao iie?auo?oueny, yeui
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiiii?aei? iiaeae? (i?aaeiaoi?, noaiaoe/i?,
no?oeoo?i?). Aiie ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii o?enaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co;
ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy caaea/?; iiaoaeiae (yeui caaea/a neeaaeia)
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?.

Iaiaei caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo iathoue iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae? ?c
cia/iith e?euee?noth ci?iieo ? caeaaeiinoae i?ae ieie. Oae? caaea/?
a?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueii ?ica’ycoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith eiii’thoa?a. E??i oiai,
no/ani? ia/enethaaeuei? caniae aeathoue ciiao ?icoe?eoe eiei caaea/
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, i?eaanoe o a?aeiia?aei?noue nthaeao caaea/? ?
/eneia? aeai? c ?aaeueieie aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie. Ia aoai?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? c’yniao?oueny a?aeiia?aei?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
?ica’ycaiiy aeai?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe??, ioe?ith?oueny cia/aiiy
ciaeaeaieo aeiiii?/ieo oaeoi??a aeey i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?,
anoaiiaeththoueny i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? caeaaeiino? aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a
o iaai?e o?oaeia?e ae?yeueiino?. Oaeei /eiii, i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo iiaiith i??ith ?aae?co?oueny i?ioean canoinoaaiiy
iaoaiaoe/iiai aia?aoo aei aoaeue-yeeo i?eeeaaeieo neooaoe?e.

Oai?aoe/ii e aeia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii, ui aeia?? caaea/
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo aoaeoeaiee, yeui aeio?eiaii oaeeo
caaaeueiiiaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a: 1) iaoeiaino?; 2) aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?
?aae?ciaaiino?; 3) iiaeoeueiiai; 4) ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aeieo ooieoe?e
caaea/ o iaa/aii?; 5) nenoaiaoe/iino?; 6) iaoiaee/ii? aeioe?eueiino?.

Ci?no caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ia? a?aeiia?aeaoe iaoeiaiio ??aith
aeiiii?/ieo aeenoeeie?i eieaaeaeo, ni?eyoe ae?iaeaiith o nooaeaio?a
i?aaeeueieo oyaeaiue i?i ?ieue iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoiae?a a aeiiii?oe?,
?ethno?oaaoe iaeaaaeeea?o? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano i?ciaiiy.

Aeia?? caaea/ aoaeoeaiee, yeui ?o oiiae a?aeia?aaeathoue ?aaeuei?
aeiiii?/i? oa ae?iaie/? i?ioeane, i?noyoue noaoenoe/i? aeai?, i?aaeeueio
oa?i?iieia?th aeiiii?/ieo iiiyoue. Caaea/? iathoue aooe ??ciioeiiaeie ?,
ii iiaeeeaino?, iaoe ??ci? niiniae ?ica’ycaiiy, ui ni?ey? iaieiae?iith
caaaeueieie i?aeoiaeaie aei ?ica’ycaiiy oa aeeaoiio ?icoi?iith ca’yce?a
i?ae iaoaiaoeeith oa aeiiii?eith.

Nenoaia caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ?ic?aoiaaia ia ?aae?caoe?th ??aiaai?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? i?e iaa/aii?, yea ia?aaeaa/a? ??ci? aeiiae uiaei
canai?iiy eo?no iaoaiaoeee (i?i?iaeueii aacia?, aacia?, i?aeaeuai?).
A?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia canai?iiy ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny nenoaia caaea/ o?ueio
??ai?a neeaaeiino?. ?? iniaeea?noth ? oa, ui, ii-ia?oa, eiaeiee
ianooiiee ??aaiue neeaaeiino? caaea/ aeiaaa? a?ae nooaeaio?a a?eueo
iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ye iaoaiaoe/ieo, oae ? aeiiii?/ieo ciaiue,
ii-ae?oaa, caaea/? o?aoueiai ??aiy neeaaeiino? aeeth/athoue aeaiaioe
caaea/ ia?oiai ? ae?oaiai ??ai?a, a caaea/? ae?oaiai ??aiy neeaaeiino?
i?noyoue aeaiaioe caaea/ i?i?iaeueii aaciaiai ??aiy.

?ic?iaeaia nenoaia caaea/, neeaaei?noue yeeo c?inoa? iinooiiai, aea?
ciiao i?aai?coaaoe aoaeoeaio ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ? naiino?eio ?iaioo
nooaeaio?a, iaeiiai?oa a?aooaaoe ?o ?ioa?ane, cae?aiino? ? iio?aae.

Aei ie?aieo oai eo?no iaoaiaoeee i?iiiiothoueny aeiiii?/i? iiaeoe?.
Ci?no iiaeoey aeeth/a?: aeiiii?/i? a?aeiiino?, aeaye? iaoaiaoe/i?
iiaeae? aeiiii?ee, aeia?? caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ??cii? neeaaeiino?.
I?e oeueiio aeioe?eueii a?aoiaoaaoe ??aaiue iaoaiaoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
nooaeaio?a ? niaoeeo?eo iaeaooiuei? i?ioan??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui ?ioa?an aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, ?o iaa/ath/? ? ?icaeaath/? ooieoe?? iineeththoueny,
yeui caaea/? iia’ycai?

