Формування у старшокласників способів розв’язування навчально-логічних задач: Автореф. дис… канд. психол. наук / Л.В. Туріщева, Харк. держ. пед. ун-

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i. A. N. Neiai?iaee

Oo??uaaa Ethaeieea Aanee?aia

OAeE 370.153.1

OI?IOAAIIss O NOA?OIEEANIEE?A NIINIA?A

?ICA’ssCOAAIIss IAA*AEUeII-EIA?*IEO CAAeA*

19.00.07 – iaaeaaia?/ia oa a?eiaa ineoieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iao?aiei Aaeeia Aai?a??aia,

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N. Neiai?iaee,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineoieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai/a?iaa Na?oeaia Iao??aia,

Oe?a?inueea ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ia aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ineoieia??;

eaiaeeaeao ineoieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iia??/aiei Iaey Aioii?aia,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii?

ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee eaai?aoi???

o?oaeiai? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a

ineoieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 6 «ethoiai 1999 ?ieo i 14-00 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith:

310068, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, aoae. 121.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee (310168, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 28 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieo?aiei O.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. O caeii? Oe?a?ie «I?i ina?oo» (1996)
i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iaoith ina?oe ? anaa?/iee ?icaeoie iniaenoino? ye
iaeaeui? oe?iiino? noni?euenoaa. I?e oeueiio iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
i?aeaioiaea caaaeueiiina?oi?ie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie nioe?aeueii
na?aeiii?, anaa?/ii ?icaeiaii? oai?/i? iniaenoino?, caeaoii? aei
naiiae?aaeaiiy o ??cieo aeaeao ae?yeueiino?. A ca’yceo c oeei
i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiooe
iiaeo iaoiae?a, niinia?a iaa/aiiy, ui caaacia/othoue aeeaiea ? i?oeia
iiaioaaiiy iniiaaie iaoe, a oiio /ene? ? o?i??th.

I?iaeaia ?icaeoeo cae?aiinoae o oeiey??a aei iaa/aiiy – ??ciiieaiiaa.
Iaeiei ?c iai?yie?a ?ica’ycaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie ? canai?iiy o?i??, yea
caaacia/o? oai?aoe/io i?aeaioiaeo o/i?a ? iaaea? ?i iiaeeea?noue ia
a?eueo oe?ie?e ? a?euei?e iniia? aeae?aoe aeaniee oeyo iaieiae?iiy
i?e?iaeieie? nioe?aeueieie neeaie, ci?noii ina?oe. Oeae i?aeo?ae oe?eeii
a?aeiia?aea? no/aniei aeiiaai ?icaoaeiae iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a
oeie?. Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ?aae?caoe?? aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo iin?aea?
oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a caeaoiino? ?ica’ycoaaoe iaa/aeueii-eia?/i?
caaea/?, aaeaea ca aeiiiiiaith ?o o/aiue io?eio? iiaeeeaino? ia eeoa
aeey naiai i?ciaaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, a e noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ?ioaeaeooaeueieo yeinoae iniaenoino?.

Iaeiae, ?aaeueia i?aeoeea iieaco?, ui noa?oieeanieee a?ae/oaathoue
iaai? o?oaeiiu? i?e ?ica’ycaii? caaea/. Oe? oneeaaeiaiiy iia’ycai? ia?o
ca ana c oei, ui i?ioean ?ica’ycaiiy – neeaaeiee ? aeiaaa? niaoe?aeueii?
i?aeaioiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? ae?yeueiino?. A.N.Einothe
iaaieioo?, ui ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? aecia/a?oueny ci?iith aeo?aeieo oiia,
aeeth/aiiyi ?o o ??ci? ca’ycee oa a?aeiineie, ui ? caaacia/o? iiooe
ooeaiiai. Naia oea ? aeiaaa? a?ae o/iy iaaiiai «niiniao» ?ica’ycaiiy
caaea/? a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?? niaoeeo?ee.

Oai?aoe/ia ?ic?iaea i?iaeaie i?i ?icoiiao ae?yeuei?noue, ?aei?noue
na?aeiiino? ? ae?yeueiino?, aca?iica’ycie iaa/aiiy oa ?icaeoeo ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?aoeyo E.N.Aeaionueeiai, A.A.Aeaaeaeiaa,
N.E.?oa?iooaeia, I.A.Ne?ei/aiea oa ?i. Nooo?aee aianie o ?ic?iaeo oe???
i?iaeaie aianee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy N.I.Ai/a?iai?,
I.ss.Aaeueia??ia, I.E.Aeonaaeoeueeiai, I.I.Iaothoe?ia, A.I.Iieyei.

O aaaaoueio ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy
no?oeoo?e, ci?noo caaea/, ?o oeiieia?? (A.I.Aaee, A.N.Einothe,
?.I.Iaoaeoeue, E.I.O??aeiai); ?ica’ycaiiy ? ooieoe?? oai?/eo caaea/:
?.I.A?aiianueea, O.A.Eoae?yaoeaa, A.I.Iieyei, A.O.Anaoeia oa ?i.).