c iaaieie aeiiii?/ieie i?iaeaiaie. Oiio aeia?? caaea/ ia? ia?aaeaa/aoe
oae? aeaee ?iaioe: caaea/a, yeo iio??aii ?ica’ycaoe, i?iiiio?oueny ?acii

c aeiiii?/iith i?iaeaiith; ca aeaiith aeiiii?/iith i?iaeaiith
neeaaea?oueny

? ?ica’yco?oueny caaea/a, nthaeao yei? a?aeia?aaea? oeth i?iaeaio; i?ney
?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? noaaeoueny a?aeiia?aeia aeiiii?/ia i?iaeaia.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy c’yniaai? caaaeuei? ai?iiy ?ica’ycoaaoe
caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo (?ici?ciaaaoe caaea/o, aiae?coaaoe ??
no?oeoo?o, eiaeoaaoe iiao nthaeaoo caaea/? a oa?i?iao iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae?, aoaeoaaoe ? ?ica’ycoaaoe iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, aeaeiaeoaaoe a
oa?i?iao aeaii? a caaea/? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe, ae?aaeai?
iiaith iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?), ie?ai? ai?iiy oa ?o iia?aoe?eiee neeaae.
Iaoiaeeea ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue iiaeiia a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino?
ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino? a i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/, aea iathoue
i?noea ii?yae c ?iaeoeoeaii-aeaaeoeoeaieie i??eoaaiiyie ? ?aoe?iiaeuei?
(i?aaaeiiiae?ai?, aa?enoe/i?). O aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eai? oa?aeoa?i?
aeiaaeee aeei?enoaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo i??eoaaiue i?e iiaoaeia?
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ciaeaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Oi?iiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo oi?iothoueny aoaeoeaii,
yeui caaacia/o?oueny: /?oea aecia/aiiy oe?eae ?ica’ycaiiy, iioeaaoe?y
?ica’ycaiiy ? iiceoeai? aiioe?? nooaeaioa; aeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy a
i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy ieioeiai aeina?aeo, iaaooeo ciaiue ? niinia?a
ae?yeueiino?; c?noaaeaiiy aeneiaethaaieo a?iioac ? ?aaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a ieneeoaeueieo iia?aoe?e ye ?aaoeyoi?iiai iaoai?cio
iiooeiaeo ae?e; i?eioeei aa??aoe?e; aca?iiia?aoiaee a?ae aano?aeoieo
iia?aoe?e iaae cia/aiiyie aaee/ei aei iai/ieo eiino?oeoe?e ? — iaaiaee;
naiieiio?ieue; i???ioiaia iniiaa ae?yeueiino?.

Iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo aeae?a i???ioiaieo iniia
ae?e:

1) ieaie ?ica’ycaiiy ie?aieo caaea/; 2) aeai?eoi?/i? i?eiene ?ica’ycaiiy
caaea/ iaaieo oei?a; 3) aa?enoeee aeey naiaioe/iiai aiae?co neeaaeo
caaea/?, oi?iae?caoe?? caaea/ii? neooaoe??, canoinoaaiiy niinia?a
?ica’ycaiiy oa iiaoaeiae ieai?a ?ica’ycaiiy iaaieo a?oi caaea/.

Iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ia? aooe
iia?aoe?eii-i???ioiaaiith ? a?aoiaoaaoe aeeaeaeoe/i? oe?e?,
i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie, caaaeuei? iaoiaee ? ineoieia?/i? canaaee
ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue. Oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue iie?auo?oueny, yeui aeeth/a? aoaie:

— i?aeaioia/i-iioeaaoe?eiee (i?ia?aii? aeiiae aei niiniao ae?yeueiino?,
iioeaaoe?y eiai aaaaeaiiy, aeooae?caoe?y iii?ieo ciaiue, aeia??
iaoiae?a, i?eeii?a ? cania?a oi?ioaaiiy);

— iia?aoe?eii-i?ciaaaeueiee (aeae?eaiiy iia?aoe?eiiai neeaaeo niiniao
ae?yeueiino?, i???ioe??a ae?yeueiino?, ?o cae??ieaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy);

— ?aoeaeneaii-ioe?ii/iee (?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c ae?yeueiino?,
eiio?ieueii-ei?aeooth/a ae?yeuei?noue, naiiioe?ithaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a).

?aeiiaiaeothoueny oae? eieaeoeai? oi?ie iaa/aiiy: 1) ia?ia ?iaioa
nooaeaio?a; 2) noi?nii-?iciiae?eueia iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue; 3)
iniaenoii-?ieueiaa;

4) a?oiiaa iaa/aeueii-i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iaoiaeeea ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo” ?ice?eoi ci?no, iaoiaee, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie,
i?eeiie ? caniae iaa/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? i?e aea/aii? iniiaieo oai
eo?no iaoaiaoeee (i?ioeaioi? ?ic?aooiee; ooieoe?iiaeueia caeaaei?noue
i?ae aaee/eiaie; ??aiyiiy, ia??aiino? oa ?o nenoaie; e?i?eia
i?ia?aioaaiiy; aeeoa?aioe?aeueia oa ?ioaa?aeueia /eneaiiy); iaaaaeaii
nenoaio caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo o?ueio ??ai?a neeaaeiino?,
i???ioiaaio ia aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?a.

Ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a aeeiioaaoe i?ioeaioi? ?ic?aooiee
ia?aaeaa/a? aeooae?caoe?th ciaiue i?i i?ioeaioe, iaaoo? a iniiai?e
oeie?; iciaeiieaiiy ?c niaoe?aeueiei iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii ? o?aaiaioaie
oai???, iaiao?aeieie aeey canoinoaaiiy i?ioeaio?a o o?iainia?e noa??;
aeae?eaiiy ? cae??ieaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai,
cie?aia o?iainiaiai ci?noo.