I?ioa, i?iaaaeaiee iaie aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i iaaeinoaoith oai?aoe/io ?ic?iaeai?noue i?iaeaie aecia/aiiy niinia?a
?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ oa ?o canoinoaaiiy a iaa/aii?. Ia
nueiaiaei?, ye ? a iiia?aaei? ?iee, aeei?enoaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ noa?oieeanieeaie, ca aeoieith cia/ii?
e?eueeino? iaoeiaoe?a ? i?aeoee?a – o/eoae?a oe?e, caeeoa?oueny
iaea?eueo o?aceeaei i?noeai o i?aeaioiaoe? oeiey??a. Ia?ic?iaeai?noue
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo iniia oi?ioaaiiy cania?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/
a?aeaeaa?oueny iaaaoeaii ia i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? aeeeaaea/?a o?i??, ia
yeino? ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noa?oieeaniee?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia cia/ou?noue i?iaeaie oa ??
iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaeai?noue coiiaeee aea?? oaie iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
«Oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo
caaea/».

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei eiiieaenii? oaie, yea
?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith ineoieia?? ?acii ?c eaoaae?ith iaaeaaia?ee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee: «Aecia/aiiy ineoieia?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee i?ciaaaeueii?
aeoeaiino? oeiey??a oa nooaeaio?a», oaia eii?aeeio?oueny I?i?noa?noaii
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?ioean ?ica’ycoaaiiy noa?oieeanieeaie
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy – oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia/?ieo caaea/ o/iyie O-O? eean?a.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei?e
ia?aa??oe? aieeao niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy
caaea/? ia oni?oi?noue aeeiiaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/
noa?oieeanieeaie oa aeyaeaii? iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy ?o ?icoiiaith
ae?yeuei?noth a i?ioean? ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ ?
a?aeiinii no?eeith oaiaeaioe??th aei iiooeo ??cieo niinia?a.
Ineoieia?/iith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e
?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ ? caeaoi?noue o/iy aei
aeae?eaiiy i?aecaaea/ ? iiooeo ??cieo aa??aio?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy.
Oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o
noa?oieeaniee?a i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue ?o ??oaiiy oa ni?ey? ?icaeoeo
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo yeinoae ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

I?iaeaia, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao oa iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ia?aa??ea
a?iioace iaoe?eeee ia ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe noai i?iaeaie o ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

2. Aea/eoe niiniae ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/, yeeie
ei?enoothoueny noa?oieeanieee.

3. Aeyaeoe ineoieia?/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o/iyie O-O? eean?a.

4. ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoi? ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey
a/eoae?a uiaei oi?aae?iiy ieneeoaeueiith ae?yeuei?noth noa?oieeaniee?a
i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith oa oai?aoe/iith canaaeith aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue
i?eioeeiia? iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?/ii? iaoee i?i ieneaiiy oa eiai
?icaeoie (I.I.Aiaiue?a, E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.N.Einothe, N.E.?oa?iooaei oa
?i.); iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oai??? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiinoe
(E.N.Aeaionueeee, A.A.Aeaaeaeia, I.E.Aeonaaeoeueeee, I.I.Eaiioue?a,
N.Ae.Iaeneiaiei, N.E.?oa?iooaei oa ?i.); i?eioeeie caaea/iiai i?aeoiaeo
o ineoieia?? (A.I.Aaee, A.N.Einothe, A.I.Iieyei, E.A.Neaanueea oa ?i.)

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue
aeei?enoiaoaaany aiae?c iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo aeaea?ae.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii o ?aieao
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo a eiai eiinoaooth/?e, oi?ioth/?e
oa eiio?iethth/?e oi?iao. Aenia?eiaioaeueia i?ia?aia a?aeai?o oa aiae?co
aii??e/ieo aeaieo neeaaea?oueny c eiiieaeno iaoiae?a oa iaoiaee/ieo
i?eeii?a: aeeth/aiiai niinoa?aaeaiiy ca o/iyie ye o i?ioean? iaa/aeueii?
ae?yeueiino?, oae ? a oiae? aeeiiaiiy ieie aenia?eiaioaeueieo caaaeaiue;
aan?aee c o/eoaeyie, aaoueeaie oa oeiey?aie, aiae?co i?iaeoeo?a
ae?yeueiino?; noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny ia i?ioyc? 1992-1998 ??. o caaaeueiiina?oi?o
oeieao ?? 8, 97 i. Oa?eiaa, aenia?eiaioaeueiei iaa/aiiyi aoei ioiieaii
328 o/i?a O-O? eean?a, 9 a/eoae?a o?i?? oa 47 aaouee?a.

Iaae?ei?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue io?eiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo
caaacia/oaaeeny canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo
iinoaaeai?e iao?, oai?aoe/iei iaa?oiooaaiiyi aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue,
canoinoaaiiyi noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a ia?iaee aeaieo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o oiio, ui aia?oa
aeyaeaii, ui niiniae a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?a ?ica’ycaiiy ni?eythoue
aoaeoeaiiio ??oaiith iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ noa?oieeanieeaie,
aecia/aii aieea ineoieia?/ii? ae?? ia oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy;
anoaiiaeaii, ui a oiiaao i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy o oeiey??a ciaoiaeyoue
?icaeoie oae? yeino? ieneaiiy, ye naiino?ei?noue, iine?aeiai?noue,
aio/e?noue, e?eoe/i?noue.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? iaaiiai eiea
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui noinothoueny aea/aiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a
?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ noa?oieeanieeaie. Aeae?eai?
iniiai? niiniae, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?ioean ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/.
Oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
oi?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo ie?aieo iieiaeaiue, ?ic?iaea iaoiaee/ieo
iaoa??ae?a aeey a/eoae?a o?i?? cae?eniaii aaoi?ii naiino?eii.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?icoe?aii? ?
iiaeeaeaii? iaoeiaeo ciaiue i?i aeaye? aeiaeaoeia? ineoieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a o i?ioean? ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ caaaeyee oi?ioaaiith niinia?a
a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiiaiththoue iieiaeaiiy ineoieia?? i?i caaea/iee i?aeo?ae, i?i eiai
?ieue o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean? oeiee, a oaeiae iaaeathoue
aeiaeaoeiao iaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i niiniae oe?eani?yiiaaiiai
oi?ioaaiiy ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o noa?oieeaniee?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? o oiio, ui ia iniia? iaa?oiooaaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
aeey a/eoae?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e c ieoaiue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o iaa/aeueiee i?ioean. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o nenoai? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee iaeaooi?o
a/eoae?a, o ?inoeoooao i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ? i?e neeaaeaii?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c iaoiaeeee o?i??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ii? caaea/? yaey? niaith a?aeiinii
no?eeo oaiaeaioe?th, ui ni?yiiaaia ia iiooe iao?aaeeoe?eieo niinia?a
?ica’ycoaaiiy ? ia? i?iya o iaaiiio aiae?c? caaea/? oa ai?ii? ci?noiaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oai?aoe/i? ciaiiy.

2. Ineoieia?/iith iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? ?
eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycaiiy ? caeaoi?noue noa?oieeaniee?a aeae?eyoe
i?e?icaaea/? oa canoiniaoaaoe ??ci? aa??aioe ?o ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

3. Oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o/iyie
o i?ioean? i?aai?ciaaiiai iaa/aiiy ? iaei??th c oiia ?icaeoeo
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo yeinoae ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iniiai? ?aea? oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ca?oieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo OAeIO ?i.
A.N.Neiai?iaee (1994, 1995, 1996 ??.), ia i?aeia?iaeieo ineoieia?/ieo
/eoaiiyo (Oa?e?a, 1995 ?.), ia c’?cae? ineoieia?a Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1996
?.), ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo (1994, 1995 ??.)

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeenue
aaciina?aaeiuei aaoi?ii o i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy o?i?? o NO ?? 8, 97 i.
Oa?eiaa, iicaeeanieo aeoiaieo caoiaeao c o/iyie oeeo oe?e, a oaeiae o
eaeoe?yo ? ia i?aeoe/ieo caiyooyo c? nooaeaioaie Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee i?e /eoaii?
eo?no «A?eiaa ? iaaeaaia?/ia ineoieia?y».

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee aeey a/eoae?a o?i??
na?aaei?o oe?e.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy o naie
ioae?eaoe?yo, c ieo o?noue iaeiiin?ai?, cie?aia /ioe?e noaoo? o iaoeiaeo
oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeiaeaoe?a. Oaeno i?noeoue o nia? 6 oaaeeoeue,
5 ae?aa?ai. Nienie e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 197 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 5
?iicaiiith iiaith. Iniiaiee ci?no oaenoo – 170 noi??iie. Caaaeueiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? 206 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, aea?? oaie, aecia/aii
ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, a?iioaco, caaaeaiiy, aeeeaaeaii aeo?aei?
iaoiaeieia?/i? oa oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy, iaa?oioiaaii
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe oa ?? a??ia?aei?noue, iniaenoee aianie
aeena?oaioa, aeeeaaeaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Oai?aoe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia aea/aiiy i?iaeaie
caaea/? o ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo??» aeeeaaeaii oai?aoe/i?
ia?aaeoiiae aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?noeoueny aiae?c iniiaieo iai?yie?a o
ca?oa?aei?e oa a?o/eciyi?e ineoieia?? ieneaiiy, iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?enay/aieo caaea/?. ?icaeyioo? iniiai? i?aeoiaee aei i?iaeaie caaea/?.

Iiiyooy «caaea/a» o ineoieia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ?icaeyaea?oueny ii-??ciiio
(E.Aeoiea?, I.Caeueoe, O.Iaea?, O.?.?aeoiai, A.I.Aaee, A.N.Einothe,
I.I.Eaiioue?a, E.A.Neaanueea). O iaoiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?
ie a?oioo?iiny ia iiceoe?? A.N.Einothea oa A.I.Aaeea, ye? «caaea/o»
?icaeyaeathoue ye nenoaio, iaia’yceiaeie neeaaeiaeie yei? ? i?aaeiao oa
aeiiae. Iaaiee ?ioa?an iathoue ?iaioe, iia’ycai? c aea/aiiyi no?oeoo?e
caaea/? (A.I.Aaee, A.A.A?ooeeinueeee, E.I.O??aeiai, I.I.Oaaa?ueia). Ie
aeei?enoiaoaaee no?oeoo?o caaea/?, cai?iiiiiaaio A.A.A?ooeeinueeei, yeee
aeae?eya oae? iniiai? eiiiiiaioe caaea/?: iaoa aai aeiiaa caaea/?;
ia’?eo, yeee aoiaeeoue aei neeaaeo ?? oiiae; ooieoe?? caaea/?; iiaeeea?
aa??aioe oa niiniae ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?.

Aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeia?a, ui aaeeeiai cia/aiiy
i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/ ineoieiae i?eae?eythoue ae?yeueiino?, ui ni?ey?
aaciina?aaeiuei ?ica’ycoaaiith. Iai?oeeenue aea? oaiaeaioe?? o ae??oaii?
aeaii? i?iaeaie. I?aaenoaaieee ia?oiai iai?yio (I.I.Eaiioue?a,
A.E.ss?iuoe oa ?i.) aaaaeathoue, ui oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth eiie?aoiiai
noa’?eoa iiaeeeaa a?aeiia?aeii iao? iaa/aiiy, A.A.A?ooeeinueeee,
E.I.O??aeiai aeiaiaeyoue, ui o?aaa iae?aoe o? eiiiiiaioe ?ica’ycoaaiiy
caaea/?, ye? ? aoaeooue ni?eyoe aeoeai?e ?iaio? ieneaiiy oeiey??a. Naia
oeae, ae?oaee i?aeo?ae, ia iao iiaeyae, aea? a?eueo? iiaeeeaino? aeey
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ??cieo niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.
Aenia?eiaioaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? I.I.Eaiioue?aei,
I.I.Iai/einueeith, A.E.ss?iuoeii na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ciaoiaeaeaiiy
aaeaeaaoiiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/? iaoiiaeth? oni?o ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? oa caaacia/o? ?ica’ycaiiy ieneeoaeueii? caaea/?. Aea i?e
oeueiio, ye iieacaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaea?eueo? oo?oaeiaiiy o/i?
caciathoue o iiooeao oeyo?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?.

Noiniaii aeao?i?oe?? «niin?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?» ne?ae aecia/eoe, ui
ia nueiaiaei? o ineoieia?/i?e iaooe? a?aenooi? ?aeei? i?aeoiaee aei
aeaiiai iiiyooy (Ae.I.Aiaiyaeainueeee, ?.I.Eaaaiiaa-Iaeea?,
I.I.Iai/einueea, I.O.Oaeec?ia, E.I.O??aeiai). Iaoiio aeine?aeaeaiith
?iiiio? aecia/aiiy ?.Ae.Aiaeiae/: «… oea iniaeeaa i?aai?caoe?y
ethaeeiith aeanii? ae?yeueiino? o i?ioean? ?ica’ycaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo
caaea/, ianaiia?aae, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo. O oaeiio cia/aii? i?eeii aeeth/a?
a naaa iaaio nenoaio iia?aoe?e oa naiieiio?ieue, aiae?c oiia
canoinoaaiiy ia?aiino aeaii? nenoaie iia?aoe?e oiui – neiaii,
noeoii?noue o?nii iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o
iiae?aciee?a».

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaai? ??ci? niiniae ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/:
aiaeia?coaaiiy (A.I.Iieyei, A.?.O?iia, A.O.Anaoeia); aeai?eoio
(I.I.?aeaoeueeee); iiaeaethaaiiy (?.?.?eueynia, E.I.O??aeiai);
ia?aoai?aiiy (I.I.Eaiioue?a, I.E.Oeoiie?ia), ??ci? aeaee caaea/ oa ?o
?ieue o iaa/aii? ? ?icaeoeo ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei oeiieia?? caaea/. Ian oe?eaaeee caaea/?,
i?e aeeiiaii? yeeo o/i? canaithaaee iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae o eia?/i?e
iine?aeiaiino?. O ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oe? caaea/?
aecia/ai? ye iaa/aeueii-eia?/i?. ?ica’ycaiiy oaeiai aeaeo caaea/ ni?ey?
?icaeoeo oaeeo eiiiiiaio?a ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a:

* oi?iiy ni?anoaaeyoe i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua, ciaoiaeeoe a ieo noiae?noue oa
??cieoeth;

* ieneaii aiae?coaaoe i?aaeiaoe oa yaeua ia’?eoeaii? ?aaeueiino?,
aeae?eyth/e nooo?a? oa ia?noioi? aeanoeaino?;

* ni?eeiaoe i?aaeiaoe oa yaeua o aca?iica’yceo ? aca?iiiaoiiaeaiino?;

* oi?ioaaoe oi?iiy naiino?eii ?iaeoe i?aaeeuei? aeniiaee;

* ia?aeiieeai aeiaiaeeoe ?noeii?noue nai?o noaeaeaiue oa ni?inoiaoaaoe
oeai? oiiaeaiaee.

Ioaea, aiae?c iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, i?enay/aii? aeine?aeaeaiith niinia?a
oi?ioaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o noa?oieeaniee?a, aea? i?aenoaao
noi?ioethaaoe oa iaa?oiooaaoe a?iioaco i?i iiaeeeaee ca’ycie i?ae
oi?ioaaiiyi niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ oa ?icaeoeii ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo
yeinoae ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a
i?e ?ica’ycaii? iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/» ?icaeyaea?oueny iaoiaeeea oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? nenoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae aeaoaeueii
aiae?cothoueny ineoieia?/i? iniaeeaino? niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ a
oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

Iaoa eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo iieyaaea:

ii-ia?oa, o aeyaeaii? niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo
caaea/ noa?oieeanieeaie;

ii-ae?oaa, o aea/aii? niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycaiiy
o/iyie O-O? eean?a;

ii-o?ao?, o anoaiiaeaii? caeaaeiino? i?ae niiniaaie ?ica’ycaiiy oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueieie iniaeeainoyie ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa/aiiy i?iaiaeeeiny o aeaa aoaie: i?aeaioia/ee ?
iniiaiee. O i?aeaioia/iio aoai? aenia?eiaioo a?aei o/anoue 328 oeiey??a
O-O? eean?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e ? 8, 97 i. Oa?eiaa, a a iniiaiiio –
267 o/i?a, ye? i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeaioia/iai aoaio ?ica’ycoaaee
caaea/?.