O ?acoeueoao? iiaoi?aiiy a?aeiiinoae i?i i?ioeaioe nooaeaioe iiaeii?
ni?eeiaoe ?o ye /enea; ciaoe, ui a i?ioeaioao ia/eneththoueny e?euee?ni?
oa ye?ni? iieacieee ?iaioe (aeeiiaiiy ieaio, aeiiii?y iaoa??ae?a, /ano,
iaeeaa, aeaeo?iaia?a?? oiui); ai?oe iia?oaaoe oaeeie caienaie: 12,5% =
0,125 = 1/ 8, ? iaaiaee; ?icaeyaeaoe iniiai? caaea/? ia i?ioeaioe ye
caaea/? ia ae?iae ?c ciaiaiieeii 100, caienai? iniaeeaei /eiii. I?e
oeueiio oaaaa aeoeaioo?oueny ia i?eeeaaeiiio cia/aii? i?ioeaio?a –
canoinoaaii? ?o aei ianeeaaeieo aeiiii?/ieo, o?iainiaeo ?ic?aooie?a.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy anoaiiaeaii, ui iiiyo?eiee aia?ao ? o?aaiaioe
oai??? iathoue aeeth/aoe: i?ino? ? neeaaei? i?ioeaioe; ia/eneaiiy
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy, yeui i?ioeaioe aeiaeathoueny m ?ac?a ia ??e; iaia?a?aia
ia?aooaaiiy i?ioeaio?a; iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a?ae aeeaaeo noi /a?ac ??ai?
?ioa?aaee; aeeneiiooaaiiy; iiaaoaiiy aeiaaioa?i?iiaeo e?aaeeo?a;
ia?aooaaiiy aii?oecaoe??.

Ooieoe??, ??aiyiiy ? ia??aiino?, ye iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, aeathoue ciiao
iiynieoe ? oi?iae?ciaaii caienaoe aaaaoi aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a ? yaeu.
A?aeiia?aei? ai?iiy ae?iaeythoueny a i?ioean? ?ethno?aoe?? canoinoaaiiy
oeueiai iaoa??aeo a aeiiii?oe?; aeae?eaiiy aeiiii?/ieo caeaaeiinoae i?ae
aaee/eiaie oa ia?aaaaeaiiy ?o ia aaeaeaaoio iaoaiaoe/io iiao;
aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/eo ooieoe?e (iiieoo, i?iiiceoe??, aeo?ao, aeioiaeo)
a aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooieao; ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, aea
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeanoeaino? ooieoe?e, ??aiyiue ? ia??aiinoae.

Aea/aiiy oa iiaoi?aiiy aeaiaioa?ieo ooieoe?e, ye? /anoi cono??/athoueny

a aeiiii?oe? ? caeaaei?noue caaaeueieo aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa a?ae ianyao
aeiouaii? i?iaeoeoe??. O ca’yceo c oeei nooaeaioai i?iiiio?oueny
i?iaiae?coaaoe caeaaei?noue aeo?ao ae?iaieoeoaa ia i?aei?e?inoa? a?ae
ianyao aeaioiaeaii? iaeii??aeii? i?iaeoeoe??, a?aoiaoth/e, ui aeo?aoe
ae?iaieoeoaa iiae?eythoueny ia aea? a?oie: ci?ii?, ye? i?iii?oe?ei?
ianyao aeiouaii? i?iaeoeoe??, ? iino?ei?, ye? ia caeaaeaoue a?ae ianyao
aeiouaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

?aeiiaiaeo?oueny nii/aoeo ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? ia neeaaeaiiy eeoa
iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae (caienaoe ca oiiaith caaea/? a?aeiia?aeio
ooieoe?iiaeueio caeaaei?noue, ??aiyiiy aai ia??ai?noue), iio?i —
caaea/?, aea aeiaaa?oueny ia eeoa neeanoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, a e
a?ao?/ii aeine?aeeoe ?? oa ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ciaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe. I?e
oeueiio oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia i?aaeeueia aaaaeaiiy iicia/aiue a?aeiieo ?
iaa?aeiieo aaee/ei, iiaiioo iaa?oiooaaiiy ca’yce?a i?ae aaee/eiaie, ia
oi?iae?ciaaiee caien aeiiii?/ieo caeaaeiinoae iaoaiaoe/iith iiaith.

I?e iiaoi?aii? oaie “Ooieoe??, ?o aeanoeaino? oa a?ao?ee” aaiaeyoueny
aeiiii?/i? iiaeoe?, ye? i?noyoue icia/aiiy ae?iaie/eo ooieoe?e, ?o
aeanoeaino?, a?ao?ee, i?eeeaaee canoinoaaiiy a aeiiii?oe? oa ae?a?ai?
caaea/? ??cii? neeaaeiino?. ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny iciaeiieoe nooaeaio?a c
oaeeie ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie: iiieoo – caeaaei?noue iiieoo ia oiaa?
a?ae oe?ie ia iueiai; i?iiiceoe?? – caeaaei?noue ianyao cai?iiiiiaaii?
i?iaeoeoe?? a?ae ?eieiai? oe?ie; aeo?ao – caeaaei?noue i?ae aeo?aoaie
ae?iaieoeoaa aeayei? i?iaeoeoe?? oa ianyaii ae?iaieoeoaa oe???
i?iaeoeoe??; aeioiaeo – caeaaei?noue aeioiaeo i?aei?e?inoaa a?ae
aa?oino? ae?iaeaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui canoinoaaiiy aeaiaio?a e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?eeeaaeieo caaea/, cie?aia aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo, iie?auo?oueny, yeui aeio?eioaaoenue oaei? iine?aeiaiino?
aea/aiiy iaoa??aeo: 1) iiiyooy caaea/? e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ??
?ica’ycaiiy;

2) iniaeeaino? caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?o aaiiao?e/ia
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y; 3) caaaeaiiy caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy aei
eaiii?/ii? oi?ie caieno;

4) iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy (iine?aeiaiiai aeeeth/aiiy iaa?aeiieo, a?ao?/iee,
neiieaen-iaoiae, ciaoiaeaeaiiy ii/aoeiaiai iii?iiai ieaio oa ?i.) oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy aei ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo; 5)
?ica’ycoaaiiy eeane/ieo aeiiii?/ieo caaea/.