Coieieiiny ia oa?aeoa?enoeoe? ia?oiai aoaio.

Caaaeaiiyi oeueiai aoaio aoei aeyaeoe, a ye?e i??? o/i? O-O? eean?a
cae?eniththoue ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

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aecia/aii noaiaea?oio caaea/o ia ?ic/eie aeey noa?oieeaniee?a. Io?eiai?
?acoeueoaoe a?aeia?aaeaii ia ?en. 1.

?en. 1. Aeeiai?ea niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/
noa?oieeanieeaie a oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy

Ia iniia? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee:

1. Iacia/ia e?euee?noue noa?oieeaniee?a oi?thoue naiino?eii aiae?coaaoe
caaea/o.

2. A?eueoino? o/i?a i?eoaiaiia iiaia a?aenooi?noue aiae?co.

3. Ia niinoa??aaeany noeeuei?noue aei ia?aa??ee oa iaa?oiooaaiiy
eiaeii? ae?? i?ae /an ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?.

4. Aeyaeai? iniaeeaino? aeathoue i?aenoaae aeae?eeoe ianooii? niiniae
?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/:

* niin?a «oaioe/ieo ni?ia», yeee aeineoue iioe?aiee a o/i?a O-O? eean?a
? i?iyaeany o i?inoiio iai?ioethaaii? aeaieie i?e iiai?e a?aenooiino? ?o
iaa?oiooaaiiy;

* niin?a aeai?eoio, aea o/i? naiino?eii oa iine?aeiaii aeeiioaaee ae??,
ye? aeiiiiaaaee ?i ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? iaaiiai oeio. I?e oeiio
anoaiiaeaii, ui /anoeia noa?oieeaniee?a naiino?eii aoaeoaaea aeai?eoi, a
iio?i ?ica’ycoaaea caaea/?, ?io? – aeei?enoiaoaaee o?aaeeoe?ei?
aeai?eoie, ia?aoo?, aoee ? oae?, ui ?ica’ycoaaee caaea/? ca aeaiei
aeai?eoiii, aeae?ath/e eiai ?c oaaeeoe?;

* ci?oaiee niin?a, aea /?oei i?ine?aeeiaoaaeanue i?enooi?noue aeaio
iiia?aaei?o – oaioe/iiai oa aeai?eoio;

* niin?a ?aeiino?othaaiiy. I?ae /an ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ o/i?
aeei?enoiaoaaee iaoiae ia?aoai?aiiy ae?e, ui ni?eyei aoaeoeaiiio
aeeiiaiith caaaeaiue. Ia aeaeue, iei ei?enooaaeany iacia/ia e?euee?noue
oeiey??a. Aeey iioe?aiiy naia oeueiai niiniao iaie aoei aeae?eaii
niiniae a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

Ae?oaee aoai eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo neeaaeaany c aeaio na??e.

Iaoith ia?oi? na??? aoei aecia/eoe niiniae a?aeiia?aeiino?, ui
i?eioneathoue ?iciiae?e caaea/? ia i?e?icaaea/?, ae??oaiiy yeeo ?
nai???aeiei e?ieii aei ?ica’ycoaaiiy an??? caaea/?.

Eiiieaeo caaaeaiue neeaaeaany ?c o?ueio caaea/ c iinooiiaei
oneeaaeiaiiyi.

Iniiaieie e?eoa??yie aeei?enoaiiy niiniao a?aeiia?aeiino? aoei ia?aii
oae? iieacieee: aiae?c oiiae caaea/?; aeae?eaiiy i?e?icaaea/;
ia?aianaiiy ?icoiiaeo ae?e ?c i?inoeo caaea/ aei oneeaaeiaieo;
naiino?ei?noue ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

Caaaeaiiy ae?oai? na??? aenia?eiaioo aoei ni?yiiaaii ia anoaiiaeaiiy
noi?iiaaiino? niiniao eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy, i?ae yeith ie ?icoi?ee
a?oioiaiee aiae?c caaea/? c ianooiiith aa??aoeai?noth ?ica’ycoaaiiy ??.
Eiiieaeo oeeo caaaeaiue oaeiae neeaaeaany ?c o?ueio caaea/ c ??cieie
aa??aioaie ?o ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

E?eoa??yie canoinoaaiiy niiniao eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? aoei
ia?aii oae? iieacieee: aiae?c caaea/?; oaiaeaioe?y aei aa??aoeaiiai
?ica’ycoaaiiy; e?euee?noue i?aaeeueieo aa??aio?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

E?euee?ni? iieacieee iniiaiiai aoaio eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo
i?aaenoaaeaii ia ?en. 2.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ aeicaieea c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. A oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy iaaaeeea e?euee?noue o/i?a
iaieiae?ea niiniaii a?aeiia?aeiino? ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

2. Aiae?c oiiae caaea/? oa aecia/aiiy ?? oeio aeeeeeaee iaai? o?oaeiiu?
o aaaaoueio oeiey??a.

3. sse i?aaeei, o noa?oieeaniee?a a?aenooiy aa??aoeai?noue
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

4. A oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy o/i?a iiai?noth a?aenooiy eoeueoo?a
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?.

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?en. 2. Aeei?enoaiiy noa?oieeanieeaie niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? oa
eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/.

1 — aenieee; 2 — na?aaei?e; 3 — iecueeee; 4 — aeaiaioa?iee

5. O a?eueoino? iieooaaieo ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? yeino? ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? oi?ioaaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Oi?ioaaiiy niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e
?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o/iyie O-O? eean?a» ?icaeyiooi
iaoiaeeeo oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo, i?iaiae?ciaaii aoaeoeai?noue
niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? o i?ioean? iiooeo ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?e?icaaea/ ca
aeiiiiiaith «eaa??eioo», iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe eiio?ieueiiai
aenia?eiaioo.

O oi?ioth/iio aenia?eiaio?, yeee neeaaeaany c aeaio aoai?a, acyee
o/anoue 267 noa?oieeaniee?a.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo iao? coneeey aoee ni?yiiaai?
ia ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo eeth/iaeo i?iaeai:

– ei?ioeee caien a?aeiiiai oa aeae?eaiiy iaa?aeiiiai;

– neeaaeaiiy o?i?/ieo ??aiyiue;

– aianaiiy /eneiaeo iieaciee?a o o?i?/ia ??aiyiiy;

– oi?iiy i?aaeeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy iieacieeaie oaaeeoe?;

–oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?e?icaaea/ o an?e caaea/? c a?oioiaiei
aeae?eaiiyi ?? aoai?a;

– ciaoiaeaeaiiy iiai? i?e?icaaea/? o ni?anoaaeaii? c ?ai?oa a?aeiieie.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia caaaeaiiy iaei aeaeyae «eaa??eioo» ? neeaaeaeiny ?c 6
iniiaieo caaea/ oa 10 noiooi?o. Eaa??eio ie ?icaeyaeaee ye ?yae caaea/,
c ??cieie nieooaieie ia?aa?aaie, c yeeo ne?ae ciaeoe naiino?eii aeo?ae.
O?noue iniiaieo caaea/ i?iiiioaaeiny ?ica’ycaoe niiniaii
a?aeiia?aeiino?. Aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo caaea/ aoei iaiao?aeii
aeae?eeoe caaaeueio aeey ieo i?e?icaaea/o, yei? ia aoei i?e ?ica’ycaii?
noiooi?o. Oaeei /eiii, ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ niiniaii a?aeiia?aeiino?
aoei iaia’yceiaei aeey an?o o/i?a.

Ae?oaee aoai oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ie iia’ycoaaee c oi?ioaaiiyi a
o/i?a niiniao eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/. A
«eaa??eio?» inoaii? aea? iniiai? caaea/? ia?aaeaa/aee aeae?eueea
aa??aio?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy. E??i oiai, ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ niiniaii
eoeueoo?e ia?aaeaa/aei:

* ia iniia? aiae?co neeanoe noaio ?ica’ycoaaiiy;

* aecia/eoe oei caaea/?;

* aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy oi?ioe, i?aaee, caeii?a i?e ?ica’ycoaaii?
caaea/?.

Aenia?eiaioaoi? c eiaeiei o/iai ?iaeea?aeoaeueii aiae?coaaa o?ae,
?acoeueoao ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?, iiooe i?aecaaea/? o iniiai?e caaea/? ye
i?ae /an ?? ?ica’ycaiiy, oae ? o aeaeyae? aioiai? ienueiiai? ?iaioe. A
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?e oi?i? aenia?eiaioo a?aei o/anoue 96 o/i?a O eean?a oa
99 – O?, anueiai 195 noa?oieeaniee?a.

Aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ? a?oiia? oi?ie caiyoue, eiee eiaeai /eai eiiaiaee
aiae?coaaa ae?? oa i??eoaaiiy naiai oiaa?eoa, ?iaea iaai? aeniiaee uiaei
i?aaeeueiino? ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?.

A?oiiaa oi?ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeany o iicao?i/iee /an, ? a i?e
o/anieeaie aenia?eiaioo aoei 72 o/i?.

Aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a ye ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?, oae ? a?oiiai? oi?i
aenia?eiaioo aeicaieea /?oei aeae?eeoe iaai? a?oie o/i?a ca nooiaiai
aeeiiaiiy ieie caaaeaiue.

Aeyaeaia caeaaei?noue ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo yeinoae ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?
oa ??aiai ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/, yea neeaaea?oueny c 4 ??ai?a ?
anoaiiaethaaeany ca aeiiiiiaith ?aiaiai? ei?aeyoe?? Ni??iaia, ui neeaea
0,63. Eiao?oe??io ei?aeyoe?? a??ia?aeiee, na?ae/eoue i?i iiceoeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae ?iaeea?aeoaeueieie yeinoyie ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? oa
??aiai ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/? noa?oieeanieeaie.

Ioe?iea ?acoeueoao?a oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeany
eiio?ieueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, o/anieeaie yeiai noaei 120 o/i?a. Ia
i?ioyc? o?ieo iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe cian?i iia? ca ci?noii (ye aeey
aenia?eiaioaeueieo, oae ? aeey eiio?ieueieo eean?a) caaea/?.