Oni?oia ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ciaiiy
caaaeueii? noaie oa iaoiae?a ?ica’ycaiiy ? ai?iue ?o canoiniaoaaoe.
Iciaeiiethth/e nooaeaio?a c iniiaieie iaoiaeaie ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/
e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy, oaaaa caa?oa?oueny ia aeae?eaiiy ?o
iia?aoe?eiiai neeaaeo, ?icae?eueia cae??ieaiiy iia?aoe?e ae?a?aieie
ai?aaaie oa ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy, i?aeaaaeaiiy nooaeaio?a aei naiino?eiiai
oi?ioaaiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai niiniao ae?yeueiino?.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ a?ao?/iei iaoiaeii iie?auo?oueny,
yeui ae?iaeoe ai?iiy aeeiioaaoe aca?iiiaa?iai? ia?aoiaee: aiae?oe/i?
ae?ace « a?ao?/i? ia?ace. C oe??th iaoith ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ?ica’ycoaaoe
aca?iiiaa?iai? caaea/?:

1 a. ?ica’ycaoe caaea/o a?ao?/iei iaoiaeii:

1 a. Ca iiiaieooieeii ?ica’yce?a oa iioeiaeueieie oi/eaie, cia?aaeaieie
ia iaethieo, a?aeiiaeoe aeo?aeio iiaeaeue caaea/?.

Ae?iaeaiith iaoaiaoe/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? eoeueoo?e nooaeaio?a ni?ey?
?ica’ycaiiy eeane/ieo aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaea?eueoiai
(iaeiaioiai) cia/aiiy. Oea caaea/? i?i iaeneiaeueio ?aioaaaeuei?noue
i?aei?e?inoaa, ?aoe?iiaeueiee ?ice??e iaoa??aeo, ?aoe?ii ? ae??oo,
neeaaeaiiy i?aeaaeocaaiai aaeaino, o?ainii?oia caaea/a. ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
oaea iine?aeiai?noue ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe oe? caaea/?: 1)
noaaeoueny aeiiii?/ia i?iaeaia a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae?; 2) c’yniao?oueny
caaaeueia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue i?iaeaie ? iaoiae ?ica’ycaiiy; 3)
?ica’ycothoueny ae?a?ai? caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo c /eneiaeie
aeaieie.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaia oe?e?nia iaoiaeeea ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue
canoiniaoaaoe iio?aeio oa ?ioaa?ae aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? iciaeiieaiiy nooaeaio?a ia eiie?aoieo
i?eeeaaeao c aeiiii?/iei ci?noii iio?aeii? oa ?ioaa?aea, iinoaiiaeo e
aiae?c oeiiaeo caaea/ c ia?aiao?aie, ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ c /eneiaeie
aeaieie ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo caeaaeiinoae i?ae aaee/eiaie
oeyoii caaaeaiiy ?o aei oeiiaeo caaea/, canoinoaaiiy iio?aeii? oa
?ioaa?aea a aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooieao.

Aeiiii?/iee ci?no iio?aeii? ?ice?eaa?oueny ia eiie?aoieo i?eeeaaeao
i?ney canai?iiy i?aaee aeeoa?aioe?thaaiiy. Nooaeaioe iathoue c?icoi?oe:
yeui ooieoe?y iiaeaeth? aeayeee aeiiii?/iee i?ioean, oi ?? iio?aeia
aenooia? ye oaeaee?noue ci?ie oeueiai i?ioeano ca /anii aai noiniaii
?ioiai aeine?aeaeoaaiiai oaeoi?a, oiaoi oa?aeoa?eco? a?aie/iee eiai
aoaeo. I?iiiiothoueny caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo aeaio aeae?a: 1) ia
ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaea?eueoeo /e iaeiaioeo cia/aiue ooieoe?e; 2) ia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo caeaaeiinoae i?ae aaee/eiaie.
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ ia?oiai aeaeo iie?auo?oueny, yeui aeae?eeoe
a?aeiia?aeiee niin?a ae?yeueiino?: 1) aea?aoe iacaeaaeio ci?iio,
a?aooaaaoe oiiao caaea/?; 2) neeanoe ooieoe?th, ae?aceaoe
aeine?aeaeoaaio aaee/eio /a?ac iacaeaaeio ci?iio; 3) c’ynoaaoe ?ioa?aae
ci?ie iacaeaaeii? ci?iii?; 4) ciaeoe ooeaia iaea?eueoa /e iaeiaioa
cia/aiiy iaea?aeaii? ooieoe?? ? c?iaeoe aeniiaee. Iia?aoe?? niiniao
ae?yeueiino? a?aei?aoeueiaothoueny ae?a?aieie ai?aaaie. Iia?aoe?y
o?aoueiai ioieoo a?aoiao?oueny i?e aeiai?? caaea/ – i?iiiiothoueny
caaea/?, a yeeo ?ioa?aae ci?ie iacaeaaeii? ci?iii? ? ye ne?i/aiiei, oae
? iane?i/aiiei.

Ae?oaee aeae caaea/ (ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo caeaaeiinoae
i?ae aaee/eiaie) ia? niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino?. I?e ?o ?ica’ycaii?
aeei?enoiao?oueny iiiyooy aeanoe/iino? ooieoe??. Nooaeaioe nii/aoeo
iciaeiieththoueny c iaiao?aeiei iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii, a iio?i
?ica’ycothoue caaea/? ia: aeanoe/i?noue iiieoo uiaei oe?ie;
aeanoe/i?noue iiieoo uiaei aeioiaeo; i?iiiceoe?th oa aeanoe/i?noue
i?iiiceoe??; aeanoe/i?noue iiaieo ? na?aaei?o aeo?ao oa ?i. Oi?iiy
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ia c’ynoaaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo
caeaaeiinoae ae?iaeythoueny aoaeoeai?oa, yeui nii/aoeo ?ica’ycoaaoe
caaea/? ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?ie ooieoe?iiaeueii? caeaaeiino? (c?inoa?
aai niaaea?), iio?i – ia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiai?ee ci?ie oe???
caeaaeiino? (c?inoa? aai niaaea? iia?euei?oa /e oaeaeoa).

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui aeei?enoaiiy
ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a iiaeeaeth? ai?iiy nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe
caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ca ?aooiie: aeoea?caoe?? i?ciaaaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? ? iineeaiiy iioeaaoe?? ?ica’ycaiiy; ?icaeyaeo ??cieo oeyo?a
?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?; ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? caaea/, aea aeeiio?oueny
cia/iee ianya ?ic?aooie?a; iia?aoeaiiai iiaeaiiy iaiao?aeii? aeey
?ica’ycaiiy aeia?aeeiai? ?ioi?iaoe??; noai?aiiy ?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae;
oiai/iaiiy aano?aeoieo iiiyoue; i?aai?caoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueii?
ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a. C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy aea/aiiy aecia/aiiai
?ioaa?aea iaie ?ic?iaeai? eiio?iethth/a eiii’thoa?ia i?ia?aia “?ioaa?ae”
oa iaa/aeueia eiii’thoa?ia i?ia?aia “Canoinoaaiiy aecia/aiiai ?ioaa?aea
a aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ao”. ?ica’ycoaaiiy iioei?caoe?eieo caaea/ e?i?eiiai
i?ia?aioaaiiy iie?auo?oueny, yeui aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ia?aiio nenoaio LINA
aeey ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a i?ae oi?aae?iiyi OS MS DOS, Windows.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa??yeenue
aenia?eiaioaeueii i?ioyaii i’yoe ?ie?a (1994 — 1998 ??.).
Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa cae?enithaaeanue o o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1994 — 1995 ??.) i?iaiaeeany eiinoaooth/ee
aenia?eiaio, iaoa yeiai — anoaiiaeoe ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue
nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, c’ynoaaoe iaaeie?ee
o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy oa ?o i?e/eie.

Iaoith ae?oaiai, iaa/aeueiiai aoaio aenia?eiaioo (1995 — 1997 ??.) aoei
iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo. O i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo
aecia/aii iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue ia ??cieo ??aiyo iaa/aiiy,
?ic?iaeaii ci?no iniiaieo aoai?a ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ? ae?a?aii
a?aeiia?aei? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie oa nenoaio ai?aa.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1998 ?.) ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy
ooi/ithaaeeny, nenoaiaoecoaaeeny oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny. Ooi/iaii,
cie?aia, iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo oa i?eioeeie ?o aeiai?o. Ia oeueiio aoai? aenia?eiaioo
?ic?iaeyeeny oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c aeaii?
i?iaeaie aeey aeeeaaea/?a ? iaoiaeeno?a.

Iaea?aeai? a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioo aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i a?eueo
aenieee ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue nooaeaio?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi
ii??aiyii

c eiio?ieueieie ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo. Iaeaea ia 20%
ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a c iecueeei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino?
ai?iue,

a e?euee?noue nooaeaio?a c aenieei ??aiai noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue
ca?eueoeeanue

ia 25%.

Iiaeaiaioiee aiae?c ienueiiaeo ?ia?o iieacaa, ui aeecueei 93% nooaeaio?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo a?oi oi?thoue aiae?coaaoe no?oeoo?o caaea/, iia?oaaoe
aeiiii?/ieie iiiyooyie o i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy, ?ioa?i?aooaaoe iaea?aeai?
?acoeueoaoe (o eiio?ieueieo a?oiao — 77% nooaeaio?a).

Aoaeoeai?noue aenia?eiaioaeueii? iaoiaeeee i?aeoaa?aeeee ? ?acoeueoaoe
ia?iaee ienueiiaeo ?ia?o iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee:

A?oie Aea??ee

E?eoa??e Cia/aiiy noaoenoeee e?eoa??th (O) E?eoe/ia cia/aiiy noaoenoeee
e?eoa??th (Oe)

Eiio?ieueieo — 5

Aenia?eiaioaeueieo — 5

128

(2

10,6

7,81

Iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio i?aeoaa?aeea a?iioaco iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aiae?c eiai ?acoeueoao?a na?ae/eoue i?i aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo.

A E N I I A E E TC «A E N I I A E E»

1. Caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo — aaaeeeaee can?a ?aae?caoe??
i?eeeaaeii? ni?yiiaaiino? iaoaiaoeee. ?ica’ycaiiy ?o caaacia/o?
i???ioaoe?th ci?noo

? iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy ia canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoeee o ooiaeaiaioaeueieo,
i?ioan?eii ni?yiiaaieo aeenoeeie?iao ? a iaeaooi?e i?ioan?ei?e
ae?yeueiino?.

2. Aeia?? caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo aoaeoeaiee, yeui aeio?eiaii oaeeo
caaaeueiiiaoiaee/ieo i?eioeei?a: iaoeiaino?, aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii?
?aae?ciaaiino?, iiaeoeueiiai, ?aae?caoe?? i?ia?aeieo ooieoe?e caaea/ o
iaa/aii?, nenoaiaoe/iino?, iaoiaee/ii? aeioe?eueiino?.

3. Iaoiaeeea ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo
ia? aooe iia?aoe?eii-i???ioiaaiith; a?aoiaoaaoe iia?aoe?eiee neeaae
oi?iue, ??ai? i?ia?aiieo aeiia aei ?o oi?ioaaiiy, ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i?
canaaee oi?ioaaiiy, i?eioeeie a?aeai?o caaea/ ? aeaee i???ioiaieo iniia
ae?yeueiino? ii ?o ?ica’ycaiith; aeeth/aoe oae? aoaie:
i?aeaioia/i-iioeaaoe?eiee, iia?aoe?eii-i?ciaaaeueiee,
?aoeaeneaii-ioe?ii/iee.

Aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa??a iiaeeaeth? ai?iiy nooaeaio?a
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ca ?aooiie iineeaiiy iioeaaoe??
?ica’ycaiiy, noai?aiiy ?i?oaoe?eieo iiaeaeae, oiai/iaiiy aano?aeoieo
iiiyoue

? i?aai?caoe?? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

4. Ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a aeeiioaaoe i?ioeaioi? ?ic?aooiee
ia?aaa/a? aeooae?caoe?th ciaiue i?i i?ioeaioe, iaaooeo a iniiai?e oeie?,
iciaeiieaiiy c iiiyo?eiei aia?aoii ? o?aaiaioaie oai???, iaiao?aeieie
aeey canoinoaaiiy i?ioeaio?a o o?iainia?e noa??, oa aeae?eaiiy ?
a?aei?aoethaaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai
ci?noo.

5. Canoinoaaiiy ooieoe?e, ??aiyiue ? ia??aiinoae, ye iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae, iie?auo?oueny, yeui: ?ethno?oaaoe canoinoaaiiy oeueiai
iaoa??aeo a aeiiii?oe?; aeae?eyoe aeiiii?/i? caeaaeiino? i?ae aaee/eiaie
? ia?aaiaeeoe ?o ia aaeaeaaoio iaoaiaoe/io iiao; aeei?enoiaoaaoe
aeanoeaino? ooieoe?e, ??aiyiue ? ia??aiinoae a aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooieao.
?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiiii?aei? iiaeae? (i?aaeiaoi?,
noaiaoe/i?, no?oeoo?i?) ye aoaeoeai? caniae: 1) o?enaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a
aiae?co; 2) ia?aoi?ioethaaiiy caaea/?; 3) iiaoaeiae (yeui caaea/a
neeaaeia) iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?.

6. Ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy
aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ia?aaeaa/a? oaeo iine?aeiai?noue aea/aiiy iaoa??aeo:
iiiyooy caaea/? e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?? ?ica’ycaiiy; iniaeeaino?
caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?o aaiiao?e/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y;
caaaeaiiy caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy aei eaiii?/ii? oi?ie caieno;
iniiai? iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ e?i?eiiai i?ia?aioaaiiy oa ?o
canoinoaaiiy a aeiiii?oe?; ?ica’ycaiiy eeane/ieo aeiiii?/ieo caaea/.

7. Iaa/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo iaoiaeaie
aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai oa ?ioaa?aeueiiai /eneaiiy ia? aeeth/aoe:
iciaeiieaiiy c aeiiii?/iei ci?noii iio?aeii? oa ?ioaa?aea; aiae?c ?
?ica’ycaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo oeiiaeo caaea/ c ia?aiao?aie; ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/
c /eneiaeie aeaieie, i???ioiaaieo ia aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa?a;
canoinoaaiiy iio?aeii? oa ?ioaa?aea aei aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a.

8. Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe eieaaeae?a ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee aeathoue i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iinoaaeai? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ica’ycai?, aenoiooa a?iioaca i?aeoaa?aeaeaia.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A C OAIE AeINE?AeAEAIIss TC «NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E
AAOI?A C OAIE AeINE?AeAEAIIss»

1. Aeooea A. ss. I?aeoeeoi c iaoaiaoeee aeey aeiiii?no?a. — Euea?a:
EAE, 1998. — 362 n. (?aeiiaiaeiaaii II Oe?a?ie).

2. Aeooea A. ss. Aeiiae aei a?aeai?o caaea/ c aeiiii?/iei ci?noii i?e
aea/aii? iaoaiaoeee // Iaoaiaoeea a oeie?. — 1999. — ? 1 —N. 31 — 34.

3. Aeooea A. ss. Aeei?enoaiiy aeanoeainoae ooieoe?e a caaea/ao c
aeiiii?/iei ci?noii // Aa?enoeea oa aeeaeaeoeea oi/ieo iaoe: I?aeia?.
ca. iaoe. ?ia?o. Aei. 9. — Aeiiaoeuee: OAAI, 1998. — N. 40 — 46.

4. Aeooea A. ss. Aeia?aeeiaee iaoaiaoe/iee neiaiee. — Euea?a: EAE, 1998.

— 94 n. (?aeiiaiaeiaaii II Oe?a?ie).

5. Aeooea A. ss. I?eeeaaei? caaea/? ye can?a oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eieo
yeinoae aeiiii?noa // Iaoa??aee ca?oii? iaoe. eiioa?aioe?? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee AII Oe?a?ie “Iaaeaaia?/ia iaoea: iiooee, caeiaooee,
caaaeaiiy”. — E.: Iaaeaaia?/ia aeoiea, 1997. — N. 112.

6. Aeooea A. ss. Canoinoaaiiy aecia/aiiai ?ioaa?aea aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo caaea/ // Iaoa??aee III iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao”. — Euea?a, 1998. — N. 29-32.

7. Aiaee I. ?., Aeooea A. ss. Iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaiiy eiii’thoa??a i?e
aea/aii? iaoaiaoeee o EAE// Iaoa??aee iaoe.-i?aeo. eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie aeeeaaeaiiy iaoaiaoeee o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao”. — Euea?a, 1997. — N. 6 — 7.

8. Aeooea A. ss., ssi/ae A. ss. Aea/aiiy oaie “Canoinoaaiiy icia/aiiai
?ioaa?aea aei aeiiii?/ieo caaea/” c aeei?enoaiiyi AII // Iaoa??aee

V Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoe.-iaoiae. eiioa?aioe?? “Aeei?enoaiiy ia?niiaeueieo
AII o iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? aeueo oa na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a”. —
Euea?a, 1998. — N. 116 —119.