?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaiiy eiio?ieueieo caaaeaiue o/iyie aenia?eiaioaeueii?
oa eiio?ieueii? a?oi i?aaenoaaeaii o oaaeeoe? 1.

sse?niee oa e?euee?niee aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a eiio?ieueiiai aenia?eiaioo
na?ae/eoue:

1. A?aeaoeeny cia/i? ci?ie o ??aiyo noi?iiaaiino? niinia?a
a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/.
I?ney aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy caeeoeeiny o?e ??ai? ?ica’ycoaaiiy
caaea/? cai?noue /ioe?ueio (aeaiaioa?iee ??aaiue i?aeoe/ii ciee), ia
iecueeiio ??ai? caeeoeeiny 10 o/i?a (oanoa?i – aeanyoeeeaniee?a ?
/aoaa?i – iaeeiaaeoeyoeeeaniee?a) ?c 60 o/aniee?a aenia?eiaioo.

2. A oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eiiai iaa/aiiy ia i?eae?ey?oueny iaaii? oaaae
oi?ioaaiith niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei
oo?oaeiaiue, c yeeie noeeaeeny o/i? eiio?ieueieo a?oi, ui ni?eyei
aeieeiaiith /aoaa?oiai ??aiy ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/.

3. A o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie niinoa??aaeinue nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? aiae?co caaea/?, ai?iiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oai?aoe/iee
iaoa??ae i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? ??, a o aeayeeo noa?oieeaniee?a c’yaeany
i?aeaeuaiee ?ioa?an aei o?i?? ye iaa/aeueiiai i?aaeiaoo.

4. Aeei?enoaiiy i?eeiio «eaa??eio» aecia/a?oueny oei, ye noa’?eo iiaea
anoaiiaeoe eia?/iee ca’ycie i?ae caaea/aie oa i?aecaaea/aie.

5. Aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ iaiao?aeii oe?iei ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe o
i?aeoeeo ??ciiiai?oi? aeaee «eaa??eio?a» oa a?oiiao oi?io ?iaioe, yea
ni?ey? ia o?eueee oi?ioaaiith i?eeii?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/, ?icaeoeo
aeanoeainoae ?icoio, a ? oi?io? iniaeno?noue o oe?eiio.

6. I?ae /an ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ iaiao?aeii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ciiiai?oio noeioethth/o aeiiiiiao, yea ni?ey?
naiino?eiino?, iine?aeiaiino? oa aa??aoeaiino? iiooeo ?o ?ica’ycaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i???ioaoe?y noa?oieeaniee?a ia
niiniae a?aeiia?aeiino? ? eoeueoo?o ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo
caaea/ a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy cia/ii aeu?, i?ae i?e
o?aaeeoe?eiiio.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio i?aeoaa?aeeee aenoiooo a?iioaco oa
aeicaieeee c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Iaa/aeueii-eia?/ia caaea/a – oea no?oeoo?ia iaeeieoey ?icoiiai?
ae?yeueiino? noa’?eoa, ui aeeth/a? ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? aeanoeaino? ?icoio.
O i?ioean? ?? ?ica’ycoaaiiy o/i? canaiththoue o/aiaee iaoa??ae o
eia?/i?e iine?aeiaiino?, oiio ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/
caaacia/o? ?aei?noue canai?iiy ciaiue oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
noa?oieeaniee?a.

2. ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ i?eionea? iayai?noue iaaieo
i?ioe??/ o ?o ??oaii?, ui noai?th? iai?oaeaiiy ieneaiiy, yea cieea?
o?eueee i?ney ona?aeiieaiiy o/iai niiniao ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?; i?ae yeei
ie ?icoi??ii nenoaio ?ioaeaeooaeueieo ae?e, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue
?ica’ycaiiy caaea/ iaaiiai oeio.

3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo
caaea/ oe?eeii caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy noi?iiaaiino? niinia?a
a?aeiia?aeiino? oa eoeueoo?e ?ica’ycaiiy, ye? caaacia/othoue:
eiiiaoaioi?noue o/iy a aiae?c? ci?noo caaea/?, aioo??oi?e ieai ae?e o
oiae? ?ica’ycaiiy ??, naiino?eia aeae?eaiiy ???a?o?? noiooi?o i?aecaaea/
aei iniiaii? ?c ianooiiei ?o ?ica’ycaiiyi oa, a?aeiia?aeii, ?icaeoie
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?.

4. ?ic?iaeaiee oa aeei?enoaiee o i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaa/aiiy
«eaa??eio» (caaea/? oa i?e?icaaea/?) aeicaieea ioe?ieoe ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/
noa?oieeanieeaie (ia iaoa??ae? o?i??).

5. Cai?iiiiiaai? niiniae ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ i?aeaeuothoue aeoeai?noue
noa?oieeaniee?a, ?o i?ciaaaeueio naiino?ei?noue, iine?aeiai?noue o
noaeaeaiiyo, aa??aoeai?noue ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ iaaiiai oeio,
aeicaieythoue ia?aiineoe canai?i? ?ai?oa niiniae ia ?ica’ycaiiy ?ioeo
caaea/; aeyaeythoue caoe?eaaeai?noue o?i??th ye iaa/aeueiei i?aaeiaoii,
niiioeath/e aei naiino?eiiai inieneaiiy ?? caeii?a oa caeiiii??iinoae.

6. I?aai?caoe?y a?oiiai? oi?ie ?iaioe a oiiaao aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
iaa/aiiy aeiaaea, ui o/i? i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/? iaea?aeothoue
iiaeeea?noue ooi/ithaaoe oa ci?ithaaoe nai? i??eoaaiiy c i?eaiaeo
iaaiai?thaaieo ieoaiue, aanoe aeeneon??, iiiiaithaaoe nai? ciaiiy, ui
ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith iniaenoiai ?icaeoeo.