9. Aeooea A. ss. I?eeeaaei? caaea/? ye can?a i?ioan?eii? ni?yiiaaiino?
iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee o eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth // Aeiiii?ea oa
i?aai. Ca??iee iaoe. i?aoeue. Aei. 2. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. — N. 21-22.

Aeooea A. ss. Oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe i?eeeaaei?
caaea/? i?e iaa/aii? iaoaiaoeee a eieaaeaeao aeiiii?/iiai i?io?eth. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.02 — oai??y oa iaoiaeeea iaa/aiiy
iaoaiaoeee.

— Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ooi/iaii iiiyo?eiee aia?ao caaea/ aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo,
?ice?eoi ci?no oa iia?aoe?eiee neeaae oi?iue ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/?,
c’yniaaii ineoieiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?o oi?ioaaiiy, oeiia? aeiiii?/i?
neooaoe??, ye? eaaeaoue a iniia? iaeaaaeeea?oeo a?oi caaea/, ?ic?iaeaii
nenoaio i?eioeei?a aeiai?o caaea/. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue
?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ia? aooe
iia?aoe?eii-i???ioiaaiei, aeeth/aoe i?aeaioia/i-iioeaaoe?eiee,
iia?aoe?eii-i?ciaaaeueiee, ?aoeaeneaii-ioe?ii/iee aoaie ? a?aoiaoaaoe
iniaeeaino? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? nooaeaio?a, ??ai? aeiia aei
ae?iaeaiiy ai?iue, aeeaeaeoe/i? caeiiii??iino? iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano oa
aeiiae aei ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/. Oai?aoe/ii e aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea (iaoa, ci?no, iaoiaee, i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie,
i?eeiie ? caniae) caaacia/o? aoaeoeaia aeeoa?aioe?eiaaia oi?ioaaiiy
ai?iue nooaeaio?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo ? iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia aeeeaaea/aie eieaaeae?a ?ioeo i?io?e?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eieaaeae, caaea/? aeiiii?/iiai ci?noo, ai?iiy,
oi?ioaaiiy, iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, i?eeeaaeia ni?yiiaai?noue.

Aeooea A. ss. Oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee nooaeaioia ?aoaoue i?eeeaaeiua caaea/e
i?e iao/aiee iaoaiaoeea a eieaaeaeao yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeey. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.02 — oai?ey e iaoiaeeea iao/aiey
iaoaiaoeea. — Iaoeeiiaeueiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. I. I.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa,

1999 a.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iainiiaaia
iaiaoiaeeiinoue oneeaiey i?eeeaaeiie iai?aaeaiiinoe eo?na iaoaiaoeee
eieaaeaeae yeiiiie/aneiai i?ioeey — ?aaeecaoeee iaoiaeieiae/aneie,
niaea?aeaoaeueiie e iia?aoeeiiiie nayce iaoaiaoeee n i?aeoeeie. Caaea/e
yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey — aaaeiia n?aaenoai ?aaeecaoeee i?eeeaaeiie
iai?aaeaiiinoe iaoaiaoeee.

Ooi/iaii ii?aaeaeaiea e no?oeoo?a caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey,
auaeaeaiu oeie/iua yeiiiie/aneea neooaoeee e niioiioaiey iaaeaeo
cia/aieyie aaee/ei a ieo, eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaa aaaeiaeoeo a?oii
caaea/, ?ane?uoi niaea?aeaiea yoaiia ?aoaiey caaea/, o?aaiaaiee e
iino?iaieth iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee. I?aaeeaaathony iauaiaoiaee/aneea
i?eioeeiu ioai?a caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey: iao/iinoe,
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie ?aaeeciaaiiinoe, iiaeoeueiue, ?aaeecaoeee aaaeoueo
ooieoeee caaea/ a iao/aiee, nenoaiaoe/iinoe, iaoiaee/aneie
oeaeaniia?aciinoe.

A aeenna?oaoeee auaeaeaiu iauea e /anoiua oiaiey ?aoaoue caaea/e
yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey e eo iia?aoeeiiiue ninoaa. I?iaiaeece?iaaiu
iniaaiiinoe iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a i?ioeacna ?aoaiey caaea/,
ineoieiai-iaoiaee/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey oiaiee. Oiaiey
?aoaoue caaea/e yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey oi?ie?othony yooaeoeaii,
anee iaania/eaaaony: /aoeia ii?aaeaeaiea oeaeae ?aoaiey, iioeaaoeey
?aoaiey e iieiaeeoaeueiua yiioeee nooaeaioa; aeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea a
i?ioeanna ?aoaiey i?ioeiai iiuoa, i?eia?aoaiiuo ciaiee e niiniaia
aeayoaeueiinoe; niiinoaaeaiea aeiioac e ?aaeueiuo ?acoeueoaoia
iuneeoaeueiuo iia?aoeee eae ?aaoeyoi?iiai iaoaiecia iieneiauo aeaenoaee;
i?eioeei aa?eaoeee; acaeiiia?aoiaeu io aano?aeoiuo iia?aoeee iaae
cia/aieyie aaee/ei e iaaeyaeiui eiino?oeoeeyi e – iaiai?io;
naiieiio?ieue, i?eaioe?iai/iay iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaoiaeeea iao/aiey ?aoaoue caaea/e yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey aeieaeia
auoue iia?aoeeiiii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie e o/eouaaoue iia?aoeeiiiue ninoaa
oiaiee, o?iaie i?ia?aiiuo o?aaiaaiee e eo oi?ie?iaaieth,
ineoieiai-iaoiaee/aneea caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey, i?eioeeiu ioai?a
caaea/ e aeaeu i?eaioe?iai/iuo iniia aeayoaeueiinoe ii eo ?aoaieth.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee oeo/oaaony, anee aeeth/aao yoaiu:
iiaeaioiaeoaeueii-iioeaaoeeiiiue (i?ia?aiiua o?aaiaaiey e niiniao
aeayoaeueiinoe, iioeaaoeey aai aaaaeaiey, aeooaeecaoeey iii?iuo ciaiee);
iia?aoeeiiii-iiciaaaoaeueiue (auaeaeaiea iia?aoeeiiiiai ninoaaa niiniaa
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eaioe?ia aeayoaeueiinoe, eo cae?aieaiea e iaiauaiea);
?aoeaeneaii-ioeaii/iue (?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe,
eiio?ieueii-ei??aeoe?othuay aeayoaeueiinoue, naiiioeaieaaiea
?acoeueoaoia).

I?aaeeaaaaony nenoaia caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey o?ao o?iaiae
neiaeiinoe, i?eaioe?iaaiiay ia eniieueciaaiea eiiiuethoa?ia.

Oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee auiieiyoue i?ioeaioiua ?an/aou i?aaeoniao?eaaao
aeooaeecaoeeth ciaiee i i?ioeaioao, i?eia?aoaiiuo a iniiaiie oeiea;
iciaeiieaiea ec niaoeeaeueiui iiiyoeeiui aiia?aoii e o?aaiaioaie oai?ee,
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey i?eiaiaiey i?ioeaioia o oeiainiaie noa?a; auaeaeaiea
e cae?aieaiea niiniaia ?aoaiey caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai, a /anoiinoe
oeiainiaiai niaea?aeaiey.

I?eiaiaiea ooieoeee o?aaiaiee e ia?aaainoa, eae iaoaiaoe/aneeo iiaeaeae,
oeo/oaaony, anee: eeethno?e?iaaoue i?eiaiaiea yoiai iaoa?eaea a
yeiiiieea; auaeaeyoue yeiiiie/aneea caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo aaee/eiaie e
ia?aaiaeeoue eo ia aaeaeaaoiue iaoaiaoe/aneee ycue; eniieueciaaoue
naienoaa ooieoeee, o?aaiaiee e ia?aaainoa a yeiiiie/aneeo ?an/aoao.
?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue aniiiiaaoaeueiua iiaeaee (i?aaeiaoiua,
noaiaoe/aneea, no?oeoo?iua) eae aooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai oeenaoeee
?acoeueoaoia aiaeeca, ia?aoi?ioee?iaaiey caaea/e, iino?iaiey (anee
caaea/a neiaeiay) iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee. Oi?ie?iaaiea oiaiee ?aoaoue
caaea/e eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey i?aaeoniao?eaaao oaeoth
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue eco/aiey iaoa?eaea: iiiyoea caaea/e eeiaeiiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e aa ?aoaiey; iniaaiiinoe caaea/ eeiaeiiai
i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e eo aaiiao?e/aneay eioa?i?aoaoeey: naaaeaiea caaea/
eeiaeiiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e eaiiie/aneie oi?ia caiene; iniiaiua iaoiaeu
?aoaiey caaea/ e eo i?eiaiaiea a yeiiiieea; ?aoaiea eeanne/aneeo
yeiiiie/aneeo caaea/. Iao/aiea ?aoaieth caaea/ yeiiiie/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey iaoiaeaie aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai e eioaa?aeueiiai en/eneaiey
aeeth/aao: iciaeiieaiea n yeiiiie/aneei niaea?aeaieai i?iecaiaeiie e
eioaa?aea; aiaeec e ?aoaiea oeiiauo caaea/ n ia?aiao?aie; ?aoaiea caaea/
n /eneiauie aeaiiuie iooai naaaeaiey eo e oeiiaui; i?eiaiaiea
i?iecaiaeiie e eioaa?aea e yeiiiie/aneei ?an/aoai.

Caueuaaony oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iainiiaaiiay iaoiaeeea
(oeaeue, niaea?aeaiea, iaoiaeu, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu, i?eaiu e
n?aaenoaa) oi?ie?iaaiey oiaiee ?aoaoue caaea/e yeiiiie/aneiai
niaea?aeaiey i?e eco/aiee iniiaiuo oai eo?na iaoaiaoeee (i?ioeaioiua
?ann/aou; ooieoeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo aaee/eiaie; o?aaiaiey,
ia?aaainoaa e eo nenoaiu; eeiaeiia i?ia?aiie?iaaiea; aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia
e eioaa?aeueiia en/eneaiea).

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eieaaeae, caaea/e yeiiiie/aneiai niaea?aeaiey, oiaiey,
oi?ie?iaaiea, iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue, i?eeeaaeiay iai?aaeaiiinoue.

G.Y. Dutka (The formation of students’ skills to solve applied problems
while teaching Mathematics in the colleges with economic profile(. (
Manuscript.

Dissertation is presented for obtaining scientific degree of the
candidate of pedagogic sciences, speciality: 13.00.02 ( theory and
methods of teaching Mathematics. — The National Pedagogic University
named after M.P. Dragomanov, Kyiv, 1999.

The notions for the problems with economic contents are specified in the
dissertation, the contents and composition of the skills to solve
problems are examined, psychological and methodological principles for
their formation are specified, the system of principles for problems
selection is developed. It is justified that the formation of skills to
solve problems with economic contents has to be oriented on operations
side, it should include the stages preparation, motivation,
introduction, evaluation and also take into consideration the
peculiarities of students training, the levels of requirementrs to
developing skills, patterns of training and requirements to problem
solving. The methods of skills formation to solve problems with economic
contents, which are grounded both theoretically and by experiments are
defended in the dissertation (objective, contents, methods,
organisational forms, techniques and tools). These methods ensure
effective differentiated formation of students skills to solve problems
with economic contents and they can be used by the trainers of another
profile colleges.

Key words: college, problems with economic contents, skills, formation,
mathematics model, applied direction.

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