I?iaeiaaeaiiy ?icii/aoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie aaa/a?ii o
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio ao?eaii? cai?iiiiiaaieo niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ o aaeoc? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe. Oea aeicaieeoue
ii-iiaiio ioe?ieoe noai iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie, aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?
oaeoi?e ?icaeoeo niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/ oa ?icoiiao ae?yeuei?noue
oeiey??a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Aeaye? iniaeeaino? ?ica’ycoaaiiy oe?eueieo caaea/ / Iaoa??aee ae?oaeo
i?aeia?iaeieo ineoieia?/ieo /eoaiue. – Oa?e?a, 1995. – N. 107-109 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, aaoi?nueeeo 1 noi?.)

2. Oai?/? caaea/? – ia?aaeoiiaa oi?ioaaiiy niaoe?ae?noa / Ca.
«Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaeaooiueiai
oao?aoey». – Oa?e?a, 1996. – N. 101-104.

3. Eiio?ieueii-ioe?ii/iee aeo ?ica’ycaiiy ?icoiiaeo caaaeaiue o/iyie /
Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Iaoeiaee a?niee. Aei. 1. – Oa?e?a, 1997. – N.
23-27.

4. Aieea «eaa??eioo» ia ?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii? caaea/? / Ca.
«Iaaeaaia?ea oa ineoieia?y. Aei. 5. – Oa?e?a, 1997. – N. 125-126.

5. Oai?aoe/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a i?ae
/an ?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/ // Ae?IOA Oe?a?ie 26.01.98 –
? 71. – Oe – 98 – 19 n.

6. Eoeueoo?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/? ye /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? o/i?a
/ Ca. iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. – Aei. 7. – Oa?e?a,
1998. – N. 53-55.

7. Aieea ??cieo nenoai iaa/aiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy cania?a ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/
noa?oieeanieeaie / Ineoieia?y. Aei. 1. Oa?e?a, 1998. – N. 60-63.

Oo??uaaa E.A. Oi?ioaaiiy o noa?oieeaniee?a niinia?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 19.00.07 – iaaeaaia?/ia ? a?eiaa ineoieia?y. –
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue aiae?c ineoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie
caaea/?. Iiaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea niinia?a ?ica’ycaiiy, oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy aoaeoeaiino? niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? ? eoeueoo?e
?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/, ?ice?eoi ?o aieea ia ?icaeoie
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo yeinoae ieneeoaeueii? ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a.
?ic?iaeaii i?eeiie oi?ioaaiiy cacia/aieo niinia?a, aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??aii caeaaei?noue ??aiy ?icaeoeo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeanoeainoae
ieneaiiy a?ae nooiaiy noi?iiaaiino? niinia?a a?aeiia?aeiino? ? eoeueoo?e
?ica’ycaiiy iaa/aeueii-eia?/ieo caaea/.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ieneaiiy, caaea/a, iaa/aeueii-eia?/ia caaea/a, niiniae
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/.

Oo?euaaa E.A. Oi?ie?iaaiea o noa?oaeeannieeia niiniaia ?aoaiey
o/aaii-eiae/aneeo caaea/. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 19.00.07 – iaaeaaiae/aneay e aic?anoiay
ineoieiaey. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao
ei. A.N.Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1998 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo aiaeec ineoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee ii
i?iaeaia caaea/e. I?aaenoaaeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea niiniaia ?aoaiey, aeaii
oai?aoe/aneia iainiiaaiea yooaeoeaiinoe niiniaia niioaaonoaey e
eoeueoo?u ?aoaiey o/aaii-eiae/aneeo caaea/, ?ane?uoi eo aeeyiea ia
?acaeoea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ea/anoa iuneeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
noa?oaeeannieeia. ?ac?aaioaiu i?eaiu oi?ie?iaaiey oeacaiiuo niiniaia,
yenia?eiaioaeueii i?iaa?aia caaeneiinoue o?iaiy ?acaeoey
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae iuoeaiey io noaiaie noi?ie?iaaiiinoe
niiniaia niioaaonoaey e eoeueoo?u ?aoaiey o/aaii-eiae/aneeo caaea/.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iuoeaiea, caaea/a, o/aaii-eiae/aneay caaea/a, niiniau
?aoaiey caaea/.

Turischeva L.V. Forming the methods of solving educational-logical
exercises in schoolchildren of senior classes. Manuscript. Thesis for
scientific degree of candidate of psychological sciences in speciality
19.00.07 – pedagogical and age psychology. Kharkiv State Pedagogical
University named after G.S.Skovoroda, Kharkiv, 1998, manuscript.

The dissertation contains the analysis of psychological investigations
of the problem of exercise. It characterizes the methods of solving,
gives theoretical foundation of the efficiency of the methods of
correspondence and culture of solving of educational-logical exercises.
It reveals their influence on the development of individual
capabilities of thinking activity of schoolchildren of senior classes,
develops the ways of forming these methods, experimentally confirms the
dependence of the level of development of individual capabilities of
thinking on the degree of formation of the methods of correspondence and
culture of solving of educational-logical exercises.

Key words: thinking, exercise, educational-logical exercise, methods of
solving of exercises.

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